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BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF VERIO PRODUCTS 1) Basic networking: A. How to connect system to system?

How to connect two computers in Windows XP. This will let you share files and folders, printers, play network games, etc... Steps : 1. onnect the two computers together either with a Crossover cable or a Hub/Switch to the ethernet card in your computer.

2. Set the IP address on both computers. Goto Start > Control Panel > Network
Connections (choose switch to classic view if you cannot see network connections) 3. Look for your Local Area Connection ethernet adapter, right-click and choose properties.

4. Select







Setup the IP as and the subnet mask of the first computer and on the second with the same subnet mask. 5. Choose OK then OK/close again. Tips : 1. To share your files, right click on any folder and choose Sharing to make them shared.

2. You can also do this with your printers to be able to print from one computer while
the printer is connected to the other.

B. what is domain nameA domain name is an identification label that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority, or control in the Internet. Domain names are also hostnames that identify Internet Protocol (IP) resources such as web sites. Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes.

IP address - An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing. IP addresses are binary numbers, but they are usually stored in text files and displayed in human-readable notations, such as

Telnet- Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communications facility using a virtual terminal connection. Telnet is a protocol that allows you to connect to remote computers (called hosts) over a TCP/IP network (such as the Internet). Telnet is a user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers. Through Telnet, an administrator or another user can access someone elses computer remotely. On the Web, HTTP and FTP protocols allow you to request specific files from remote computers, but not to actually be logged on as a user of that computer. With Telnet, you log on as a regular user with whatever 2) HTTP PROTOCOL HTTP Protocol stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. It is the protocol used to convey information of World Wide Web (WWW). HTTP protocol is a stateless and connectionless protocol. HTTP is called as a stateless protocol because each command is request is executed independently, without any knowledge of the requests that were executed before it. It is the protocol used for the web. It is based on a request/request paradigm. In this protocol the communication generally takes place over a TCP/IP protocol. HTTP Request Methods:

1) GET Method: The Get method is used to getting the data from the server. Get method appends the parameters passed as query string to a URL, in the form of key- value pairs. for example, if a parameter is name = Williams, then this string will be appended in the URL. By default the method is Get. 2) POST Method: The post method is used for sending data to the server. In post method the query string is appended along the request object, they do not get appended in the URL, so parameters transfer in hidden form. 3) HEAD Method: When a user wants to know about the headers, like MIME types, charset, Content- Length then we use Head method. With this no body content is returned. These three are commonly used methods of jsp while Get and Post methods are most widely used. There are more methods of http protocols which are rarely used by they have been given here for your knowledge. 4) TRACE Method: Trace on the jsp resource returns the content of the resource. Asks for a loopback of the request message, so that the use can see what is being recieved on the other side. 5) DELETE Method: It is used for delete the resources, files at the requested URL 6) OPTIONS Method: It lists the Http methods to which the thing at the requested URL can respond. 7) PUT Method: It put the enclosed information at the requestedURL. 8) CONNECT Method: It connects for the purpose of tunneling. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is a combination of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol with the SSL/TLS protocol to provide encrypted communication and secure identification of a network web server. HTTPS connections are often used for payment transactions on the World Wide Web and for sensitive transactions in corporate information systems Differences between HTTP & HTTPS - As opposed to HTTP URLs that begin with "http://" and use port 80 by default, HTTPS URLs begin with "https://" and use port 443 by default. HTTP is unsecured and is subject to man-in-the-middle and eavesdropping attacks, which can let attackers gain access to website accounts and sensitive information. HTTPS is designed to withstand such attacks and is considered secure against such attacks (with the exception of older deprecated versions of SSL) HTTP operates at the highest layer of the OSI Model, the Application layer; but the security protocol operates at a lower sublayer, encrypting an HTTP message prior to transmission and decrypting a message upon arrival. Strictly speaking, HTTPS is not

a separate protocol, but refers to use of ordinary HTTP over an encrypted Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) connection. List Of HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) response status codes3) This class of status code indicates a provisional response, consisting only of the Status-Line and optional headers, and is terminated by an empty line. Since HTTP/1.0 did not define any 1xx status codes, servers must not send a 1xx response to an HTTP/1.0 client except under experimental conditions. 100 Continue This means that the server has received the request headers, and that the client should proceed to send the request body (in the case of a request for which a body needs to be sent; for example, a POST request). If the request body is large, sending it to a server when a request has already been rejected based upon inappropriate headers is inefficient. To have a server check if the request could be accepted based on the request's headers alone, a client must send Expect: 100continue as a header in its initial request and check if a 100 Continue status code is received in response before continuing (or receive 417 Expectation Failed and not continue). 122 Request-URI too long This is a non-standard IE7-only code which means the URI is longer than a maximum of 2083 characters. 2xx Success This class of status codes indicates the action requested by the client was received, understood, accepted and processed successfully. 200 OK Standard response for successful HTTP requests. The actual response will depend on the request method used. In a GET request, the response will contain an entity corresponding to the requested resource. In a POST request the response will contain an entity describing or containing the result of the action. 201 Created The request has been fulfilled and resulted in a new resource being created. 202 Accepted The request has been accepted for processing, but the processing has not been completed. The request might or might not eventually be acted upon, as it might be disallowed when processing actually takes place. 203 Non-Authoritative Information (since HTTP/1.1)

The server successfully processed the request, but is returning information that may be from another source. 204 No Content The server successfully processed the request, but is not returning any content. 205 Reset Content The server successfully processed the request, but is not returning any content. Unlike a 204 response, this response requires that the requester reset the document view. 207 Multi-Status (WebDAV) (RFC 4918) The message body that follows is an XML message and can contain a number of separate response codes, depending on how many sub-requests were made. 226 IM Used (RFC 3229) The server has fulfilled a GET request for the resource, and the response is a representation of the result of one or more instance-manipulations applied to the current instance. 3xx Redirection The client must take additional action to complete the request. 300 Multiple Choices Indicates multiple options for the resource that the client may follow. It, for instance, could be used to present different format options for video, list files with different extensions, or word sense disambiguation. 301 Moved Permanently This and all future requests should be directed to the given URI. 302 Found This is an example of industrial practice contradicting the standard. HTTP/1.0 specification (RFC 1945) required the client to perform a temporary redirect (the original describing phrase was "Moved Temporarily"),but popular browsers implemented 302 with the functionality of a 303 See Other. Therefore, HTTP/1.1 added status codes 303 and 307 to distinguish between the two behaviours. However, the majority of Web applications and frameworks still[use the 302 status code as if it were the 303 304 Not Modified

Indicates the resource has not been modified since last requested. Typically, the HTTP client provides a header like the If-Modified-Since header to provide a time against which to compare. Using this saves bandwidth and reprocessing on both the server and client, as only the header data must be sent and received in comparison to the entirety of the page being re-processed by the server, then sent again using more bandwidth of the server and client. 305 Use Proxy (since HTTP/1.1) Many HTTP clients (such as Mozilla and Internet Explorer) do not correctly handle responses with this status code, primarily for security reasons. 306 Switch Proxy No longer used. 307 Temporary Redirect (since HTTP/1.1) In this occasion, the request should be repeated with another URI, but future requests can still use the original URI. In contrast to 303, the request method should not be changed when reissuing the original request. For instance, a POST request must be repeated using another POST request. 4xx Client Error The 4xx class of status code is intended for cases in which the client seems to have erred. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server should include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. These status codes are applicable to any request method. User agents should display any included entity to the user. These are typically the most common error codes encountered while online. 400 Bad Request The request cannot be fulfilled due to bad syntax. 401 Unauthorized Similar to 403 Forbidden, but specifically for use when authentication is possible but has failed or not yet been provided.[2] The response must include a WWWAuthenticate header field containing a challenge applicable to the requested resource. See Basic access authentication and Digest access authentication. 403 Forbidden The request was a legal request, but the server is refusing to respond to it. Unlike a 401 Unauthorized response, authenticating will make no difference. 404 Not Found

The requested resource could not be found but may be available again in the future. Subsequent requests by the client are permissible. 405 Method Not Allowed A request was made of a resource using a request method not supported by that resource; for example, using GET on a form which requires data to be presented via POST, or using PUT on a read-only resource. 406 Not Acceptable The requested resource is only capable of generating content not acceptable according to the Accept headers sent in the request. 407 Proxy Authentication Required 408 Request Timeout The server timed out waiting for the request. According to W3 HTTP specifications: "The client did not produce a request within the time that the server was prepared to wait. The client MAY repeat the request without modifications at any later time." 409 Conflict Indicates that the request could not be processed because of conflict in the request, such as an edit conflict. 410 Gone Indicates that the resource requested is no longer available and will not be available again. This should be used when a resource has been intentionally removed and the resource should be purged. Upon receiving a 410 status code, the client should not request the resource again in the future. Clients such as search engines should remove the resource from their indices. Most use cases do not require clients and search engines to purge the resource, and a "404 Not Found" may be used instead. 411 Length Required The request did not specify the length of its content, which is required by the requested resource. 412 Precondition Failed The server does not meet one of the preconditions that the requester put on the request. 413 Request Entity Too Large The request is larger than the server is willing or able to process.

414 Request-URI Too Long The URI provided was too long for the server to process. 415 Unsupported Media Type The request entity has a media type which the server or resource does not support. For example, the client uploads an image as image/svg+xml, but the server requires that images use a different format. 416 Requested Range Not Satisfiable The client has asked for a portion of the file, but the server cannot supply that portion. For example, if the client asked for a part of the file that lies beyond the end of the file. 417 Expectation Failed The server cannot meet the requirements of the Expect request-header field. 422 Unprocessable Entity (WebDAV) (RFC 4918) The request was well-formed but was unable to be followed due to semantic errors. 423 Locked (WebDAV) (RFC 4918) The resource that is being accessed is locked. 424 Failed Dependency (WebDAV) (RFC 4918) The request failed due to failure of a previous request (e.g. a PROPPATCH). 425 Unordered Collection (RFC 3648) Defined in drafts of "WebDAV Advanced Collections Protocol", but not present in "Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) Ordered Collections Protocol". 426 Upgrade Required (RFC 2817) The client should switch to a different protocol such as TLS/1.0. 444 No Response An Nginx HTTP server extension. The server returns no information to the client and closes the connection (useful as a deterrent for malware). 449 Retry With A Microsoft extension. The request should be retried after performing the appropriate action. 450 Blocked by Windows Parental Controls A Microsoft extension. This error is given when Windows Parental Controls are turned on and are blocking access to the given webpage.

499 Client Closed Request An Nginx HTTP server extension. This code is introduced to log the case when the connection is closed by client while HTTP server is processing its request, making server unable to send the HTTP header back. 5xx Server Error The server failed to fulfill an apparently valid request. Response status codes beginning with the digit "5" indicate cases in which the server is aware that it has encountered an error or is otherwise incapable of performing the request. Except when responding to a HEAD request, the server should include an entity containing an explanation of the error situation, and indicate whether it is a temporary or permanent condition. Likewise, user agents should display any included entity to the user. These response codes are applicable to any request method. 500 Internal Server Error A generic error message, given when no more specific message is suitable. 501 Not Implemented The server either does not recognise the request method, or it lacks the ability to fulfill the request. 502 Bad Gateway The server was acting as a gateway or proxy and received an invalid response from the upstream server. 503 Service Unavailable The server is currently unavailable (because it is overloaded or down for maintenance). Generally, this is a temporary state. 504 Gateway Timeout The server was acting as a gateway or proxy and did not receive a timely response from the upstream server. 505 HTTP Version Not Supported The server does not support the HTTP protocol version used in the request. 506 Variant Also Negotiates (RFC 2295) Transparent content negotiation for the request results in a circular reference.

507 Insufficient Storage (WebDAV) (RFC 4918) 509 Bandwidth Limit Exceeded (Apache bw/limited extension) This status code, while used by many servers, is not specified in any RFCs. 510 Not Extended (RFC 2774) Further extensions to the request are required for the server to fulfill it. Webserver: A Web server is a computer program that delivers (serves) content, such as Web pages, using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), over the World Wide Web. The term Web server can also refer to the computer or virtual machine running the program. A computer on the Internet that is hosting Web sites and handles requests by serving the required resource. A Web browser is typically used as the Web client that requests the resources Types of Web Server- Apache web server, Microsoft Windows IIS, Lighttpd, Jigsaw, Sun Java System Web Server, Xitami Web Server, Zues Web Server. The most common use of Web servers is to host Web sites but there are other uses like data storage or for running enterprise applications. The primary function of a web server is to deliver web pages on the request to clients. This means delivery of HTML documents and any additional content that may be included by a document, such as images, style sheets and JavaScripts. A web server is software designed to do one thing - serve HTML pages to a browser. Apache, Iis, Xitami all will "serve" pages to be read in a web browser. An application server is also software, but it takes static HTML pages and activates them, making them dynamic, allowing you to run high level language routines behind them and connect to a database. Iis has a built-in application server called Active server Pages (ASP). Other App servers include TOMCAT (which allows you to run Javaserver Pages), PHP, BEA webLogic, ColdFusion and IBM's webSphere. Generally speaking, they are two separate layers. You can run TOMCAT on a Windows platform or a Unix platform, same with webLogic, PHP and webSphere. ASP, which is a Microsoft proprietary format, is native to Iis, but through the Sun ONE products can be run on UNIX platforms as well now.

For the most basic webmastering, PHP/ASP/TOMCAT are the most accessible. For highly advanced applications (hence the name) webLogic, webSphere and Cold Fusion are used. Apache HTTP Server The Apache HTTP Server, commonly referred to as Apache , is web server software notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. In 2009 it became the first web server software to surpass the 100 million website milestone. Typically Apache is run on a Unix-like operating system. Virtual Host Virtual hosting is a method for hosting multiple domain names on a computer using a single IP address. This allows one machine to share its resources, such as memory and processor cycles, to use its resources more efficiently. One widely used application is shared web hosting. Shared web hosting prices are lower than a dedicated web server because many customers can be hosted on a single server. The term Virtual Host refers to the practice of maintaining more than one server on one machine, as differentiated by their apparent hostname. For example, it is often desirable for companies sharing a web server to have their own domains, with web servers accessible as and, without requiring the user to know any extra path information. Apache was one of the first servers to support IP-based virtual hosts right out of the box. Versions 1.1 and later of Apache support both, IP-based and name-based virtual hosts (vhosts). The latter variant of virtual hosts is sometimes also called host-based or non-IP virtual hosts. DNR A domain name registrar is an organization or commercial entity, accredited by a generic top-level domain registry (gTLD) and/or by a country code top-level domain (ccTLD) registry, to manage the reservation of Internet domain names in accordance with the guidelines of the designated domain name registries and offer such services to the public. A domain name registry, is a database of all domain names registered in a top-level domain. A registry operator, also called a Network Information Center (NIC), is the part of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet that keeps the database of domain names, and generates the zone files. MXLogic: MXLogic is basically a spam filter for emails and will be in between the customer and Zimbra. The emails are filtered based on the rules setup in the

system. Filtering happens for outbound emails as well as inbound emails. If an email is identified as spam based on the spam rules, then an email will be sent to the customer about blocking of the email. Further, there is a provision for customer if he wants to release the email from spam, he/she can do so... Validation Points: Test Data preparation have Rob Summers create a mail with the rules which is supposed to be a spam. And have a mail which is not considered a spam. Validation As a user, send the mail to Zimbra and send another mail from Zimbra to the user. Validate the functionality that the MXLogic filters the mail and send the user an email if he/she wants to release the mail. CNAME A CNAME record or Canonical Name record is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) that specifies that the domain name is an alias of another, canonical domain name. ... 4) What is DNR, MX, CNAME, TST record, MS Renewal? What is SOA? Domain Name- Domain names are the alphabetic names used to refer to computers on the Internet and contain a suffix such as .com, .org, .gov, or .edu. The suffix indicates what type of organization is hosting the site. Which is called as FQDN. To reach another person on the Internet you have to type an address into your computer - a name or a number. That address has to be unique so computers know where to find each other. Different levels of domains Top Level Domain Generic Top-Level Domains (gTLD) These are the most common domains that most people have heard of, such as .COM, .ORG, .NET, and .INFO. Sponsored Top-Level Domains (sTLD) These domains are proposed and sponsored by private agencies or organizations that establish and enforce rules restricting the eligibility to use the TLD. ICANN also groups sTLDs with the generic top-level domains. Examples include: .AERO, .ASIA, .CAT, .COOP, .EDU, .GOV, .INT, .JOBS, .MIL, .MOBI, .MUSEUM, .TEL, .TRAVEL Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLD)- is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, a sovereign state, or a dependent territory. for example the Canadian (ca) and German (de) domains.

Domain Propagation Once you make changes to your domain with the registrar you purchased your domain from, the changes will take anywhere from 5 minutes to 72 hours for propagation to occur depending on your ISP and how often they update the DNS records. Domain propagation is the process of your registrar handing off the changes of your domain to root DNS servers, ISPs acquire records from the root servers, ISPs to other ISPs and so on until you see the changes reflect on your computer with your internet service provider. Some service providers update their records more often than others and receive changes faster. As a result of this, often you will not be able to get to your website by its' domain name but a friend can. Simply wait out until the changes propagate to your ISP. In the meantime we provide you an IP and temporary address in your welcome email which allow you to start working on your site immediately! Domain Registration User can register a domain name from Verio either via Autobahn or Nimbus. The request flows through the Rapture (Load Balancing arrangement) to the external registrars like MelbournIT and Tucows based on the TLD Domain registrars- A domain name registrar is an organization or commercial entity, accredited by a generic top-level domain registry (gTLD) and/or by a country code top-level domain (ccTLD) registry, to manage the reservation of Internet domain names in accordance with the guidelines of the designated domain name registries and offer such services to the public. a. Describe the annual life of domain? b. Explain Renewal process for domain? Whois.Net- Tools is the leading website for domain analysis, network analsyis. When you register a domain name, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) requires your domain name registrar to submit your personal contact information to the WHOIS database. Once your listing appears in this online directory, it is publicly available to anyone who chooses to check domain names using the WHOIS search tool. Discover who owns a website or domain name by searching our WHOIS database or learn how to keep your domain registration information private.

Basic Authentication

The basic access authentication is a method designed to allow a web browser, or other client program, to provide credentials in the form of a user name and password when making a request. Before transmission, the user name is appended with a colon and concatenated with the password. The resulting string is encoded with the Base64 algorithm. For example, given the user name 'Aladdin' and password 'open sesame', the string 'Aladdin:open sesame' is Base64 encoded, resulting in 'QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ=='. Basic authentication requires that users provide a valid user name and password to access content. This authentication method does not require a specific browser, and all major browsers support it. Basic authentication also works across firewalls and proxy servers. For these reasons, it is a good choice when you want to restrict access to some, but not all, content on a server. However, the disadvantage of Basic authentication is that it transmits unencrypted base64-encoded passwords across the network. You should use Basic authentication only when you know that the connection between the client and the server is secure. The connection should be established either over a dedicated line or by using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption and Transport Layer Security (TLS). For example, to use Basic authentication with Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV), you should configure SSL encryption. One advantage of the basic access authentication is that it is supported by all web browsers. It is rarely used on publicly accessible Internet web sites but may sometimes be used by small, private systems. A later mechanism, digest access authentication, was developed in order to replace the basic access authentication and enable credentials to be passed in a relatively secure manner over an otherwise insecure channel. Disadvantage- Although the scheme is easily implemented, it relies on the assumption that the connection between the client and server computers is secure and can be trusted. Specifically, if SSL/TLS is not used, then the credentials are passed as plaintext and could be intercepted. Session management session management is the process of keeping track of a user's activity across sessions of interaction with the computer system. Typical session management tasks in a desktop environment might include keeping track of which applications are open and which documents each application has opened, so that the same state can be restored when the user logs out and logs in later. For a website, session management might involve requiring the user to relogin if the session has expired (i.e., a certain time limit has passed without user

activity). It is also used to store information on the server-side between HTTP requests. Session Cookies Webpages have no memories. A user going from page to page will be treated by the website as a completely new visitor. Session cookies enable the website you are visiting to keep track of your movement from page to page so you don't get asked for the same information you've already given to the site. Cookies allow you to proceed through many pages of a site quickly and easily without having to authenticate or reprocess each new area you visit. Session cookies allow users to be recognized within a website so any page changes or item or data selection you do is remembered from page to page. The most common example of this functionality is the shopping cart feature of any ecommerce site. When you visit one page of a catalog and select some items, the session cookie remembers your selection so your shopping cart will have the items you selected when you are ready to check out. Without session cookies, if you click CHECKOUT, the new page does not recognize your past activities on prior pages and your shopping cart will always be empty. You can adjust your session cookies through the settings feature of your browser. Without cookies, websites and their servers have no memory. A cookie, like a key, enables swift passage from one place to the next. Without a cookie every time you open a new web page the server where that page is stored will treat you like a completely new visitor. Websites typically use session cookies to ensure that you are recognised when you move from page to page within one site and that any information you have entered is remembered. For example, if an e-commerce site did not use session cookies then items placed in a shopping basket would disappear by the time you reach the checkout. You can choose to accept session cookies by changing the settings in your browser. Lifetime cookies A cookie will typically contain the name of the domain from which the cookie has come, the "lifetime" of the cookie. Cookies are usually small text files that are stored on your computer's browser directory or program data subfolders. Cookies are created when you use your browser to visit a website that uses cookies to keep track of your movements within the site, help you resume where you left off, remember your registered login, theme selection, preferences, and other customization functions.

Cookies are often indispensable for websites that have huge databases, need logins, have customizable themes, other advanced features. Cookies usually don't contain much information except for the url of the website that created the cookie, the duration of the cookie's abilities and effects, and a random number. Due to the little amount of information a cookie contains, it usually cannot be used to reveal your identity or personally identifying information. There are two types of cookies: session cookies and persistent cookies. Session cookies are created temporarily in your browser's subfolder while you are visiting a website. Once you leave the site, the session cookie is deleted. On the other hand, persistent cookie files remain in your browser's subfolder and are activated again once you visit the website that created that particular cookie. A persistent cookie remains in the browser's subfolder for the duration period set within the cookie's file. A cookie is a text-only string of information that a website transfers to the cookie file of the browser on your computer's hard disk so that the website can remember who you are. A cookie will typically contain the name of the domain from which the cookie has come, the "lifetime" of the cookie, and a value, usually a randomly generated unique number. Two types of cookies are used on this website-session cookies, which are temporary cookies that remain in the cookie file of your browser until you leave the site, and persistent cookies, which remain in the cookie file of your browser for much longer (though how long will depend on the lifetime of the specific cookie). Cookies can help a website to arrange content to match your preferred interests more quickly. Most major websites use cookies. Cookies cannot be used by themselves to identify you URL Abbreviation of Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web. The first part of the address is called a protocol identifier and it indicates what protocol to use, and the second part is called a resource name and it specifies the IP address or the domain name where the resource is located. The protocol identifier and the resource name are separated by a colon and two forward slashes. For example, the two URLs below point to two different files at the domain The first specifies an executable file that should be fetched using the FTP protocol; the second specifies a Web page that should be fetched using the HTTP protocol:

URI URI is an acronym for Universal Resource Identifier. It is a standard for identifying a resource (site, name, application, etc.) across a computer network (the biggest example being the Internet!) A fully qualified Internet URI must include a protocol (e.g. HTTP), a server (e.g. wiki), a domain name (e.g. answers) and it's position within the DNS structure (e.g. com) hence - This instructs the browser application to use the http protocol suite to communicate with the wiki server which is found in the answers domain of the .com portion of the DNS structure. Nslookup nslookup is a computer program used in Windows and Unix to query Domain Name System (DNS) servers to find DNS details, including IP addresses of a particular computer, MX records for a domain and the NS servers of a domain. The name nslookup means "name server lookup". nslookup is a UNIX command that queries a DNS server for machine name and address information. To use nslookup on the unix machines, type "nslookup" followed by an IP address or a machine name. Trace Route Traceroute is a computer network diagnostic tool for displaying the route (path) and measuring transit delays of packets across an Internet Protocol (IP) network. Traceroute is available on most operating systems. On Microsoft Windows operating systems it is named tracert. Windows NT-based operating systems also provide PathPing, with similar functionality. Variants with similar functionality are also available, such as tracepath on Linux installations. For Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) the tool sometimes has the name traceroute6. Traceroute sends a sequence of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets addressed to a destination host. Determining the intermediate routers traversed

involves adjusting the time-to-live (TTL) aka hop limit Internet Protocol parameter. Frequently starting with a value like 30, routers decrement this and discard a packet when the TTL value has reached zero, returning the ICMP error message ICMP Time Exceeded. Traceroute works by increasing the TTL value of each successive set of packets sent. The first set of packets sent have a hop limit value of 1, expecting that they are not forwarded by the first router. The next set have a hop limit value of 2, so that the second router will send the error reply. This continues until the destination host receives the packets and returns an ICMP Echo Reply message. Traceroute uses the returned ICMP messages to produce a list of routers that the packets have traversed. The timestamp values returned for each router along the path are the delay (aka latency) values, typically measured in milliseconds for each packet. Hop Depth 1 Probe status: unsuccessful Parent: () Return code: Label-switched at stack-depth 1 Sender timestamp: 2008-04-17 09:35:27 EDT 400.88 msec Receiver timestamp: 2008-04-17 09:35:27 EDT 427.87 msec Response time: 26.99 msec MTU: Unknown Multipath type: IP Address Range 1: ~ Label Stack: Label 1 Value 299792 Protocol RSVP-TE The originating host expects a reply within a specified number of seconds. If a packet is not acknowledged within the expected timeout, an asterisk is displayed. The hosts listed may not be hosts used by other packets. The Internet Protocol does not require that packets between two hosts take the same route. Also note that if the host at hop number N does not reply, the hop will be skipped in the output. On Unix-like operating systems, the traceroute utility by default uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) datagrams with destination port numbers from 33434 to 33534. The traceroute utility usually has an option to specify use of ICMP echo

request (type 8) instead, as used by the Windows tracert utility. If a network has a firewall and operates both MS Windows and Unix-like systems, both protocols must be enabled inbound through the firewall. There are also traceroute implementations that use TCP packets, such as tcptraceroute or layer four traceroute. PathPing is a utility introduced with Windows NT that combines ping and traceroute functionality. mtr (my traceroute) is an enhanced version of ICMP traceroute which is available for Unix-like and Windows systems. All implementations of traceroute rely on ICMP (type 11) packets being sent to the originator. The implementations of traceroute shipped with Linux, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, DragonFly BSD, and Mac OS X include an option to use ICMP Echo packets (-I) or any arbitrary protocol (-P) such as UDP, TCP, Usage Most implementations include at least options to specify the number of queries to send per hop, time to wait for a response, the hop limit and port to use. traceroute will display the options if invoked without any, man traceroute will display details including error flags displayed. Simple example on linux: traceroute -w 3 -q 1 -m 16 -p Only wait 3 seconds (instead of 5), only send out 1 query to each hop (instead of 3), limit the maximum number of hops to 16 before giving up (instead of 30) with the final host This can help identify incorrect routing table definitions or firewalls that may be blocking ICMP traffic, or high port UDP in UNIX ping, to a site. Note that a firewall may permit IMCP packets but not permit packets of other protocols. Traceroute is also used by penetration testers to gather information about network infrastructure and IP ranges around a given host. It can also be used when downloading data, and if there are multiple mirrors available for the same piece of data, one can trace each mirror to get a good idea of which mirror would be the fastest to use. PING Ping is a computer network administration utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network and to measure the round-trip time for messages sent from the originating host to a destination computer. The name comes from active sonar terminology. Ping operates by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request packets to the target host and waiting for an ICMP response. In the process it

measures the time from transmission to reception (round-trip time)[1] and records any packet loss. The results of the test are printed in form of a statistical summary of the response packets received, including the minimum, maximum, and the mean round-trip times, and sometimes the standard deviation of the mean. Ping may be run using various options (command line switches) depending on the implementation that enable special operational modes, such as to specify the packet size used as the probe, automatic repeated operation for sending a specified count of probes, time stamping options, or to perform a ping flood. Flood pinging may be abused as a simple form of denial-of-service attack, in which the attacker overwhelms the victim with ICMP echo request packets. FTP FTP is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol. As the name suggests, FTP is used to transfer files between computers on a network. You can use FTP to exchange files between computer accounts, transfer files between an account and a desktop computer, or access online software archives. Keep in mind, however, that many FTP sites are heavily used and require several attempts before connecting. Note: You need to use a client that supports secure FTP to transfer files to and from Indiana University's central systems

How to use FTP Graphical FTP clients Graphical FTP clients simplify file transfers by allowing you to drag and drop file icons between windows. When you open the program, enter the name of the FTP host (e.g., and your username and password. If you are logging into an anonymous FTP server, you may not have to enter anything. Two common FTP programs are Cyberduck (for Mac) and WinSCP (for Windows). Web browser You can use a web browser to connect to FTP addresses exactly as you would to connect to HTTP addresses. Using a web browser for FTP transfers makes it easy for you to browse large directories and read and retrieve files. Your web browser will also take care of some of the details of connecting to a site and transferring files. While this method is convenient, web browsers are often slower and less reliable and have fewer features than dedicated FTP clients. To use your web browser to connect to an FTP site such as, where you normally enter a URL, enter: Command line FTP Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux have built-in command line clients; see What are some common FTP commands? For example, to start FTP, at the command line prompt, enter: ftp If you are connecting to your own account, enter your username and password. If you are connecting to an anonymous FTP site, for your username, enter anonymous . For your password, enter your email address. Common FTP Commands ? ascii to request help or information about the FTP commands to set the mode of file transfer to ASCII (this is the default and transmits seven bits per character)

to set the mode of file transfer to binary binar (the binary mode transmits all eight bits per byte and thus provides less y chance of a transmission error and must be used to transmit files other than ASCII files) bye cd to exit the FTP environment (same as quit) to change directory on the remote machine

close to terminate a connection with another computer close brubeck closes the current FTP connection with brubeck, but still leaves you within the FTP environment.

delet to delete (remove) a file in the current remote directory (same as rm in UNIX) e get to copy one file from the remote machine to the local machine get ABC DEF get ABC copies file ABC in the current remote directory to (or on top of) a file named DEF in your current local directory. copies file ABC in the current remote directory to (or on top of) a file with the same name, ABC, in your current local directory.

help to request a list of all available FTP commands

lcd ls

to change directory on your local machine (same as UNIX cd) to list the names of the files in the current remote directory

mkdi to make a new directory within the current remote directory r mget to copy multiple files from the remote machine to the local machine; you are prompted for a y/n answer before transferring each file copies all the files in the current remote directory to your current local directory, using the same filenames. Notice the use of the wild card character, *.

mget *


to copy multiple files from the local machine to the remote machine; you are prompted for a y/n answer before transferring each file

open to open a connection with another computer open brubeck put opens a new FTP connection with brubeck; you must enter a username and password for a brubeck account (unless it is to be an anonymous connection).

to copy one file from the local machine to the remote machine

pwd to find out the pathname of the current directory on the remote machine quit to exit the FTP environment (same as bye) rmdi to to remove (delete) a directory in the current remote directory r

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. SMTP was first defined by RFC 821 (1982, eventually declared STD 10),[1] and last updated by RFC 5321 (2008)[2] which includes the extended SMTP (ESMTP) additions, and is the protocol in widespread use today. SMTP is specified for outgoing mail transport and uses TCP port 25. The protocol for new submissions is effectively the same as SMTP, but it uses port 587 instead. SMTP connections secured by SSL are known by the shorthand SMTPS, though SMTPS is not a protocol in its own right.

While electronic mail servers and other mail transfer agents use SMTP to send and receive mail messages, user-level client mail applications typically only use SMTP for sending messages to a mail server for relaying. For receiving messages, client applications usually use either the Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) or a proprietary system (such as Microsoft Exchange or Lotus Notes/Domino) to access their mail box accounts on a mail server. NAP Network Access Protection (NAP) is a feature in Windows Server 2008 that controls access to network resources based on a client computers identity and compliance with corporate governance policy. NAP allows network administrators to define granular levels of network access based on who a client is, the groups to which the client belongs, and the degree to which that client is compliant with corporate governance policy. If a client is not compliant, NAP provides a mechanism to automatically bring the client back into compliance and then dynamically increase its level of network access. POP3 Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by local e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a remote server over a TCP/IP connection. POP and IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) are the two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e-mail retrieval. Virtually all modern e-mail clients and servers support both. The POP protocol has been developed through several versions, with version 3 (POP3) being the current standard. Like IMAP, POP3 is supported by most webmail services such as Hotmail, Gmail and Yahoo! Mail.

Receiving and sending email using POP3

What are settings for email ?

Receiving and sending email requires you to setup you mail program to check for mail and direct your mail for forwarding. The Receiving of email is done through the POP3 setting. The sending of email is done through the SMTP setting. Each email provider has a unique POP3 and SMTP setting. Most setting can work universally, whereas some providers cannot be accessed from locations outside their network.

Do I need to change my mail settings ?

The choice of changing the settings is dependant on whether you would like to make your MaGlobe email account as your default email service, or would like to use it on a temporary basis during your travels. In case, you do not want to use the MaGlobe email account as your default mail service, you do not need to change your existing settings. However, in case your present email service does not permit access from locations outside their network, you have no choice but to change the settings during travel. In case you opt to make MaGlobe your default email service, you will have to change these settings.

How do I change my settings ?

The procedure for changing the settings is fairly simple. It depends on the email software you are using. We give below some examples of email software. Microsoft Outlook Express 1. Click on 'Tools' 2. Select 'Accounts' 3. Click on the 'Mail' tab 4. Highlight your mail account by clicking on it 5. Click on 'Properties' 6. Select 'Servers' 7. In the box 'Incoming mail POP3 settings' enter '' 8. In the box 'Outgoing mail SMTP settings' enter '' 9. Enable the check box for 'My server requires SMTP authentication' and enter your MaGlobe username and password in the settings section Netscape Communicator 1. Click on 'Edit' 2. Select 'Preferences'

3. Click on 'Mail & Groups' 4. Click on 'Mail Server' 5. In the box 'Incoming mail POP3 settings' enter '' 6. In the box 'Outgoing mail SMTP settings' enter '' 7. Enable SMTP authentication and enter your MaGlobe username and password in the settings section Netscape Navigator 1. Click on 'Options' 2. Select 'Mail and News Preferences' 3. Click on 'Server' 4. In the box 'Incoming mail POP3 settings' enter '' 5. In the box 'Outgoing mail SMTP settings' enter '' 6. Enable SMTP authentication and enter your MaGlobe username and password in the settings section Eudora 1. Click on 'Special' 2. Select 'Settings' 3. Click on 'Hosts' 4. In the box ' Incoming mail POP3 settings' enter '' 5. In the box ' Outgoing mail SMTP settings' enter '' 6. Enable SMTP authentication and enter your MaGlobe username and password in the settings section For other email software, kindly review their help menus.

How do I access my mail using the Web browser mode ?

You can access your email using a browser trough our Free Web mail site: Use the following format, when accessing your email:

Login : Password:

Your_username Your_MaGlobe_Password

You may bookmark this page for future use.

I am not able to send mail ?

It is likely that your email provider is not accepting mail from locations outside his network. You have no choice but to change your SMTP (Outgoing mail) settings as mentioned above. SSH SSH Secure Shell provides users with a secure, encrypted mechanism to log into systems and transfer files; it can be viewed as a secure replacement for FTP. Why do I need it? The open architecture of the Internet is great for rapidly exchanging information and it's designed to be very stable, even when vast numbers of people are using the system. Unfortunately, the very "openness" that makes the Internet so useful also makes it vulnerable to malicious attack. Common attacks include: eavesdropping for passwords or sensitive information; hijacking messages to inspect and modify transmitted data; and faking network addresses to fool access control mechanisms or redirect connections to a fake server. Using SSH helps guard against all of these attacks. Where is it available? UIS now offers SSH connections to its Unix servers, including GUSUN, Epsilon3, and Research. SSH client software will be installed in the UIS computer labs and distributed on CDs.

PUTTY PuTTY is a free and open source terminal emulator application which can act as a client for the SSH, Telnet, rlogin, and raw TCP computing protocols and as a serial console client. The name "PuTTY" has no definitive meaning,[1] though 'tty' is the name for a terminal in the Unix tradition, usually held to be short for teletype. PuTTY was originally written for Microsoft Windows, but it has been ported to various other operating systems. Official ports are available for some Unix-like platforms, with work-in-progress ports to Classic Mac OS and Mac OS X, and

unofficial ports have been contributed to platforms such as Symbian[2][3] and Windows Mobile. PuTTY was written and is maintained primarily by Simon Tatham and is currently beta software. web2.0 The term Web 2.0 is associated with web applications that facilitate participatory information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design,[1] and collaboration on the World Wide Web. A Web 2.0 site allows users to interact and collaborate with each other in a social media dialogue as creators (prosumers) of user-generated content in a virtual community, in contrast to websites where users (consumers) are limited to the passive viewing of content that was created for them. Examples of Web 2.0 include social networking sites, blogs, wikis, video sharing sites, hosted services, web applications, mashups and folksonomies. The term is closely associated with Tim O'Reilly because of the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in late 2004.[2][3] Although the term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web, it does not refer to an update to any technical specification, but rather to cumulative changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the Web. Whether Web 2.0 is qualitatively different from prior web technologies has been challenged by World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee, who called the term a "piece of jargon",[4] precisely because he intended the Web in his vision as "a collaborative medium, a place where we [could] all meet and read and write". He called it the "Read/Write Web". AJAX Web applications are fun to build. They are like the fancy sportscar of Web sites. Web applications allow the designer and developer to get together and solve a problem for their customers that the customers might not have even know they had. That's how the blogging tools like MovableType and Blogger came about after all. I mean, before Blogger, did you know you needed an online tool to build your Web site blog? But most Web applications are slow and tedious. Even the fastest of them has lots of free time for your customers to go get a coffee, work on their dog training, or (worst of all) head off to a faster Web site. It's that dreaded hourglass! You click a link and the hourglass appears as the Web application consults the server and the server thinks about what it's going to send back to you. Ajax is a way of developing Web applications that combines:

XHTML and CSS standards based presentation Interaction with the page through the DOM

Data interchange with XML and XSLT Asynchronous data retrieval with XMLHttpRequest JavaScript to tie it all together

In the traditional Web application, the interaction between the customer and the server goes like this: 1. Customer accesses Web application 2. Server processes request and sends data to the browser while the customer waits 3. Customer clicks on a link or interacts with the application 4. Server processes request and sends data back to the browser while the customer waits CGI Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard (CGI Version 1.1) that defines how web server software can delegate the generation of web pages to a stand-alone application, an executable file. Such applications are known as CGI scripts; they can be written in any programming language, although scripting languages are often used.