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1.why do u need to modulate signals the main use of modulatoion is to reduce the length of antennas..

previously cars use to use inductors along with the antenna to reduce the length.. but nowa-days use of modulation lessen the work.. basic aim of modulation in vague terms may b to increase the signal stren 1.aim of modulation Let's take it as easy as it possible. For radio communications you need to have a carrier. Let's say it is the Camel. Then you need to transport some stuff on this Camel. How can you do it? Right, you need a bag to put all your small things inside. So modulation is this bag on Camel's back which serve as the tool to transfer the information (think about it as your small things) on the major transportation means (Camel). By the way, there are actually two bags on each side of the Camel (carrier), one bag is the Low Side Band and another is the Upper Side Band (LSB and USB). Now you need a bit more stuff like food for the Camel. I think you may find the electronic analog for this stuff too. 1.need for modulation The aim of digital modulation is to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog bandpass channel, for example over the public switched telephone network (where a filter limits the frequency range to between 300 and 3400 Hz) or a limited radio frequency band. The aim of analog modulation is to transfer an analog lowpass signal, for example an audio signal or TV signal, over an analog bandpass channel, for example a limited radio frequency band or a cable TV network channel. Analog and digital modulation facilitate frequency division multiplexing (FDM), where several low pass information signals are transferred simultaneously over the same shared physical medium, using separate bandpass channels. The aim of digital baseband modulation methods, also known as line coding, is to transfer a digital bit stream over a lowpass channel, typically a non-filtered copper wire such as a serial bus or a wired local area network. The aim of pulse modulation methods is to transfer a narrowband analog signal, for example a phone call over a wideband lowpass channel or, in some of the schemes, as a bit stream over another digital transmission system. In simple terms, modulation is required to transmit signals from variuos sources simultaneously over a common channel by means of 'multiplexing'.For ex., the bandwidth of speech signals is 3.3KHz.,and transmitting N no.of speech signals simultaneously each of BW 3.3KHz causes interference.Hence,to overcome this problem, each speech signal is modulated onto one of N carriers of frequencies 60KHz,64KHz,68KHz etc...

Comparison of Analog and Digital Communication

Analog communication systems, amplitude modulation (AM) radio being a typifying example, can inexpensively communicate a bandlimited analog signal from one location to another (pointto-point communication) or from one point to many (broadcast). Although it is not shown here,

the coherent receiver provides the largest possible signal-to-noise ratio for the demodulated message. An analysis of this receiver thus indicates that some residual error will always be present in an analog system's output. Although analog systems are less expensive in many cases than digital ones for the same application, digital systems offer much more efficiency, better performance, and much greater flexibility.

Efficiency: The Source Coding Theorem allows quantification of just how complex a given message source is and allows us to exploit that complexity by source coding (compression). In analog communication, the only parameters of interest are message bandwidth and amplitude. We cannot exploit signal structure to achieve a more efficient communication system. Performance: Because of the Noisy Channel Coding Theorem, we have a specific criterion by which to formulate error-correcting codes that can bring us as close to errorfree transmission as we might want. Even though we may send information by way of a noisy channel, digital schemes are capable of error-free transmission while analog ones cannot overcome channel disturbances; see this problem for a comparison. Flexibility: Digital communication systems can transmit real-valued discrete-time signals, which could be analog ones obtained by analog-to-digital conversion, and symbolicvalued ones (computer data, for example). Any signal that can be transmitted by analog means can be sent by digital means, with the only issue being the number of bits used in A/D conversion (how accurately do we need to represent signal amplitude). Images can be sent by analog means (commercial television), but better communication performance occurs when we use digital systems (HDTV). In addition to digital communication's ability to transmit a wider variety of signals than analog systems, point-to-point digital systems can be organized into global (and beyond as well) systems that provide efficient and flexible information transmission. Computer networks, explored in the next section, are what we call such systems today. Even analog-based networks, such as the telephone system, employ modern computer networking ideas rather than the purely analog systems of the past.

Consequently, with the increased speed of digital computers, the development of increasingly efficient algorithms, and the ability to interconnect computers to form a communications infrastructure, digital communication is now the best choice for many situations.

What digital modulation methods have advantages over analogue systems?

Information density. Digital systems can carry far more information in the same channel. This also implies that this information can be stored in less space. Security - digital systems can be encrypted, and in fact, the modulation itself offers some degree of encryption. For CDMA systems, the intrinsic encryption is of such a high order that it rivals sophisticated encryption schemes.