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AC

Content Page
Power factor of the motor .................... ACR 37 Normal operational conditions ............. ACR 37 Operation ............................................... ACR 37 Motor speed control ............................. ACR 38 Acceleration and deceleration ............. ACR 38 Braking .................................................. ACR 38 Reversing .............................................. ACR 39 Ramps ................................................... ACR 39 Process monitoring .............................. ACR 40 Motor load and heating ........................ ACR 40 Efficiencies ............................................ ACR 41 Long motor cables ................................ ACR 42 Intermittent operation ........................... ACR 42 Parallel connection of motors .............. ACR 43 Hazardous locations ............................. ACR 43 Transformers and AFDs ....................... ACR 43 Protection under extreme working conditions ......................... ACR 43 Electrical noise ...................................... ACR 44 Ways of emission .................................. ACR 44 AC line interference .............................. ACR 45 Transients/Overvoltages ...................... ACR 46 Radio frequency interference .............. ACR 46 Shielded cables .................................... ACR 47 Operational reliability ............................ ACR 47 Simple trouble shooting ....................... ACR 47 Fault indication ..................................... ACR 47 Fuses ..................................................... ACR 47 Short-circuits and ground faults .......... ACR 48 Influence of the supply mains .............. ACR 48 Considerations before buying .............. ACR 49 Appendix I: General Mechanical theory .......................... ACR 50 Appendix II: General AC theory ........... ACR 52 Appendix III: Conversion table SI US .... ACR 55
Subject index ............................................. ACR56

Technical Reference

Introduction ...................................... ACR 2 The AC motor ................................... ACR 3 Synchronous motors .............................. ACR 4 Induction (Asynchronous) motors ............ ACR 5 Stator ....................................................... ACR 5 Magnetic field ........................................ ACR 6 Rotor ........................................................ ACR 7 Torque, slip and speed ........................... ACR 7 Losses and efficiency ............................. ACR 9 Improper magnetization ......................... ACR 9 Equivalent diagram ............................... ACR 10 AFD Speed change ............................... ACR 11 Motor data ............................................. ACR 13 Types of load ........................................ ACR 15 The AFD .......................................... ACR 17 The rectifier ........................................... ACR 18 Uncontrolled rectifier ............................ ACR 19 Full-wave controlled rectifier ............... ACR 19 The intermediate circuit ....................... ACR 20 The inverter ........................................... ACR 21 Transistors ............................................ ACR 23 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) ..... ACR 24 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) ........... ACR 25 Danfoss VVC control principle ............. ACR 27 Harmonics and the rotating field ............ ACR 28 The control circuit ................................. ACR 30 The computer in general ...................... ACR 30 The computer of the AFD ..................... ACR 31 Inputs and outputs of the control card ACR 31 Serial communication ........................... ACR 31 Operational conditions of the motor ... ACR 34 Compensations ..................................... ACR 34 Motor torque characteristics ............... ACR 35 Choice of AFD size ............................... ACR 35 Load characteristics ............................. ACR 35

ACR 1

AC Technical Reference

Introduction
A static Adjustable Frequency Drive (AFD) is an electronic unit for speed control of AC motors. The AFD controls the motor speed by converting the frequency and voltage of the mains supply from fixed to variable values. Industry today increasingly demands automated plants and higher production speeds. Great efforts are made to improve production methods. The induction motor is an important element of production. That is why it is so important to find the optimum method of motor speed control. The AFD can be designed based on various control principles. The greatest development has been seen within AFDs utilizing fixed DC voltage intermediate circuits, as shown in Figure 1. This technical reference section deals primarily with this type of AFD.

Advantages of variable speed control


The AFD controlled AC motor is used in all kinds of automated plants. Apart from optimizing the features of the AC motor, the variable speed control of AC motors gives the following advantages: Energy saving Energy is saved as the motor speed is continuously matched to the momentary demand. A good example of this can be seen in pump and ventilation equipment where the power consumption is reduced by the cube of the speed. Process improvement Speed control according to the production process offers several advantages:

Change of A.C. motor speed

AFD without intermediate circuit

AFD with intermediate circuit

DC current intermediate circuit

DC voltage intermediate circuit

Production can be increased, consumption of materials and the rejection rate can be reduced. Improved quality The number of starts/stops is reduced. Unnecessarily harsh operation of the machinery can therefore be avoided. Less maintenance The AFD demands no maintenance.

Cascade couplings

Pulse inverter

Pulse inverter

Figure 1.

Open or closed loop?


With open loop speed control a signal which is expected to produce the required speed is sent to the motor.

With closed loop speed control a feedback signal is returned from the process, as shown in Figure 2. If the speed does not correspond to the requirements, the signal to the motor is adjusted automatically until the motor speed is as it should be.

Control

Improved working environment The speed of conveyor belts can be adapted to the working speed. In bottling plants the bottle noise is reduced by adjusting the speed to suit the production rate. In ventilation applications the fan speed can be matched to suit the demand so that noise and drafts are avoided.

Regulation

Controller

Feedback

Figure 2.

ACR 2

The AC Motor
Background
The first electric motor built in 1833 was a DC motor. It was simple to control speed and to meet the demands of various applications. In 1899, the first AC motor was designed, The AC motor was more simple and robust than the DC motor. However, the fixed speed and torque characteristics of the first AC motors have not been suitable for all applications. AC motors convert electric energy into mechanical energy by means of electromagnetic induction. The principle of electromagnetic induction is: If a conductor is moving across a magnetic field, a voltage is induced. If the conductor is part of a closed circuit , there will be a current induced.

AC motors

In the motor, the magnetic field is placed in the stationary part (stator). The conductors influenced by the electromagnetic forces are located in the rotating part (rotor).

Synchronous

Induction

Rotor with salient poles Full pole rotor

Slip ring rotor Squirrel cage

AC motors can be divided up into two types: induction and synchronous motors. In principle the stator works in the same way in both motor types. They only distinguish themselves in the way the rotors are built up and are moving according to the magnetic field. With synchronous motors the rotor and the magnetic field are running at the same speed; with induction motors the rotor and the magnetic field are running at different speeds.

AC Technical Reference

In motors, the induction principle is utilized in reverse order: a live conductor is placed in a magnetic field. The conductor is influenced by a force, which tries to move it through the magnetic field., Figure 3.

N I F

N F

S I F I I

Generator principle

Motor principle

Figure 3. Generator and motor principle.

ACR 3

AC Technical Reference

Synchronous motors
The rotor of the synchronous motor can be built up in different ways. The rotor with salient poles consists of magnets (Figure 4). The magnets can either be permanent magnets (for small motors) or electromagnets. The rotor has two or more pairs of poles, therefore it can also be used for low speed motors. This type of synchronous motor cannot start by itself. This is due to the inertia of the rotor and the high speed of the

rotating field. The rotor must be accelerated up to the same speed as the rotating magnetic field. This can be done with a start motor or an AFD. The full pole rotor has stamped out slots on 2/3 of the rotor surface (Figure 5). Together these stamped out slots make up one pair of poles. This motor type is often called a reluctance motor. A reluctance motor can be used for high speeds as well as low speeds, and it can be selfstarting.

The speed of the synchronous motor is constant and independent of load. The load on the synchronous motor must be within the electromagnetic force generated between the rotor and the magnetic field. Higher loads will break the synchronism and the motor will stall. For example, synchronous motors are used for parallel synchronous operation of several mechanically independent machines.

Torque

TK

n o Speed

Figure 4. Rotor with salient poles and its torque characteristic

Torque TK

Tn

no

Speed

Figure 5. Full pole rotor with stamped-out poles and its torque characteristic

ACR 4

Induction motors
The induction motor is the most commonly used motor. It requires practically no maintenance. A standard design ensures that a suitable supplier can always be found. There are several types of induction motors, but they all work according to the same basic principle.
5 4 3 2 10 9 2 1

Stator
The stator and the rotor are the two main parts of an induction motor. The stator is the fixed part of the motor. Mechanically it consists of: the stator housing (1), ball bearings (2) carrying the rotor (Figure 6), bearing housing (3) closing the stator housing, fan (4) cooling the motor and the fan cover (5) protecting against the rotating fan. Finally there is a housing for the electrical connection (6). In the stator housing is an iron core (7) consisting of thin iron sheets coated with a thin insulation. The three phase windings (8) are placed in the grooves of the iron core. The phase windings and the stator core must produce the magnetic field in a number of pole pairs. It is the number of pole pairs, which

AC Technical Reference

-16.53

29.17

Figure 6. The physical buildup of the asynchronous motor determines the speed of the rotating magnetic field (Table 1). When a motor is operated at rated frequency, the speed of the magnetic field is called the synchronous speed of the motor No. The phase windings consist of several coils. The number is dependent on the required pairs of poles. In twopole motors one coil covers
360 360 = 180 = number of poles 2

The interval between the starting points of the coils is


360 360 = 120 = no. of phase windings 3

In four-pole motors the figures are


360 = 90 4

10

8 4

and

360 = 60 32

Number of Poles
10

2 3,600

4 1,800

6 1,200

8 800

12 600

No (RPM)

Table 1. The pole numbers of the motor vs. synchronous speed Figure 7. The physical buildup of the asynchronous motor

ACR 5

AC Technical Reference

Magnetic field The magnetic field rotates in the air gap between the stator and the rotor. A magnetic field is induced when one of the phase windings is connected to one of the phases of the supply voltage (Figure 8).
L1

L1
L1

I1
I1

L3 I3

I1

I2

I2

L2 I I1 I2 wt
I1 I I2 I3

L2

wt

0
N

120 180
S S

300 360
N N

0
N

60
N

120 180
S S

240 300 360


S N N

I1 0

180

360 wt

Figure 9. Two phases give an asymmetrical rotational field. When the third phase has been connected there are three magnetic fields in the stator core (Figure 10). There is a 120 displacement between the three phases. The stator has now been connected to the three-phase supply voltage. The magnetic fields of the individual phase windings make up a symmetrically rotating magnetic field. This magnetic field is called the rotating field of the motor. The amplitude of the rotating field is constant and equal to 1.5 x the maximum value of the individual alternating fields (Figure 11). It rotates at

Figure 10. One phase gives an alternating field. the speed


n 0= f x 120 p

Figure 8. One phase gives an alternating field. The magnetic field has a fixed location in the stator core, but its direction is varying. The rotational speed of the magnetic field is determined by the frequency of the AC line. When the frequency is 60 Hz the field changes direction 60 times per second. Two magnetic fields are produced in the stator core when two phase windings are connected to two phases of the supply voltage at the same time (Figure 9). In a two-pole there is a 120 displacement between the two fields. There is also a time interval between the maximum values of the two fields. That is how a magnetic field is created which rotates in the stator. The field is asymmetrical until the third phase is connected. ACR 6

The speed is dependent on the number of poles of the motor (p=pole pair) and the frequency of the supply voltage. The figure below shows the size of the magnetic fields at three different time periods. When the magnetic field vector rotates one revolution and is back to its starting point, the vector tip will have traced a complete circle. When we draw this field as a function of time for any single location in the stator, we will see a sine curve for any single location in the stator.
=3/2 max

=1/2

max =3/2 = max

3 2

= 3/2 max

max s

=1/2

max t

max

r s =1/2

max max

3 2

max

=1/2

max

Figure 11: The size of the magnetic field is constant.

Rotor The rotor is mounted on the motor shaft. The rotor, just like the stator, is made of thin iron sheets with slots in them. The rotor may be a slip ring rotor or a squirrel cage rotor. These rotors differ from each other, because they have different windings in the slots. The slip ring rotor, like the stator, consists of wound coils, which are placed in the slots. There are coils for each individual phase, and they are connected to slip rings. If the slip rings are short-circuited the rotor works like a squirrel cage rotor. The squirrel cage rotor has aluminium rods cast into the slots. At each end of the rotor the rods are shortcircuited with an aluminium ring. The squirrel cage rotor is the most common type. In principle the rotors work in the same way. In the following we will therefore deal with the squirrel cage rotor only. A rotor rod placed in the rotating field is passed by magnetic poles (Figure 12). The magnetic field of each pole induces a current in the rotor rod. The rod is thus influenced

Torque, slip and speed Normally, the rotor speed nn is a little lower than the speed of the rotational field no.
n n= f 60 (1 - s) p

s, which is the difference between the speed of the rotating field and the rotor is call the slip: s = no - nn. The slip is often indicated in percentage of the synchronous speed: Figure 12. Operational field and rotor by force, (F). The next pole passing the rotor rod is of opposite polarity. It induces a current in the opposite direction of the first one. However, as the direction of the magnetic field has changed the force is still affecting the rod in the same direction. If the whole rotor is place in the rotating field all the rotor rods are thus influenced by forces making the rotor rotate. The rotor speed (2) will not reach the speed of the rotational field (1), as no currents are induced in the rotor rods where the speeds are the same (Figure 13).
s = n 0- n n 100 [%] n0

AC Technical Reference

Normally it is between 3 and 8 percent. The force acting upon a conductor is proportional with the magnetic field, () and the current, (I) in the conductor. In the rotor rods, voltage is induced by the magnetic field. Because of this voltage, a current, (I) can flow in the short-circuited rotor rods. The various forces of the rotor rods make up torque, (T) on the motor shaft. As the magnetic field can be considered to be constant, the torque is directly proportional with the current in the rotor:
T = k 1 I = k11 I (for s/s << 1) 0

N F

S F

The voltage induced in the rotor can be found in the following way:
V = k 2 (n0 - nn ) = k21 s

In the rotor the current, Figure 13. Induction in the rotor rods.
I = V = k 21 s = k 22 s R R

arises, where R is the resistance in the rotor.

ACR 7

AC Technical Reference

There is direct proportionality between the torque output and the slip of the motor (for s/so << 1): T = k11 I = k 3 s From the above, it can be seen that the motor torque is very much dependent on the resistance in the rotor. The higher the resistance, the lower the torque. The current heat loss (-) in the rotor increases with the square of the slip.
(-) = V I = R I = k s2 = R k 22 s k 22 s = k 4 s2
2

The torque can then be rewritten to:


T = F r = HP r = P t r d nx2xxr T = P 5.25 n
(for t = 60 seconds)

T
n max ,Tmax

n N ,TN 0, T S S 0 1 S0 1 0 n 0, 0

The formula shows the relation between the speed [RPM], the torque [lb.ft] and the motor output [HP]. The formula gives a quick survey when we compare n, T and P to the values in a fixed working point. The working point is normally the rated operating point of the motor, the formula can thus be rewritten to:
Tr = Pr , and to Pr = Tr nr , nr Tr = T , Pr = P , and n r = n Tn Pn nn

n0

I
8 x IN 0, I S n N, I N

A curve shows the relationship between the motor torque and the speed (Figure 14). However, the characteristic is to some extent dependent on how the rotor slots are made. The motor torque expresses the force or the twist arising on the motor shaft. As an example, the force (F) applied to a flywheel at the radius (r) yields a torque of T = F r. The work W done by the motor can be calculated as follows: W = F d, where d is the distance moved by force, (F). d is the distance moved for a given load and n the number of revolutions: d=n2r The work can also be expressed as the power times the period where the power is active: W = P t.

where
S 0 1 S0 1 0 n0 , I0 n n0

The constant 5.75 disappears in the formula. Example: Load = 15% of rated value, rotational speed = 50% of rated value. The output is 7.5% of rated output. Pr = 0.15 0.50 = 0.075. Apart from the normal operational range, the motor has two braking ranges. In the range
n >1 n0

I = Current T = Torque

s = slip n = speed

Figure 15. The current and torque characteristic of the motor. In the range
n <0 n0

the braking is

called plugging. If two phases to a motor are suddenly swapped over, the rotating field changes direction of rotation. Immediately after the rotational speed slip ratio,
n n0

the motor is

pulled over synchronous speed by the load. Here the motor acts as a generator. In this range the motor yields a counter torque and power is transferred back to the AC line.
Torque

will be equal to 1.

The motor which was loaded with the torque TM will now brake with a braking torque. If the motor is not disconnected when n = 0 it will accelerate in the new rotational direction of the magnetic field. In the range
0< n <1 n0

S = slip n = speed

the motor will

be operating in its normal working range. The operational range can be split up into two ranges: the acceleration range
r F 0 s s 0 1 0 1 n n 0

0<

n n < max n0 n0

and the operational range


n max n < <1 n0 n0

Figure 14. The motor torque is equal to force radius ACR 8

The important points of the working range are: Ms is the starting torque of the motor. It is the torque which the motor produces, when it is connected to rated voltage and rated frequency at standstill. Tmax is called the breakdown torque or the maximum torque of the motor. This is the highest torque which the motor can yield, when it is connected to nominal voltage and nominal frequency. TN is the nominal torque of the motor. The nominal values of the motor are the mechanical and electrical values for which the motor has been designed according to NEMA standards. These values are stated on the name plate of the motor, therefore they are also called the rated values or rated data. The rated motor values indicate where the designed operational point of the motor is, when it is connected direct to the AC line. Losses and efficiency The motor draws electrical power from the AC line, and at constant load, this power is higher than the mechanical motor output to the shaft due to various losses in the motor. The ratio of the shaft output power to electrical power is called the efficiency of the motor
= P out P in

The motor losses consist of: The copper loss, which is the result of the ohmic resistance in the stator and rotor. The iron loss, which consists of hysteresis loss and eddy-current loss. The hysteresis losses occur when the iron is magnetized by an alternating current. The iron is magnetized and demagnetized repeatedly, i.e. 120 times per second at a supply voltage of 60 Hz. The magnetization and the demagnetization requires energy. These losses increase with the frequency. Eddy-current losses occur because the magnetic fields induce electrical current in the iron core (Figure 17). These currents generate heat in the core. The currents flow in circuits at right angles to the magnetic field. The eddy-current losses can be reduced substantially by dividing the iron core up into thin insulated sheets. This division reduces the cross-sectional area where the eddy-currents flow, reducing eddy-current losses.

The ventilation loss occurs due to the air resistance of the motor fan. The friction losses result from losses in the ball bearings holding the rotor. In practice the motor efficiency is determined by deducting the losses in the motor from the electrical input power. The electrical input power can be measured and the losses can be calculated or determined through experiments. Improper motor magnetization A typical motor has been designed for operation on the fixed voltage and frequency of the AC line. The motor magnetization is determined by the voltage/frequency ratio. If the voltage/ frequency ratio increases the motor is over-magnetized. If the ratio decreases the motor is undermagnetized. Undermagnetization weakens the magnetic field of the motor. Therefore, the motor cannot yield as much torque. As a result the motor may not start or it stalls. The starting time of the motor may be extended to the point that it is overheated. An overmagnetized motor is overloaded during operation and the power consumed for the extra magnetization is dissipated as heat in the motor. Under worst conditions this can result in insulation damage. Alternating current motors and especially induction motors are very robust so it is not often that load damages occur because of wrong magnetization. The motor operation will show if the magnetization is poor (falling speed at varying load, unstable or jerky motor operation etc.).

AC Technical Reference

(Figure 16).

The value is dependent on the motor size and is typically between 0.7 and 0.9.
P in

Copper loss Iron loss Ventilation loss Friction loss

Figure 17. The eddy currents are reduced by laminating the motor iron.
P out Shaft output

Figure 16. Losses in the motor

ACR 9

AC Technical Reference

Equivalent diagram In principle the induction motor consists of six coils. Three coils in the stator as well as the short-circuit rotor, which is magnetically acting as if it consisted of three coils (Figure 18). It is possible to make an equivalent diagram using one set of these coils. The diagram makes it easier to understand how the motor operates, for example, during times when the frequency of the supply voltage is changed. The current in the stator coil is not limited by the ohmic resistance of the coil alone. In every coil connected to AC voltage there is also some AC resistance. This resistance is called the reactance XL = 2 f L, and it is measured in ohm []. f is the frequency, and 2 f therefore shows the current variation per unit of time: [s-1]. L is the inductance of the coil and it is measured in Henry [H]. The reactance does not cause any energy losses. But as it is dependent on the frequency it will limit the active current. The coils are loading each other with magnetic induction G. The rotor coil induces some additional current in the stator coil and so does the stator coil in the rotor coil. Because of this interaction the two electrical circuits can be connected with a common link. The common link consists of Rfe, the transverse resistance, and Xh, the transverse reactance. The current necessary to magnetize the stator and the rotor is flowing through these. The voltage drop over the transverse link is called the induction voltage. Motor loading has not yet been taken into account (Figure 19). When the motor is working in its normal operational range the rotor frequency is less than the frequency of the rotational field. The rotor inductance X2' is therefore reduced by the factor s (slip).

L L2 L1 LI I1

G
X 2 LI

I1 R1 X1

I2 R 1 X 1

L3

I1 L1

R1

X1

X 2

R2/s

I1

R Fe

Xh

Figure 18. The equivalent diagram of the motor is for one phase In the equivalent diagram (Figure 20) the effect can be described through an increase of the rotor resistance R2 by the factor rewritten to
1-s R2 s 1 s

when the motor is loaded. At no-load operation the slip s is small. That means that
1-s R2 s

R 2 s

is high.

can be where

1-s R 2+ R2 s

shows the mechanical

motor load. R2 and X2 represent the rotor only. R2 included in the load represents the heat loss arising in the rotor rods

Therefore no current can flow in the rotor. That means that the resistor representing the mechanical load could be removed from the equivalent diagram under ideal conditions. When the motor is loaded the slip increases and
1-s R2 s

decreases.

The current I2 in the rotor increases with the load.

Terminal voltage

I1

R1

X1

X 2

R2

I2

R Fe

Induction X h voltage

R 2 1-s s

Figure 19. Equivalent diagram for a loaded motor.


R1 X1 X 2 R2 R1 X1 X 2 R2

I1

I1

I2

R Fe S

Xh 00 S

R Fe

Xh 0

1-s 0 : R2 s

1-s 1 : R2 s

Figure 20. Equivalent circuit at no-load operation and blocked rotor. ACR 10

The equivalent circuit matches motor conditions seen in practice. In most cases it will therefore be possible to describe the operation of an induction motor on the basis of this diagram. Sometimes the induction voltage is mistaken for the terminal voltage of the motor. The reason is that the equivalent diagram is often simplified to give a better assessment of the motor conditions. It is only at no-load operation that the induction voltage corresponds to the terminal voltage. The no-load current is much lower than the load current. At no-load operation, the voltage drop over R1 and X1 is therefore negligible. When the load increases, the voltage drop must be taken into account, as I2 and I1, will be increasing with the load. This is especially important when the motor is controlled by an AFD. AFD speed change The motor speed (Figure 21), n is dependent on the rotational speed of the magnetic field no, therefore, n can be expressed as follows:
n = n0 - ns = f 60 - ns p

n=

f x 60 - n8 p

Pole number

Slip

Frequency

Rotor

Stator Voltage

Resistor

Cascade coupling

AC Technical Reference

Figure 21. Different ways of changing the motor speed Pole number control The rotational speed of the magnetic field is determined by the number of pole pairs of the stator (Figure 22). If the motor is a two-pole motor, the rotational speed of the magnetic field is 3600 RPM, when the supply frequency is 60 Hz. The speed of a four-pole motor is 1800 RPM.
Torque

The speed change is done by switching between the stator windings so that the number of pole pairs in the stator is changed. The switching from the small number of poles (high speed) to the large number of poles (low speed) must be conditioned with the actual motor speed. If the change takes place too early the motor torque runs through the regenerative area, which can lead to damages of both motor and machine. Slip control Motor speed control by slip variation can be accomplished in two ways. Either by changing the supply voltage of the stator or by making modifications in the rotor. Change of the stator voltage It is possible to control the speed of an induction motor by changing the supply voltage without changing the frequency. This is due to the fact that the motor torque falls with the square of the voltage.

It is possible to change the motor speed in three ways: changing the number of pole pairs p changing the slip ns changing the frequency f of the supply mains
n2 n1 Speed

Figure 22. Torque characteristic when changing the pole number Motors can be designed for two different numbers of pole pairs. The difference is the way the stator windings are put into the slots. This can either be done as a Dahlander winding or as two separate windings. If a motor with three or four different numbers of pole pairs is needed these winding types are combined.

ACR 11

AC Technical Reference

Torque

Torque

Frequency regulation With a variable frequency supply it is possible to control the motor speed without any additional losses. The rotational speed of the magnetic field changes with the frequency (Figure 26). The motor speed changes proportionally with the rotational speed of the magnetic field.
Speed

Speed

Torque

Expanded View

Figure 24. The torque characteristic when the rotor resistors and the slip are changed From Figure 24, it can be seen that maximum torque will remain the same. The curve shows the speed with different rotor resistor sizes where the load is the same in all settings. A set speed is very dependent of the load. When the load is removed from the motor the speed always increases up to synchronous speed. The resistors are normally variable and it is very important that the size is correct for the operational conditions. Cascade couplings Here the rotor circuits (Figure 25) are connected via slip rings to DC machines or controlled rectifier circuits instead of resistors. The DC machine supplies the rotor circuit of the motor with additional variable voltage. In that way it is possible to change the rotor speed and the magnetization. If controlled rectifier circuits are connected instead of the resistors, energy can be recovered.

To maintain the motor torque the motor voltage must change with the frequency. With a given load the following will
3 V I cos 9.55 T = P 9.55 = =kV n f f 60 (1 - s) p

n4

n 3 n2 n N

Speed

As V = k1 f , the motor magnetization must be constant. If the ratio between the voltage supply and frequency is held constant, the magnetization is also constant in the whole operational range of the motor.
Torque

Figure 23. Torque characteristic when the stator voltage and the slip are changed Based on the torque characteristics shown in Fig. 26 it is normally only possible to obtain stable working points in the working range (nmax < n < no). When this method is used with a slip ring motor it is also possible to obtain stable working points in the acceleration range (0 < n < nmax). This is done by inserting resistors in the rotor windings. Rotor control Changes in the rotor can be made in two ways. One possibility is to insert resistors in the rotor circuits. Another possibility is to connect the rotor circuits in cascade couplings with other electrical machines or rectifier circuits. Change of rotor resistors This version of motor speed control is achieved by connecting the rotor slip rings to resistors. The motor speed is changed by increasing the power losses in the rotor. Higher power losses in the rotor increases the slip and reduces the motor speed. The motor torque characteristics change when resistors are inserted in the rotor circuit. ACR 12

Speed

Figure 26. Motor characteristic at voltage-frequency regulation However, when starting and at the very low frequencies, the magnetization will not be optimum. Here extra terminal voltage is required because of the resistance of the stator. In appli-cations with varying load it must be possible to adjust the magnetization according to the load.
Vs

M 3~

R1 I1 V1 I

X1

X 2 I0 I Fe

R2 I2 1-s R 2 s

Xh

Vq

R Fe

Figure 25. Typical cascade coupling

Figure 27. Equivalent diagram of the motor

Extra start voltage It is interesting to compare the voltage drop Vs with the voltage drop Vq. Terminal voltage: V1 = Vs + Vq = VR1 + VX1 + Vq Stator reactance: X1 = 2 L f The motor has been designed for its rated values. The magnetizing voltage Vq can for example be 440 V for a motor, where V1 is 460V, and f = 60 Hz. Here the motor has its optimum magnetization. The voltage-frequency ratio is therefore
460 = 7.6 60

Motor data The motor has a nameplate on it (Figure 28). This plate contains important information about the

3-4. The stator windings can be connected in series or in parallel (Figure 29). If the supply voltage is 460 V the windings are connected in series. In that case the motor current will be 29 A per phase.
1 5

3 2 6 7

Frame 326T HP 20 RPM 1770 Amb.40C

Type Design P B Volts 230/460 Amps 50/29 Duty Cont.

Identification No. Hz 60 Phase 3 S.F. 1.15 Code F Encl. TEFC Ins.Class F Low Volts High Volts
T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T1 T2 T3 L1 L2 L3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T1 T2 T3 L1 L2 L3

NEMA Nom. Eff. 90.2

If the supply voltage is 230 V the windings are connected in parallel. In that case the motor current will be 50 A per phase. When starting, the AC line could be overloaded, because here the starting current is 5 to 8 times higher than the rated current.

AC Technical Reference

If the frequency is reduced to 2.5 Hz the voltage falls to 19 V. The low frequency makes the stator reactance X1 small (Figure 27). The reduced terminal voltage does not affect the total voltage drop in the stator. The voltage drop is now determined by R1 alone. It is approximately the same as with the rated values, about 25 V, as the motor current is determined by the load. The terminal voltage corresponds to the voltage drop over the stator resistor. There is no voltage to magnetize the motor, therefore it cannot yield expected torque at the low frequencies, if the voltagefrequency ratio is held constant in the whole range. It is therefore necessary to compensate for the voltage drop during start and at low frequencies. Load dependent voltage boost When the motor is magnetized properly, under the starting conditions it will be overmagnetized at lighter loads. In that case the stator current I and the induction voltage Vq are falling. The motor will draw too much blind current and overheat. To achieve optimum magnetization, automatic voltage compensation to the motor load is required during both start and as the load varies. V M = V 1 + V s = V 1 + I 1 R 1 + I1 X 1 .

Tn 3

Figure 28. The motor plate gives much information motor. The nameplate of a 20 hp 4-pole motor can for example contain the following information: 1. 2. It is a three-phase motor for an AC line at 60 Hz. The nominal motor output is 20 hp. This means that the motor can at least yield a shaft output of 20 hp when connected to the AC line as shown. The rated outputs of induction motors are put into standard ratings. This means that the user can choose between different motor makes for a specific application. Watts is also a unit for the output power of a motor. 1 hp = 746 watts.
HP kW 1 2 3 5 7.5 10 15

In

T = Torque n = Speed
T I

Iy

Ty

0, 5 u I I
3

n u I

nN

U
3

Series

Parallel

Figure 29. Motor torque and current, star and delta connection

20 15

30 22

40 30

50 37

60 45

75 100 55 75

0.75 1.5 2.2 4.0 5.5 7.5 11

Table 2. The motor power rating

ACR 13

AC Technical Reference

5.

The motor enclosure indicates the degree of protection against penetration of liquids and extraneous matter (Figure 30). The full load current IRES drawn by the motor can be divided into two currents: an active current IACT and a reactive current IREA. Power factor is the ratio expressing how much of the current is active. The active current is the one giving the shaft output and the reactive current is the one providing the necessary output to build up the magnetic field of the motor. The total current IRES (Figure 31) the motor draws from the AC line is called the resulting current. It cannot be calculated just by adding the active and the reactive currents. This is due to the fact that there is a time interval or phase angle between the two currents. It is necessary to use vector addition. Since the phase angle between IREA and IACT is 90, the following formula may be used:
I RES = I ACT 2 + I REA 2

NEMA Code
1 2 3

Intended Use and Description


Indoor use, primarily to provide protection against contact with the enclosed equipment and against a limited mount of falling dirt. Indoor use to provide a degree of protection against limited amounts of falling water and dirt. Outdoor use to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and wind-blown rain; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure. Outdoor use to provide a degree of protection against falling rain; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure. Outdoor use to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust, wind-blown rain, and sleet; external mechanisms remain operable while ice laden. Either indoor or outdoor use to provide a degree of protection against falling rain, splashing water, and hose-directed water; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure. Either indoor or outdoor use to provide a degree of protection against falling rain, splashing water, and hose-directed water; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure; resists corrosion. Indoor or outdoor use to provide against the entry of water during temporary, limited submersion; undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure. Indoor and outdoor use to provide a degree of protection against the entry of water during prolonged submersion at limited depths. Indoor use to provide by oil immersion, a degree of protection of the enclosed equipment against the corrosion effects of corrosive liquids and gases.

6.

3R 3S

4X

6P 11

The currents can be regarded as the sides in a right-angled triangle, where the long side of the triangle is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the short sides. is the angle between the resulting current and the active current, and power factor is the ratio between the values of the two currents: power factor = IACT/IRES. Power factor can also be expressed as the ratio between the active power P and the apparent power S power factor. (The term apparent power means that only a portion of the resulting current (IACT) generates the power to be used) . 7. The nominal motor speed is the motor speed at rated voltage, rated frequency and rated load.

12, 12K Indoor use to provide a degree of protection against dust, dirt, fiber flyings, dripping water, and external condensation of noncorrosive liquids. 13 Indoor use to provide a degree of protection against lint, dust seepage, external condensation, and spraying of water, oil, and noncorrosive liquids.

Figure 30. On the basis of the nameplate of the motor it is also possible to calculate other important motor data.
I RES I REA

The rated motor torque can be found with the formula


Tn 9.55 P 9.55 15000 9.55 T= = = 49 Nm n 2910 P=

I ACT

Figure 31. Connection between the resulting, the blind, and the active currents

The motor efficiency can be found as the ratio between the nominal active power and the added electric power and

ACR 14

P 15000 E = 0.87 = 3 V I cos 3 380 29 0.9

In general the slip is indicated in %, therefore


s= ns 75 = 0.03 = 3% = ns 1,800

The motor slip can be calculated, as the motor nameplate contains information about the nominal speed along with the frequency. A 4-pole motor has a synchronous speed of 1800 RPM. The slip is therefore 1800 - 1725 = 75 RPM.
Type Power output kW 160 MA 160 M 160 L 11 15 18.5 Speed At rated operation Efficos Current ciency at 380 V % A 86 88 88 0.87 0.90 0.90 25 29 33

A motor catalogue contains some of the data stated on the motor nameplate, but it is also possible to find other important data:

I st I

M st M

M max M

r/min 2900 2910 2930

Nm 6.2 6.2 6.2 36 49 60 2.3 1.8 2.8 2.6 2.0 3.0

Moment of inertia kgm 2 0.055 0.055 0.056

Weight

kg

AC Technical Reference

76 85 96

Figure 32. Example from a motor catalogue


1
Torque Power

Types of load When the motor torque output is equal to the load torque we have a stable load. In such cases the torque and the speed are constant. Typical load types (Figure 33) are characterized by the following speed torque curves: 1. Machines for winding material at constant material tension. This group also includes veneer cutting machines and machine tools. Conveyor belts, different kinds of cranes and positive displacement pumps etc. Smoothing machines, calendar rollers and other machines for material processing. Machines working with centrifugal forces, e.g. centrifugal pumps and fans.

v T(n)~n -4 r

Speed

Speed

2
n r T(n)=k m2 m1
Speed Speed Torque Power

2.

3
Torque Power

3.

n T(n)~n v n

4.

Speed

Speed

The stable load occurs when the motor torque is equal to the torque of the working machine. This is indicated at point B.

4
Torque Power

T(n)~n 2

Speed

Speed

Figure 33. Typical load characteristics ACR 15

AC Technical Reference

When choosing a motor for a specific machine the intersection point must be as close as possible to the motors full load torque to obtain optimum motor utilization. In the range from standstill to the intersection point there must be a surplus torque. If not, the operation will be unstable and the stationary load may stop low speed because the surplus torque is used for acceleration (Figure 34).
Torque

For applications as those found in groups 1 and 2, it is necessary to pay attention to the start situation. These load types may require a high breakaway torque which could be equal to the starting torque of the motor (Figure 35). If the break-away torque of the load exceeds the starting torque of the motor, the motor will not be able to start.

Torque

N B

Speed

Speed

Figure 34. The motor must have a surplus torque to accelerate

Figure 35. Especially high torques may be required when starting

ACR 16

The Adjustable Frequency Drive


The AFD has developed tremendously since the first unit was launched at the end of the 60s. Today's advanced micro-processors and semi-conductors have improved the frequency converter substantially. The frequency converter can be divided up into four main components (Figure 36): 1. The rectifier converts the threephase AC voltage from the supply mains to a pulsating DC voltage. There are two basic types of rectifiers: the controlled and the uncontrolled rectifiers. The intermediate circuit. There are three different types. One type converts the voltage of the rectifier into a DC current. The 3. other type stabilizes the pulsating DC voltage and sends this on to the inverter. The third type of intermediate circuit converts a constant DC voltage from the rectifier into a variable value. The inverter controls the frequency of the motor voltage. One type of inverter also converts the constant DC voltage into a variable AC voltage. The electronics of the control circuit can transmit signals to both the rectifier, the intermediate circuit and the inverter. The parts to be controlled are dependent on the design of the AFD. The common characteristic of AFD control circuits is that they transmit a signal to the semiconductors of the inverter to switch on or off. This switching pattern is determined by the design principle (Figure 37). AFDs can be grouped according to the switching pattern controlling the motor power.

4.

AC Technical Reference

2.

1. Rectifier

2. Intermediate circuit

3. Inverter

4.

Control and regulation circuit

Figure 36. Simplified diagram of a frequency converter

ACR 17

AC Technical Reference

The rectifier The supply voltage is a three-phase AC voltage with a fixed frequency (e.g., 3 460 V, 60 Hz). Figure 38 shows some characteristic values. It should be noted there is a time delay between the three phases. The phase current changes direction all the time based on the input frequency. A frequency of 60 Hz means that there are 60 periods (60 t) per second. That means that one period is 16.66 msec. The rectifier of the AFD is either constructed of diodes, thyristors or a combination of these semiconductors. A rectifier containing diodes only is called an uncontrolled rectifier. If the rectifier consists exclusively of thyristors it is called a full-wave controlled rectifier. A rectifier containing both diodes and thyristors is called a half-wave controlled rectifier. The half-wave controlled rectifier is not used very often in AFDs.

Rectifier

Intermediate Circuit

Inverter

Current Source Inverters (1 + 3 + 6) Pulse-amplitude-modulated converters (1 + 4 + 7) (2 + 5 + 7) Pulse-width-modulated converters (2 + 4 + 7) Figure 37. Different control principles
V V

CSI PAM PWM/VVC

wt

wt

b= 1 T 3

Figure 38. Single- and three-phase AC voltage

ACR 18

Uncontrolled rectifier The uncontrolled rectifier consists of six diodes. A diode permits current to flow in one direction only: from anode to cathode. If any attempt is made to send current in the opposite direction, a diode blocks current flow (Figure 39). With a diode it is not possible to control the amount of current flow as it is with other semi-conductors. When an AC voltage is supplied to a diode circuit, it becomes a pulsating DC voltage. When a three-phase AC voltage is connected to an uncontrolled three-phase rectifier, the DC voltage will still be pulsating. Figure 40 shows that the uncontrolled three-phase rectifier consists of two groups of diodes. One group contains diodes D1, D3 and D5; the other, diodes D2, D4 and D6 . Each diode is conducting 1/3 T (120). The two groups of diodes are conducting in turns. The time interval between the two groups is 1/6 T (60). In the groups of diode D1, D3 and D5 will be conducting the most positive voltage. If the voltage in L1 is most positive, then terminal A will have the same value as L1. Above the two other diodes there are reverse voltages of the size VL1-2 and VL1-3. The groups of diodes D2, D4 and D6 terminal B will have the most negative voltage of the phases. Where phase L3 has the most negative voltage then diode 3 will be conductive. Above the two other diodes there are reverse voltages of the sizes VL3-1 and VL3-2. The output voltage of the uncontrolled rectifier is the difference between the voltages of the two diode groups (Figure 41). The average value of the pulsating DC voltage is 1.35 AC line voltage.

A wt I

C wt

Figure 39. Mode of operation of the diode


V D1 L1 L2 wt L3 D2 D4 D6 (B) wt D3 D5 (A) V

AC Technical Reference

Figure 40. The uncontrolled three-phase rectifier Full-wave controlled rectifier The full-wave controlled rectifier has thyristors instead of diodes.
wt

V UA

UB VA-B

Just like the diode, the thyristor permits the current to flow in one direction only, from anode to cathode (Figure 42). There is a difference, however; a thyristor will only conduct current when the third terminal called the gate receives an electric signal. The thyristor will then conduct until the current becomes zero. A signal on the gate cannot stop the current. Thyristors are used in both rectifiers and inverters. The signal on the gate is the control signal of the thyristor and it is designated . is a time delay stated in degrees. The degree value indicates the time delay from zero crossing up to the point where the thyristor must start conducting.

wt

Figure 41. The output voltage of the uncontrolled three-phase rectifier

ACR 19

AC Technical Reference

When it is between 0 and 90 the thyristor coupling is used as rectifier. When it is between 90 and 300 the coupling is used as inverter. The full-wave controlled three-phase can be divided up into two groups of thyristors containing T1, T3 and T5 and thyristors T2, T4 and T6 respectively. is determined from the point where the corresponding diode of an uncontrolled rectifier starts conducting. This point is 30 after the zero crossing of the voltage. Other than this, the description follows that of the uncontrolled rectifier.
V VA

V G

A wt

wt

Figure 42. The mode of operation of the thyristor


V T1 L1 L2 wt L3 T2 T4 T6 (B) wt T3 T5 (A) V

Figure 43. The full-wave controlled rectifier The intermediate circuit (Bus) The intermediate circuit can be regarded as the source, from where the motor, through the inverter, receives its energy. The intermediate circuit can be built up according to three different principles. The intermediate circuit type used depends on the type of rectifier and inverter concerned. The intermediate circuit shown (Figure 45) consists of a large coil. This is used with a controlled rectifier style design only. The coil converts the variable voltage from the rectifier into a variable DC current. The load determines the level of the motor voltage. This type of intermediate circuit has the advantage that braking energy is

wt

VB VA-B

wt

Figure 44. The output voltage of the full-wave controlled three-phase rectifier The rectified voltage can be varied by changing (Figure 44). The full-wave controlled rectifier supplies a DC voltage of the following average value: 1.35 AC line voltage cos . Compared to the uncontrolled rectifier, the controlled rectifier produces large disturbances and losses in the AC line. This is due to the fact that the rectifier draws current in short intervals. Thyristors are typically applied only in the inverter section of the AFD. The advantage of the controlled rectifier is that braking energy fed into the intermediate circuit can be transferred back to the AC line.

Figure 45. Variable AC intermediate circuit


V V

Figure 46. Constant or variable voltage intermediate circuit ACR 20

fed back to the AC line without the use of extra components. The intermediate circuit can also consist of a filter containing one capacitor and one coil (Figure 46). This intermediate circuit can be combined with both rectifier types. The filter smooths the pulsating DC voltage coming from the rectifier. If the rectifier is controlled, the voltage is held constant at a given frequency. The voltage led on to the inverter is thus a smoothed DC voltage of a variable amplitude. If the rectifier is uncontrolled the voltage on the input of the inverter becomes a DC voltage with a constant amplitude. With this type of intermediate circuit bus the load determines the size of motor current drawn. Finally, it is possible to insert a chopper in front of a filter, as shown in Figure 47. The chopper has a transistor that alternately switches the rectified DC voltage on and off. The control circuit measures the variable voltage behind the filter and compares it with the input signal. If there is a difference, the ratio between ton (conducting) and toff (blocking) is regulated. The DC voltage becomes variable and the size Vv depends on how long the transistor is on:
Vv = V ton ton - toff

Figure 47. Variable voltage intermediate circuit


V V

AC Technical Reference

t t off t on t off t on t off t on

Situation 1

Situation 2

Figure 48. The chopper transistors vary the intermediate circuit voltage The inverter The inverter is the last module in the AFD before the motor. Here the final adaption of the output voltage takes place. If the motor is connected direct to the AC line the ideal working conditions will be in the nominal working point. The AFD provides excellent operational conditions in the whole control range, since the output voltage is matched to the load conditions. It is therefore possible to hold a constant motor magnetization. From the intermediate circuit the inverter either receives a variable DC current a variable DC voltage a constant DC voltage The inverter must convert the DC intermediate circuits supply into an AC supply for the motor. The inverter can have additional functions: When the inverter receives a variable current or voltage the inverter must contribute the frequency only. However, when the voltage is constant the inverter must control both the frequency and the amplitude of the voltage. The design of inverters differs, but in principle they are constructed in the same way. The main components are controlled semi-conductors placed in three branches. Today most inverter thyristors have been replaced by transistors. The advantage of transistors is that they can change from conductive to nonconductive condition at any time, whereas thyristors do not change condition until next time the current through them goes through zero. The switching frequency range of the transistorized inverter can therefore be extended significantly from 300 Hz to 15 kHz. The semiconductors of the inverter turn on and off on the basis of signals from the control circuit. The signals can be controlled according to different principles. Generally inverters based upon current control require more components than inverters regulating voltage.

When the chopper transistor turns off, the current the filter coil will create a high voltage across the transistor. To avoid this the chopper is protected by a free-wheeling diode. When the transistor turns on and off as shown in Figure 48, the average voltage will be highest in situation 2. The filter of the intermediate circuit bus smooths the square wave voltage of the chopper. The capacitor and the coil of the filter hold the voltage constant at a given duty cycle.

ACR 21

AC Technical Reference

This current sourced inverter consists of six diodes, six thyristors and six capacitors (Figure 49). The capacitors must include the necessary energy to turn off the thyristors. The size of the capacitors and thyristors must be in accordance with the motor size. The capacitors permit the thyristors to switch so that the DC current flow 120 displaced in the phase windings. When the motor terminals periodically are supplied with the current in turns U-V, V-W, WU, U-V...., an intermittent rotational field with the required frequency is produced. The motor currents are square-waved, but the motor voltage will be sinusoidal. However, there will be voltage peaks each time the current is switched in or out. The diodes isolate the capacitors from the motor load current. The inverter (Figure 50) consists of six thyristors or transistors. In principle the function is the same regardless of the type of semi-conductor you see. The control circuit turns the semiconductors on and off according to different principles and they are thus varying the output frequency. The intervals of conduction of the inverters semi-conductors form a pattern, which is repeated continuously. The switching pattern of the semiconductors is controlled by the size of the variable voltage. The most common ones are produced by a switching pattern of either 6 or 18 pulses. A voltage controlled oscillator will always make the frequency follow the amplitude of the voltage. This principle of inverter control is called Pulse Amplitude Modulation (Figure 51). Another principle applies a fixed intermediate circuit voltage. The motor voltage is made variable as the motor windings are applied with the
I I

Figure 49. Inverter for variable intermediate circuit current


I

t V I

t t t I

Figure 50. Inverter for variable or constant intermediate circuit voltage (Figure 51). Traditionally the control circuit establishes the turn-on and turn-off times of the semi-conductors as the intersection points between a triangular voltage and a sine-shaped reference voltage (sine controlled PWM). There are other ways of establishing the turn-on and turn-off times of the semi-conductors. In the Danfoss Voltage Vector Controlled AFD the optimum switching times for the semi-conductors of the inverters are calculated by means of built-in micro processors.

PAM

PWM

Figure 51. Modulation of pulse amplitude or width intermediate circuit voltage for shorter or longer periods. The frequency is controlled by applying positive pulses in one half-period and negative pulses in the next half-period. This principle also varies the width of the voltage pulses, called Pulse Width Modulation

ACR 22

Transistors Transistors can be made for high voltages and high switching frequencies. They can replace the thyristors previously used in the inverter of the AFD. Contrary to both the thyristor and the diode the transistor is independent of the zerocrossing of the current. The transistor can be changed from conducting to non-conducting condition at any time. The upper limit of the switching frequency is now several hundred kilohertz. The acoustic noise produced because of the pulse magnetization of the motor can be avoided. High switching frequency also has the advantage that the modulation of the output voltage of the frequency inverter is very flexible. A near perfect motor current waveform is obtained through a special switching pattern for the inverter transistors (Figure 52). The switching frequency of the inverter is a compromise between the losses in the motor due to motor current distortion and the losses in the inverter. When the switching frequency increases the losses in the inverter will increase by the number of semiconductor switchings.

The high frequency transistors can be grouped as follows: bipolar, including Darlington transistors MOS-FET IGBT The IGBT transistor is a combination of the bipolar transistor and the MOSFET transistors. It has the MOS-FET transistors' desired features on the
Semi-conductor Feature

input and the bipolar transistors' best features on the output. Figures 53 and 54 show the most important differences. The IGBT transistors are well suited for AFDs. The primary benefits are the power range, the good conductive features, the high switching frequency and the simple control.
IGBT Bi-Polar

MOS-FET

AC Technical Reference

Symbol

E N+ P NP+

G N+

S N+ P NN+

G N+

B N+ P NP+

E N+

Configuration

Conductivity Current conductance Losses Blocking voltage Upper limit

Low High

High Small

High Small

Low

High

Medium

Switching conditions Turn-on time Turn-off time Losses Control conditions Power Method

Short Short Small

Medium Medium Medium

Medium Short Large

In

Low Voltage

Low Voltage

High Current

f p =1,5 kHz 0

Figure 53. Comparison between different power transistors


KVA

f p =3 kHz 0

Bi-Polar IGBT

f p =12 kHz 0

MOS-FET
t

kHz

Figure 52. How the switching frequency affects the motor current

Figure 54. Power and frequency range of power transistors ACR 23

AC Technical Reference

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) The amplitude of the output voltage is either varied by the intermediate circuit chopper or by the input rectifier, and the frequency is varied by the inverter. A normal output signal is made up of 6 or 18 pulses per period. A 6-pulse switching pattern means that each of the six semiconductors of the inverter is controlled with one pulse per period. With an 18-pulse switching pattern each semiconductor is controlled with three pulses per period. The voltages between the output terminals U, V and W of the AFD depend on the pattern controlling the semiconductors of the inverter. In the following diagram (Figure 55) we look at two inverter branches to find the voltage between the terminals U and V. The voltages between V and W as well as between W and U can be found in the same way. It is the semiconductors T1, T2, T3 and T4 that result in the voltage between terminals U and V. The semiconductors work like contacts cutting the intermediate circuit voltage Um on and off. In the example shown (Figure 56), T2 and T3 are conductive. That means that the semiconductors are turned on with a control signal and that the voltage across them is zero. T1 and T4 are turned off. They do not receive any control signal. The contacts are

P1 T1 P2 T2 P3 T3 P4 T4 P5 T5 P6 T6

P1

P2 P4 P7 P10 P11 P15 P17 P8 P9 P12 P18 P5 P6

P3

P13

P14 P16

UT UT UT UT

1 2 3 4

UT UT UT UT
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4

VU-V

VU-V

t1 t1 t2 t2 t1

t2

18 t 1

t2

t1

t1

t1

t2

6-pulse modulation

18-pulse modulation

Figure 55. open and there is a voltage across them. The voltage between U and is zero The voltage between V and is equal to - Um
U-

The voltage between U and V is U V = - V = Um When we look at the 6-pulse and the 18-pulse patterns this way the output voltages of terminals U - V will be as shown on Fig. 62. It can be seen that the output voltages are pulses of the amplitude Vm. The duration of the pulses is characterized by two time intervals t1 and t2, where t2 = 2 t1. The actual value of the output voltage can be calculated as the square root of the ratio between the area covered by the pulses and the area of the whole period.

+
VT4 Um U V V V U-V T4 T3

T2

Figure 56. The semi-conductors of the inverter work like switches ACR 24

For the 6-pulse pattern Vact can be calculated as:


VACT = Vm 2 2 t 1 = Vm 0.816 3 t1

For the 18-pulse pattern:


VACT = Vm 2 24 t 1 = Vm 0.816 36 t 1

For both pulse patterns the active value of the output voltage is 86.6% of the intermediate circuit voltage. This means that the intermediate circuit voltage must be higher than the active value of the supply mains. The non-sinusoidal output voltages have some side effect on the motor operation: Cogging torques Increased heat losses Both side effects are due to the fact that the motor is supplied with pulse voltages instead of sinusoidal voltages. Every periodic voltage can be split up into a number of sine voltages with different amplitudes and frequencies (harmonic voltages). The total torque is only slightly disturbed by the harmonic frequencies because the motor cannot effectively convert the high frequency voltages to torques. This can be observed on the motor current, it is more sine-shaped than the motor voltage. Because of the increased heat loss the motor windings are loaded more than they should. The total heat loss must not exceed what the motor is able to withstand. Therefore the motor must not be loaded 100% all the time. Should an application require 100% continuously, a larger motor must be installed. The difference between a 6- and 18pulse pattern is that the 18-pulse pattern substantially reduces the sideeffects from harmonic voltages and currents. This is clearly seen when comparing the motor currents (Figure 57). The more sine-shaped the motor current the less the harmonic currents affect the motor operation.

18-pulse modulation

6-pulse modulation

Figure 57. The motor current is more sine-shaped with an 18-pulse signal Pulse-WidthModulation (PWM) The inverter varies both the amplitude and the frequency of the output voltage. The control principle is working with a sine-shaped reference voltage for each AFD output. The three reference voltages Vs1, Vs2 and Vs3 are supplied with a triangular voltage. The semiconductors turn on or off, where the triangular voltage and the sine reference intersect each other (Figure 58).

Vs

Vs

Vs

Vs

AC Technical Reference

wt

V1

V2

wt

wt

V 1 -V 2

The electronics of the control card compares the intersection points. The wt output pulse is negative where the triangular voltage is higher than the Figure 58. The principle of the sine-controlled PWM sine-shaped voltage and positive where it is lower. The maximum output voltage of the AFD is thus determined The switching frequency affects the by the intermediate circuit bus audible motor noise. Semiconductors, voltage. The output voltage and their high frequency switching (Figure 59) is controlled by applying rates, have allowed the audible noise the intermediate circuit bus voltage to to be reduced substantially. Using the motor for shorter or longer these advanced semiconductors it is periods. possible to achieve almost sinusoidal output current. The output frequency is controlled by applying positive pulses in one halfperiod and negative pulses in the next half-period. The amplitude of the negative and positive voltage pulses from line to neutral positions within the motor will be equal to half of the intermediate circuit voltage. A PWM AFD using an entirely sinusoidal reference modulation can only yield up to 86.6% of rated voltage. The intermediate circuit voltage Vm is equal to 2 times the supply voltage. The line to neutral voltage seen by the motor is equal to half of the ACR 25

AC Technical Reference

Motor voltage / Mains voltage

1,00 0,50 U-V 0,50 V-W W-U

intermediate circuit voltage divided by 2. It is thus equal to half of the AC line voltage. The line to line voltage of the output terminals is equal to 3 times the line neutral voltage, that is 0.866 times the AC line. It is possible to increase the output voltage of the AFD to a higher value than that obtainable with the pure sine modulation.

0,00
0 60 120 180 240 300 360

-0,50

-1,00

Switching pattern for phase U Phase voltage (0-point=half intermediate circuit voltage) Phase-phase voltage to the motor

The traditional way of obtaining the additional voltage is to reduce the number of pulses, when the frequency exceeds about 40 Hz. This method has the disadvantage that there is a step voltage change. That causes an unstable motor current. When the number of pulses is reduced, the content of harmonics on the AFD output increases and so do the motor losses. Another method is to use other reference voltages instead of the three sine references Vs1-3. These could for example be trapezoid voltages, step-shaped voltages or voltages with some other waveform.

Figure 59. The output voltage at PWM


Vs
1

wt

Vs
1 0.866

It is relatively easy to produce a reference voltage which utilizes the third harmonic of the sine reference (Figure 60). By adding some third harmonic voltage the voltage to the motor can be increased up to 15.5%.

0.166 0

wt

Vs
1.155 1

wt

Figure 60. The output voltage can be increased by utilizing the third harmonic ACR 26

The Danfoss VVC control principle The Danfoss AFD VVC inverter controls both the amplitude and the frequency of the output voltage (Figure 61). The control circuit uses a mathematical model which calculates two different factors: The optimum switching times for the semiconductors of the inverter The optimum motor magnetization at varying load (see compensation possibilities). The principle for the switching times works as follows: the numerically largest phase is for a 1/6 sine period held fixed on the positive or negative potential. the two other phases are varied so that the resulting output voltage is entirely sinusoidal and of the correct amplitude. Full rated motor voltage is ensured. It is not necessary to overmodulate to utilize the third harmonic. The motor current is entirely sinusoidal and the motor performance is the same as AC line operation.
Address calculator

Motor voltage / AC line voltage 1,00


U-V V-W W-U

0,50

0,00
0 60 120 180 240 300 360

-0,50

AC Technical Reference

-1,00
Switching pattern for phase U Phase voltage (0-point=half intermediate circuit voltage) Phase-phase voltage to the motor

Figure 61. The full output voltage can be obtained with Danfoss VVC control principle The optimum motor magnetization is achieved, because the AFD models the motor constants R1 and X1 and adapts them to the different motor sizes. The AFD calculates the optimum output voltage on the basis of these data. As the AFD measures the load current continuously, it can change the output voltage according to the load. The motor magnetization is matched to the motor and it compensates the load changes.
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6

Registers Data bus

Multiplicator

Timer

Sequence control

Unlike the sine controlled PWM principle the VVC control principle is based on digital production of the desired output voltage. The VVC principle is integrated in an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) circuit of the VLT's AFD. The VVC design The VVC design includes a number of different functions: Registers including the data, which the micro processor of the computer transmits to the circuit over the data bus. ACR 27

Semi-conductor T1 T3 T5 T2 T4 T6

0-60 t1 0 t2 T-t 1 T T-t 2

60-120 T T-t 2 T-t 1 0 t2 t1

120-180 t2 t1 0 T-t 2 T-t 1 T

180-240 T-t 1 T T-t 2 t1 0 t2

240-300 0 t2 0 T T-t 2 T-t 1

300-360 T-t 2 T-t 1 T t2 t1 0

Figure 62. The buildup of the VVC design

AC Technical Reference

Address calculator, calculating the address for a cosine table, which is placed in a ROM memory. Multiplicator, which calculates the product of the amplitude and the value requested from the cosine table. For each calculation interval the multiplicator calculates two values t1 and t2 being cut-in times for the inverter semiconductors. Timer converting t1 and t2 to control signals. Sequence controller distributing the control signals on the outputs of the circuit 1-6 according to the chart in Figure 62. From the chart it can be seen that semiconductor T4 is held fixed on the negative potential while semiconductors T1 and T5 are modulating the sine shape. In the next interval T1 is held fixed on the positive potential while semiconductors T4 and T6 are modulating the sine shape. t1 is the period, where semiconductor T1 is activated and is switching to +. t2 is the corresponding period for semiconductor T5. An addition of the phase voltages will show that the voltage between the output terminals of the AFD reaches its rated value and that it is entirely sine-shaped. It is not necessary to over-modulate and to use the third harmonic (Figure 63).

T1

t1 wt

T2

T-t1 wt

T3

0 wt

T4

T wt

T5

t2 wt

Harmonics and the rotational field AC motors have been designed for sine-shaped AC voltages and currents. That the motor can still be driven by square pulse voltages due to the fact that all periodic voltages can be split up into several sine voltages. These sine voltages have different frequencies and amplitudes. The motor will be driven by the dominant sine-voltage (Figure 64. If the output voltage of the AFD is not sinusoidal the motor will receive overharmonic voltages in addition to the voltage of the required frequency (fundamental frequency or the 1st harmonic). The harmonic frequencies are 5, 7, 11 and 13 times higher than the fundamental frequency and their amplitudes are decreasing with increasing frequency (Figure 65). The harmonic frequencies cause torque pulsations cogging, vibration, increased audible noise, reduced motor efficiency and increased heat losses in the motor. These disadvantages are especially significant at low speeds. Around the rated motor speed the harmonic frequencies do not have much influence and none at all when the speed is increased to 1.5 times the rated value. This is due to the fact that the harmonic frequencies are so high here, that they are reduced by the reactances of the motor windings.

T6

T-t 2 wt

U-O
0.5

V-O

W-U

wt

U+V 1.0

V-W

W+U

wt

-1.0 0 60 120 180 240 300 360

Figure 63. VVC control gives full output voltage ACR 28

V V1 V

1/5 V1

V5

V7

The ratio between the different harmonics can be shown in a system of co-ordinates. The X-axis shows the frequency of the harmonic and the Yaxis shows the amplitude of the harmonic in relation to the amplitude of the first harmonic A1.
wt

switching patterns. A vector analyzer generates a picture of the operational field on the basis of the stator current and stator voltage. This picture can be displayed on an oscilloscope. Figure 68 shows the rotational fields for a motor connected to a 6-pulse PAM-AFD, an 18-pulse PAM-AFD, a PWM-AFD and a VVC-AFD, respectively.

The harmonics affect the rotational field of the motor. It is possible to measure the quality of the different

AC Technical Reference

Figure 64. The harmonic number indicates how many times its frequency is higher than the basic frequency With the sine-controlled PWM it is especially important to take into account that the amount of harmonic frequencies depends on the ratio between the frequency of the triangular voltage and the frequency of the sine voltage. If the ratio between the two frequencies is 6 then the fifth and the seventh harmonic will have a high amplitude. If the ratio is 15, then the thirteenth and the seventeenth harmonic will be high. The ratio between the frequencies should therefore be high and divisible by three. All harmonics with a frequency divisible by three are eliminated in a three-phase system.

6-puls PAM

18-puls PAM

PWM

VVC

Figure 66. The rotational field of the motor can be displayed on an oscilloscope The diameter of the circle indicates the strength of the magnetic field. The uniformity of the circle indicates how well the AFD controls the magnetization. The edges on the picture displayed indicates how will AFD does not manage the deviates from a circle. The motor operation will be unstable and cogging torques will increase.

An A1
1,0

An A1
1,0

Ratio of fundamental harmonic amps

0,5

Ratio of fundamental harmonic amps


1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 Harmonic number

0,5

0,1

0,1 1 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 29 31 35 37 Harmonic number

Figure 65. The harmonic amplitudes at 6-pulse and 18-pulse signals ACR 29

AC Technical Reference

The control circuit The control circuit is the fourth main block of the AFD. The control circuit is handling two things: It controls the semiconductors of the AFD and it receives signals from surrounding equipment to the AFD and transmits signals from the AFD to other equipment (Figure 67). Such signals may be from an operator at a control panel or from a PLC control. For many years the control of the AFD was based on the analog technique. However, today the AFD uses micro electronics incorporating digital data processing. Today's advanced technique has reduced the calculating functions of the control circuit substantially. It is now possible to store the pulse patterns for the semiconductors of the inverter in a data memory. The microprocessor built into the AFD calculates the optimum pulse pattern for the motor used. The figure shows a PAM controlled AFD with an intermediate circuit chopper. The control circuit controls the chopper and the inverter. This is done on the basis of the instantaneous value of the intermediate circuit voltage.

The intermediate circuit voltage controls the address counter for the data memory. This memory contains the pulse pattern output sequence for the semiconductors of the inverter. The address counting speed follows the intermediate circuit voltage. With increasing intermediate circuit voltage the sequence is run through faster and the output frequency of the AFD increases. For the chopper control the intermediate circuit voltage is first compared with the set reference signal. The reference signal is a voltage signal, which is expected to give the correct output voltage and frequency. Any difference between the reference and intermediate circuit signals will cause a PI controller to change the chopper frequency. The intermediate circuit voltage is constantly matched to the reference signal. The computer in general The microprocessor consists of three basic units, each with individual functions (Figure 68).

Data bus

Microprocessor

Address

bus

Ram

Rom

I/O

Control bus

Figure 68. The principle build up of the computer The microprocessor is the heart of the computer. If the processor is supplied with the right sequence of instructions (program), it can execute a number of functions on data stored in the computer memory. The microprocessor interacts with units according to the program entered. The memory must store both the program and the various data. The program can be stored in circuits of an EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory). An EPROM does not lose its contents in case of voltage loss. The information in an EPROM can only be erased by exposure to ultra-violet light. The microprocessor may only read information, not programmed information in the EPROM. Random Access Memory (RAM) will not retain data after a voltage loss. RAM is where the microprocessor temporarily stores data during operation. The third section is the I/O which contains the Inputs and Outputs the computer needs to communicate with. Peripheral equipment I/Os provide connections to control panels, printers or other electronic equipment in the system. A bus is a number of parallel conductors linking the units together as a working computer. The data bus transfers data between the units. The address bus signals from where the data must be taken and to where they must be delivered. The control bus insures that the data is transferred in the right order.

Control circuit for chopper frequency Sequence generator PI voltage regulator

V f

Figure 67. Control circuit principle for a chopper-controlled intermediate circuit

ACR 30

The AFDs computer In addition to the three units mentioned previously the computer of the AFD (Figure 69) also comprises a memory which makes it possible for the user to program. This memory is an EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory). It can be programmed and reprogrammed electrically. When the AFD must be programmed for a specific function an EEPROM is used so the information is not lost. The computer of the AFD also includes an ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit). The ASIC is an integrated circuit where its functions are specified by the AFD's designer. An example of such a design would be the Danfoss VVC control principle.

Inputs and outputs of the control card The number of inputs and outputs is dependent on the application type. AFD in automated applications must for example be able to receive analog and digital control signals (Figure 70). Analog signals can have any value within a specific range Digital signals can have two values only (ON and OFF) There are no set standards for control signals; however, some signals are so widely used that they can be regarded as such. An example of these standard analog signals would be 010 V or 420 mA. The digital outputs of a PLC must electrically match the digital inputs of the AFD. Typically these digital signals are a nominal 24 VDC.

Serial communication In a working process the AFD is an active part of the equipment. It is either installed in a system without feedback (control) or in a system with feedback (regulation) from the process. A system without feedback can be built up with one single potentiometer. A system with feedback is more demanding and often includes a programmable logic controller (PLC). The PLC may deliver control (speed) and command signals (start, stop, and reversing). The output signals of the AFD, e.g. motor current or motor frequency, are often used in conjunction with panel meter, read out display, etc. A PLC system (Figure 71) consists of three basic components: central unit input and output modules programming unit

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

Data bus
Microprocessor

Address

bus
Menu

+
On

RAM

EPROM

EEPROM

VVC

Data
Alarm

Jog Stop Reset

Fwd. Rev. Start

Operation indication

Control bus Power section Digital I/O

In

Central unit

Out

Analog I/O

Figure 69. The computer of the AFD Figure 71. The principle build up of the PLC
V V

Figure 70. Analog signal and digital signal

A control program is entered into the central unit by means of the programming unit. The central unit sorts the input signals and activates the output signals according to the program. The central unit can only process digital signals internally (Figure 72). That means signals changing between two values, e.g. 24 V and 0 V. The high voltage can either be stated as 1 or ON and the low voltage as 0 or OFF.

ACR 31

AC Technical Reference

0 t

Figure 72. The digital signal can be ON or OFF for short or long intervals of time Basically an AFD and a PLC can be linked together in two ways: One method is to connect the inputs and outputs of the PLC using separate wires to the inputs and outputs of the AFD. The inputs and outputs of the PLC thus replace the separate components such as potentiometers, control contacts and displays. The other method (Figure 73) is to transfer several signals at different times over one pair of conductors. Information A is transferred during time interval t1 to t2 and information B is transferred from t2 to t3 etc. This form of signal transmission is called serial communication. The principle to be chosen for serial communication depends on the kind of communication required and the number of units connected (Figure 74). One principle demands many conductors, if each unit must

both transmit and receive data. Another principle makes it possible for several units to communicate over two wires only. Here it is possible to connect several receivers but only one sender. A third principle makes it possible for all the connected units both to send and to receive data over two wires. The communication link between them is called a bus.

To ensure that units of different makes can pick up the serial signal all the units must have a common signal level. There are various standards describing the common signal levels. These standards only comply to interconnections, the information sent over these connections is determined by the software. Both the interconnection and the software
Number of units per set of wire 1 transmitter 1 receiver Max. diNumber stance of wires ft.

Principle

Standard (application) RS 232 (point to point)

Signal lever

49.5

Duplex: min. 3 + various 5 V min. moni- 15 V max. toring signals

RS 423 (point to point)

1 transmitter 10 receivers

Duplex: min. 3 3960 + various 3,6 V min. 6 V max. monitoring signals

RS 422 (point to point)

1 transmitter 10 receivers

3960

Duplex: 4

2 V min.

RS 485 (Bus)

32 transmitters 32 receivers

3960

Semi duplex: 2

1,5 V min.

: transmitter : receiver

Figure 74. Standards for serial connections

must be compatible for successful operation.


t5

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t1

t2

t3

t4

S S
DID

PLC

To date, RS 232 has been the most common hardware standard. The use of it, however, is limited because of the short transmission distance and low transmission speed. RS 232 is mainly used where signals must be transmitted periodically, for example with terminals and printers. RS 422 and 423 are suited for long transmission distances and higher transmission speeds. They are suited for process automation, where the signal transmission is more continuous.

A S

DID

DIA

AID

D S S

PLC S

Figure 73. Serial communication ensures faster signal transmission, simplified installation ACR 32

RS 485 is the only standard where it is possible to link multiple units together for operation over a common pair of wires. The units transmit data in turns over the common wire connection (the bus). In the communication between PLC and AFD there are three types of signals (Figure 75):

Control Status

PLC
Alarm

control signals (speed change, start/stop, reversing) status signals (motor current, motor frequency, frequency reached) alarm signals (motor stopped, over temperature) The AFD controls the motor according to the signals received from the PLC. The AFD transmits information to the PLC about how the control signals affect the motor/ process (status signals). If the AFDs stops because of abnormal operational conditions it transmits an alarm signal to the PLC. RS 485 makes it possible to design process systems in different ways. For example, the PLC can be placed in a panel and control many AFDs in a remote panel (Figure 76).

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

Figure 75. Three signal types between PLC and AFD

PLC

RS 485

Figure 76. The bus provides many new possibilities for application design.

ACR 33

AC Technical Reference

AFD and motor


Operational conditions of the motor Compensations Prior to the VLT series it was difficult to adapt the AFD to the motor. It is easier today however because the VLT AFD is able to set start voltage, start compensation and slip compensation automatically based upon the motor ratings. With most AFDs it is also possible to change these compensation settings manually. Start compensation and start voltage The purpose of these two compensations is to ensure optimum magnetization and maximum torque at start and low speeds. This is done by adding extra output voltage. In this way the ohmic resistance in the motor windings at the low frequencies, is compensated for. Start compensation is a load dependent voltage, whereas the start voltage is independent of the load. If the motor is much smaller than the recommended motor size it may need additional starting voltage, this is set manually. When motors are to operate in parallel the start compensation should normally not be used. Slip compensation The slip of an AC motor is dependent of the load and it is approximately 34% of the rated speed. With a fourpole motor the slip will be about 75 RPM. When an AFD is operating a motor at 180 RPM (10% of rated speed), the slip makes up 50% of the desired speed. When the AFD is to operate the motor at 4% of its rated frequency the motor will stall when it is loaded. With efficient current measuring in the output phases of the AFD it is possible to compensate for all the slip. The AFD compensates for the slip by increasing the frequency proportionally according to the active current. This form of compensation is called active slip compensation. Load dependent output voltage The start voltage optimizes the AFD for low performance motors. After starting, the load will normally be varying and the motor may be overmagnetized, when the load decreases. The motor will then take up too much blind current and it will be overheated. The Danfoss VVC control principle matches the voltage to the present load. The motor constants R1 and X1 are modeled by the AFD and they can be modified to different motor types. On the basis of R1, X1 and accurate measurement of the actual motor current the AFD continuously calculate the optimum output voltage. Vk1 = V1 + I1 R1 + I1 X1 Load dependent control of the output voltage is called flux control and improves dynamic performance of the motor.

ACR 34

Motor torque characteristics If the AFD could supply a current which is several times higher than the full-load current, the motor torque characteristics would be like that shown in Figure 77. High currents may damage both the motor and the AFD. They are not needed for normal motor operation. The AFD limits the maximum motor current. The current limit is variable and makes sure that the motor current is not sustained higher than the desired value. The AFD is able to hold the motor speed independent of the load. The motor torque characteristics would now appear as rectangular within the rated working range of the motor, as shown in Figure 77.
Torque (%)

Torque (%)
160

Choosing the AFD size To choose the correct AFD size for a given load it is necessary to know the load characteristic. Then one must
V [v] P
460

100

u =6.3 f f [Hz]

50

100

150

200

Speed (%)

100

60 72

Figure 78. The torque and over-torque of the motor The motor speed can be stated in different ways: revolutions per minute [RPM], Hertz [Hz] or in percent of the synchronous motor speed [%]. The basis is always the synchronous speed of the motor at rated frequency.
P
T = 160%
30 50 900 72 120 2160 120 f [Hz] 200 n/n [%] 0 3600

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

n[rpm]

Figure 81. How the speed can be indicated (this curve shows the speed of a four-pole motor) find the AFD which can yield the right power output. The necessary power output can be calculated in four ways. The method to be applied will depend on the amount of motor data available. Load characteristics We distinguish between two load characteristics:
Torque

100 75 50

T = 100% T = Torque
25 50 75 100

Speed (%)

Figure 77. The torque characteristic of an AFD-controlled motor is rectangular It is preferred that the AFD can yield an overtorque of up to 160% of rated torque momentarily. Most frequency controlled motors can also operate in the oversynchronous range up to 200% of synchronous speed. The AFD cannot supply a voltage that is higher than the voltage from the AC line. Therefore, the voltage-frequency ratio is reduced when the speed exceeds the rated value. The magnetic field is weakened and the torque yielded by the motor is reduced by
1 n

100

200 Speed

(%)

Figure 79. The motor power A change of the voltage-frequency ratio will affect the torque characteristic. If it is reduced to 6.3 [V/Hz] the sequence will be as follows:
Constant (CT)
V [v] P
460

Speed Torque

u =7.6 f f [Hz]

100

60

Speed

.
30 50 900 60 100 1800 120 f [Hz] 200 n/n [%] 0 3600

Square (VT)
n[rpm]

During oversynchronous operation the AFD maintains maximum output current. The power output will be constant up to 2 nN.

Figure 80. The motor power

Figure 82. Constant and square load torque

ACR 35

AC Technical Reference

We distinguish between two load characteristics for the following reasons: When the pump or fan speed increases the power needed increases by the cube of the speed (P = n3). The speed of pumps and fans should not exceed synchronous speed. The normal working range of pumps and fans is within 30-80% of maximum load. These two conditions can be drawn for the speed/torque characteristics for an AFD controlled motor. Figures 80 and 81 show torque characteristics for two different AFD power sizes. Figure 81 is one power size smaller than that in Figure 80. The load characteristic for the same pump is represented on both torque characteristics. In Figure 81 the operating range of the pump (0100%) is within the rated motor values. Since the normal operating range of the pump is 30-80% it is possible to use an AFD with a lower power output.
Torque (%)
160

Torque (%)
160

Torque (%)

Tacc
100 100

Tacc
50 50

100

Speed (%)

100

Speed (%)

Figure 85. The overtorque can be used for acceleration If the load's torque is constant the motor's torque capabilities must be greater to allow for acceleration. If the AFD allows a temporary overtorque of 60% this would be sufficient for acceleration and the required starting torque ensures that the application can withstand load fluctuations. If the AFD does not allow any overtorque, it must be sized so that the acceleration torque Tacc is within rated torque (See Figure 85). When the load characteristic has been determined the correct power size of the AFD can be found on the basis of other motor data. 1. The fastest and most precise way of finding the right AFD is to measure the current IM drawn by the motor under full load. If the motor is not fully loaded the current might be determined on the basis of measurements on similar applications which are in operation. 2. The AFD can be chosen on the basis of the power SM required by the motor and the power output SVLT of the AFD.

S VLT

SM

Figure 87. Example: [10 HP] 3 460 V motor takes up 15.5 A


3 = 460 15.5 3 = 10.2 kVA SM = V I 1,000 1,000

100
80

Based on the data given on AFD with a maximum continuous output SVLT rating of 10.2 kVA or higher at constant or square load is chosen. 3. The AFD can also be chosen on the basis of the power output of the motor PM. However, due to the power factor of the motor and the motor efficiency changing with the load, this method is less precise than those previously mentioned.

30 100

Speed (%)

Figure 83. Larger frequency converter

Torque (%)
I VLT IM

160

100 80

Figure 86. Based on this technical data an AFD is selected with a maximum continuous output current IVLT higher, or equal to 15.5 A at constant or square torque. Figure 88.
S VLT PM

30 100

Speed (%)

Figure84. Smaller frequency converter ACR 36

Example: A [5 hp] motor with an efficiency and power factor of 0.80 and 0.81 produces power as:
SM = P 3.0 = = 4.6 kVA cos 0.80 x 0.81

I ACT I REA

I RES

M 3

Based on the technical data an AFD whose maximum continuous output SVLT is higher or equal to 4.6 kVA at constant or square load torque is required. 4. For practical reasons the power sizes of typical AFDs usually follow the ratings of AC motors. AFDs are often chosen on the basis of these values but this may result in inaccurate sizing especially when the motor is not fully loaded.

I RES I REA I ACT I RES =

I ACT cos

Figure 90. Currents in the AFD Normally, the motor manufacturer states the power factor of the motor at full-load current. If the power factor is low the maximum motor torque output must be reduced. This problem is avoided by sizing according to the current drawn by the motor and the maximum output current of the AFD (method 1). If there is a capacitor across the motor terminals the effect will be like a short-circuit making the motor current increase dramatically. This condition is caused by the high switching frequency of the AFD. Normal operational conditions Operation Some AFDs must be set and adjusted by means of switches and potentiometers built into the unit. It is usually necessary to open the enclosure to gain access for these items which is not desirable in the industrial environment. Undesirable elements such as dust and static electricity may damage the electronics. Therefore, it is very important that the AFD is opened as little as possible. For this reason many AFDs can be operated and set remotely by the use of a panel providing various data and allowing the user to alter some settings (Figure 91). Many of those AFDs are digital units and are set by menus and software. A menu indicates parameters such as current limit, minimum speed, ramp

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

Menu

+
On

PM

Data
Alarm

Figure 89. When selecting an AFD on the basis of the power output (method 2-4) make sure the calculations are based on the same voltages as those stated in the technical data. When choosing an AFD on the basis of current the voltage level is of no importance, as it is the output current of the AFD, which is determining the other values. Power factor of the motor The current which magnetizes the motor comes from the capacitor in the intermediate circuit of the AFD (Figure 90). The magnetizing current is a blind current flowing from the capacitor to the motor and back again.

Jog Stop Reset

Fwd. Rev. Start

Figure 91. The operation can be based on menus up, etc., and the number of menus may vary between unit types. The number of menus do not indicate the operational complexity, as it is only necessary to use some of the menus, since many are often preset from the factory. The convenience of an AFD can be considered on the basis of the following: How easy is the display to read and understand? Can the panel be operated without the use of tools? Are the menus well arranged? What information does the display indication give during operation?

ACR 37

AC Technical Reference

Can the menu indications replace all measuring instruments during initial set-up? Minimum amount of programming to start AFD? Are the values indicated in the appropriate units, current in Amp., voltage in Volt etc? Motor speed control The output frequency of the AFD and the motor speed can be controlled with a signal called speed reference. Typically as the speed reference increases, the motor speed increases. If the loads torque is less than that obtainable by the motor within the current limit setting (point A Figure 93) the speed will be the desired value. If the torque curve intersects the current limit setting (point B) the speed will not continuously be able to exceed the corresponding value. It is possible to set the AFD not to trip when exceeding the current limit (point C) for a predetermined period of time.
I n, VLT I
160

Torque

Speed

Figure 92. Relationship between the reference signal and the motor torque characteristic
Speed Speed

n2 n1 t acc

n1 n2

t dec

Figure 94. Acceleration and deceleration times Since the motor always follows the output frequency of the inverter, it is possible to switch directly from deceleration to acceleration. The acceleration and deceleration times can be calculated if the moment of inertia on the motor shaft is known:
t acc = J n2 - n1 Tacc + Tfric 9.55 n2 - n1 Tdec + Tfric 9.55

Example: J = 0.997 lb ft2, n1 = 500 RPM, n2 = 1000 RPM, Tfric = 0.05 TN, TN = 19.9 ft lbs If the AFD cannot produce any overtorque, it is necessary to know more about Tacc and Tdec. Braking When the speed reference decreases, the motor acts as a generator and brakes the degree of braking is determined by the output power of the motor. A motor connected directly to the AC line can generate braking power back to the line. With an AFD this is not the case because the intermediate circuit absorbs the braking power. When the braking power is higher than the power loss of the AFD the intermediate circuit voltage can rise. The intermediate circuit voltage can rise until the AFD trips out for reasons of inverter protection. It may be necessary to load the intermediate circuit with an external resistor in which the braking power can be dissipated as heat. By using a dynamic brake resistor, heavy loads can be slowed down very rapidly (Figure 95).

(%)

I LIM

B1 B2 A

t dec = J

J is the moment of inertia of the load as applied to the motor shaft. Tfric is the friction torque of the load.
Speed

Tacc is the starting torque used for acceleration. Tdec is the braking torque occurring when decreasing the speed reference. If the AFD cannot produce an overtorque for a limited period of time, the acceleration and the deceleration torque can be put equal to the rated motor torque TN. In practice the acceleration time will therefore be equal to the deceleration time.

Figure 93. The motor current can exceed the current limit Acceleration and deceleration Acceleration indicates at what rate the speed increases in time to the desired speed. The value is called the acceleration time tacc. Deceleration expresses at what rate the speed is falling. The time until the speed is down to the new desired speed is called the deceleration time tdec. ACR 38

If the AFD is rectifier controlled, the braking power can be sent back to the AC line. This is done through an inverter connected in antiparallel with the rectifier (Figure 96).
U V W U V W

The AFD can change the motor speed direction by changing the phase sequence electronically. Reversing is initiated by a negative speed reference or through a digital input signal. If the motor must have a particular speed direction on start up check the factory setting of the AFD. Since the AFD limits the motor current to a specific set value, the AFD controlled motor can be reversed more frequently than motors connected directly to the AC line (Figure 98).

L1 L2 L3

L1 L2 L3

Figure 95 Brake resistor

Figure 97. The motor speed direction changes when the phase sequence is changed Reversing The shafts operating direction of AC motors is determined by the phase sequence of the supply voltage. The direction is changed by inverting two phases, causing the motor to reverse. In most motors the shaft is turning clockwise, when the connection is as shown on the Figure 97. The phase sequence of the output terminals of most AFDs follows the same principle.

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

Ramps To ensure smooth motor operation most AFDs are supplied with ramp functions. These ramps are adjustable and they ensure that the speed reference can only increase or decrease by the set value. If the set ramp times are too short, the motor current can increase until the current limit is reached. If the ramp down time is too short the voltage in the intermediate circuit may increase so much that the protective electronics trip the AFD.

Figure 96 Inverter connected in antiparallel


Torque

An AC motor can also be braked by applying a DC voltage between two motor phases. This produces a stationary magnetic field in the stator. The braking power stays in the motor which could cause overheating. That is why DC braking is primarily intended for frequencies below 2 Hz.

n = speed T = torque

Speed
n T n T

Figure 98. The braking torque of the AFD during reversing


Speed Speed

Figure 99. Variable ramping times ACR 39

AC Technical Reference

nN

account which ensures that the motor is not overloaded at low speeds where the self ventilation of the motor is reduced. Unit monitoring. The AFD may be set to trip in case of overcurrent. Some AFDs can yield a momentary overcurrent. The fast microprocessors used in the AFD can monitor the motor current and time, which ensures optimum utilization without overloading the AFD. Motor loading and heating Motors that are connected to AFDs should be adequately cooled. There are two factors to take into consideration: The amount of cooling air is reduced with lower motor speed. The motor generates additional heat if the applied current is not entirely sinusoidal. At low speeds the motor fan cannot supply sufficient amounts of cooling air. This problem arises when the load torque is constant in the overall operational range. The reduced ventilation determines the maximum acceptable torque under constant load.
Torque (%) 100

A motor that is to run constantly at a speed being less than half of its rated nameplate speed requires extra cooling (grey area of Figure 101). The problem can be solved by selecting from the following: an inverter rated motor motor with high service factor energy efficient motor, or larger motor The motor receives harmonic currents if the applied current is not sinusoidal. The harmonic currents dissipate additional heat in the motor, which is dependent on the size of the harmonic currents (Figure 102). If the motor current is not sinusoidal the motor must not continuously be loaded 100%.

n ref

t down

Figure 100. Setting of ramp times The optimum ramp times (Figure 100) can be calculated by means of the formulas below:
t up = J t down = J n (Tn - Tfric ) 9.55 [s] n (Tn + Tfric ) 9.55 [s]

Normally the ramp times are determined on the basis of the motors rated speed. Process monitoring The AFD monitors the application's process and takes action in case of operational disturbances. There are three types of monitoring: Application monitoring. The AFD monitors the application on the basis of the output frequency, current and motor torque. On the basis of these values it is possible to set a number of limit values for the control, such as minimum allowable speed or maximum allowable motor current. The AFD can be programmed to execute special functions when these limits are exceeded. For example, it can be programmed to provide an alarm signal to increase motor speed or to brake the motor as quickly as possible. Motor monitoring. The AFD monitors the motor based on a calculation of the thermal conditions. Similar to a thermal overload relay the AFD helps prevent motor overloading. The AFD also takes the output frequency into

Torque (%)
100

50

100

200

Speed (%)

100

Speed (%)

Rated motor
Torque (%)

Torque (%)
100
100

50

100

Speed (%)

100

200

Speed (%)

Oversize motor

Figure 101. Need for additional ventilation when using a rated motor size and an oversize motor

Figure 102. Extra heat is dissipated in the motor if the current is not entirely sinusoidal

ACR 40

Efficiencies The efficiency of a unit (Figure 103) is defined as the ratio between the power output P2 and the power consumption P1:
= P1 P2

PT P1 P1 P2 P2 P3

The difference between P1 and P2 is called the power loss PT, which is dissipated in the unit as heat. The efficiency can be calculated for the AFD alone, the motor alone, or for the AFD and the motor (system efficiency). The efficiency of the AFD is calculated as
P2 P1

Figure 103. Outputs and efficiencies


% 100 A B 80

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

60

The motor efficiency is calculated as


P3 P2

40

20

The system efficiency is calculated as


P3 P1
0 0 600 1200 1800 2400 rpm 3000

Figure 104a. Efficiency for VLT-type 3016 at 100% (A) and 25% (B) load

From the curves it can be seen that the motor efficiency has significant influence on the system efficiency. The efficiency of the VLT AFD is high in the entire control range and during high and low load. The curves also show that the efficiency is lowest at low speeds. That does not mean that the absolute power loss is highest at low speeds. Example from Figure 104c: 1. n = 800 RPM, P3 = 9628 W, = 77%

% 100

B 80

60 A 40 B

20

0 0 600 1200 1800 2400

rpm 3000

Figure 104b. Efficiency for a typical motor at 100% (A) and 25% (B) load when fed from a frequency converter

P3 P1 = = 12504 W, P = P - P3 = 2876 W 1 T

2.

n = 500 RPM, P3 = 1500 W, = 77%

% 100

P1 = P3 = 2143 W, P = P1 - P3 = 643 W T

The high efficiency of the VLT AFD has several advantages: The higher the efficiency, the less the heat loss to be removed from the installation. This is highly advantageous for panel mounted AFDs. The less heat loss that is dissipated in the semiconductors and coils of the AFD, the longer their expected lifetime.

80 B 1 60 2 A 40

20

0 0 600 1200 1800 2400

rpm 3000

Figure 104c. Efficiency for a frequency converter and motor at 100% (A) and 25% (B) load

ACR 41

AC Technical Reference

Long motor cables AFDs are designed for motor cables of a certain maximum length and of a certain wire gauge. These cable values vary greatly between AFD types. Other specifications of the AFD will be affected if the maximum cable lengths are exceeded. Motor cable length required for the appropriate placing the AFD and the motor must be considered in each case. The longer the motor cable is, the more heat will be generated in the AFD. Always check what cable lengths and wire gauge the AFD will allow, as this is of great importance to its thermal conditions. If the length or the gauge of the motor cables exceeds the maximum values the maximum allowable continuous output decreases. The longer the cable length or the larger the gauge, the lower the capacitive reactance. High capacitive reactance will increase the losses in the cable. The resulting output current must be reduced by about 5% for each step the wire gauge increases (Figure 105). The current is reduced linearly, when the cable length exceeds the maximum for which the AFD has been designed.

The typical mode of operation for the AFD causes short voltage rise times in the motor cable. This may damage the insulation of the motor windings. The problem intensifies as the switching frequency of the inverter increases. The problems of dv/dt and the capacity of the motor cable can be solved by installing a motor filter in the output of the AFD. Always check if the AFD incorporates an effective motor filter, or if such a filter is available as an option. Intermittent operation To describe this kind of operation we apply the current consumed by the AFD. IH is the current it consumes during high torque situations and IL is the current at low torque situations. When both currents are lower or equal to the rated input current of the AFD no problems will occur. When IH exceeds the rated input current the time intervals tH and tL, the duty cycle between IH and IL must be taken into account. The temperature in the AFD increases in the period tH and falls in the period tL.
I N, VLT

Example 1 (see Figure 107): IH = 160% (corresponds to a 60% overtorque). At IL = 100% tL may last 600 sec. and tH 30 sec. When IL is changed to 80%, tL can be reduced to 100 sec, or tH be increased to 108 sec. Example 2 (see Figure 107): IL = 100% If IH is reduced to 140%, tL can be reduced from 600 sec. to 300 sec., or tH can be increased from 30 to 50 sec.

H [s]
6 4 3 2 100 6 4 3 2 10 6 4 3 5 10 2 3 4 100 2 3 4 1000 2 3 4

IL

=0% 50 80 90 100

L [s]

I H = 160%
H [s]
1000 6 4 3 2

IL

=0% 50 80 90 100

max. output current

A B

IH

100 6 4 3

IL
nominal cable cross section

2 10 7 5 5 10 2 3 4 100 2 3 4 1000 2 3 4

t tH tL

L [s]
increased cable cross section

Figure 106. Intermittent operation Referring to Figure 106, area A can be increased when area B is increased. When B is reduced it may be necessary to reduce A. A more precise correlation between the values of IH, IL, tH and tL will appear from the specifications on the individual AFD.

I H = 140%

Figure 107. Load degrees influence the intermittent operation

nominal length

cable length

Figure 105. The maximum output current of the AFD depends on the length and gauge of the motor cable

ACR 42

Parallel connection of motors An AFD can control several parallelconnected motors. If the motor speeds must be different, motors of different rated speeds must be applied. The motor speeds can be changed simultaneously and the ratio between the motors is maintained in the entire control range. The total current consumed by all of the motors may not exceed the maximum output current of the AFD. The individual motors can be switched and reversed an unlimited amount on the output of the VLT AFD. If the total starting current of the motors is higher than the maximum output current of the AFD, the output frequency falls. The output current of the AFD can exceed the rated current of the individual motor, making it necessary to protect each motor as if it were connected to the AC line. If the motor sizes deviate very much, problems may arise during starting and low speed operation. This is due to the fact that small motors have a relatively large ohmic resistor in the stator, therefore they demand more compensation voltage during starting and low speeds. Often it will be possible to increase the start voltage and find an acceptable start condition for all the motors. If this is not possible it may be necessary to replace the small motor with a larger one. This does not necessarily demand a bigger AFD, as the mechanical power output of the motor is unchanged. Explosion hazardous areas AC motors are available in versions designed specially for use in explosion hazardous areas, i.e. areas where there are inflammable gasses, steams or dust. AFDs are not intended to be placed directly in the hazardous area. They are only typically available in enclosures up to NEMA 12. Explosion-proof motors have been subjected to several tests by authorized organizations according to

specific standards. When the motor has been approved it can then be marked according to the standard in question. A motor's certification and approval is typically based on measurements made on the fixed voltage and frequency of the AC line. If such a motor is to be controlled by an AFD they will test and measure the heat generation in the whole range during operation. Explosion-proof motors rated for use with AFDs are available from several motor manufacturers. Transformers and AFDs A transformer can be placed ahead of the AFD or between the AFD and motor. Isolating transformers or auto transformers designed for rectifier operation can be used ahead of the AFD. An isolating transformer can be used under any circumstances. An auto transformer can only be used when the transformer is starconnected and the star point grounded. The AFD loads the transformer like an ordinary threephase rectifier and the transformer can be selected on the basis of the voltage of the supply mains and the rated voltage of the AFD, maximum input current, cos and power factor. A transformer between AFD and motor is used to adjust the output voltage, to 48 V motors for example, that have been chosen to protect personnel or give galvanic isolation. Transformers are usually intended for a specific frequency. There will be a voltage drop as a consequence of the ohmic resistance in the transformer windings. This has the same influence as the corresponding voltage drop in the motor windings. When the AFD must compensate for the ohmic voltage drop in both transformer and motor the transformer will receive a too high voltage-frequency ratio at start and at low speed. Overmagnetization will result and the motor will be unable to start.

At high loads the start problem can be solved by using a transformer specially designed for a high voltage/ frequency ratio. Another possibility is to replace the motor. Protection under extreme working conditions Extreme working conditions include all kinds of abnormal disturbances on the input and output sides of the AFD. On the input side such disturbance might be overvoltages and transients and on the output side overcurrents from short-circuits, ground faults, switching motor cables and regenerative operation. The AFD protects its electronics by predicting the extreme conditions. This is possible when the AFD is designed with the appropriate logic such as preprogrammed ASIC. ASICs can allow a fast and precise current measuring. It is possible for the AFD to take action against an extreme situation before the electronics are damaged. Safety Often it is necessary to place an emergency stop near the motor. It is important that it is possible to place a switch in the motor cable and that the AFD is not damaged no matter how often the switch is activated. The control inputs of the AFD must be isolated from the power section and the AC line. If not, the control leads will have the same voltage in relation to ground as the AC line. In that case it would be highly dangerous to touch the control leads and other equipment may be damaged. To take precaution against fire it is important that the AFD has a built-in thermal relay cutting out its operation when the cooling is inadequate. Sometimes an AFD controlled motor may start without warning after cutout for thermal overload or if the motor is not switched off while operational parameters are altered. All local Health and Safety precautions must be complied with to prevent danger to personnel. ACR 43

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

AC Technical Reference

Grounding Through a protection wire the ground terminal of the AFD is connected to an earth electrode. This form of protection demands that the impedance of the earth electrode is sufficiently low. Electrical noise Electrical noise is electric disturbance that affects a unit or that is emitted from a unit. The electrical noise can be split up into three main groups (Figure 108). One group is the thermal interference voltage coming from all components. The limit for a unit's sensitivity is determined by physical laws. The second group is atmospheric noise, for example, voltage peaks on the supply voltage during lightning storms. The atmospheric noise cannot be damped and its disturbance of electric installations can only be limited by taking different measures. The third group is the noise coming from switches, radio transmitters and other electric devices. This manmade noise can be controlled. EMC is a term that is often used in connection with electrical noise. EMC

AC line interference and radio frequency interference (RFI). Emission types The electrical noise can be spread over the AC line (conducted) and by the air (coupled/radiated noise). Coupling The coupling is dependent on how the electric circuits have been designed. The coupling can be galvanic, capacitive or inductive.

The galvanic coupling may occur when two electric circuits have a common impedance. In Figure 108, line impedance and the ground impedance are common for the AFD and another electric device. Dependent on the impedance conditions a noise voltage can be transferred to the unit over the two common impedances ZL1 and Zground. The capacitive coupling can happen, when two electric circuits have a common ground. A typical example is, where the motor cables are placed too close to other cables connected to sensitive devices. The capacitive noise current depends on the switching frequency of the inverter and how far the motor cable is from other cables. The high frequency of the output voltage gives a low capacitive resistance in the motor cable and results in a capacitive noise current.

Z L1

Z0

The noise current may flow as shown in Figure 110. Inductive coupling may occur when the magnetic field around a live wire affects another wire or another unit (Figure 110). The strength of the magnetic field depends on the current, the wiring and the distance to the live wire. AC voltages may especially induce noise into another wire loop. The size of the induced voltage depends on the frequency an amperage of the induced voltage (Figure 108).

Figure 109. Galvanic coupling

Electrical noise

Thermal noise

Atmospheric noise

Human-made noise

Figure 108. Different kinds of electrical noise is an abbreviation of Electro Magnetic Compatibility, i.e. a unit's ability to resist electrical noise and not to emit electrical noise to other surrounding equipment. Emission is the electro-magnetic energy emitted from a unit. Immunity is the unit's ability to resist electro-magnetic disturbances. In regards to AFDs, electrical noise like Figure 110. Capacitive coupling ACR 44
M

2 2 2 A n [%] = 100 1I (R + n X U

n is the ordinal of the harmonic I is the size of the load current


IM

R is the ohmic part of the line impedance X is the reactive part of the line impedance V is the nominal voltage The formula applies to units where the zero conductor is not connected. Line interference can be reduced by limiting the amplitudes of the pulse currents. In practice, this is done by inserting coils in the intermediate circuit of the AFD.
Conducted noise

Figure 111. Inductive coupling

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

If the AFD does not include these coils as standard, they must be purchased and mounted separately.

Over-coupled noise Unit

Figure 112. Ways of emission of electrical noise Transmission Electrical noise can also be spread via the wires of the AC line. This takes place when the sine-shape of the supply voltage is deformed or when the line is disturbed by high frequency noise. AC line interference AC line interference is a distortion of the sinusoidal curve shape of the supply signal. The distortion goes from the AFD and back through the AC line. A humming sound can often be heard from other units connected to the same AC line. The rectifier of the AFD sends a pulsating DC voltage to the intermediate circuit. Its capacitor is charged at each voltage peak. During these chargings AFD draws up currents of relatively large amplitudes. The AFD can become a pulsating load, distorting the sineshape of the supply voltage. The degree of distortion depends on the impedance of the AC line and the size of the loads current. The AC line interference consists of harmonics of the basic frequency of the supply voltage, and for each individual harmonic, it is possible to calculate the amplitude of the noise voltage (An) in percentage of the nominal voltage.

ACR 45

AC Technical Reference

Transients/Overvoltage Most industrial AC lines are disturbed by line transients which can be short overvoltages of up to 1000 V. They arise when high loads are cut in and out elsewhere on the AC line. A lightning strike directly to the supply wire causes a transient wave of high voltage. The transient may damage installations in a distance of up to 4 miles from where the lightning strikes. Short-circuits in the supply lines can also cause transients. High currents due to short-circuits can result in very high voltage in the surrounding cables because of inductive coupling. Radio frequency interference Any current or voltage deviating from the sine curve will contain components of higher frequencies. The frequencies will depend on how steep the sequence is. When a switch is activated the current increases very quickly from zero to rated current. In that case the sequence is very steep. In a radio you will hear a crackling. One single noise pulse will not do any harm, but as the semiconductors of the AFD are acting as switches they emit noise disturbing the surrounding electronic equipment. Radio frequency interference vRFI) is defined as electric oscillations of frequencies between 150 kHz and 30 MHz. The RFI degree depends on different conditions: the impedance conditions of the AC line the switching frequency of the inverter the frequency of the output voltage the mechanical buildup of the AFD the power level of the AFD Radio frequency interference can be conducted and coupled noise. There are different standards for the maximum allowable radio noise from a unit. An example is the German VDE

dB V 100

dB V 100

80

80

60

60

40

40

20

20

0 0.1 0.2 1 2 5 10 30

MHz

0 0.1 0.2 1 2 5 10 30

MHz

Figure 113. Limits for emission of radio frequency interference according to VDE 0875 standards (Figure 113). VDE 0875 gives the level for the acceptable RFI emission over the AC line. VDE 0875, curve vG) is the acceptable limit for industrial equipment. Curve N gives the limit for ordinary household equipment. The EEC directive EEF 82/499 vEuropean Standard) gives like, VDE 0875, the levels for how much radio noise a unit is allowed to emit over the AC line. From this directive it can also be seen how much radio noise a unit is allowed to emit on the output side. In regards to AFDs the output side is the motor cable. As of 1992 EEC 82/499 will be standard for all European countries (Figure 114).

Figure 114. EECs limits for emission of radio frequency interference

Effective suppression of the radio frequency interference can only be obtained by means of a filter. This filter is called an RFI filter and it consists of coils and capacitors. Some suppliers of AFDs offer integrated RFI filters as standard, if not, this filter must be purchased and mounted separately (Figure 115). In the motor cable the radio noise can be suppressed by means of an RFI filter or by using a shielded cable. The high frequencies means: that the capacitors of the filter draw high currents that may make the AFD cut out. that the filter coils must be very big vhigher expenses and increased acoustic noise).

Curve N RFI filter (extra)

Curve G RFI filter (integrated)

Mains supply interference Transients

du dt

Current measuring

Figure 115. How the frequency converter is damping electrical noise ACR 46

Shielded cables For a shielded cable a switching impedance is stated. It is the impedance of the shield in the longitudinal direction. To be sure that the noise current returns to the shield the value of the switching impedance must be as low as possible. To provide effective suppression against emission of high frequency radio noise both ends of the shield must generally be connected to ground. It is important that the contact between the shield and the ground/chassis terminal is good. A bad connection will increase the impedance of the shield and reduce the suppression of radio noise (Figure 116). Control cables should not be connected to ground on both ends but only to the ground terminal of the AFD. This is partially due to the fact that any noise current in the cabinet of the control case could act as a current loop that will have a disturbing effect on the control. Before you buy an AFD you should examine how the electrical noise can be limited.

Operational reliability
Simple trouble shooting Supply voltage If a functional fault is observed, check the following: Has the AC line been connected correctly? Has a prefuse blown? Is the AC line within the permissible variation? Motor Has the motor been connected correctly? Has the emergency switch been activated? Control signals Is the AFD receiving the control signals? Are the signals of the proper type and values? Menu settings Are all settings correct?

Fault indication Some AFDs also provide fault indication; this is of great help for the more advanced trouble shooting (Figure 117). Here any faults arising because of motor overload, over- or undervoltage in the AC line, short-circuits or ground leakages etc. are either indicated on a display or by means of LEDs.

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

Menu

+
On

Data
Alarm

Jog Stop Reset

Fwd. Rev. Start

Figure 117. The AFD can be of great help for trouble shooting Fuses The AFD may not be supplied with built-in fuses, as the fast current measuring and electronics provide effective protection for the unit. However, the whole installation must be protected by means of branch protection ahead of the AFD. The fuses must be dimensioned to carry the maximum intermittent input current of the AFD and to protect cables and contractors. The fuses must not be dimensioned according to the normal starting current of the motor, since with an AFD starting and reversing produce no inrush current on the AC line.

Figure 116. The cable shield must be connected properly

ACR 47

AC Technical Reference

Short-circuits and ground faults Short-circuits and ground faults may occur on the supply side on the motor side in control leads

Insulation measurement High voltage tests on an AFD installation may damage the electronics; therefore, the input and output terminals must be shortcircuited. If the AFD is supplied with an RFI-filter the filter capacitors must be disconnected.

The maximum voltage drop allowed from the transformer of the AC line to the AFD voltage varies from country to country. It is therefore necessary to follow the local regulations (Figure 120) The acceptable voltage drop will typically be 4% and when dimensioning the cable the following must be taken into account: ambient temperature set-up cable impedance load degree Finally the wire cross section of the cable must be dimensioned according to the current consumed by the AFD. There will be no current inrush on the AC supply during motor start and reversing; however, if the motor produces intermittent overtorque the AFD will draw an intermittent overcurrent. The duration of this current may have influence on how small the wire cross section may be.

L1 L2 L3

U V W

Figure 118. Where there is risk of short circuits Any short-circuits or ground faults on the supply side will cause the prefuses in the installation to blow. The AFD itself will seldom cause short-circuits and it will not be damaged because of faults on the supply side. As a rule motor faults arise because of missing insulation that causes shortcircuits between two phases or between phase and ground. A shortcircuit will act as an overload on the AFD which may then trip out. Grounding can also cause the AFD to trip out. A short-circuit of the control leads of the AFD may overload the internal voltage supply. The internal voltage supply is therefore protected by a fuse. Grounding of a control lead will not damage AFDs with input isolation.

Figure 119. Short circuits and switching off before high voltage test in the installation The influence of the AC line Normally the AFD specifications are maintained by a supply voltage that varies +10% from the rated value. Generally, the impedance of the AC line is so low that it does not affect the function of the AFD.

I VLT

VA

VB

V B = V A - (I VLT Z ) VA - VB 100 4% VA

Figure 120. The demand for the impedance of the AC supply must be in accordance with the local regulations

ACR 48

Considerations to be made before buying


To find the right AFD for your application the following points must be considered: Does the AFD automatically match the output voltage to the actual load vdynamic flux control)? Does the AFD automatically compensate for the load dependency of the slip vdynamic slip compensation)? Does the AFD allow intermittent overtorque? How great a part of operation and setting is done inside the AFD? Is the AFD easy to operate? Can the AFD control the braking of large moments of inertia?

How extensive are the monitoring functions of the AFD? Does the motor generate extra heat because of the wave shape of the motor current? How high is the efficiency of the AFD vin the whole control range)? Is the specified length and cross section of the motor cable sufficient? Is it possible to mount emergency stop or switches in the motor cable? How often can they be activated? Is the AFD fitted with built-in motor filter or is it available as option? In what enclosures can you get the AFD?

Does the AFD suit the AC line? Is the isolation of the control leads effective? What standard has been followed? Is the AFD protected against thermal overload? What precautions have been made against electrical disturbance? Does the AFD meet any recognized standards vUL, CSA, etc.) Is the AFD protected against overheating? Is the AFD protected against shortcircuits and grounding? How does the AFD react? Has the AFD fault indication? How advanced is it?

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

ACR 49

AC Technical Reference

Appendix 1 General mechanical theory


Rectilinear movement In a rectilinear movement, a body will lie still or maintain its rectilinear movement until it is actuated by a force. The force F can be expressed as the product of the mass of the body and the change per time unit of the velocity of the body. The velocity change per time unit is the same as acceleration a.
F= m a
Mass: m unit of measurement: [kg]

To maintain constant movement a body must be actuated all the time. This is necessary because of forces of friction and gravity attracting the body in the opposite direction. Rotary motion In rotary motion a body can be forced to rotate or to alter its rotary velocity, if it is influenced by a torque around its mass center. Like the force the torque can be expressed through its effect: The product of the moment of inertia of the body J and the change of the velocity of the body per time unit, the angular acceleration . Figure 121. Calculation of different moments of inertia Figure 122.

T=F r

T=J
Angular velocity: (1) unit of measurement [ radians ] s r (1) 2 n ; n measures in [ min. ] 60 Angular acceleration: = d ; unit of measurement [ radians ] s dt

m Acceleration: a unit of measurement: [ 2 ] s Force: F unit of measurement: [N]

Solid cylinder
d

Moment of inertia: J; unit of measurement [kg m2 ]

Figure 123. The moment of inertia has, like the mass, a damping effect on the acceleration. The moment of inertia depends on the mass and form of the body according to the axis of rotation. When the torque and acceleration conditions of a plant are to be calculated it is advantageous to relate all masses and inertias to a total moment of inertia on the motor shaft

2 J= m r 2 2 2 J= m r + m l 4 12

Hollow cylinder

J = J 1 + J 1 ( 2 ) + J 3 ( 3) +... 1 1
d

J;

Moment of inertia of the motor Individual moments of inertia of the system Angular velocity of the motor Angular velocity of the various rotating bodies

J= m 2

(r 1 2 + r2 2)

r1

J2 , J3 etc: 1:
r2

2, 3 etc.

Solid ball

Figure 125.
2 J= 2 m r 5

2r

Figure 124. ACR 50

Work and power The work W performed by the motor in rectilinear motion can be calculated as the product of the force in the direction of motion F and the length of the movement s. In rotary motions the output is calculated as the product of the torque T and the angular motion . One revolution = 2 [rad].

W=F s
Angular motion: Unit of measurement: radians One resolution = 2 [rad]

In a rectilinear motion the power is calculated as the product of the motion in the direction of motion and the length of motion per time unit, the velocity V. In rotary motions the power is calculated as the product of the torque and the length of motion per time unit, angular velocity.
P = T Unit of measurement: [W] P = F V

Figure 127. The output of a conveyor system is increasing with the time. It has no maximum value and therefore it cannot be applied for sizing calculations. The power P express the work per time unit and therefore it has no maximum value.

W=T
Length of motion: s Output: W Unit of measurement: [m] Unit of measurement: [W s]

Figure 128.

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

Figure 126.

ACR 51

AC Technical Reference

Appendix II
General alternating current theory
AC voltage valternating current) is symbolized with ~. It changes amplitude and direction. The number of periods per second is called frequency, which is indicated in Hertz. 1 Hz = one period per second. The duration of one period is the period time and it is found as T = 1/f. At a frequency of 50 Hz the period time is 0,02 s (Figure 129). Contrary to DC voltage and current, AC voltage and current can have different values.
Current the other way Current one way
1 period

time

1 rotation (of four-pole rotor)

Figure 129. Different values at AC voltage

Current/voltage

90

medium

active

max. max.

180

0/360
medium active

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

Figure 131. The direction of the vector is anti-clockwise In general, it is the actual value that is applied and an alternating current value of 1 A generates the same heat in a given resistor as a direct current of 1 A. Vectors are most useful in connection with alternating currents and voltages. They clearly show the connection between current, voltage and time. A vector is characterized by its length and its direction of rotation. It is rotating anti-clockwise (Figure 131). When the magnetic field vector rotates one revolution and is back to its starting point, the vector tip will have traced a complete circle, i.e. 360. The time of one revolution is equal to the period time of the sine curve. The vector velocity per second is called the angular velocity and is indicated by the Greek letter . = 2 f. There are three forms of AC loads.

270

Figure 130. AC voltage When the load consists of coils with iron cores like motors the load will primarily be inductive. Here the current will be delayed in time compared to the voltage. The load can be capacitive and the current will be time-wise in advance of the voltage. The load can be entirely ohmic and there will be no displacement between current and voltage (Figure 130). The displacement between voltage and current is called the phase displacement angle and it is designated with the Greek letter . By multiplying the associated values of current and voltage the power curve for the three loading forms can be drawn.

ACR 52

peak to peak

Ohmic load
R

Inductive load
L

Capacitive load
C

= P IV

where P is the active power and I and V actual values. designates the phase difference between current and voltage. With an entirely sinusoidal current and voltage Cos corresponds to the ratio between the active power and the apparent power.

V max I max I 0 90 U

V max U I max 270 360 I 270 360

V max U

I I max 0 90

270

360

90

P V P V I 270 0 90 P=O P=O 360 I I P

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

Figure 132. Current, voltage and power at entirely ohmic load The loading forms are only theoretical quantities when there is a matter of AC circuits. A load will either be ohmic-inductive, or ohmic-capacitive (Figure 132). Power factor The power factor is defined as the ratio between the active power and the apparent power. It is often called cos. ; but cos is only defined for sinusoidal currents and voltages. With nonlinear loads such as AFDs the load current is not sinusoidal. We must therefore distinguish between cos and the power factor .
Voltage V Current I RES = = Formula sign Power P = V x I x cos = S cos W or kW VAr or kVAr (Sin or ks) VA or kVA
S I S V

In general

Unit

V x I x sin
P V x I = cos P I x cos P V x cos P V Q I

= S sin
Q = sin Q

= I x sin = V x sin =
S x cos V S x sin I P S Q S Q

I ACT

I REA Phase displacement

A abstract number abstract number

cos

P VxI Q VxI

sin

Figure 133.

ACR 53

AC Technical Reference

Three-phase alternating current In a three-phase voltage system and voltages are displaced 120 according to each other. The three phases are usually shown in the same system of co-ordinates (Figure 134).

The voltage between a phase wire and neutral wire is called the phase voltage Vph and the voltage between two phase wires is called the mains voltage VN. The ratio between VN and Vph is 3
In L1 UN L2 V I1 UN UN U ph I3 W L3 In L1 UN U ph L2 UN UN U ph U ph I2

V1

U I2

180 90 270

360

U ph

U ph

V2
120

I3 W

L3

Figure 135. Mains and phase values in a star and delta connection Star or delta connection When the three-phase supply mains is loaded with a motor the motor windings are star or delta connected. In a star connection one phase is connected to one of the ends of the motor windings whereas the other ends are short-circuited vstar point). The voltages above the various windings are:
Vph= V N 3

V3
120

V V1 V2
180 90 270

V3
360

-V

For the currents the following applies: I1 = I2 = I3 = IN In a delta connection the three motor windings are connected in series and each link is connected to a phase. The voltage above the various windings are: Vph = VN For the currents the following applies
I1 = I 2 = I 3 = I N 3

Figure 134. A three-phase AC voltage consists of three individual timedisplaced AC voltages

ACR 54

SI Prefixes symbol a f p n m c d d h k M G T P E prefix atto femto pico nano micro milli centi deci deca hecto kilo mega giga tera peta exa value 1018 1015 1012 10_9 10_6 10_3 10_2 10_1 10 102 103 106 109 1012 1015 1018

SI Derived Units symbol C F H Hz J N Pa S T m2 ) V W Wb name coulomb farad henry hertz joule newton pascal ohm siemens tesla quantity dimensions charge A.s capacitance A2s4/kg . m2 inductance kg . m2/A2.s2 frequency l/s energy kg.m2/82 force kg.m/82 pressure kg/m.s2 resistance kg.m2/A2.s3 conductance A2.s3/kg.m2 flux density kg/A.s2

vsame as C/V) vsame as Wb/A) vsame as N.m) vsame as N/m2) vsame as V/A) vsame as A/V) vsame as Wb/

RDS 20 DC Controls AC Technical Reference

volt watt weber

potential power magnetic flux

kg.m2/A.s3 kg.m2/s3 kg.m2/A.s2

vsame as W/A) vsame as J/s) vsame as V.s)

Conversion factors multiply acre angstrom atm atm atm bar BTU BTU BTU/h BTU/lbm BTU/lbm-R cm cm3 eV ft ft3 ft3 ft-lbf gal gal gal/min g/cm3 g/cm3 hp hp hp hp in in3 J by 43,560 1x10_10 1.01325 29.92 14.696 1x105 778.17 1.055 0.293 2.326 4.1868 0.3937 0.061024 1.602x10_19 0.3048 7.481 0.028317 1.35582 0.13368 3.7854 x 103 0.002228 1000 62.428 2545 33,000 550 0.7457 2.54 16.387 6.2415x1018 to obtain ft2 m bar in Hg lbf/in2 Pa ft-lbf kJ W kJ/kg kJ/kg.K in in3 J m gal m3 J ft3 m3 ft3/sec kg/m3 lbm/ft3 BTU/hr ft-lbf/min ft-lbf/sec kW cm cm3 eV multiply J kg kg kip kJ kJ kJ/kg kJ/kg.K km km/h kPa kW kW l l lbf lbf/ft2 lbf/in2 lbm lbm/ft3 lbm/ft3 m m3 mi/h micron N Pa slug torr W by 0.73756 2.20462 0.06852 1000 0.9478 737.56 0.42992 0.23885 3280.8 0.62137 0.14504 737.6 1.341 0.03531 0.001 4.4482 144 6894.8 0.4536 0.016018 16.018 3.28083 35.3147 1.6093 1.10_6 0.22481 1.4604x10_4 32.174 133.32 3.413 to obtain ft-lbf lbm slug lbf BTU ft-lbf BTU/lbm BTU/lbm-R ft mi/hr lbf/in2 ft-lbf/sec hp ft3 m3 N lbf/in2 Pa kg g/cm3 kg/m3 ft ft3 km/h m lbf lbf/in2 lbm Pa BTU/hr ACR 55

AC Technical Reference

Subject Index
A Acceleration 36,38 Acceleration range 8 Active current 14 Address bus 31 Address calculator 28 Alarm signals 33 Alternating field 6 Analog control signals 31 ASIC 31 Asynchronous motor 5 B Basic circuit of the AFD 17 Blind current 19,35 Braking 38 Braking ranges 8 Break-away torque 16 Bus 32 C Capacitive over-coupling 44 Cascade coupling 12 Chopper 21, 24, 30 Cogging torque 25, 28, 29 Computer 30 Conducted noise 44, 45 Constant current inverter (CSI) 18 Constant voltage intermediate circuit 20, 22 Control bus 31 Control circuit 17, 30 Control signals 33 Cooling forms 14 Cooling 40 Copper loss 9 Cos 14, 37 Current heat loss 8 Current limit 35, 38, 40 D Danfoss VVC control principle 18, 22, 23, 29, 31, 34 Data bus 30 DC braking 38 DC motor 3 Deceleration 38 Digital control signals 31 Diode 19 E Earthing 44 Earth leakage 48 Eddy current loss 9 EEPROM 31 Efficiency 9, 15, 29, 41 Electrical noise 44 EMC 44 Emission ways of 44 Enclosure 14 EPROM 31 Equivalent diagram 10-11 Extra protection 43 F Fault indication 47 Flux control 34 Frequency control 12 Friction loss 9 Full-wave controlled rectifier 19 Fuses 47 G Galvanic isolation 43 Gate 19 Generator 8 Generator principle 3 H Harmonics 25, 27-29 Hazardous location 43 Heat loss 10, 29 Horse power 13 Hysteresis loss 9 I IGBT transistor 23 Inputs and outputs 31 Inductive over-coupling 45 Intermediate circuit 17, 20 Intermittent operation 42 Insulation measurement 48 Inverter 17, 19, 21-25, 39 Iron loss 9 L Load dependent magnetization 13 Load dependent output voltage 34 Load torque 35, 38 Load types 15 Losses 9, 23, 26 M Magnetic field 3, 4-7 Magnetization 12, 27 Mechanical load 10 Menus 37 Microprocessor 30 Moment of inertia 15, 38 Motor cables 42 Motor catalogue 15 Motor data 13, 35 Motor filter 42 Motor heating 40 Motor principle 3 N Name plate 13 O Operation 47 Operational field 7-8, 29-30 Operational range 8-9 Output voltage 26, 27, 29 Over-coupled noise 44 Overmagnetization 9, 13, 43 Overtorque 35, 36, 38 P Parallel connection of motors 34, 43 Phase sequence 39 PLC 30-33 Pole pairs 5, 6 Pole number control 11 Power 8 Power rating 13 Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) 18, 22, 24, 25, 30 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 18, 22, 25, 26, 27 R RAM 30 Radio frequency interference RFI 44, 46, 48 Ramps 39 Rated torque 9 Rectifier 17-20 Registers 27 Reluctance motor 4 Remote ventilation 40 Reversing 39 Ripple 45 Rotor 4, 7 Rotor control 12 Rotor resistors 12 RS 232/422/423/485 32, 33 S Screens 47 Sequence controller 28 Serial communication 31 Short-circuit 48 Short-circuit rotor 7 Simple trouble shooting 47 Sine-controlled Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 22, 25-26, 29 Sine reference 25 Size of AFD 35 Slip 7, 10, 15, 34 Slip compensation 34 Slip control 11 Slip ring motor 11 Slip ring rotor 7 Slots 5, 7 Speed 7 Speed change 11 Speed reference 38 Star connection 13 Start compensation 34 Start current 13, 15 Start magnetization 12 Start torque 8, 15 Static electricity 37 Stator voltage change of 11 Status signals 31 Supply interference 45 Supply mains 48 Switching frequency 23 Switching pattern 6- and 18-pulse signal 22-25, 29 Synchronous motor 4 Synchronous speed 5 T Time delay () 19 Timer 28 Torque 7, 8, 11, 35 Transformer 43 Transients/overvoltage 46 Transistors 21, 23 Trip-out torque 9, 12 Thyristor 19, 21 U Undermagnetization 9 Uncontrolled rectifier 19 V Variable direct current intermediate circuit 20, 21 Variable voltage intermediate circuit 20, 39 VDE 0875 46 Ventilation loss 9 Voltage-frequency ratio 12, 13, 35, 36 Voltage rise times du/dt 42 VVC control principle 18, 23, 27-29, 31, 35 W Wire cross section 48 Work 8

ACR 56