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M A Y . 1943



The Chief of Naval Personnel


The Assistamt Chief of Naval Personnel

Table of Contents

The Role of Naval Ordnance i War. . . . . . n NewNavalType:TheAmphibiousMan. . The DestroyerEscortProgram. . . . . . . . . . . Torpedo Squadron 8 Is Avenged. . . . . . . . . . How t o Live on a Rubber Raft. . . . . . . . . . . Medical Report from the South Pacific. . . . . ' Swimming Through Burning Oil and Surf'. Navy'sDrydockConstruction. . . . . . . . . . . . Summer Unifp-m for Women Marines. . . . . Murmansk: 38 Days,168Bombings. . . . . . . The Story of Auxiliary Carriers. . . . . . . . . . . Japanese: Short List of Words and Phrases. . Publications Check List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Training Films. ..................... Ranks and Rates of the U.S. Navy. . . . . . ; How t o Beat the Gremlins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Month's News. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Legislative Matters of Naval Interest. . . . . . NavyDepartmentCommuniques. . . . . . . . . . DecorationsandCitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BuPersBulletinBoard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 6 9 1 1 12 14 16 18 19 20 22 25 27 27 29 40 44 47 48 52 64

Thits magazine is published monthly in Washington,

D. C., by the Special Services Division of the Bureau

of Naval Personnel for the information and interest
of the Naval Service as a whole. Because copies cannot be furnished all personnel individually at present, it is requested that eachcopybegiven as widea circulation as possible. It issuggested that readers pass alongtheircopieswhentheyare finished. To further publicize the contents, ship and station papers from the . maydesire toreprintpertinentmaterial Bulletin.activities All should keep the Bureau informed of how many copies are required. While of the theBulletin is publishedfortheguidance Service, the authority for all information contained herein is the particular order or directive on which the information is based. Articles of general interest may be forwarded to the Editor via official channels.

Ofiicial C . S. S a v y Photograph.

DEPTH CHARGE (from a PC boat): Still a favorite weapolz of the escort uessel.

The Role of Naval Ordnance in War

BureauChiefTells of Usein World War I1 of ShipsGuns,Bombs, Torpedoes, Armor
Lets start [this discussion1 with the Navys weapons and how they airare used, starting naval with craft weapons. I am not going into the use of aircraft machine guns, for they did not .originate with the Navy, and are seldom used against ships except for strafing incidental to attack with bombs or torbegin with the pedoes. So we will bomb. If you are going after a battleship, youve got to use an armorpiercing bomb if you really expect to sink her, for the modern ship of that type has a protective deck about half a foot thick over her vitals, and the tops of her gun turrets are just as heavy. The usualgeneralpurpose

This article was condensed from an address byRear Admiral W . H . P. Blandy, USN, Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, before the Economic Club, Detroit, April 12.
or demolition bomb, with a thin case and a lot of explosive, just wont do the trick. Ive seen a turret topwhich had been hit with such a bomb. The only repair equipment needed was a paintbrushand nobody inside the turret was injured except the turret officer, whoseear was scratched by the periscope, the upper part of which

was thrown back violently by the blast of the explosion. Togetthrough heavy armor, a bomb, like a shell fired from a gun, must be specially designed for the job. The principal features are a delayed-action fuse, a very thick wall and heavy nose, and consequently a It must of small bursting charge. course have plenty of striking velocity. The latter can be achieved only by by dropping from high altitude, or diving a t extremely high speed. In either case, accuracy is difficult to achieve. In fact, high altitude level bombing has provenalmost useless against ships maneuvering in the open sea at high speed.Lower altitudes, however,produce results,but

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Official U. S. d l m g Air Forces lhotograph.

MAST HIGH BOMBZNG (im the Bismarck Sea): Justlike dropping amessage om the deck.
course transportsand cargo ships. down like a bat out of hell, a t a n Against the latter types, if unarmed angle as steep as in the final 70 dive. or poorly armed, the bombs can be The maneuvering of the target ship delivered onboard by masthead interferes considerably at times, but bombing which is just like dropping a a good pilot can take care of it. The The Nordem Bombsight message on the deck, though consider- percentage of hitsis usuallymuch Even a t medium altitudes, to bomb ably less polite. The Germans used higher than in level bombing at high a point target like a ship accurately this method with great success in the altitudes. So also isthepercentage in horizontal flight requires a pre- early partof the war against unarmed of plane losses, though muchless than cision bombsight. The Norden bomb- British merchant ships. But when the low altitudes reached would indisight is still the finest sight of this theBritishstartedputting 20 mm. cate. The ships gunnersare firing type known. It was designed by anti-aircraft machine guns on their with the guns elevatedto difficult and Mr. Carl Norden, born in the Dutch merchant fleet, the Germans discon- awkward elevation angles, the sun East Indies, and was developed jointly tinued this method, as it became very may be in their eyes, the ship is probaby Mr. Norden and theNavys Bureau unhealthy. bly swinging violently, heeled over and of Ordnance, which has always been maybe rolling. Theirs is not an easy Dive Bombing the sole customer of the Norden Co. job. Use of theTorpedo The best plan of attacking well TheBureaufurnishesthissightto both Army and Navy aviation. armed ships with bombs a t short But to sink ships, its always better While light-case bombs cannot range is dive-bombing. Of course to let water into them instead of air. sink a b&tleship, they can seriously you must have planes specially built Thatswhere the torpedo comes in damage her communication equipfor it, or theywont stand the terrific handy. a torpedo, while the But ment, exposed firecontrolstations, stresses of the pull-out. The planes deadliest weapon of the sea, is also the lighter anti-aircraft batteries, push over at altitudes highenough to the most difficult to make, and mainpierce the light upper decksand start afford fair protection from the ships tain, and adjust. But this is not so Ares. The same bombs can sink guns, take advantageof cloud cover or surprising when you consider what lighter types of naval vessels, and of a brilliant sun if available, and come Youre asking of it. You have heard of course, against well armed ships, we must be willing to accept the corresponding heavier plane losses from anti-aircraft lire.

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of one-man submarines. Well a of course it isnt just aimed straight at its moving target, or it would pass torpedo is literally a no-man submarine; andit is dropped fromthe air astern. Now it would be easy to figa t such heights and a t such speed as ure this out in the calm of the classrecognize the would break everybone in a mans room. Butallnavies serious menace of the torpedo plane, body, and make a mass of junk out of a car or an airplane. Yet the 5,000 and see to it that its efforts are not parts and intricate assemblies of the ignored. So you must be prepared to work out this little problem of lead torpedomusttakethisbeatingand then propel and control and explode angle with a fighter or two on your this underwaterhellcat as if launched tail, and a varied assortment of high explosive antiaircraft shells coming from a barge or pier. way. Of course another ordAfter itsinitial dive, the torpedo your nance instrument called a torpedo dimust take and hold the exact depth you have set on the index. This might rector helps, but it still is a game be 10 or 12 feet for a destroyer or light calling for brains as well as guts. The final duty of a torpedo is to excruiser but much deeper for a battleship (for this Goliath must hit be- plode when it hits the target, and not be before, such as when it first hits the low the belt-the armor belt-or you water. wont hurt him much). This educated tin fish must genDepth Bombs erate itsown power, using the expanThe antisubmarine depth bomb, sive force of compressed air, steam, and and gases from burning alcohol, fed first cousin to the destroyer subchaser depthcharge of thelast into a turbine engine. Next, this slippery messenger of war, is given a far wider range deathmuststeer a straight course of usefulness now that it also has air. Like the depth with only a gyro for a helmsman. And taken to the

charge, the bomb can be set for any depth desired, and explodes by hydrostatic pressure when thatdepth is reached. I think submarine men will , agree that this bomb used by the airplane, with the pilots wide horizon, his plan view of the sea, and his ability to strike swiftly, once a contact is made, is one of their greatest hazards. Both depth bombs and depth charges mustexplode onlya few yards from the tough hide .of the modern sub, to deliver a death blow. But a t greater than lethal distances, serious and even disabling damage can still be done to lighting, hydroplanes and rudders, batteries, fuel tanks, and instruments,and of course i t doesnt help morale.

Submarine torpedoes are much like those used by aircraft, but are larger, and dont have be beefed up stand to to the blow due to dropping from a height. They are discharged from the submarines tubes, bothinthe bow and in the stern, by compressed air. The sub can either throw them straight, or pitch some fancy curves. Curved or angle shots are accomplished by settingthe gyro for the final course, and then firing the torpedo with the rudder locked right or left until that course is reached, when the rudder automatically unlocks and the gyro takes control.

The Naval Milze

Official IT. S. N a v y Photograph.

Rear Admiral W . H . P. Blandy, Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, and Capt. I. D .

Hedrich, USN,inspect the damage inflicted on a sample of armor plate b y a 6-inch shell at the NavalProving Ground, DahlgreB, Va. The occasion: A tour for the press, ulzder the direction of Admiral Blandy, on March 31.

A weaponclosely akin to the torpedo is the naval mine, which today is one of the most ingenious destructive devicesknown.Weighing up to a ton, and exploded in numerous ways by the influence of a passing ship, theymay be laid by surface ships, dropped by planes, or pushed out the torpedotubes of submarines.Some are of contact type, some magnetic, some acoustic, and some are detoby electric nated from the shore cables. The magnetic conmine, trary to popular belief when the Germans introduced it early in the war, is notdrawn like a magnet to the ships side; the minestayson the bottom. The magnetic field which surroundstheship sweeps past the mine as the ship passes over it, generates a current in its firing device, and explodes the charge. The counter measure is degaussing, or passing current through coilswound around the ship so as to neutralize or nullify its natural magnetic field.

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Weapons of Surface Ships We find that the destroyer, PT boat, destroyer escort vessel, and light cruiser also use torpedoes. Since these ships cannot submerge, and cannot muster the swiftness of attack of the airplane, theyusually take advantage of darkness, mist, or artificial smoke screensto press home their attacks and to cover their retirement. They fire their torpedoes from deck tubeswith SL charge of gunpowder, but once in the water, the torpedo, like its mates in the submarine and air services, is on its own for both power and control. The depth charge,alreadymentionedas originating in the last is still a favorwar, ite weapon of the destroyer and the escort vessel. It has ended the career of many a promising young Axis submarine in both the Atlantic and the Pacific. Gun Batteries Turning now to gun batteries, the light 6-inch rifles of our modern cruisers have no equal in the world for fast, accurate shooting and reliability. These weapons are mounted in five 3-gun turrets, and fire shells weighing something over 100 pounds. You know what the Boises guns did in the famous night action off GuaOfficial U. S . Navy Photograph. dalcanal. Unmindful of theracket, women ordnance workers at Dahlgren, March 31, relay When cruiser meets cruiser, its just clips of shells during the rapid-fire a.40millimeter as well to have a few of the heavy type antiaircraft gun.Modeledafterthe demonstration of weapon, these twin-mount Swedish Bofors guns are inin your line-up. A 10-gun salvo of creasing the antiaircraft defense of U.s. fighting ships. 250-pound armor-piercing shells from one of these ships polished off the her position, if there isenemy aviation guns, and tough oak timbers as her are of early side armor. Next came the Jap cruiser which was firing on the presentandspottingplanes great assistance in directing the ships ironclads, with guns still sticking out Boise, and which mighthavesunk of fixed gunports. Then, in the Spanthat fine ship and her gallant crew. gunfire. ish-American War, the turreted ships The 16-Imh Guns Shore Bombardment The most powerfulengine of de- of Santiago Bay.Even by 1918, the struction used a t sea is still the big standard battleship antiaircraft batTheseheavy cruiser 8-inchguns, no like the light cruiser 6-inch, are also gun of the battleship. Of 16-inch cali- tery was two 3-inch guns, with fireuseful for shore bombardment. All ber, weighing about 100 tons, firing control system. Today you see the sameprinciple in shells used for this purpose have thin one-ton projectiles which travel half walls, correspondingly large explosive SL mile a second, to a distance greater the North Carolinas and Iowas, faster, than 25-miles, and hitting a moving tougher, and harder-hitting fighting charges, and instantaneous impact ship with far greater accuracy than ships than the world has ever before fuses, When the Marines landed on a high altitude bomber can achieve, seen. Never a demon for speed, the Guadalcanal and Tulagi last August, is battleship of today nevertheless both heavy and light cruisers and de- thelatest United Statesbattleship fast enough to go along with the carmainbatterygunhas shown itself stroyers used their batteries against well worthy to retain its place on the riers, cruisers, and destroyers. Unshore objectives just like land artilable to strikeswiftly at a range of 200 the naval team. And so has ship lery, in preparation for the infantry assault which followed. Planes also which carries it into action. The bat- miles, like the carrier can with her bombed these targets most effective- tleship is not a fixed type. It is the planes, she can hit harder and longer embodiment of a principle, the princi- than the carrier, and is much harder ly; but when you can get ships into ple that there must be, in a strong to sink. Thebattleship commanded position for bombardment, they have the advantage continuous fire, while Navy, a type of ship which combines by Captain Gatch easily survived the of a plane, after dropping its bombs, the greatest power of offense with the identical typeof attack which sent the must go back to its field or carrier greatest power of survival. The ship Price of Wales to the bottom, and she which embodied this principle in the shot down 32 Jap planes inthe process. and reload. But of course even withShe also helped to defend the carrier out bombers, you need plenty of sailing days was the ship-of-the-line, with as -many as 120 smooth-bore (Colztinued on page 28) fighter planes to help the ship keep Page 5

. . . first landing operation was in the Solomons . . .


U. S. Xavy Photograph.

New .Naval Type: The Amphibious M a n

Development Gives Reserve Officers Opportunity to Command, Advance Rapidly
Two majoramphibiousoperations successfully completed-and the certainty of more to c o m e a r e responof a sible for therapidemergence new Naval type: the Amphibious man. He was essential to the success
of the Guadalcanal and North African landings, and he is destined to play a vital role inthe campaigns ahead. His will be the task of carrying the men war to the enemy by carrying the and material required to storm and obtain footholds on enemy shores. This was done, as is now a matter of record, withoutstandingsuccess in Guadalcanal North and Africa. I n Guadalcanalthelargestnumber of

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. . . carrying the war to the enemy . . .

"Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

. , , the% came the North Africam campaigm . . .

This was Marines ever to engage in an am- sequentlyreachedharbor. phibious operation were landed by the only casualty prior to the landNavy amphibious units and obtained ings. the footholdwhichled to eventual These operationswere successful in victory. And in North Africa a series t h e f i sinstance because of thorough t of amphibiousoperations were car- training in the technique of amphibiriedthroughwith maximum effec- ous war. The Navy, profiting from tiveness. impast experience, is constantly In North Africa, as the first com- proving this technique. Details of for obvious munique stated in its report of SUC- improvementsmaynot, cess,Never before in history have reasons, be disclosed. But there is no sea-borne amphibious operations been secret aboutthe necessarily high calilaunched so far from their points of ber of the officers and men upon departure without secondary bases. whom the success of amphibious opHow well the combinedNavies did erations ultimately depends. their job the communique goes on to Intelligence, aggressiveness, attenindicate: tion to detail addition to painstakin Every ship arrived and disem- ing training, are the hallmark of the Amphibious man. He is selected for barked their assault troops puncwas duty on the basis of demonstrated tually except one for which damaged by a torpedoand which sub- ability.


U. 8. Navy Ihotograph.

For officers and men alike the opportunity of advancement in rank or rating is a genuine incentive to application for admission to amphibious units. Reserve officers of thegrade of lieutenant (jg) or ensign command some of these units. Such commands, like advancements inrating, go to young officers and men who possess initiativeand resourcefulness. Some ensigns, on the basis of achievements, have been advanced to full lieutenants. T h e Amphibious man is a new phenomenon. Guadalcanal North and Africa tested him as a fighting man. There will be many further tests for him. But the pattern of performance has at leastbeen established. It is, by common admission, a n indispensablepart of thepattern of total victory.

. . . commamd a

f o r ensigms amd jgs



U. S. Ravy Photographs.

. . . first-hand

intelligence aids operatiom

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In order to meet the growing menace to convoy operation, it has been necessaryto design and build ships to fill the gap between patrol craft and destroyers. The destroyer escort vessel has been. designed afterdue consideration of production and shipbuilding facilities to serve this purpose. The destroyer escortvessel program provides for the construction of eight stroyer program escort was written especially for the INFORMATION BULLETIN the Buby reau of Ships. hundred (800) ships designed for convoy service andthus relieve larger and more heavily armed ships from this duty. These ships are of a characteristic destroyer -design, approximately threehundred (300) feet in length and thirty-six( 3 6 ) feet abeam. The design of the hull is such as to permit unitprefabricationthusresulting in rapid construction. The ordnance installation consisting of torpedo tubes, depth charges, a heavy caliber machineguns,and multipurpose main battery is provided to give a maximum of antisubmarineandantiaircraft protection for a ship of this type and size. Adequate fire control,radio, andrangingequipment of the latest type is provided to supplement the ordnance installation. Due to the productive capacity of propulsion machinery manufacturers, ithas been necessary to construct these ships having four (4) different and distinct types of main power plants. These power plants are, however, placed in duplicatehullswith the exception of the BDE class ships which are .approximately fifteen (15) feetshorterthanother ships. The four (4) type drives are: 1. Diesel electric tandem drive. 2. Diesel reduction gear drive. 3. Turbo-electric drive. 4. Turbo-geared drive. In either of these installations, the engines, auxiliaries, and appurtenances thereto arelocated within adjacent machinery spaces to permit split plant operation. Every effort has been made to maintain a maximum of interchangeability of shafting, auxiliaries, and service equipment. been Several of theseshipshave completed and are in service. Every indication is that these shipswill meet allexpectations as to seaworthiness and maneuverability.

ANOTHER DE j o i n s the Navys new submarine-killer fleet. Page 8

Official U. S. S a r y Ihotograph.

Official U. S. N a r y Photograph.


aboard a destroyer escort stands ready. Amowg the gum ow DES are the sailors sweetheart, the 20-mm. showw aboue.

The Destroyer Escort Program

Some, Details of the Craft and How Crews Are Being Trained
The Naval Training Station at in the pool until destroyer escort X Norfolk, Va., is the nervecenter of is ready. training for the destroyer escort pro- During this waiting period, the men are given further group schooling by gram. Previously used fortraining raw the ships officers so that they will be recruits, this station now has shifted on their toes and prepared totake its facilities to thespecialized training their ship to sea when the moment of all members of the DE crews and comes. Thisprogram calls for processing will maintain a pool of graduates of the course from which entire crews almost as manymen as comprised the entire Navy not long before the prescan be assembled as the new vessels ent war started. go into commission. A pattern of training has been set Under command of Capt. H. A. McClure, U. S. N., the station has been up by the Bureau of Naval Personnel for the complement scheduled to undergoing reorganization for months serve on escort X. in preparing for the program. During the training period, which The destroyer escort training progroups gram has been worked out on a long- lasts about three months, four range basis to provide 5 ~ .continuous of men are brought together and supply of well-coached crews for ships schooled with their officers as a combat team. Groups A and B, comprisof this type. The essence of the program is that ing all the officers and about half the the entire complement of a ship will eventualcomplement, start training Chaser Training be givenoperational training together atthe Submarine a t Norfolk and then be kept together Center, Miami.

Facilities at Miami have been expanded to accommodate this program. Approximately one month before comdestroyer-escort X is to be pleted, Group A is detached from Miami and sent to the building yard to help with fitting out the ship. The prospectivecommanding officer and a few other officers as well as a number of enlisted men are in this contingent. A t the same time, Group B, including the prospective executive officer, proceeds to Norfolk foraboutfour weeks advanced training. Upon arrival at Norfolk, they are joined by Group C (experienced specialists such as shipfitters, radiomen, and machinists) and for three weeks of the Norfolk training period, these men are instructed in DE work. At the sametimeGroup D-men who have just completed boot training or justearneda specialist rat-

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first put through a regular Class A electrical school, and theyaresent here to study wiring and electrical the systems of the DE ships. Another section of the DE school is devoted to lookout training. Students are placed in dark rooms and learn to identify various Allied and enemy vessels and take bearings under conditions simulating night. Still another section is devoted to training men for dutieson thebridge. They learn simple navigation, semaphore and blinker signaling and the communicationssystem which links the bridge to other parts of DEs. An important phase of the curriculum is the abandon ship drills. These are held in a swimmingpoolrigged similar to theside of a ship, with ladders, lines, nets, andother devices Press Association Photograph. usedwhenleaving a doomedvessel. Noted swimmers teach trainees how ON T H E SEA, UNDER T H E SEA, AND OVER THE SEA: DES to swim out of burning oil, how to inuse as ponare prepared anything for the flate theirtrousersfor toons, and how to float for long enemy has to offer: submarines, surface raiders, or planes. Stu- periods on their backs, considered the dent crewsat Norfolk learm to safest method of staying afloat. Veteran chief petty officers, many operate dual purpose and antiof them direct fromthe fleet, serve as aircraft guns. instructors. These include graduates ing-are being given advanced escort of Navy ordnance schools who are extraining in their fields by instructors perts on the Navys latest-type guns. Gunnery officers chosen for DEs will of the NorfolkNaval Training Stabe men who have had Armed Guard tion. During the fourthweek a t Norfolk, experience aboard merchantmen. Engineering officers and enlisted Groups B, C,and P join and undergo men destined for the engineering dioperational training, on perhaps visions will spendseveral weeks a t board the DEs. After this, the unit at Norfolkwillbe kept in readiness plants building DEi propulsion equipment. as a team until the prospective comOne huge hall at Norfolk, formerly manding ofacer at the building yard drill, has notifies the Station that he wants the used by recruits for infantry been turned into an ordnance laboramen aboard. Thus, when Groups B, C,and D join tory. In it the students practice upon Group A at the yard, the vessel is all types of the guns which they will ready for the men, and the men are use as crewmen of the DEs. They also work with the machines which preparedtotaketheir newweapon they will find aboardthose vessels, to sea. A l l but a few of the Navys Service and are taught to dismantle and repair as well as operate them. Schools a t Norfolk have now been It is our aim, said Capt. McClure, converted to theDE program. Classes in many cases have been doubled or to man these important vessels with tripled. Several of the more im- specialists who can begin operations portant schools are operating several with a minimum of delay. shifts. TO achieve this end, we are first giving the crews a working knowledge Most of the DE candidates are handpicked. Many aregraduates of of their forthcoming duties and then regular Navy trade schools, trans- presenting them with the problems ferred to Norfolk for specialized which they will actually experience at sea. training. With properlytrained crews, these As an example of the care and caunew ships should prove to be our tion the Navy is taking in manning the these new vessels, an instructor cited countrys successful answer to the training of electricians. They are Axis submarine offensive.

The destroyer escort wasdesigned

by the U. S. Navy especially to release

destroyers from convoy duty. I n 1940, Rear Admiral E. L. Cochrane. chief of the Bureau of Ships, spent four months in England, where he studied the use of the corvette and examined all aspects of the convoy problem. Admiral Cochrane reachedthe conclusion that a larger and faster ship than the corvette should be built for the task of trans-Atlantic convoy work. It also became apparent t h a t the use of destroyersfor convoying would restrict them to task inwhich a all their valuable qualities could not be utilized. The result was the designing of t h e 1,300-ton escort. Simplicity of the escort in comparison withdestroyers gives the Navy twice as many ships forthesame money, in half the time. The cost of an escort, now, is roughly $3,500,000about half the price of a destroyerand the building time for an escort is now, on amassproduction basis, approximately months, four compared to the average of nine months for a destroyer. The escorts are being named for Navy heroes, justas destroyers are named.Gleaminghulls of the new ships will carry back into action such gallant names as Jacob Jones and Reuben James. Jones and James distinguished themselves sailingunder Barry and Decatur againstthe Tripolitan pirates.

O f i c i a l U. S. Navy Photograph.

A bow-on view of DE 13.

Page 10

With Navy Airmen in South Pacific:

Torpedo Squadron 8 Is Avenged

Pilots of New No. 8 Mow Down Japs, As They Fight From Cockpit or Foxhole
Based on Guadalcanal, new Torpedo Squadron 8-successor to the original squadronwhich was almostannihilated at the Battle of Midway-has, in 100 days of fighting, carried out 40 attacks against the Japanese. No. 8s score includes 14 enemy warships torpedoed. The squadron also has bombed and strafed ground objectives 23 times. The squadrons toll of warships hit includes: one battleship, two aircraft carriers, five heavy cruisers, four light cruisers, ,one destroyer, and one cargo ship. The battleship, which had been hit previously, was believed scuttled later; one aircraft carrier left listwas ing and furiously burning; one heavy cruiser was abandoned, and another left smoking and dead in thewater. Another heavy cruiser was making only 10 knots with a heavy list when last seen;a light cruiser was left sinking, a second listing and smoking; a destroyer was listing when the squadron leftit. These enemy warcraft and those of their crews who werenot rescued paid in part for the 15 airplanes and 29 officers and men of old Torpedo 8 lost at Midway. Only one of the 30 officers and men who attackedtheJapanese fleet in that battle survived. He is lksign G. H. Gay of Houston, Tex., was who rescued from the water after he had seen all his mates go down in flames and his own airplane shotfrom under him. New Torpedo 8 was organized from scratch, taking for itself the name and traditions of the old squadron. It is commanded by Lt. H. H. Swede Larsen, Collingswood, N.J. OnePlane VS. 31. Lt. James Julien Pug Southerland, USN, a member of Squadron 5, in a letter to his commanding officer, Lt. Comdr. Leroy Coard Simpler, relates how he fought a force of 27 Japanese two-engine bombers and four Zero fighters in the Solomons and lived to tell the tale. a Lieutenant S.o u t h e r 1 n d was wounded in 11 places before he bailed out of his flaming Grumman Wildcat fighter. When the 27 Jap twin-engine bombersandfour Zero fightersattacked Lt. Southerland, he said, they shot the goggles off my forehead, my mirror was shattered, all the ammunition box covers andpart of the uppersurface of my left wing had disappeared, the oil tank was punctured, flaps and radio were gone. Finally they explodedgoodold 4F-12; I was ready immediately and dove over the starboard side head flrst. I dontbelieve I wasmore than 400 feet up when I got out so I pulled the ripcord immediately. ring The cameout with so little resistance I thoughtthe release line had been shot. I started clawing frantically UP the webbing to release the chute when thething suddenly filled and I was floating. I landed in some trees without much shock. During its period of operation in the Solomons, Fighting SquadronFive destroyed 77 enemy aircraft, probably destroyed 13 others,and assisted in the destruction of three. Dies, Sinks Jap. Master Technical Sergeant Ralph Ackerman, Detroit, joined in an attack on a Jap transport near Guadalcanal and started his dive for the ship. His plane continued seaward, after the bomb was released, and crashed alongside the transport just before his bomb,now following, scored a hit which sank the enemy.

Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

Ninety fewer enemy planes: Back from twomonths duty in the Pacific, Lt. Jack E. Conger, USMC,displays the flag of the FLying Bulldogs, indicating that Fighting Squadron 212 knocked down 90 Japanese planes and also sent two enemy destroyers to the bottom. For the great record o f another famous squadron, see story on this page.

Page 11

How to Live on a Rubber R f at

3ints Taken from a Pamphlet :ssued for Pilots by BuAer
I shortly you are going into the f drink,knock off worryingabout it. Much timeandthought havebeen spent in perfecting equipment to keep you afloatwithreasonablecomfort until you are picked up. Your raft is a vessel which you can sail to safety. If you are determined

This article was adapted f r o m parts of Dunking Sense, a safety guide for naval airmen, prepared by the BuAer Training Division.

to get ashore and go about it coolly and patiently, almost invariably you will survive no matter how great t h e difficulties. A recommended first step to is break out your raft and give it plenty of study. Learn the location and stowage of the raft and the purpose of every piece of equipment. Decide what extras youwill need and stow them; the only place they, will do you good is aboard the raft. change artist. Be Be a quick able to change from sailors to raftsmen in a hurry. Take whatever you think you will need, including clothing that will protect you against the elements and exposure.

If there is more than one man aboard, the crew should stand watches so that any passing vessels can be sightedandchangesin the weather noted. Rafts canbe both sailed and rowed. Oars serve can as the and mast shrouds or stays improvised from fishing or line line you have aboard. Rig the sail from the sail cloth provided. D o not belay the foot of the sail, butsecure one end so you can let it go in a hurry in the event of a squall. Sit to windward of the sail so that it wont pin you under if you capif you cant get a sail size. Even rigged, rafts will, to some extent, sail themselves because of their flat bottoms and comparatively high freeboards. They usually remain lengthwise of thetroughand show little tendency to yaw. You can take advantage of this tendency by letting her drift if the wind is in the right direction and checking the drift as much as you can with a sea anchor Take whatever youthilzk you will when the wind shifts and opposes your lzeed. desired track. Raftequipment, while standardized, A sea anchor can made from any be varies with the type of raft which will float partly subis why you must know before you take object which merged since this will provide a defio f f , just whereyourgear i s stowed and what it is for. There are Often nite drag when attached to the bow by a line. Driftwood, a life jacket, a several pockets containing: Whistle for signaling; metal reflec- canvas bucketor similarobjects make tor for visual signaling into the sun; acceptable sea anchors. Be liberal with the amount of line you pay out, 25 feet of 75-pound test line; jackknife; combination compass and wa- otherwise the raft will jerk violently. terproof match container; fishing kit A sea anchor will not only check your containing line, wire leaders, and drift, but willhold the raft bow on feathers; smoke grenades and holding clamp; oars; sail fabric; first-aid kit; emergency rations and emergency water cans. On boarding the raft, be prepared for the sea to be a lot rougher than it appeared from the deck. Board the raft rapidly and carefully. Graba line lash and everything in place. Rafts, owing to their buoyancy, are also very unstable and liable to cap2ear.n locatiolz of equipme.nt. size.

into a heavy sea, thus reducing the danger of capsizing. Sunburn and windburn are formidable enemies. Your clothes protect you against both and should not be discarded even in hottest the climates. If the water and air temperature is high, dunk yourselfover the side fully dressed. This will help against dehydration. Improvise head covering. Rubbing exposed surfaces with any oily part of a raw fish, especially the fatty layers just under the skin, is of some assistance against these twin enemies. Another precaution is t o guard against Immersion Foot, caused by continued exposure to cool cold or water such as that collecting in the bottom of a raft. Get the feet out of the water and elevate them to dry. While so elevated keep the circulation up by vigorous chafing. This is highly important, otherwisegangrenemay set in.

Avoid sulzburlz and windbur.n.

Dehydration, or the drying up of body moisture, is oneof the chief difThe system ficulties of raftsmen. turns to any source forliquid. Therefore, while the kidneys may function freely, bowel movements are generally few since they consist of 90 percent moisture. If your water supply is low, dont hesitate to eat raw fish which has a high moisture content, together with the liver and solid parts of the entrails. DONTDRINK SFAWATER Collection of every bit of fresh water possible is of the utmost importance even if your emergency supply remains untouched. Dont

Page 12

come in when it rains. Any rain should be immediately taken advantage of by collecting it inanything that can be used as a container. Use the lirst water collected to wash the containersfreefromsaltandsave the rest. Nobodys going tobeat your Ash stories when you get home. I you f get no bites on your line, lash your knifeto your wrist withalanyard andspear fish with it. It requires great patience for the fish must be allowed to come practically alongside. Thenstab quick andhardandtry to heave him into the boat. Seabirds occasionally have been killed the same way when alighting the on water or grabbed when they come down on the raft. It is very dimcult to shot-them in the air from so unstable a platform.

Make certain whom youre signaling.

net .and instructionsheets printed on waterproof paper. This tackle, defor deep-sea signed and tested angling, provides whatit takes to live off the fat of the sea. As to theuse of the kit: 1. Dont jerk the bait away from little fish just because you wantto win theTarpon Prize for 1943-44. The big fellows may break the line, carry off the bait, gash your hands, or upset the boat. Stick-to the small fry! 2 If sharks are in the vicinity stop . fishing. If they dont take the hint and move on,remember that their nose and gills are the mosttender spots and if you hit them with an oar well above the belt it will send them on their way. Small sharks may be harponed justaft of the dorsal fin but fishermen must be alert to keep the line taut and save the harpoon if the shark tries to roll over and bite the line. 3. Dont encourage your bait to hide rDomtgo im when it rains. in seaweed. Keep it clean! 4. Keep part of the first birdor fish Sharksare edible, as are dogfish. Only dont try to get too big a one. you catch to be used f o r bait. Use live whenever possible, saving the Treat sharks with plenty of respect bait and shark-infested in water avoid pork rind for emergencies when there f either trailing hands the over the is nothing else available. I there is no bait, try a white button, or a narside or. dunking yourself. I f youdo happen to go overboard, splash and row strip of leather or canvas. The kick as much as you can while getting school idiot may come alongand be back aboard. Sharks are cowardly taken in. 5. Fish can supplyboth food and and are puzzled by such tactics, but dont rely on theirremaining puz- drink. Fish juice has been tested and found safe for drinking: it tastes zledtoolong. Above all in waterswhere sharks much like the juice of oysters or may occur, whether or not you have clams. Eat until your hunger is satisseen any, avoid getting blood into the fied and if there is an excess of fish be cut in clean water. Wash wounds in the raft and theremaindercan pieces and squeezed in a twisted cloth watch out for fish blood when cleanto force out the juice to quench your ing a h . You can drink fish blood if you arethirsty enough. It will do thirst. you no harm and will do some good. A carefully equipped fishing kit is now being added to all rafts. (INFORMATION BULLETIN, Mar.-Apr., 1943.) The kit will contain lines, pork strips, sinkers, a mackerel jig, acouple of feather jigs, a grapple, a harpoon for taking small sharks, turtles and birds, a honing stone with float handle, Small sharks can be caught and various sizes of hooks, a 12-inch dip eatem. ,

6. Unless there isplenty of water at hand dont eat the livers or meat of sharks, skates, or rays. The same holds true of seaweed and crabs. They are too salty to eat if water is scarce. Jellyfish, sea snakes,parrgt fish and puffer fish are poisonous. However,dontbe toohigh-minded about passing them along other to fish in theform of bait. 7. Dried fisll can be kept from the day when fishing is good against the day when they wontbite. Cut the meat into thin narrow strips and dry them in the sun. 8. The meat, juice and blood of sea turtles are good to eat and a turtle can be caught easily by throwing a grapple or .fishhook across i t where the hook will catch in theleg or neck

Many have saved their lives using common sense.

or in the edge of the shell. Or usual antitank procedurecan befollowed. The hot sun will bring a clear oil out of turtle fat, into which sea biscuit can be dipped. Turtle fishermen are warned, however, that even after a turtles head is cut off, the jaws may bite and the claws may inflict painful scratches. Rafts are equipped with several means of signaling rescue craft, including a reflector, smoke grenades, and fluorescein dye. The latter makes a conspicuous stain the in water which can be seen by searching aircraft. However, the stain will last only a few hours and must therefore be used with discretion. As a matter of fact, nothing calls for better judgment than when and where to use signals. If you use up your equipment on the off-chance of somebody seeing you, perhaps you are forfeitinga real chance of rescue a few hours later. Be sure, too, that you are signaling a friend and not an enemy. The final and all-inclusive advice is to keep using your imagination and common sense. Many other men before you havesaved their lives by doing just that.

Page. 13

Official U. S . Navy Photograph.

Recovering: Marine Put. Harold M. Dixon, 19, Warren, Ariz., rests in a Southwest Pacific naval hospital. Dixons leg was shattered when he stuck to his gun until the U.S. S. Chicago, torpedoed o f f Rennell Island, the Solomons, January 30, began to go down. Dixon was carried from his mainmast post, 80 feet above deck, by two baddies, then loweredintothe water where, with help, he swam to safety. (Information Bulletin, April, 1943, P. 13.)

Medical Report From the South Pacific

OnlySeven Patients Die of 4,039 Wounded Zones Removed Solomons From Fighting
Modern, scientific treatment of war casualties has brought about an exceedingly low mortality rate in the South Pacific battle zone. Details of the medical care of more than 4,000 land, sea, and air casualties in the South and Southwest Pacific have been announced by the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, disclosing encouraging results. Among 4,039 patients treated by a hospital ship during an extended period beginning with the Solomon Islands offensive in August 1942,only 7 deaths occurred, a mortality rate of 0.18 percent. Only 6 of thedeaths were battle casualties. The story of this success in combatting death is told in two reports, one by a group of medical officers aboard a hospital ship operating in the PaThis brings up to date the story of medical treatment in the South Pacific. A previous story appeared in the INFORMATION BULLETINJanuary 1943. for This article is based o n two articles in the March 1943 U.S. Naval Medical Bulletin: Observations on the Treatment of Battle Wounds Aboard a Hosp2tal Ship, by Ferguson et al., and Experiences of the Surgical Service of the United States JVavat Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand, With Casualties From the Initial Solomon Islands Engagement, by Crile.

most every type of wound-rifle and machine gun bullets, shell fragments, severe burns,skull fractures, penetration of chest and abdomen, infections, and many more.Many were injured on Guadalcanal, others sea in engagements and in aerial combat. In some instances, patients were aboard the hospitalshipa few hours after being wounded. About two-thirds, however, had received initialtreatment at base and field hospitals ashore beforebeing placed aboard the ship for evacuation themobile hosto pital at Auckland. Dr. Criles report reviews the treatment of the first 366 patients received at the Auckland hospital. All were transported there from battle zones aboard the hospital ship. Only 1 of the 366 died while undertreatment at Auckland, which is one of the Navys largest, completely most equipped hospitals.

Page 14

Authors of the hospital ship report noted that most of the 4,039 patients were in excellent condition when taken aboard. Predominating among Marine casualties were shell and grenade fragment wounds, bullet and bayonet wounds and compound fractures. Naval casualties (one-third of the total) were mostly multiple shell-fragment wounds and compound fractures but included burns, injuries from immersion blasts, and shark bites. Bullets often caused no more injury than might be expected if an ice pick were suddenly thrust through a part and pulled out, the report said. Into these simple wounds sulfathiozole wassprayed and apressure bandage of elastic webbingwas applied. A patient with a through and through wound of the leg or thighwas usually able to be up and walking 4 or 5 days from the timeof injury and the wounds were healed in a week to 10 days.We have not seen a single case of infection develop in a patient treated in this manner. Not one case of tetanus developed. All navalpersonnel are immunized against this infection. The most striking feature of the casualties seen at this hospital, the report concluded, has been the rapidity with which these healthy young individuals from recover trauma or disease. The excellent medical care which has been available from the moment of injury is probably largely responsible for this phenomenon.

Traction Apparatus. W i t h t h e aid o f n e w finger grippers made aboard a U. S. warsbip, doctors reduce a forearm fracture. The apparatus more evenly distributes the pull rtecessary t o set the arm properly.

At Mobile Base Hospital at Auckland, N e w Zealand, where some o f t h e data f o r accompanying article were gathered, hospital corpsmen care f o r South Pacific woanded.Hospitalwascompleted-after a months time in the building-one day before it was filled with patients f r o m first l a d i n g s o n Solomons.

A spinal anesthesia is administered U. S. sailor beforebeundergoesan emergencyappendectomy.



Page 15

Official U.S. Navy Photograph.

FLOATZNG DRYDOCK: T h e U.S. S. Peto, a new submarine, was taken by floating drydock from Martitowoc, Wis., to the Gulf of Mexico t o joim the udersea fleet. First Americam submarine constructed om am idand waterway, the Peto i s showm here riding down the Mississippi.

Navys Dry Dock Construction

Some Floating Types Designed to Handle Largest of Navys Troop andBattleships
Since 1940 the United States Navy has had underway a tremendous drydock construction program involving the building of 183 drydocks a t a total estimated cost of $511,000,000. Included ih this program are highly mobile types of one-piece and sectional floating drydocks which can be towed or self-propelled a t speeds sufficient to allow them to follow the fleet into the active theatres of war. The importance of these mobile drydocks relative to the quick salvage and repair of vessels damaged in combat is obvious. These floating drydocks vary in size fromthose designed to handle small harbor craft to those capable of servicing the largest battleships or troopships. The cost of the floating drydock program alone will approximate $300,000,000. Construction of the larger, or sectional type, of floating drydock is featured by a series of ship-shaped hulls, the sidewalls of which can be raised or lowered, placed side by side. These sidewall sections lie horizontally on the main deck and can be readily raisedto vertical position. The entire dock is submerged when takingaboard a vessel for maintenance or repairwork. When the vessel is in position, water is pumped out of the dock body, and the dock rises, bringing the vessel with it. Crews bunk. entirely within the watertight hulls o f these drydock sections, which also carry machinery to submerge and raise the hull, as well as galleys, showers, and other facilities for the crew. I n addition to the new type floating drydock, the Bureau of Yards and Docks has developed so-called pontoon drydocks consisting of small pontoons which can be assembled and disassembled very quickly. These pontoons will be transported aboard ship and assembled at their destination into complete working drydocks. Design of graving drydocks has kept pace with improvements in other types of docking facilities, and the Bureau of Yards and Docks has developed several types of reinforced concrete gravingdrydocks which have

Official U. S. Marine Corps Photograph.




h z the jloating drydock.

eliminated the use of plate steel, needed inother phases of the war effort. Periodic overhaul docking, permitting thecleaning and painting of bottoms and the overhaul of propellers and underwater fittings, is essential for the maintenance of all Naval vesregular sels., In addition to these overhauls during wartime, facilities must be available for quickly repairing damaged ships, making possible their return to action a in minimum of time. Experience has verified the old statement the that cheapest and quickest way to build a ship is to repair one already built. In 1938 the Bureau of Yards and Docks made a comprehensive study to determine whatdeficiencies, i f any, existed in the Navys drydocking facilities, and as a result of this study construction of a number of graving docks along the coasts of the United Statesand Hawaii was started. I n connection withtheseprojects new methods of construction involving the placing of concrete underwater were evolved. These developments have permitted the construction of drydocks in unsuitable soils a t a minimum cost and in much time than less had heretofore been possible. With the adoption of the expansion program for the Naval forces afloat it was necessary to review the drydock studies and to synchronize the construction of drydocks with the construction of newNavalvessels. The Bureau of Yards and Docks has emphasized that the drydock construction program must not interfere with the shipbuilding program, hence new facilities had to be developed and new manpower had to be trained for the drydock program. An outstanding feature of the is Navys current drydock program the speed of drydock construction. The new Pearl Harbor drydock, for example,wascompleted i n approximately 20 months, 1 year ahead of schedule, and was ready for service at the time of the Japanese attack, Dec. 7, 1941. This dock is approximately 50 percent larger thanthefirst drydock ,built 6 at Pearl Harbor, which required years to build. Two huge drydocksin the New York Navy Yard were completed in 20 months compared with8 years forthe construction of drydock No. 4 in that yard, a dock half the size of the two new drydocks. During the past 5 years the Navy has completed o r initiated the construction of docking facilities with a capacity in excess of all the worlds drydocking facilities, including those of the United States, as of 1937. In connection with the drydock construction program, the Bureau of Yards and Docks has established a special trainingschool a t Tiburon, Calif., for the training of personnel to man these new facilities.


Summer uniforms~of the S. MaU. rine Corps Womens Reserve, designed on the principle that coolness makes efficiency, willbe two-piece green and of white-striped seersucker instead the traditional military khaki. A. Capt. Anne Lentz, Officer of Supply, designer,has announced that the uniforms will feature open V-necks and short sleeves. Shirts ties and have been dispensed with. Designed for officers and enlisted women alike, the uniforms also will include hats of solid, soft green and pocketbooks in matching color. Every item Of the summer uniform will be washable, caps and pocketbooks hav-

Ofiicial U. 8. JIarine Corps Ihotograph.

ing detachable covers t3 ease the laundering problem. Captain Llentzrevealed that officers will wear-a peaked cap of cotton twill, cdornedwith a white,knotted cord and a gold and silver Marine insignia. Thehatfor enlisted women has a form-fitting crown and stitched brim. Officers insignia of rank will be worn on the shoulders, but both officers and enlisted personnel will wear the Marine emblem on the lapels of their suitjackets. For off-duty, women officers will wear a n all-white dress uniform, with white cotton gloves and white pumps.

Page 19

B r i t i s h Official Photograph.

CONVOY T O MURMANSK: Omeof the biggest Allied comoys to Russia fought through a +day attack by enemy torpedo plames and U-boats. In imcidemt pictured, an aircraft carrier is hiddem as geyser of water shoots up after am ememy plame scores a mear-miss.

Murmansk: 38 Days, 16s Bombings

Naval Reserve OfficerLives Through UnbelievableAttacks on Russian Port

I went to Murmansk to represent the UnitedStates Government. We had to have a man in that Port, so I went. Between Iceland and Murmansk our convoy was attacked three t i m e w i r attack and submarine attack. We escaped thefirst two attacks. On May 3 we got thethird at 1230 in the morning. There was a flash. Everything seemed to go under. When I came to I was way down in a hole with water up to my knees. I was very excited, but finally climbed up where I could see out. I could see the whole cargo through a big hole in the ship. As I watched I saw my suitcasego by. I looked at the big steel bulkheadinfront of me and remembered that there had been no bulkhead near where I had been quartered. I dont know howI got out of there. I climbed out somehow and got to the bridge. From there I saw the Third Mate lowering a boat. I asked the captainif he had a pair of boots I could have. He told me to forget about the boots and try to get off before we were blown up. So we started to lower away. The lines were tangled. Finally we managed to get the boatcut away from the ship. We worked hard to pull away. I put my bare feet in the snow and pulled and pulled.
Page 20

This tale of Murmansk is by Capt. Axel W. Pearson, who has represented the WarShipping Administration in two Russian ports for 4 months during the past year. Captain Pearson, former master for the MooreMcCormack line, is a Lieutenant Commander in the U. S. Naval Reserve. The Ofice of War Information released this account, which is a digest of part of Captain Pearsonsoncia1 report.

The convoywent by us. She was going too fast to pick us up without upsettingour boat. Then a. trawler came by and picked us up. On the trawler I went to the galley to get warm and stood on top of a sack of potatoes. A man came by and I asked a pair of dry socks. He him for a pair of rubber brought me socks and boots. I borrowed an old pair of trousers. A storm struck up and that storm saved the trawler. It was snowing and the enemy couldnt find us. The stormcarriedonuntil we reached Murmansk on themorning of the sixth. Mr. Cormack, who wasdoing the

same job for the British as I was to do for the United States, met me as we docked. He helpful was during all the time I was in Murmansk. You are lucky, hesaid, everything will be all right. Take it easy for a while. You need a rest. I never got that rest. We got bombs morning, noon, and night. We had fourteen raids in one day. I kept account thirty-eight for days. We were bombed one hundred and sixtyeight times. I got tired of putting the record down. The building we were in shook every time the city was bombed. Every day you could look out of the window and see the bombers coming, one big andfour little ones. About the time they as big as your got hand, people wouldrush to the shelter. Evendogs and chickenswent to the , shelters. Everybody was accustomed to go right on working until the last alarm sounded, and many men work right on through the raids. The antiaircraft would start popping. There was plenty of antiaircraft there. Make no mistake about it. The bombers wouldcome out of the clouds and would be scattered by the antiaircraft. Many of those bombers never got back home. The Russians hate the Nazi flyers. You understandthis when you see squadron after squadron of bombers

C r i t i s h Official Photograph.

HEAVY CLOTHING as the seaman at the left puts graphattheright.Temperatures near the coast of on is stadard on the Murmansk route,to protect the Russia oftenregister 20 degreesbelowzero.Metal mem against such weather as displayed inphotoburns t o the touch.
coming over the city. You dive for anything that makes a shelter, cursing allthe while. But to the Russians, Planes mean interruption of their work. The stevedores work right up until the fires start. Unskilled laborers work until the smokefrom the bombs is so thick theycant see. What It didnt guts those people have! make much difference to them how dangerous the work was; they would do it cheerfully. I neversaw a discouraged Russian. My God, what kind of people are theseRussians?, I said everyday. They are toughbutfriendly.They are kind and happy. They seem absolutely sure of winning thewar. Yet all is serious. The soldiers you see working on the wharves are men on furlough from the front.. Instead of taking leave they come to work on the wharves so that the supplies willgo to their men. The women, strong, big, tough women, do a mans work on 11-hour shifts. Everybody thrives on black bread and soup. Never a complaint,exceptagainst the Germans. I like the Russians. They know what theyre fighting for. I had to walk thirty miles a day to visit all.the American ships that came in to see the condition they were in and to look after the crews. One Saturday I had tosee a captain of a ship. The captain invited me to have dinner with him. We sat down at the table, Then we heardthem coming. All of a sudden-barn!-barn!-the bombing began right along side of us. We got the bomb fifteenfeet away from the ship.- The face part of the deck was swept clean. The rigging was shot through by shrapnel. to look When we had a chance out, we saw the city was burning. We couldnt see our building. Im going to beat it, I said to the captain. H a went along with me. Is it safe? he said. I told him that nothing was safe here. Off we went. The railroad track was twisted, freight carsoff the tracks, telephone wiresdown, debris everywhere. A car was burning on the other side of the street. Bodies lay on all sides. We passed one of building in front ,which lay twentyeight bodies. This buildingwas still burning. That day I learned how to be a doctor, undertaker, andchief mourner. I had to identify people. I was called in to identify a chiefcook. When I looked a t him and at the stacks of bodies piled in that awful, smelly place I knew better than ever what those people going were through. Dead bodies were scattered everywhere. Blood covered the room. Outside the a main door two were girls with bundle apiece-each a dead baby. They looked at me asthoughthey do a miracle. I thought I could couldnt. Then Mr. Cormack and I walked to the top of the hill and satdown in the snow to look at the city below. When we got back to the city we had a drink and no talk. Each of us thought of home. I went fromMurmansk to Archangel when the ice there thawed. Archangel waspeaceful after Murmansk. Not, any bombings. One could rest and sleep. After two months I was ordered home. I returnedin September. After all Ive been through, this is the most important thingI have to report: I never saw suchcourage as our seamen have. Nothing stops them. Theytalkabout bombings and torpedoings as I talk aboutfood. Theyve got thesamespirit thoseRussians have.

Official 0. I I. Photograph. T. CAPT. AXEL W . PEARSON: My God, what kind of people are these Russians?

Page 21

Official U. S. Nary Photograph.

A NEW NAVY METHOD: Am Army P40F awaits take-off om a Navy carrier. Today, Navy aircraft carriers
tramsport many such plames t o Africa.

The Story of Auxiliary Carriers

Cheap, Quickly Crafi Built Are Used for Convoy Work and Transportation of Planes
Triple-threat auxiliary aircraft carriersare being constructed by the dozens in American shipyards. These carriers, converted either frommerchant vessels or designed originally as auxiliaries, each carry a force of aircraftadequatetopatrol vast reaches of the ocean around convoys delivering war supplies. Equipped with catapults, these vessels also can and have servedto transport military planes. They carry fueled-up planes to within flying range of combat areas and catapult them into the air for immediate service in fighting the enemy. A substantial number of the planes now operating in NorthAfrica were taken across the Atlantic by these vessels. The auxiliary carriers, while not suited primarily for combat, are available inemergenciesfor operationwith naval task forces. Construction work being is done primarily in private shipyards, assisted by the Navy and Maritimecommission. Onlysmall a part of the work is being handled at Navy yards. Having less armor than designed combatcarriers,the auxiliaries are outfitted with antiaircraftbatteries and small calibre guns. Their speed andcomplement of planes when on patrol operations are less than those of conventional carriers. The auxiliary is not a substitute for the heavier combatant type of carrier, but may be produced in large numbers at a much greater speed andat much less cost than themore usual types of carriers. The timeused in production from keel laying to completion is less than half, and their cost isonly a fraction. Vice AdmiralFrederick J. Horne, USN,Vice Chief of Naval Operations, says the auxiliaries have proved very successful. Output of the ships, he continues, is coming along very rapidly. The installation of catapults on the auxiliary craft helps to remedy one defect found inthefirst converted vessels-the inability of planes to take off inbadweatherdue to smaller decks and lower speed-Admiral Horne declared. As to landing,the Admiral said that you just dont land on any carrier if the sea is too rough. No planes, however, have been lost as yet due to inability to land in bad weather. The auxiliary aircraft carrier of 1943 springs from an experiment made two years ago. The Navy General Board early in1941 directed that a C-3 Maritime Commission vessel, the S. S. Mormacmail, be fitted out with a flight deck and outfitted with a number of planesfor use as an escort vessel. Converted, she became the U. S. S.Long Island,and at present is in service with the fleet. So successful was this experiment that the GeneralBoard decided to initiate a program of conversion of some magnitude. A number of C-3 hulls were made available by the Maritime Commission forthispurpose, I n addition, the Navy ordered the conversion of a number of oilers, vessels used for carrying oil to Navy units, into auxiliary carriers. Procurement of a substantial number of auxiliaries was not ordered until well into 1942, but already a number in are operation with the fleet. The number ordered was boosted sharply in the latter part of 1942, so that literally scores of them are now underconstructionon the ways of several shipyards located alongboth the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Those more recently ordered were designed fromkeel to completion as auxiliary aircraft carriers.

Page 22

In April, President Roosevelt, Henry Kaiser, and Admiral Emory s. Land ilzspected a model of a Kaiser aircraftcarrier in Washingtolz. Soon after

. . . A Kaiser

Press Association Photograph.


carrierbig version of the modelwas launched in Vancouver, Wash. Mrs. Roosevelt christened her.

FOR THE BRITISH: The HMS Tracker, an aircraft carrier made by converting the hull of a cargo ship, made a trial run of Pacific coast


. . . This

Press Association Photographs.

is another view of thenew,fairly small Tracker. Herpurpose: t o escort comvoys.

Official U. S. N a r y Photograph.

T h e N a v yhas just issued this photograph to show slant of deck of a carrier loaded with Army planes. For what happens on a small carrier in weather like this, see story om previous page. Other U.S. Carrier launchings announced in April: T h e Cabot, originally planned as a cruiser, the Breton? and the Intrepid: Page 23


OFF TO TOKYO: A E 2 5 North

American medium bomber, pictured a t left, movesdown flight deck of the U. S. S. Hornet enrouteto Japan to bomb important Nipponese industrial centers. A t the right is anotherphoto of one of the meHornet dium bombers and the

just after the take-off. Airmen reported heavy damage both from explosion and fires. President Roosevelt revealed the raid one year ago, but refused to announce where the bombers were-based. He told newsmen that the planes were from Shangri-La, mythical Utopia.

u. S. Navy Photographs. butone of the 16 planes which participated were wrecked after completing their mission. Toward the end of April, the world was shocked when the President announced Japan had reported having executed some of the pilots who fell into Jap hands.

. . . All

First Dental Admiral In Naval.History Is Confirmed


Secretary FrankKnox has approved the naming of a destroyer under construction the U. s.s.Ingersoll, honoring both the lateRear Admiral Royal R. Ingersoll, USN,and the late RoyLt. al R. Ingersoll, USN,his grandson. The late Rear Admiral Ingersoll died a t LaPorte, Ind., April 21, 1931. Lieutenant Ingersolls name appeared on Navy casualty listNo. 6.

without support or protection of any kind, upon Japanese carrier units during the Battle of Midway. Before attacking, Lieutenant Commander Waldron said: We will strike, regardless of the consequences.

The destroyerBlack honors the late Lt. Comdr. Hugh David Black, killed in the torpedoing of the Jacob Jones off Cape May,N. J., in the present war.

A convoy destroyer has been named Snowden, in command of a squadron inhonor of Rear Admiral Thomas of battleships during the World War.

Rear Admiral P. N. L. Bellinger, USN, to Commander Air Force, Atlantic Fleet, at Norfolk, Va.

The destroyer escort, Levy, launched March 28, was named after the late Commodore Uriah P. Levy, credited withhavingthe Navy abolish floggings.

USMC, relieved as Commandant of the Marine Base at San Diego; new duty not disclosed. Col. William C. James, already on duty in San Diego, relieved Brigadier General Underhill.

Brig. Gen. James L. Underhill,


U. S. N a ~ y Photograph.

The nomination of Capt. A. G. Lyle in the (DC) USN, to berearadmiral Dental Corps of the Navy has beem confirmed by the Selzate. Rear Admiral Lyle has been nomimted for dutyat the U. S. Naval Medical Supply De$ot, Brooklyn, N . Y., as inspector of dental material.

Drydock No. 4 at the Pearl Harbor Navy Yard, now Thomas Drydock, in memory of Capt. Robt. E. Thomas, CEC, who,by his outstanding ability, contributed greatly to the construction of important works at theyard. Tex., has been designated Waldron Field in honor of Lt. Comdr. John Charles Waldron who led the famous TorpedoSquadron 8 in its attack,

.ik A new airfield .at Corpus Christi,

Rear Admiral Sydney M. Kraus, USN, to duty as General Inspector of Naval Aircraft, Eastern District, with headquarters in New York; duty immediatelyprecedingwas as Special Assistant to the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics (Materiel).

Page 24


JAPANESE: .Short List of Words andPhrases

issue, the


Gozen ichiji jippun Gozen on different languages spoken in areas 3:OO A.M. Gozen sanji 5O A. M. : O goji where the Navy is operating. This 8 : 15 A. M. Gozen hach- , first list on Japanese, preparedby the iji jcigofun Navy's Japanese Language section, is 1o:oo A.M. GoZen juji Gogo ichiji 1:oo p.M. designed to give naval personnel a WgO Sanji 3:OO P. M. group of words and phrases that will W g O Shich7:40 P.M. enable themt o speak pidgin Japanese iji yonjipto the enemy. (For Navy men who aun have to learn the language thoroughly, 9:25 P. M. G6go kWji nijcigothere is the course in Japanese at the

BULLETIN begins a series of word lists



Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June

Kay6 (bi) Suiy6 (bi) Mokuyd (bi) Kinyd (bi) Doyd (bi) Ichigatsu Nigatsu Sangatsu Shigatsu Gogatsu Rokugatsu Shichigatsu Hachigatsu Jugatsu JG-ichi-gatsu Ju-ni-gatsu -

Japanese Months


1 3 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 32


University of Colorado, Boulder, that lasts a year with 16 hours of study a day.) In the list at the right of each column, giving the phonetic pronunciation of the Japanese phrases, the consonants sound the same as in English. These are the vowel sounds: A is ah; e islong a ; i is ee; o is long 0 ; u is 00. Distinction between long and short vowels is important. General Phrases
Come out or I'll Dete konakereya, utsuzd shoot How many men Ikutari oru ka with you? Naka ga hetta I am hungry I am thirsty Nodo ga kawaita I do understand Wakaru I don't understand Wakaranai Man (addressing di him') Miss 016-san

11 :oo P. M.

Today Tomorrow When does the ship leave? Day Day after tomorrow Day before yesterday Evening Month Night Week Year Yesterday Sunday Monday

iji Kyd Ashita f i n e W a itSU dera ka

fun Aug . Gogo MichKyugatsu Sept.


Oct. Nov. Dec.


1 Ichi ' Ni I 3 San 4 Shi 5 Go 6 Roku 7 Shichi 8 Hachi 9 Kyu

Days o the Week f

Hi Asatte, Mydgonichi OtQtOi, ISSakujitsu Ban Getsu Yoru Shukan Toshi, nen Kind Sakujitsu Nichiyd (bi) Getsuyd (bi)


Hitosu Futasu Mitsu Y0tsu 1tsusu Mutsu Nanatsu Yatsu Kokonotsu Td 11 M-ichi 12 Ju-ni

90 100 I, 000 10.000 100;000 1.000,OOO

Ju-shi M-go Ju-roku Ju-shichi Jci-hachi ju-ku Ni-ju Ni-la-ichi sarijo SanjCi-ni S h i j C i , (or YonlCi) Goju FmkujCi Shiohiiu (or Naniju' Hachiju Kyiiju Hvaku Sen Man JOman Hyakuman


Yen Sen Unit of value corresponding to our dollar 1/100 of a yen

Ammunition Gun Ofacer Plane Ship Warship Soldier Danyaku Teppd Shbkd Hikdki Fune, Kisen Gunkan Heitai

IThese two ways of counting from one to ten are both constantly used.

Show me Speak slowly Surrender ! Understand me? Yes

Misete Yukkuri itte Kdsan sei Wakaxu ka? Hai Oi Ahoy! Bring Motte kite Goodbye Saybnara Teppd Gun Hello Konnichi wa My name is . . . Watashi wa . . . to mdsu SbP Tomare What is your name? Namae wa To find out how much things cost, you say : How much? Ikura ka


Want cigarettes Want to eat What is this What's that?


Hoshii Tabako hoTabako shii Tabetai Kore wa nan da Are wa nan da

Massugu itte Sasu (verb) Hidari ye magatte Turn right Migi ye magatte s Where i . . . . . . doko ka camp the Yaei the dock Hatoba the ship Fune the station Eki the toilet Benjo Distances are given in kilometers, not miles. 1 kilometer equals s/s of a mile. Kilometers Kirometoru Point
a0 straight ahead

Turn left

What time is it? Noon Midnight 1O A.M. : O

Nanji ka Shdgo Ya han Gozen ichiji


can tell him some things from this lesson. Page 25

I Watashi You Omae He Ano otoko OR, ano hito She Anoonna They Ano hitobito My Watashi no Your Omae no Our Washidomo no Their Ano hitobito no This Kore These Kore who, (thereareno relawhich, tive pronouns in Japanese) that

Ancestor BY O Brother Older Younger Both Child Sosen Otoko no ko
Ai n Ototo

Human Body
A m Back Body Ear Eye Finger Foot Hair Hand Head

Surroundings-Natural Objects
Bank (of a river) Darkness Daytime Fire Forest Grass Ground Hill Jungle Lake Mountain Ocean Path Rain River Road Spring Stars Stream SUn Water hole Wind Kashi Yami Hiruma Hi Hayashi Kusa Tsuchi Oka Yabu Mizuumi Yama Umi, taiyd Komichi Ame Kawa Michi, ddro Izumi Hoshi Kawa, nagare Hi Mizu tamari Kaze

From In Inside Kara Ni Naka n i No Ue ni Ye To tomo ni Made

o f

On To With to up

And But

o r

To, ya Keredomo Moshi Mata wa

Kyddai Kodomo Musume Daughter Kazoku Family Father Chichi Girl Onna no ko, Musume Grandparent Sofubo Husband Otto, Shujin Man Otoko Mother Haha Sister Older Ane Younger Imoto Both (Kyddai) Musuko Son Waman Onna ,

%uth Neck Nose Teeth Thigh Toe

Ude Senake Karada Mimi Me Yubi Ashi Kami no ke Te Atama Ashi, sune Kuchi Kubi Hana Ha Mom0 Ashiyubi

Belt Beruto, Obi Boots Nagagutsu Coat Gait6 Gloves Tebukuro Boshi Hat Necktie Nekutai Shirt Waishatsu Shoes Kutsu Socks Kutsu shita Trousers Zubon Undershirt Shatsu, hadagi


Trades and Occupations

Baker Barber Blacksmith Butcher Cook Doctor Farmer Mechanic Policeman Servant Shoemaker Tailor .

What? When? Where? Why? A bit Above Again

Food, Drink, Tobacco

of coffee of tea A glass of beer Beans Beer Bread Butter
A cup

%E Fruit

Meat Milk Potatoes Rice dish

E% water Drinking
Cigarettes Food Lemons Matches Melon Oranges Pipe Salt Sugar Tobacco Tomatoes Turnip Wine

Chawan Kdhi ippai Cha ippai KOPPU Biiru ippai Mame Biiru Pan Bata Tamago Sakana Kudamono Niku Chichi Imo Gohan no haita ry6ri Siipu, suimono ' Mizu Nomi-mizu, Inrydsui Tabako Tabemono Remon Matchi Meron. Uri Mikan' Paipu, Kiseru Shio Sat6 Tabako Tamato Kabu Sake

Pan-ya Toko-ya Kaii-va Niiu-ka Kokku, Rydrinin Isha Hyakush6 ' Kikaishi Junsa Shimpbe Kutsuya Ydfukuya, Shitateya


Bad Because Behind Below Beside Black Blue Cheap Cold Clean Deep Dirty Empty Enough Expensive Far Far Full Good Green Heavy Here High Hot How many Hungry In front Left Less Light Like

Animal Bird Chicken cow Dog Donkey Goat Horse Mouse or rat Mule Rabbit Scorpion Sheep Snake Kemono Tori Niwatori ushi Inu Usagi ume Yagi Uma Nezumi Raba Usagi Sasori Hitsuji Hebi Ari Nankin-mushi Nomi Hai, Haa Shirami Ka Kumo

: i t


Ants Bedbugs Fleas Flies Lice Mosquitoes Spider
Bridge Church Christian church Buddhist temple Shinto shrine City or town Market place Mosque Path Police postomm Road Shop(store) Street Village Well

House and Furniture

Bed Blanket Chair Door House Kitchen Masquito net Quilt Room Stairs Stove Table Toilet Wall Window Toko Ketto

Hashi Ky6kaidd 0-tera 0-miya Shi, machi IchibaKaikyo jiin Komichi Keisatsu Yfibinkyoku Michi, ddro Mise Machi Mura Ido

To Ie Daidokora Kaya Futon Heya Hashigodan Sutdbu, Danro TBburo Benjd Kabe

Near North New Not yet Now 31d Red Right Slck 3hallow Short Small 3outh mere mirsty rogether *ell West Wet White Yellow Young

Kg Near

Dare Nani Itsu Doko Naze, DCishite Sukoshi Ue ni Mata Oyobi Warui Kara Ushiro ni Shita ni Soba ni Kuroi Aoi Yasui Samui Kirei F'ukai Kitanai Kawaita Higashi Kara i JBbun n Takai Toku Tdi Ippai Ti, Poi Midorino Omoi Koko Takai Atsui Ikutsu Himojii Mae ni Hidari Sukunaku Karui Yd ni Nagai Hikui Chikaku Chikai Kita Atarashii Mada Ima Furui Akai Migi Eydki Asai Mijikai Chiisai Minami Soko, Amko Nodo no kawaita Issha ni Genki Nishi Nureta Shiroi Kiiroi Wakai
~ ~~~

Page 26


Designed to c a l l attention to published may be otherwise i n f m a t i m which missed. Activity or publisher in parenthesis indicates where publication can be obtained; cost, if any, as indicated. Issuing activities should furnish listings to Editor.

UNICALS Official
Summary; of Repdatiom Gatxrning the Issuance o Decoratioms, Medals and Ribf bons (Information Bulletin, BuPers) : A

March, 1943 (BuMed) : Observationson the Treatment of Battle Wounds Aboard a Hospital Ship, summary of the treatment of 4,000 casualties. Experiences of the Surgical Service of the U. S. Naval Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand, With Casualties from the Initial Solomon Islands Engagement, describing thetreatment of injuries from 1 to 13 days old. An Ex1 perimental Study of Underwater Concussion, a report on water-borne blast injuries. Night Blindness, Improvement with Vitamin D. Among other articles: Muscle Hernia of the Leg, a Study of36 Cases; Experiences with, Fever Therapy at the Philadelphia Naval Hospital; Examination of the Heart i n Navy Applicants; The Inapt Naval Recruit.

of American Shipbuilders, 21 West St;; New York) : Ships for a Two-Ocean Navy, describing the Naval Expansion Program. Little Ships Make the Invasions Possible, tells of the use of small craft in modern sea and amphibious warfare. United States Naval Institute Proceedings for April 1943 (U. .Naval Institute, 5 Annapolis, Md.) : The Impact of Aviation on Sea Power, an essay on land and sea power and the influence of aviation. The Navy Education System and theEducation

Ships for March 1943 (National Council

reprint of the medals and ribbons section in the March Information Bulletin. Includes the first complete color plate of ribbons being worn today. Free Gmnery Instructars? Tmining Manual (Restricted: Training Division, BuAer), for aerial gunnery. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Navy-FiscaZ Year 1942. (Secretarys office.) Report of the activities of the Navy Department divided under three headings: general, the Navy Department and the Naval Establishment. Notes expansion and reorganization of older branches and creation of new branches the to meet the war situation. Using Y a w Navy Wings (BuAer) : A booklet for Navy trainee fliers, describing the activities and purposes of various Includes a branches of naval aviation. list of aircraft and ship nomenclature.

Officer, training men for the expanding Navy. Java Sea: A Memorable Naval Battle, t h e Japanese push southward, the naval engagements in the Dutch East Indies. The Marine Corps Gazette, May-June 1943 (Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, Washington, D. C.: $2 a year.) The Marine Corps Schools, prepared by the staff a t Quantico, Va.; Peace and War with Japan, a discussion by Col. C. H. Metcalf, USMC; Marines Grow Wings a t Jacksonville, by Capt. Thomas Holcomb :1 : USMCR; The Psychology of the Japanese, by Capt. Sherwood F. Moran, USMCR; Military Government, by Lt. Clifford P. Morehouse, TJSMCR; Russian Tank and Anti-Tank Tactics, by omcers of the Red Army; Defense of an Airdrome, by Lt. Col. Paul B. Nelson, Coast Artillery Corps. Concerning Family Allowances, by Lt. G. E. Allison, USMC. Military Review for January 1943 (Command and General Staff School, Fort Leavenworth, Kans., $3 year) : The Armored Force, telling of the organization of armored units. The General Staff Course, summary of course at the Command and General Staff School. The Tank Destroyers and Their Use, describing the perfection of tank destroyer weapons. Combat Intelligence Training in New Divisions, suggesting a basis for combat intelligence training of men in the field.


The following new training films have been approved for initial distribution: Classification of Training Look-out Series now changed by authority of the Interior Control Board from Confidential to Restricted. MNl6a Training Lookouts: Your Importance b Training Lookouts: Bearings c Training Lookouts: Target Angle d Training Lookouts: P o s i t i o n Angle e Training W k o u t s : Scanning f Training Lookouts: Night Vision g Training Lookouts: S p o t t n g i Submarine h Training Lookouts: P-8 Binoculars i Training Lookouts: Equipment k Training Lookouts: Range 1 Training Lookouts: Organization MB-2307 Fighting Freighters MA-2087 Hand Measuring - Power Tools - Portable Electric Drills Fighting Men-Keep It Clean TF-21-1018 GUY TF-21-1021 Fighting Men-Wise MG-216Oa Handling Life Boats-Rowing Handling Life Boats-ComMG-2160b mands MA-2031a Vacuum Tubes-Elementary Electrode Theory and the Diode Tube b Vacuum Tubes-The Triode and Multi-purpose Tube ~~-1544 ills h and Drilling s1q-62~ Interior CommunicationSSelf Synchronous MN-1255 power Drive of the llM3 Gun-Operation MN-1256 power Drive of the llM3 Gun-Maintenance MN-1257 Power rive of the llM3 Gun-Testing and Adjustment-Fire Control
MA-1705 2032 SN-1453 TF12-2

Elemantarn Japanese, Col. E. J. SulliLt.
van (Perkins Oriental Books, Pasadena, Calif., $2.60) : Emphasizes the familiar form of speech and includes a military vocabulary. The Navy Oflcers csulde, Arthur A. Ageton (Whittlesey House, $3) : Information for newly commissioned Waves and other reserve omcers. The Ships Aircraft and of the U. S . Fleet (United States Naval Institute WfS Edition, $1, published by Ships and Aircraft, New York City) : Information and photographs of the U. S. Navy.


SN-1358 -2003 1692

Radio Antennae Getting Away From the Ship Hacksaws Interior Guard Duty Reconstruction and Use of the Standard Navy-Army Package of Dried Plasma U. S. Carbine-30 ca1.-Assembly and DisassemblyPart II Care and Use of Ring Buoys The Vaagso Raid Coastal Command and Victory in the Bismarck Sea.

describing the Navys production of train; ing films. Seminary for SubHunters, summarizing the course a t t h eSubmarine Chaser Training Center, Miami. Seabees Acquire New Sting, the commando course glven the Construction Battalions. Training theMarine Corps, the training of specialists by the Corps. The New Navy College Training Program, describing the program utilization of colleges and universities to produce naval omcers. Bwler News Letter, for April15, 1943 (Restricted: BuAer) : Japanese Fighter Aircraft, details of fighter planes. Naval Aviation-A Global Force, a picture summary of the expansion and dutiesof naval aviation. Technique of Recovery From Inverted Spins, giving instructions. Waves News Lettor, for April, 1943 (Womens Reserve Division, BuPers) : Deferred-Service Enlistment of College Seniors, describing plans for the enrollment of co-+ in the Waves.Waves in Washington, summarizing activities of the Womens Reserve in the Capital. United States Naval Medical Bulletin, for
ing Division, BuPers) : A Film is Born,

I*aDiv Letter for April 15, 1943 (Train-

DO& worry me about



with a sailor?.

Page 27

Smaller Guns One recent writer hasspoken of the naval gun as something which has (Continued from page 5 ) about reached the limitof its developwhich wasin the same formation with ment. He is of course all wrong when it comes to oursmaller automatic and her, and which might easily have sufsemiautomatic guns, and even in the fered the fate of the carriers which case of our big guns theireffectiveness we have lost, without this added prohas increased steadily even though tection. Then she went into a night they have not themselves changed action and with a sister ship and a 20 much in character in the lastyears. The story of fire-control development few destroyers, sank nine ships-batis one of the romances of naval histleships, cruisers, and destroyers-in only a few minutes of actual firing. tory, and far from being completed, Thecaptain of hersistership said it is one of the hottest subjects of the Our fire control andthe effective- day. The biggest problemwhich we have had to meet in this war, is, of ness of our ammunition exceeded our course, that of improving our antiexpectations. aircraft firecontrol, and while we still have a good way t o travel you would Long-Range Firhug be amazed at the degree of progress we have already made. It is only 40 years since naval gunners thought they were doing Use of the Battleship pretty well to be able to hit a stationary target thesize of a ships hull Now, you will note that I call the gun most powerful at 4,000 yards. In this war the Bis- battleship the marck destroyed the Hood with her naval weapon; I did not say themost second salvo a t 23,000 yards, and we useful.. The most useful weapons, or at least the most used, are the airdid even better off Casablanca where plane bomb and torpedo, the submaone of our battleships registered hits rine torpedo, the depth charge, and on the Jean Bart with her first salvo the antiaircraft gun. Our battleship at 26,000 yards and put her o t of u big gun has thus far seen little day action with her second. The devices action inthis war. You can blame which enable a pitching and rolling the Japs for that. They are not inship in rapid motion to strike an en- clined to engage in a battleship fight. We haveforcedactiononthem at emy also in rapid motion and hulldown over the horizon, and with the night, by surprise. Butin daytime wind blowing a zephyr or a gale from their planes spot us, and they change any point of the compass, are often as courseaway, so that theycan only incomprehensible to naval officers out be struck by our planes. One should of touch with current progress as remember, though, that a gun doesnt always have to fire to prove useful. they are to laymen. Its apparent idleness may result from The process of laying gunsf o r longits acknowledged ability to conquer. range fire involves all sorts abstruse of It is of course far better to sink the data, such as courses and speeds of enemys ships than to frighten them firing ship and target, wind velocities off, but the latter may often serve a and barometric pressures, powder good purpose too. temperature, and even an allowance Thebattleship will of coursestill for the rotation of the earth during further evolve. She may turn into a the flight of the projectile. But all tough carrierwith noheavyguns. this data is incorporated the into She may even leave the sea-if and problem almost automatically and in when all other ships do-and then amazingly brief time. A fire controlmenwill seebattleships of the air. man in the foretop operates a.sortof But until then, there willalwaysbe super-gunsight called a director, some type of ship upon the ocean inwhich follows the target and transmits corporatingthebattleship principle the data electrically to a plotting which is that of the maximum combiroom well below decks, where highly nation of hitting power and staying complex instruments evaluate all vapower. riables involved, mostly automatically, Amtiaircraft Guns and transmit them electrically to the turrets.Withthis system, it is not The heaviestUnited States Naval necessary for the men at the guns to antiaircraft gun is the 5-inch. With see the enemy ship a t all. its accurate and rugged fire control Page28


system, it has been proven by actual battle results to be the best in the world, for rapidity and accuracy of fire and effectiveness of ammunition. Its high explosive shell, burst by a time fuse, takes good care of any horizontal bombers which come low enough for accurate bombing, and helpsoutwith the defenseagainst dive bombers,torpedo planes, strafers, and other close-flying planes. But the 40-millimeter and 20-millimeter are the better guns for this in-fighting. Both of these guns also use explosive ammunition, but with sensitive contact fuses. The 40 is mounted in twin andfour-barrelledmounts, the 20 in singles, and both are plastered allover the topsides of our ships. I cant tell you the exact number of these guns a particular ship carries, certain you would be but I am astonished if I did. Togetherwith the powerful 5-inch batteries, the collection of these guns on each of our new big ships-battleships and carriers-constitutesthe heaviestconcentration of antiaircraft guns in such a limited space found anywhere in theworld. Even before Captain Gatchs famous battleship versus plane action, another of our new battleships, attacked by more than 30 planes-horizontal, glide, and dive bombers, and torpedo planes-put up such a heavy fire that officers on nearby ships thought she .had been hit and was burning. She actually was not hit at all, and shotdown about one-third of the attacking planes. Some of the others jettisoned their bombs at high altitude, refusing to enter her 5-inch barrage, approach or close to her deadly automaticguns. and The big battleships carriers have not received all our attention to antiaircraft improvements. The new cruisers, destroyers, escort vessels, PT boats, subchasers, tenders, repair ships, transports, and even cargo ships, both of the Navy and the Merchant Marine, have powerful and accurate antiaircraft batteries which really knock planes down. The defense is not perfect,of course. We have lost ships, and will lose more, by bombing and torpedoing from the air. these have But guns enabled fleet commanders to take risks which would have been unthinkable 2 years ago; they have saved may a ship and its crew, and many a precious cargo, from total destruction.


(Together with Designdtions d a d Insignid)
page. the section on the Naval Reserve on page 30.
~~~~l aserve are shown in

Restoration of the rank of commodore during the past month and the recent creation of new rates and insignia to meet the needs of the rapidly-expanding naval service have focused attention on the whole related field indicated by the above title. The following material has been gathered by the INFORMATION BULLETIN from official publications and Bureau sources asa generalreference on the subject.

Classification designations of

Special Imignia Descriptions of the special breast insignia, indicated as on the color plate, will be found on page 39.

Emlisted Distimguishing Marks Several new distinguishing marks have been created in recent months. Descriptions of the marks appear in alphabetical order on page 38.


Enlisted Rates Line Regular officers of the Line carry Additional rates established since the list published in the October 1942, only USNaftertheir names.ReRank of Oficers serve officers assigned to the followINFORMATION (page 50) inBULLETIN h-ecedence of rank of officers is clude Radarman ICand SoundmanIC, ing duties are also Line officers, using shown on the insignia plate on pages a new Aviation Radio Technician 30, on ratdesignations as shown page 34 and 35, the commodore, a flag of- ing and several specialist classifica- followed by USNR: ficer, ranking between rearadmiral tions. Inaddition,thename of the A-Aviation former Messman Branch has been and captain. C-Communications There hasbeen one otherchange in changed to Stewards Branch and all CC-Construction the precedence of naval personnel designations within it changed, alabove enlisted ranks. The aviation though rates and duties remain the D--DeCk cadet, formerlyranking with but after same. DE-Deck and Ehgineering the Midshipman, is now classified as Besides the listing by precedence of E-Engineering an enlisted man in a special category rates, together with abbreviations and I-Intelligence wearing the officers uniform without pay grades, found on page 33 a brief a stripe, and now ranks after a war- description of the duties of each rate GLegal rant officer but before a chief petty in alphabetical order begins on page Wrdnance a 37. Ratingsin which WAVES may officer. The AviationCadetisin Staff special e n 1i s t e d grade. Aviation qualify also appear on page 37. Cadets or their beneficiaries are enThe chart on page 36, Normal Regular staff officers carry their titledtothesame allowance, penPath from A S toWarrants is de- corps designation after their names, sions, gratuities or other benefits as signed t o indicate which ratings are as follows. Reserve officer designaenlisted men of the fourth pay grade. eligible for which CPO and warrant tions are shown on page 30. Precedence of line and staff officers is classifications. MC-Medical Corps shown o n the insignia as corps HC-Hospital Corps devices. Enlisted Desigmtions S C S u p p l y Corps Classes of the Naval Reserve appear Desigmtions of Oficers ChC-Chaplain Corps onpage 31. As noted above, abbreCEC-Civil Engineer Corps Designations of line and staff om- viations of rates appear in the list on DC-Dental Corps cers is shown inthe tableonthis page 33.



The United States Naval Reserve is Organized Reserve: to provide a established asa component part of trained force of officers and men the United States Navy to meet war- which added to qualified personnel time needs for a tremendous addition from other sources will be adequate in of personnel. The Naval Reserve is numbers and composition to complete theinitial war organization of the subdivided intofour categories: Fleet Reserve: to provide an avail- United States naval forces. able reserve of ex-officers and exVolunteer Reserve: to provide a enlisted men of the Regular Navy who force of qualified officers and men in may be utilized without further train- numbers which added to the officers ing to fill those billets requiring ex- and men in other branches of the reperienced personnel in initial the serve willbe adequateto fulfill the stages of mobilization. purpose of the Naval Reserve. The

Womens Reserve is a componentpart of the Volunteer Reserve. Merchant Marine Reserve: to provide trained officers and men to serve on seagoing vessels of United States registry when such vessels are commissioned by the Navy in timeof war. There are no officers at present in the Fleet Reserve. All organizations of the Organized Reserve havingbeen mobilized for war service, the officers have been transferred to the Volunteer Reserve.

{CZassijEcations within the Naval Reserve are shown on the foZZowing pages.)
Page 29


Aviation officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for general service. A-V (N) Officers commissioned in the Volunteer Reserve and designated as navalaviators upon completion of training as aviation cadets. A-V ( F W 1 Aviation officers of the Volunteer Reserve experienced in electrical engineering. A-V (S)* Aviation officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special'service. A-V (T) Aviation officers of the Volunteer Reserve who formerly were civil aviation pilots or aviators of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard. CC-V (S)' Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for naval construction duties. CEE-V (SI Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special service in the Civil Engineer Corps. CHC-V ( G ) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for general service in the Chaplain Corps. Seniors in theological seminaries commisCHC-V (P) sioned as ensigns (probationary) pending graduation, ordination, and commissioning in the Chaplain Corps. CHC-V (S) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special service in the Chaplain Corps. Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed C-V (GI for general communications service. C-V (L) OfEcers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for communications industrial liaison duties. C-V ( S )' Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special communications service. C-V (X) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for communications security duties. DC-V (G) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for general service in,the DentalCorps. DC-V ( S ) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special service in the DentalCorps. DE" Officers of the Merchant Marine Reserve holding deck and engineering licenses in the Merchant Marine. DE-V ( G ) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed t o the line for general service in deck and engineering duties. DE-V ( S )' Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed to the line for special service in deck and engineering duties. D-M Officers of the Merchant Marine Reserve holding deck licenses in the Merchant Marine. D-V ( G ) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed to the line for general service in deck duties. D-V (S)l Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed to the line for special service in deck duties. E " I Officers of the Merchant Marine Reserve holding engineering licenses in the Merchant Marine. E-V ( G ) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed to the line for general service in engineering duties. E-V (RS)*Officers of the Volunteer Reserve who are experienced inelectrical engineering appointed to the line for engineering duties. E V ( S ) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed to the line for special service in engineering duties. HC-V (G) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for general service in the Hospital Corps. HC-V (SI Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special service in the Hospital Corps. Certain newly-appointed officers are carried in a probationary classification, with the designation (P) pending , qualification for transfer to thisdass. A-V (G)

a probationary status who are students in medical or dental colleges. H-V ( S ) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special seryice and assignment to the Medical Corps. S ' Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for I-V ( I special intelligence duties. L-V ( S ) m c e r s of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special legal duties. MC-M Officers of the Merchant Marine Reserve appointed for general service in the Medical Corps. MC-V (G) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for general service in the Medical Corps. MC-V (s) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special service in the Medical Corps. 0-V (RS)' Officers of the Volunteer Reserve experienced in electrical engineering appointed for ordnance duties. 0 V (S)' Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special ordnance duties. SC" Officers of the Merchant Marine Reserve, who hold certificates in one of the purser classifications of the MerchantMarine, appointed for duty in the Supply Corps. SC-V (G) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for general service in the Supply Corps. SC-V (P) Probationary officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for duty in the Supply Corps. SC-V ( S ) Officers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed for special service in the Supply Corps. W-V (S)' Officers of the Women's Reserve of the Volunteer Reserve appointed,for emergency service.

H-V (P) Qficers of the Volunteer Reserve appointed in

oficers of the U. S. Naval Reserve:
The following classificationsare authorized for warrant

Deck (Special) Deck, Merchant Marine Deck (General) GN E U NR Aviation (Special) Ordnance (Special) Ordnance (Special) TORPEDOMAN Deck (General) Engineer (General) ELECTRICIAN Engineer (Special) Communications RADIO (General) ELECTRICIAN Aviation (Special) Engineer (SDecial) Communications (Special) Aviation (Special Electrical) Engineer (SDecial Electrical) Ordnance (Special Electrical) . MACHINIST Engineer (General) Aviation (Special) Engineer (Special) Engineer, Merchant Marine CARPENTER Engineer (General) Civil E n g i n e e r Corps (Special) Construction (Special) SHIP'SCLERK Deck (SDecial) Intelligeince (Special) AEROGRAPHER Aviation (Special) PHOTOGRAPHER Aviation (Special) PHARMACISTHospital Corps (General) Hospital Corps (Special) ACTINGPAY SUpply Corps (General) CLERK SUPP~Y Corps (Spec~al)


(S) D " D-V (G) A-V ( S ) (S) 0-v ( S ) D-V (G) E-V ( G ) (S) C-V (G)


0-v E-v

ELV ( G ) CEC-V (S)


A-V ( S ) A-V ( S ) HC-V ( G ) HC-V ( S ) SC-V (G)


cc-v ( S ) D-v (S) I-v ( S )

Page 30


TITLE DESCRIPTION REMARKS Men enlisted in the Aviation v-5 FLEET RESERVE grade of aviaCadets. tion c a d e t for Men assignedto Fleet Reserveupon completion F-2 flight training leading to naval aviator desigof a n enlistment in regular Navy. nations and commission as ensign, AV ( N ) , Men transferred to Fleet Reserve after 16 or F-34 U. S. N. R., or as second lieutenant, U. S. Ma20 years, respectively, whose transfers were and rine Corps Reserve. Also includes high school F-3-D effected before July 1, 1925.All these men and secondary school boys who have reached have subsequently been transferred to the 17th birthday who are enlisted as apprentice retired list of the regular Navy. seamen, Class V-5, for transfer when qualiMen transferred to Fleet Reserve upon compleF-4-C fied to Aviation Cadet, V-5, or, if they drop tion of 16 yearswho were serving in the out of school or fail to graduate, transfer to regular Navy on July 1, 1925, or who reenClass V-6. listed under continuous service immediately Enlisted m e n reGeneral All general V-6 thereafter. quired for mobiService All Service F-4-D Men transferred to Fleet Reserve upon comlization in addi- Branches. procurepletion of 20 years who were serving in the tion to other ment regular Navy on July 1, 1925, or who reenclasses of Volun- through enlistment or inlisted under continuous service immediately teer Reserve. duction made in this class. thereafter. Men enlisted as Midshipv-7 Men transferred to Fleet Reserve upon comapprentice seamen pletion of20 years who were not serving in m e n f o r V-7 the regular Navy on July 1, 1925. Includes training preliminary to appointment as ~ e those who first enlisted after July 1, 1925, serve midshipmen and future appointment as and those who reenlisted under brokenservensign, u. S.N. R. ice who did not have a regular Navy status on July 1, 1925. Men enlisted and Aviation V-8 No direct designated stu- Pilots. enlistdentaviation ments ORGANIZEDRESERVE pilots for trainbeing ing leading to made. Enlisted men of the surface component. 0-1 designation a s Enlisted men of the aviation component. 0-2 aviation pilot. Women enlisted as WAVE v-9 VOLUNTEERRESERVE apprentice sea- officer and men for training candidates. w-9 SHORT preliminary to CLASS DESCRIPTION TITLE REMARKS appointment as midshipmen and further Men enlisted in Recruiting v-1 General training forcommission in WAVES or SPARS. Servicepeacetime for as- disconWomen enlisted in WAVES' v-10 sociation w i t h Surface tinued for for t h e WAVES o r enlisted and battalions or dl- Branch. duration SPARS lor serv- service in w-10 visions of the of war. ice inthe Naval Enlisted Organized R e E s t a b 1 i s h- Ratings. serve, o r in time of national emergency or ment ashore, inwar, for active service as required. cluding C o a s t College Freshmen, Accredited Superseded v-1 Guard. Sophomores, and College by V-12 Men were en- V-11. who Discon(ACP) v-1 1 high-school Een- P~Ogram. Navy tinued. 1i s t e d pending action o n their enlisted iors, and College applications for Training c o n t i n u e d in Program. commission. school. *Successful candi- Navy Suaerseded v 1 Naval R. 0. T. C. NROTCv-1 -2 Tests, April dates for N a v y College (NROTC) Student&,' v-1 . by-V-12 2, 1943, seCollege T r a i n- Training Navy. College ing program for Program. groups Training ireporting d officer c n a Program. dates; e n 1i s t t o colleges ment in C l a s s Men enlisted in General Recruiting July 1, v-2 V-12 if under 18 peacetime f o r Service discontin1943, and association with Aviation ued for years of age, o r on or about inducted and ensquadrons of Branch. the duration Nov. 1, listed i n SV-12 Organized Reof war. 1943. if over 18 years. serve, or in time of national emergency or war, for activeserv*New V-12 Navy College Training program will be inauice as required. gurated about July 1, 1943, will absorb most of the college students now enlisted in the Navy and Marine En 1 s t e d m e n Special i V-3 Recruiting Corps, those who enlisted in theArmy Enlisted Reserve mostly of Com- Service. disconCorps withNavy, Marine Corps, or CoastGuard prefermunication rat- Communitinued. ence and those who hold student probationary commisings comprising cation sions in the N. R. the enlisted perReserve. sonnel o f t h e MERCHANT MARINE RESERVE Naval Communication Reserve. Enlisted for men Special v4 Recruiting M-1--Enlisted men of United States Merchant Marine, the performance Service disconprocured for service in seagoing vessels or in of duties outside Intelligence tinuedtraining for suchservice. the normal scope Duties. Rc. L. M-2-Ehlisted men with salvage or seagoing experience of their naval No. 443, procured for service in the local defense forces, ratings. Jan. 19, or for salvage work. Are also eligible for general 1943. duty. CLASS



Page 31

(Reprinted with addition of pay of midshipmen and aviation cadets, and allowances of enlisted men, from S. and A . Memoranda N o . 487, April 1 , 1943. Figures here cover general categories only. SeeBuoandasources fordetailed information)



Personal cash allowance (payable as specified in art. 2142-1 (a) S. aad A. Manual)
183.33 41.67





Admirals- . . . . . . . . . . . . . 666.67 .... ....... Vice admirals ........... ........... 666.67 Rear admirals (upperhalf). . . . .666.67 .... Rear admirals (lower half) . . . . .500.00 ....

! 1

RentRent1 ' al ence ence

................................... ................................... ................................... ...................................

2 ;


_ _ _ _ ~ _ _

................................................ ................................................
............................................... ...............................................







Pay Base pay Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Over Over 27 21 24 30 23 20 17 18 9 12 1015 5 3 6 years years years years years years years years years years years years years years years

" " "

120 42 105 21 ... ... ... ... ... 6 333.33 350.00 . . . 366.67 383.33 . . . 400.00 416.67 . . . 433.33 . . . 450.00 . . . 466.67 483.33 500.00 Commodores and captains Commanders: .................................... .................................... 500.00 42 120 105 21 6 333.33 . . . . . : . . . . .. Over30years" . . . . .... ... 120 63 105 21 ... ... ... ... 335.42 . . . 350.00 364.58 . . . 379.17 . . . 393.75 . . . 408.33 422.92 . . . ... 5 291.67 306.25 . . . Under 30 years.. . . . ... Lieutenant commanders: 21 10 2 63 105 393.75 408.33 422.92 437.50 5 291.67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ................................. ..... Over 23 years. . . . . 63 21 105 90 ............ ... ... 4 250.00 262.50 . . . 275.00 287.50 . . . 300.00 312.50 . . . 325.00 . . . 337.50 ............ ... ... Under 23 years.. . . . ... Lieutenants: 63 105 90 21 ... 325.00 . . . 337.50 . . . 350.00 362.50 375.00 ... 312.50 4 250.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................... Over 17 years-" . . . . ... 42 90 75 21 ........................ ... 3 200.00 210.00 . . . 220.00 230.00 . . . 240.00 250.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... Under 17 years.. . . . ... Lieutenants (junior grade): 90 42 75 21 ... ... ... 230.00240.00250.00 . . . 280.00 . . . 270.00 . . . 280.00290.00300.00 3200.00 ............ ............ Overloyears. . . . . ..... 42 60 21 75 ................................. 2 166.6i 175.00 . . . '183.33 191.67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... ... Under 10 years . . . . Ensigns: 75 42 21 60 ... . . . 216.67 . . . 225.00 . . . 233.33 241.67 250.00 ... ... 2 1%. 67 . . . 175.00 183.33 191.67 . . . 200.00 208.33 . . . ... Over 5 years . . . . . . . -L . 60 42 45 21 1 150.00 157.50 ................ - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Under 5 years.. . . . . ... Commissioned warrant officers: Over 20 years, credit63 105 90 21 ... 4 250.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325.00 337.50 . . . 350.00 362.50 375.00 ........................... able record.. ....... Over 10 years, credit90 42 21 75 ... ... ... 3 200. On . . . . . . . . . . . . ............ 230.00 240.00 250.00 . . . 260.00 . . . 270.00 . . . 280.00 290.00 300.00 able record-. ...... 75 42 ... 60 21 ... ... ... ... Under 10 years.. ...........175.00 183.75 . . . 192.50 201.25 . . . 210.00 218.75 . . . 227.50 . . . 236.25 . . . 245.00 253.75 262.50 ........................ ........................ ............................... Midshipmen ................... 6R.00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 42 45 21 1 150.00 157.50 .... 165. on 172.50 . . . . 1xo.00 187.50,. . . 195. no . . . . 202. FO ..... 210.00 217.50 225.00 . . Wrtrrantofficers ........ .

3 08 2.3





SERVICE Subsistence

Qovernment contribution. to family allowances (pay grades 4 to 7) Monthly baes


Page 32

At.- " S U I H D














1 -







r YI



'0'd SSVl3 lSII4



records. Directs cooking and preparation of foods. food. Buys Directs storing of provisions. Corn-Prepares food for ofRcers' mess. Coxswm-Handles small boats and supervises small groups of seamen on AEROGRAPHER'S MA-Reads mete- deck or boat duty. orological instruments. Interprets ELECTRICIAN'S t a n d s "S watch weather and data, draws weather on main switchboard, main g$ro comcharts for forecasting weather condi- pass, andinmain control room of tions. electrically driven ships. Maintains -M E A T AVIATION ELECTRICIAN'S & and repairs electrical circuits and stalls, inspects, maintains, and re- electrical equipment. pairs all electrical equipment in airFIRECONTROLMAN(M)"Tests, maincraft. tains, and repairs electrical and optiAVIATIONMACHINIST'SMAT!z"aincal fire-control equipment. tains repairs and aircraft engines, FIRECONTROLMA propellers, fuel systems, brakes, hy- rangefinderwatch.Spots N (R)-Stands vessels draulic system, gears, starters. Oper- aircraft using optical equipment. or ates machine shoptools. FIREMAN-FireS the boilers. MainAVIATIONMETALSMITH-Repairs and maintains airplanes and aircraft parts tains fireroom equipment. Also operates boat engines. other than engines and ordnance. FIRST MUSICIAN-Assists BandmasAVIATION ORDNANCEMAN-Maintains ter in preparing musical arangements and aviation repairs armaments. and in training and rehearsing band 'Handles and stows explosives. or orchestra. Playsinstrument,inAVIATIONPILoT.-ActS as pilot or coin band or pilot of planes and airships. Does cluding solo parts, orchestra. aerial navigation. AVIATION RAnIomN-Operates raGUNNER'S Mmz-Maintains guns, dio transmitting and receiving equip- gun mounts, and gun parts. Acts as ment of Naval aircraft. Maintains gun crew chief of small gun or member and cares for radio batteries. Enci- of crew of larger gun. phers and deciphers Navy code mesHOSPITAL APPRENTIC-ares for bed sages. Adjusts direction finders. patients. AVIATION RADIO TECHNICIAN-MainMACHINTST'S MATE-Operates, maintains and repairs aviation radio tains, and repairs main and auxiliary equipment and equipment using vac- engines, steering engines, anchor mauum tube and otherradio-type parts. chinery, turbines, pumps, and related BAKERaperates ovens. Does any equipment.Repairsmachineequipkind of baking,operates all baking ment, using machine and hand tools. apparatus, takes charge of ship's METALSMITH-Works in c o p p e r, bakery. BANDMASTER-T i n s musicians, brass, and sheet metal. Repairs pipra and conducts band or orchestra, prepares ing. Draws out, tempers, anneals, case-hardens musical arrangements and musical time and cost metals. Makes plans, estimates. programs. Plays several instruments. BOATSWAIN'S" S u p e r v i s e s deck divisions and large groups of seaWAVE ENLISTED RATES men. Usually acts assenior petty officer of d e c k divisions. Supervises The following rates are now aumanning and operation of loading and thorized for the Women's Reserve: unloading gear, anchor, and mooring Aviation Machinist's Mate. gear. Aviation Metalsmith. BOILERraAKER-RepairS and tests Aerographer'sMate. fireroom and boiler equipment, renews Hospital Apprentice, second and parts, repairs boiler plates and brickfirst class. work of boilers. Parachute Rigger. BUGLJrMASTER-Tx'ainS buglers. Acts Pharmacist's Mate. as drummajorandinstructs bugle Radioman. corps. Storekeeper. BuGLm-Sounds necessary bugle Yeoman. calls. Specialist (T) (Teacher) CARPENTER'S MATE-Does carpentry Specialist (P) (Photography). and joinery work; repairs or replaces Specialist ( S ) (Supervising en-, deck planking and other woodwork. listed women). Lays and repairs tiling. Repairs and Seaman, first class. maintains small boats. Caulks seams. Seaman, secondclass. COMMISSARY STEWARD-supervises Apprentice seaman (rating held ship's galley. .Takes complete charge while enrolled inschool). of foodstuffs. Plans menus.. Keeps
Because duties vary with the type and size of ship or activity, no exact descriptioncanbegiven of the responsibilities of the diderent ratings for enlistedmen.Thefollowingdescriptions, however, are applicable i n general.

MOLDER-Makes molds and cores for ship and machinecastings. Operates small foundry. MOTORM A C ~ S T ' S MATE Operates,maintains, makes adjustments and repairs on diesel and gasoline engines. Adjusts and overhauls diesel and gasoline engines and parts. MvsrclAN"1ays an instrument in a . band a t ceremonies and while marching in military formation, and in band or orchestra for entertainment. PAINTER-P p a r e s and applies re paints and varnishes. Lays and repairs tiling. Estimates painting jobs. PARACHUTE RIGGER-Packs and repairs parachutes other and fabric aviation equipment. Operates a sewing machine. PATTERNMAKER -Executes intricate patterns for molding metal castings. Estimates time, materials, and cost in patternmaking and casting. Does fine woodwork. PHARMACIST'S MATeRenders medical assistance and administers to patients. Compounds drugs, makes laboratory analyses, and assists in hospital administration. PHOTOGRAPHER'S -M 0E T A per a t es "still" and motion-picture cameras, taking pictures under all conditions. Does darkroom and related work. PRmR-Operates printingequipment, duplicating equipment, and book binding equipment. QUARTERMASTER -Stands b r i d g e watch. Prepares and computes navigational data. Applies navigational data to charts. Plots courses. Supervises bridge crew. RADARMAN-stands radar watch and remainsalertthrough longperiods. Uses and regulates radar equipment. Converts relative bearing true bearto ing reads and ranges. Reads and plots polar coordinates. RmIoMAN-Sends and receives mesUses sages by code orradiophone. typewriter. Makes minor adjustments and repairs to radio receivers and transmitters. RADIO T~CHNICIAN Maintains arld repairsradioequipmentandequipmentusingvacuum tube and other radio-type parts. SEAMAN-PerfOrmS ordinary deck duties in connection with the upkeep and operations of a ship. Stands watchaslook-out,telephonetalker, messenger,. or similar duty. Member of gun crew. SHIPFITTER-uses hand and machine tools of shipfitter's shop to lay out metal sheets and sections for repairs to ship's structure. Bends, repairs, fits and pipes, tubing, and structural sections. Does forging, welding, soldering. SHIP'SCooK-Supervises andprepares food forgeneral mess. Operates all cooking apparatus.Inspects

Page 37

provisions. Plansmenus. I s responsible for food storage. SrGNALMANSends and receives messages by flaghoist, flashing light, and semaphore. Stands watch on signal bridge.Does spotting work, identifies vessels and aircraft. Assists Quartermaster on smaller ships. Soummm-Operates special sound detectionequipment, andinterprets sound characteristics of echoes. SPECIALIST A-Conducts and organizes physical fitness drills. I n charge of physical training program. SPECIALIST C-Interviews and classifies enlisted personnel. SPECIALIST G-Trains aviation and small-arms gunners on moving targets. SPECIALIST I-Supervises or operates mechanical tabulation equipment. SPECIALIST -Operates Naval post offices. SPECIALIST 0-Inspects ordnance materiel at manufacturingand assembly plants. SPECIALIST p-Does special still and motion-picture photographic

work and photographic process printing. SPECIALIST %Assists in rethe cruiting of Naval ,personnel. SPECIALIST S-Patrols shore and portareas wherethere arealarge number of naval personnel on leave or living among civilian populations. is leader WAVE Sp(S) barracks responsible for discipline and general welfare. Acts asrecreationalleader and personal counselor. SPECIALIST T-Instructs in or performsdutiesin special technical or scientific fields. SPECIALIST V-Employed in airport operations for air transport service. SPECIALIST W-Assist inthe office of the Chaplain in clerical work and in social welfare. I n charge of religious music. STEWARD-Takes charge of officers mess. Arranges m e n u s, prepares food, and supervises the purchase and service. Supervises the workof the stewards mates. STEWARDS MATE-Serves at table in officersmess. Takes care of officers quarters and laundry.

STOREKEEPER -Operates a stock room or store. Keeps related records and accounts. TELEGRAPHER^ p e r a t e s teletype and telegraph equipment shore on stations. TORPEDOMAN-MaintainS and repairs torpedoes, torpedo parts, control mechanisms, and torpedo equipment including directors and air compressor systems. Handles and maintains depth charges. Tests, operates, andrepairshydraulic release gears and release tracks. TURRET CAPTAIN-Takes charge Of a gun turret and its crew. Does assembly and repair work on all types of Naval guns. Handles ammunition. Operates periscopes and range finders. Understands electric fire control and firing mechanisms. WATERTENDER-Takes c h a r g e Of b o i 1 e r room. Supervises firemen. Maintains andoperates boilerroom equipment including conpumps, densers, etc. Performs repairs on boiler room equipment. YEOMAN-Performs typing, stenographic, clerical and other office duties.

Distinguishing marks are prescribed as sleeve marking for men who have met certain qualifications additional 3 those required for their rating, or 0 who are members of a crew that has attained a specified merit in certain prescribed competitions. Distinguishing marks are embroidered in silk, in white on blue for blue clothing and in blue on white for white clothing. AIR Gmmm-Men who havesuccessfully completed the prescribed course in air gunnery, or who have qualified in accordance with standards approved by the Bureau of Naval Personnel, wear the Air Gunners mark, a winged machine gun, midway between the shoulder and elbow of the left sleeve for men of theseaman branch and on the right sleeve for others. AIRSHIP-Enlisted men qualirfied for lightqr-than-air airship duty are entitled to wear a blimp on the right sleeve midway between the wrist and elbow. AVIATION UTILITY-A~~ enlisted personnel assigned to aviation duties wear a winged insignia midwaybetween the wrist and elbow, on the left sleeve for men of the seaman branch and on the right sleeve for others. BOMB SIGHT MECHANIC-Men who have qualified as bomb sight mechanics wear a winged B midway between the shoulder and elbow, or one inch below the rating badge, on the left sleeve for men of theseaman branchandontheright sleeve for others. CB-Rated men in the Seabees wear, midway between the wrist and the elbow upon thearm onwhich their rating insignia appears, the blocked letters CB. EX-APPRENTICE-Enlisted men who have passed through the rating of apprentice wear the mark on the breast of jumpers just below the loop holding neckerchiefs. Chief petty officers wear it on the coat sleeve under the ratingbadge midway between the elbow and wrist. A N D PISTOL SHOTEXPERT RIFLEMAN Enlistedmen who have qualified as expert riflemen and/or expert pistol shots wear a target on right the sleeve about midway between the wrist and elbow.Rifle sharpshooters wear the same mark except the inner ring is omitted. GUNCAPTAIN-A man regularly detailed by the commanding officer of a vessel as a gun captain, except of a secondary battery gun (less than 4inch), wears a gun, axis horizontal, muzzle pointing forward, midway between the shoulder and elbow on the left sleeve formen of theseaman branchand on theright sleeve for others. G m POINTER-Men who have qualified as gun director pointers or gun pointers, first or second class, wear a mark of crosswires of agun sight midway between the shoulder and elbow of the left arm for men of the seaman branch right and arm for others. Gun director pointers, first class, and pointers gun first class, wear a star one inch above the mark. GUNRANGE-FINDER OPERATOR-Men

who have qualified as gun rangefinder operators wear a range-finder midway between the shoulder and elbow on the left arm for men of the seaman branch and on the right arm for others. MASTER DIVER-Men qualified as master divers wear the diving helmet with breast plate with the letter M on thebreast midway between the shoulder and elbow of the left sleeve for men of the seaman branch and on theright sleeve forothers. Divers, first class, wear the mark without the M. MASTER HORIZONTAL BOMBER-Men who have qualified asmaster horizontal bombers wear cross wires of a gun sight with a falling bomb in the center midway between the shoulder and elbow on the left sleeve for men of the seaman branchand on the right sleeve for others. NAVAL MINE WARFARE-AU graduates of the Mine Warfare School who meet certain qualifications wear, midway between the wrist and elbow on the right sleeve for those of the seaman branch and on the left for those sleeve of the artj.ficer branch, a mine and anchor. NAVYE (0-Members of turret, gun, mineand torpedo crews and ship and fire-control parties and members of the engineers force who have made exceptionallyhigh scores in special forms of gunnery exercises or excellence in engineering wear the Navy E. Men of the communications branch wear a Navy Cfor excellence. The mark is worn on the right sleeve of

Page 38


men of theseamanbranchandon the leftby others. Any personnel who have received consecutive awards for efficiency in gunnery, engineering, or communications are authorized ta wear a horizontal bar under the mark for each consecutive award. PARACHUTE Qualified enlisted MAN: men who have graduated from one of the Navys parachute schools are entitled to wear the insignia of a Parachute Man, a descending parachute, halfway between the wrist and the elbow on the left sleeve. SEAMAN R - M e n Gm who have qualified as seamen gunners and men who attended the Seaman Gunners School weara mark of a bursting shell midway between the shoulder and elbow on the right sleeve or one inch below the rating badge. Smmma-Eblisted men who have qualified for submarine duty are entitled to wear the submarine insignia on the right sleeve, midway between the wrist and elbow.

Pilots, shall not be eligible to receive or wear the Air Crew insignia. SUBMARINE COMBAT-Asilver-plated metal pin showing the broadside view of a submarine proceeding onthe surface with a scroll at the bottom upon which gold stars as merited shall be mounted. The insignia is to be awarded to officers and men who complete (or who completed have

since December 7, 1941) one or more patrolsduringwhichtime the submarine sinks, or assists in sinking, at least one enemy vessel, or accomplishes a combat mission of comparative importance. Further successful patrols shall be indicated by gold stars mounted on the scroll, the third star being indicative of four or more successful patrols.




Pursuant to theprovisions of Alnav are authorized as follows, alldatesinclusive: Central Pacific, beginningDecember 7, 1941, terminal date announced. Asiatic, December 8, 1941,to March
287, clasps area for campaigns 3, 1942.

Not more than one clasp forspecial service may be authorized by fleet commanders for minor engagements not included in other categories. The provisions of this Alnav will in due course be promulgated in detail by general order.

Corregidor-Bataan, December 2 8 6, 1941, to May 6, 1942. TWO WAVE JOBS Aleutian Islands, beginning June 3, 1942, terminal date to be announced. New Guinea, November 1, 1942, to SPECIAL BREAST January 24, 1943. Northwest Africa, beginning NoINSIGNIA vember 5, 1942,terminaldate to be announced. Clasps may also be worn for the N A V A L AVIATORS INSIGNIA: emA gold broidered or bronze gold-plated metal following service: Armed Guard, Escort, Anti-submarine, and Special pin, winged, foul anchor surcharged Service. witha shield. The embroidereddeCombatwith the enemy orduty vice shall be on a black background. It is worn on the left breastof officers which in the judgment of fleet comwho have qualified as naval aviators. manders is equally hazardous shall be NAVAL AVIATION OBSERVERS INSIGNIA: a prerequisite to the wearing of total OP Officers holding designation as naval these clasps. he number clasps authorized to be worn by any aviation observers wear the same inindividual in accordance with the signia asforanavalaviatorasto gold wings, butthecentral device foregoing shall be indicatedon the shall be an 0 circumscribing a n appropriate area ribbon by a bronze erect anchor, plain both in silver. Arabic numeral in the center thereof. Harris and Ewing Photograph. One bronze star is authorized for The 0andtheanchor to be in be- each of the following engagements: bold relief; the center of the 0 Twenty&WashingtonWAVES are Pearl Harbor,December 1941;Wake receiving instraction ilz jsjitsu, the Japaing fllled with .gold. FLIGHT SURGEONS INSIGNIA: Officers Island, December 1941; Makassar nese art of self defense. of the Medical Corps who have quali- Straits, January 1942; Marshall-Gil1942; bertRaids,January-February fied as flight surgeons wear insignia Lombok Strait, February 1942; Java similar tothenaval aviator asto February 1942; Wake-Marcus gold wings,but the central device shall Sea, Raids, February-March 1942; Salabe a slight convexedoval crest surcharged with gold oak leaf and silver maua, March 1942; Tokyo Raid, April acorns. Worn on the leftbreast. 1942; Coral Sea,May 1942; Midway, INSIGNIA: A bronze goldSWMARINE June 1942; Makin Raid, August 1942; Guadalcanal-TulagiOccupation(inplated metal pin showing bow view of a submarine proceeding on the sur- cludes First Savo) August 7-9, 1942; face with bow rudders rigged for div- Defense and Capture of Guadalcanal, ing, .flanked by dolphinswith their August 10 to later date; Eastern Soloheads resting on upper edge of rud- mons (Stewart Island), August 23-25, ders. Worn by officers who have qual1942; Cape Eeperance (Second Savo) , fied in submarines or who have October 11-12,1942; Santa Cruz Islands, October 26,1942;Algeria-Moqualified to command submarines. Worn with dolphins horizontalon the rocco Occupation, November 5-11, left breast, locatedjust below the cen- 1942; Guadalcanal (Third Savo) , Noter of ribbons or medals. vember 12-15,1942; Lunga Point AIR CREW INS1GNIAAuthorized for (Fourth Savo), November 30-Decemflight crews of Navy planes who have ber 1, 1942; Wake Island Raid, Debeen duly designated as members of cember 1942. Air Crews. Commissioned and warRecently authorized insigniafor air rant officers who have been desigand submarinecombat are considered -0Bcial U. S. Navy Photograph. nated as Naval Aviators or Naval Ob- adequate recognition of air and subservers, and enlisted ratings who have marine operations not included the in A WAVE Hospital Corpsman a@pretabeen designated as Naval engagements listed, Aviation tice second class givesaninjection.

Page 39

Invisible to the buman eye but not the camera, explains the Woist, San Diego can make it almost impossibleto get a sidewalk Clem.

NTS,aye the Boogitts, who

HowTo Beat the Gremlins

Know and Anticipate Their Actions, Ship and Statioi Papers Advise
Packing seabags their
with dirt,

Are they bothering you, too?

If they are youre not an exception. tricks, and general trouble, the little Gremlins, judging f r o m reports peoplewho appeared in great numBULLETIN, bers and first came before the public reaching .the INFORMATION are making trouble for men and offi- eye tormenting the Royal Air Force cers everywhere. during the blitz of 1940, have joined

Editors note.-& late as April 11, there appeared in the New York Times an articlethat said thatthe only gremlins recognized so far were those that haunted the RAI?. This, together with reports from Navy ships andstations such as those here, and still more reports from U. S. Army camps where the gremlin known as Bombii makes accurate bombing impossible, will possibly set off afeud between students of gremlinology. The debate: Whether U. S. gremlins are the original article, or close relatives. But whether or no, the RAF has announced one way to appease the gremlins and win them to your side: Keep them supplied with the one thing they want most-plenty of used postage stamps. This advice the INFORMATION passes on for whatever BULLERN it is worth.

Page 40

the Navy to mess up the detail. Their delight ,is your trouble. They play no favorites. Gremlins, it is now known, harass not only airmen but groundlings and seamen as well. They have as much fun pestering the boatswains mate as they do jamming the ribbon in theyeomans typewriter. Campaigns to curb the activities o f the little people, the INFORMATTON BULLETIN learns, have been undertaken by numerous ships and naval establishments. Recruits a t NTS, San Diego, have gone all outagainstthe Bootsnoot. Printers on the U. S. S. Wuoming are plotting ways to trip up the etaoin

San Diego Hoist DiscoveredTheseGremlins

This is a Libberdjl Gibbet. Sailor wants t o go ashore.


crossed eyes, mix shoe sizes.

Griggetts concentrate on one recruit at a time, make load unhearable


At inspection theyalso yank out trouser legs, pall d o w n rifles.

Griggetts have crude sense of humor, laugh at untied shoe laces


Tiggettstampertypewriters.Flyswatter faze them.

will fail t o
Page 41

TheFarragut News, printed by and shrdlu gremlins,amongothers. Gremlins Invade NTS, Farragut,Idaho, reported the Other ships stations, and troubled Capital,.Too presence of Trudgetts, gremlins who with various clansand types of grem.Whilemost ships and naval lins, are devising various methods to trip people running for busses, fill up put the nefarious little people on the busses and cause you to miss the last establishments today are comspot. One solution has been ad- one back from town. Also noticed plaining gremlins, about the were the Mudgetts, wearing rubbers vanced: Washington, D. C., Navy Yard Know your gremlins, said the seven sizes too large to track mud into reports an invasion of elves of Hoist, NTS, San Diego station Paper. barracks. Favorite trick of the Muda different type. Beat them to the punch by antici- getts is to wait for aninspection party Terming the invader a Gobto appear and then call their chums pating their actions. fin, the Bulletin, yard publiAmong the first gremlins to enter for a dance on the deck. A Mudgett cation, says: the Navy, said the Hoist, were some requires no sleep and works all day The Gobfin is a sailor gremSundayona 24-hourbasis. that arrived at training stations, lin. Thelittle Gobfin is only Student officers at, Davis-Monthan known to recruits as Bootsnoots. half an inch and tall has a They irritate barbers, said the Reld, Tucson, Ariz., reported in the nose more than twice his natuHoist, guiding their shears close to Desert Log: field paper, that certain ral height. The end of his nose other gremlin clans, known as Tridscalps. is redfromprying intoother cleaner Other Bootsnootsmeanwhile keep getts, utilized old vacuum peoples business. busy unlacing leggings and shoes, bags, butt buckets and worn out razor Johnny Gobfin wears a blades to mess up barracks between dirtying white hats, tearing buttons bright yellow sailor suitwith off peacoats and awakeningbuglers classes. big, black polka dots, a pink From the fleet come reports of the on time. sailor cap and white shoes with bulkheads, Yeomen and storekeepers complain Sniggetts who unwash a peppermint stripe. The Gobabout the Stantites, the Fixpixies and unswab decks and perform all the fin is said to make a man gripe, Greeleybums, all Gremlins who per- other uns, concentrating their devwalk out of step, or even jump sistininjectingnonsense.into the ilmenton field day. The Blodgetts, ship. most solemn and important COPY and working at night,tarnishandunpapers. polish brass and other bright work. and Zongetts, cousins, hanying memWhen preparing the Wrangler, There are the Bunketts, oil-drinkbers of the deck force. Wiggetk ships paper on the Wyoming, print- ing gremlins who go on jags in the spend hours thinking up ways to ers said the Fixpixies et al. made them engine tormenting room, firemen, throw the boatswains mate over the incapable of spelling, left out middle machinists mates and water tenders side while tearing .holes in tarpaulins initials, made seamen out of COXby emptying bunkers, putting salt and stealing emergency rations arid swains, boatswains matesout of yeowater in boilers, and throwing emery gear out of boats. men andputapicture of adepth The Zongetts, dividing their activicharge where the old man should dust into bearings. Up on deck there are the Wigg2tts ties between gunners mates, torpedohave been.

Friagett spoils window cleaning, also spreahdust ouer wilzdows and slides down bulkheads with soot on shoes. Page 42

Mudgetts make tracks. Note their footwork at left behind men who must sweep and m o p ouer am? ouer.

Trudgett will do anything possible to make a sailor miss a bus, then will stay to enjoy uictims discomfort.

men, and turret captains, release air from torpedoes, cause hang fires and scrape grease from guns. Another of, theirfavorite tricks is jamming ..30 and .50 caliber machine guns or emptying cooling systems. The Tiggetts, one of the first clans of gremlins to go to sea, are the bane of the bridge force, putting ink spots and blots on maps and charts, jarring thenavigators elbow and breaking searchlights whenever possible. Grohms hang in radio outthe shack, putting static in earphones and fouling up messages to and from the ship. Working similarly against storekeepers are the Jeebies, getting Small Stores in an uproar and sending the small-sized sailor back to his locker with clothes large enough for Paul Bunyan. Most annoying of all gremlins, judgingfromnot especially reliable

Sea gremlim was pictared by Kmots amd Fathoms, V&uersity of Colorado.

reports, the are Libberdy Gibbets, working inteams at gangwaysand gates, stealing liberty cards, shoving hats a t a n unregulationangleand throwing busand trainschedules into confusion. The meanest of all gremlins, however, is the Miggett,scourge of the mess hall. Said the San Diego Hoist of this fellow : Long .experience hastaughtthe Miggett that his most strategic post is at the elbow of a server. The Miggett waits until a sailor h a s his eye a particularly luscious focused on pork chop, then, just as the servers fork comes within range, the Miggett nudges the servers elbowand the fork comes up with a chop the size of a postage stamp, three-fourths bo: .s and fat. Although nearly all are troubled by Gremlins of various creeds and practices, few American seamen have actually seen any. One seaman on the U. S. S. North Carolina, however; says he caught one crew unaware during the change in the mid-watch. Stepping from the second deck passageway, this is what he saw: There they were, as I had imagined them, much like their brothers and cousins of previous fame. I got a good look at one as fie scampered beneath a red standing light. He was about a foot high, wore pointed suede shoes, tight yellow britches, and red jacketwith a ruffle at the neck. A. long yellow feather stuck jauntily stocking cap. Most from a green

noticeable difference between this seagoing gremlin and his infamous cousin of high-altitude and R. A. F. fame were his long, slender fingers. As my eyes became accustomed to thelight, I could see them at the height of their glory. There, perched atop a bulkhead ash and butt receptacle was the leader of the gang, directing activities and busily strewing butts,orange peels, burntmatches, and candy wrappers about the deck. His comrades were scampering hither and yon other with debris. Some were stuffing it into a section of the portable suction hose; others were putting apple cores and orangepeelings into the submersible pump.

Gremlins t o Blame?



trLet it go-I

had the message semt

Page 43


(Period of March 21 Through Afiri120)

Allies. Sweep on in Tunisia; Stalemate in Russia Continues; Continental Are Targets Bombed
the Germans met at Stalingrad !'the largest defeat in the historyof wars." The Russians also said that theNazis lost 5,090planes, 9,190tanks and20,360 guns, plus quantities other war maof terials andsupplies.

War Fronts
NORTH AFRICA: Allied troops today knock at the gates of Tunis and Bizerte. To get through the Mareth line, General Montgomery forced Nazi Field Marshal Rommel to divide his army in two parts in Southern Tunisia. By March 28 the British held the line. Allied bombers, including hundreds of USAAF planes,blasted objectives not only in Tunisia, but in Italy and Sicily as well. A t least one Italian cruiser was sunk, along with a number of Axis cargo ships carrying supplies to Tunisia. Allied planes on April 18 aloneknocked down 85 Italian German and planes, 58 of them transports; 74 of them in one engagement-a record for Africa. Townsrecaptured by the 8th Army as it moved NorthincludedGabes, Sfax, Sousse, Enfidaville. In Sfax, citizens tossed bouquetsat the British tanks. PACIFIC:Heavy bombing attacks byAllied planes headlined the activity. In a four-day period, American airmen raided Jap-held Kiska 28 times. In the Southwest Pacific, an enemy convoy of nine ships fled out of bomber range after two cargo vessels had been sunk. Lae,Jap-held base in New Guinea, has been under by Allied craft. constant attack

Rabaul, New Britain, M u b , Buka, Wewak, the Or0 bay area and other enemy-held points were blasted by Alliedbombers. A number of enemy merchantmen were sunk. Meanwhile, Japan's aerial activity included three large-scale bombings in four days on Port Moresby and Milne bay, New Guinea. The United States Army Air Force announced that 384 Jap Planes had been shot down in aerial combat during January, February, and March, against the loss of 54 U. S. Army craft. (The month's Navy communiques, beginning on page 46, give a complete reviewof the Navy's Pacific attion.)

CHINA: Japanese reinforcements were thrown in the drive on Chinese troops in the Kingmen area of central Hupeh. Chinese recaptured troops Hsuntien,Yangchiahoand other localities north of the Yangtze river in Hupeh province. Japanese troops attempting to invade Yunnan Province weredriven back intoBurma.The United States China Air Task force, 14th United now merged with the States Air Force, has destroyed 182 Japanese planes and probably destroyed 63 since July 4, compared with 18 United States planes lost in combat, 16 lost because of mechanical or other difficulties and 10 pilots killed. Japanese attacks in southern Yunnan, Chekiang andcentralHupeh Prqvinces have been repulsed. GREAT BRITAIN: Relentless American and British bombings of military objectives in Germany and Nazi-occupied countries continued without letup. Strategic targets blasted with bombsrangingfrom 4,000-pound block busters down to two-pound incendiaries included: the Axis U-boat bases Belat Lorient andBrest;Ostend,

ON THE RUSSIAN FRONT: Their winter offensive concluded, the Russians continued to hold most of their regained positions in spite of counterattacks by the Nazis. I n some sectors theRussians continued to advance. Red artillery dominated action along the road to Smolensk on the central front. The Redairforce.carriedon damaging raids on the Baltic supply ports of Dmanzig and Koenigsberg. The Russian Government announced that by the end of the Russian winter offensive March 31, the Axis in the winter of 1942-3 had lost nearly 1,200,000 men in killed and prisoners alone and 185,000 square miles of Russian soil. Sovietspokesmensaid

Page 44

gium; Vegesack, Duisburg, Hengelo, Rotterdam, Norwich, Berlin, Bochum, Eindhoven, Trier, Ehrang, Paris, Essen, St. Frieuc, Kiel, Antwerp. Light counterattacks by German planes were made over England. The Allies announced considerable loss of bombers and fighter planes.
BURMA: Japanese troops filtered behind lines of theBritish who had

tablishments in the east with facilities for both land and seaplanes, has gone into commission on a 6,500-acre tract near Cedar Point, Md. Army engineers, meanwhile,announced that a fighter plane base near Upper Marlboro, Md., the largest of its kind in the country, wouldgo into commission around the middle of May.

Casualties among naval personnel through April 17 totaled 25,819, The totals,since December 7,1941:
Dead Mounded Missing Total U.S.Navy . . . 5,505 2,201 .. 10,834 18,540 U. S . Marine Corps 2,036 1,546 2,444 6,026


While stressing the seriousness of U. S . C o a s t Guard_.__..__ 20 75 158 253 moved into Burma, turned the north- the enemysubmarineproblem,the __ Office of War Information last month 13,028 25.819 7,126 4,665 ern flank and forced the British to said that Germansubmarine comretreat about 13miles. BothBritish had been exaggerating and American bombers continued manders claims of Allied ship sinkings by as 133,669,275 in 1941, the Bureau of heavy raids on military objectives. much as 160 percent. Reasons: The Census reported. The record 3,020,153 desire for personal prestige and fear births were attributed primarily to of punishment for failure. business prosperity, secondarily to anticipation of conscription. The newofficersworking uniform Mrs. Thomas E. Sullivan christened The Disney House bill, raising the will be slate gray. Other details: $210,000,000,000, Coat of the same design as the khaki the new destroyer, The Sullivans, national debt limit to named after her five sons lost aboard except the lower patch pockets will be the U. S. cruiser Juneau near Guadal- repealing the Presidents salary limitation order, and prohibiting future smaller;buttons of blue-black plasorderslimiting netsalaries to less tic; flexible shoulder marks andblack canal. than their level on December 7 , 1941, embroidered insignia; gray shirt with or $25,000, whicheverishigher, becollar insignia; black tie; black shoes; came law without the Presidents sigblack or gray socks; plain visored The population of the United States nature. cap with slate gray cover and black increased 1.2 percent in 1942 to a The President appointed Chester C. braid chin strap. total of 135,604,000, compared with Davis food administrator, to admina All Naval Academy graduates this year will be detailed to NAS, Jacksonville, for 10 weeks aviation indoctrination. Half of the class (of750) will report June 14; theotherhalf, two weeks later.

The Navy

Home Front

new-type, a n t i s u b m a r i n e weapon-supplementing rather than replacing depth charges-is already in use.


A new kind of light-caliber shell,

* *

especially valuable against enemy aircraft, is beingmanufactured.Fired from either planes anti-aircraft or guns, the shell is particularly effective inpenetrating self-sealing gas tanksandhasan explosive quality which engulfs enemy craft in flames. New armor-piercing methods, giving the Navys largest many guns times their previous firing power, have been announced, as well as new time fuses for greater long-distance and high-altitude firing. The DepartmentanWar has nounced a new one-man antitank gun, and smaller and lighter barrage balloons requiring only four-man crews. New waterproof and weatherproof pilot charts-which can be utilized forcatchingrainwater,protection againstthesunandinother ways that might contribute to the safety of ship-wrecked persons-are to be placed aboard all lifeboats andlife rafts. ThePatuxent Naval Air Station, one of the largest Navy aviation es-

Official Radiophoto From O W I .

The-Most Active War Front Was Tunis, Where the Allies Did Well Near El Guetta Italian soldiers, taken prisoner, gave American troops cigarettesand insignia fromtheir uniforms. The Allied push in North by April 20th, was Africa moved steadily forward during the month and reaching toward Bizerte and Tunis, only important cities still in the hands of German Field Marshal Rommels armies. One highlight of the Tunisian fighting during April was the meeting of the Britisfi 8th Army and the American 5th A r m y , which took place after a two-pronged drive against Rommel between the towns of Gabes and Gafsa. The meeting, devoid of fanfare, was described thusly: An American tankman waved to the British in an armored car and went on about his job. But now the 8th Army could be supplied from AlgericGnot Egypt. Meanwhile,Rommel felt the full might of the combined Allieddrive; his legions wereunder almost continuous pounding by land, sea and air forces. In one day, the WarDepartment announced, U. S. Army fliers in fighter andmedium bomber planes, delivered 1,399 sorties against the enemy.

Page 45



The Annual Supreme Court Picture

This newest photograph of the United States Supreme Court is the first made since the appointment of WileY BlountRutledge,Jr.Seated, lefttoright: Associate Justice Stanley F. Reed, Associate Justice Owen J. Roberts, Chief JusticeHarlanFiskeStone, Associate Justice Hugo Black, and Associate Justice Felix FrankL. furter. Standing, left to right: Associate Justices Rob. ert H Jackson, William 0. Douglas, Frank Murphy, and Rutledge.

Japanese Sub in Front of Capitol Sells War Bonds

Taken at Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941, this two-man Japanese submarine got to WashingtonApril and was in parked in front of the United States Capitol building. Thousands of citizens peered into its interior through specially installed windows. Admission was thepurchase of war bonds and/or stamps.

the first bomb at the bottom of the isterAgricultureDepartmentsfood you ship, right at the waterline, s, production, distributionactivities. recome up to the ship from the side. Quotes of the Month cruitment of farm labor, and AgriThen you just let a string of bombs cultural Adjustment Administration. walk right up the side of theship British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, visiting United States, called Rear Admiral E. L. Vickery: In not and over it. Its not so good for the by for joint action United States, Brit- so many more months American Mer- ship. ain, China,and Russia in war and in chant Marine willbe the largest in Lt. Comdr. W. A. Hardy: Our 1943 peace to achieve total and unmis- the world. It will present us with a takable victory and a just and last- post-war problem and responsibility and 1944 boats (submarines) willbe more effective, due to changes resulting peace. of the greatest magnitude. * * * ing from lessons learned by submarine Fourteen Army and Navyofficers If the war tables now are being turned from Pacific theater, representatives on theenemy, shipping morethan any personnel in action. of AdmiralWilliam F. Halsey, AdArmy Lt. Gen.George S. Patton, Jr., miralChester W. Nimitz, and Gen. other physical factor has made this Douglas MacArthur, concluded se- possible. Shipping will time the commander in Tunisia: When I cret conferences with United States blow for the second front. enter the city of Tunis, I hope somechiefs of staff in Washington. An unnamed United States naval one d e r s me a bottle of whiskey and More than 2,600 Japanese-Ameri- officer : The Japanese naval tactics on good cigar. * * * The soldier a the surface are to stay away from in battle gets damned little credit for well canvolunteersleft Hawaii totrain long-range firing from surface our Miss. at Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, what he does; it takes guts to live in a President Roosevelt vetoed the ships, believing that their chances are fox hole and eat cold rations. Bankhead bill to exclude farm bene- improved if they can slug it out at Rear Admiral William Ward (Poco) fit,subsidy payments from parity ceil- point blank range and at night fightings. The President warned that the ing in which their chances of hitting Smith, veteran of Midway, Coral Sea, are equal to ours and the handicapof andthe Aleutians:The Aleutians, bill would swellthe cost of living more than five percent, and addmore than their thinner armor is virtually can- the landGod forgot tofinish, the only place in the world where a man can a billion dollarstothe consumers celed out. Calvin Leon Graham, 12, Slc, after stand waistdeep in mud andfight food budget. Edward J. Kelly, Democrat, mayor being sent back to the seventh grade a dust storm, where our soldiers and sailors endure incredible hardships five of Chicago since 1933, was re-elected after he had fought months in the and complete, lonelyisolation uncomPacific: I still want to be a sailor. for a four-year term. plainingly. Lt. Comdr. Robert Montgomery: President Roosevelt, in a compreWe are engaged in a high-speed war Brig. Gen. Alden H.Waitt, Chemical hensive executive Hold the line orseconds is a Warfare Service: In war, time is der designed to check inflation, froze withtheJaps.Thirty lifetime in battle. If you dont make never on the side of the smug or selfwages and prices, prohibited workers a decision in 30 seconds, you lose your satisfied. This is the worst fight we from changing jobs unless the war eflife and your ship. have been in, and if we stop and bend fort wouldbe aided thereby, barred An American squadron leader, deour laces we are over to tie shoe rate increases to common carriers and scribing a skip bombing: You aim cooked. public utilities.

Page 46


Rank of Commodore. Restored to Navy
President Roosevelt in April signed legislation creating temporary the grade of commodore in the Navy and authorizing temporary appointments to that rank. Secretary of the Navy BULLETIN, April Knox (INFORMATION 1943) had requested the rankbe reestablishedbecause there are a great number of small command posts which, while not needing the authority of rear admiral, do need an officer of flag rank. The Presidents signature restored the rank of commodore after a period of 40 years, the rank nothaving been used since shortly after the close of the Spanish-American War. In his newbook, The U. S. Navy Fights, W. Adolphe Roberts writes that the first U. S. commodores werethose men who, during the quasi-war with France in 1798, commanded groups of three or more ships. It was a courtesy title, Roberts says. The American Navy had no officer higher than a captain until 1862. But when a captain had two or more vessels under him it was customary to address him as Commodore. The designation a stuck thereafter, for senior who had had the honor was rarelyaskedto serve afloat except chief of a squadas ron. The distinction due a rear admiral was accorded, but not an admirals pay. Mr. Roosevelt atthe same time signed bills giving officers of the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard authority to act as notaries public for servicemen, and authorizing the sale of naval supplies a t naval stations and post exchanges to civilian officers and employees and other persons at isolated stations designated by the Seeretary where purchase from private agencies is found to be impracticable.

Fiscal 1944 Budget Is Navys Largest

President Roosevelt last monthsubmitted a new Navy Department budget to Congress, requesting, appropriations totalling $24,553,638,000 to finance Americas expanding sea warfare during thenew fiscal year beginning July 1, 1943. The budget, largest in history, was $916,669,319greater than appropriations requested during thecurrent fiscal year, but $1,500,000,000 more than the President indicated he would request for the Navy in his general government submitted budget, to Congress last January. Largest single item the in new budget was for the increase and replacement of ships, for which $9,024,000,000 was requested, an increase of $2,227,739,615 over current appropriations.

Break-Down of .Proposed Budget

OWce of Sec. Nav _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bur. Naval Personnel----Bureau of Ships_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bureau of Ordnance--_ Supplies and Accounts__Medicine and Surgery Yards and Docks_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Bur. Aeronautics Marine Corps_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Increase, repl. of shiFs--Floating drydocks_ _ _ _ _ _ _ Coast Guard _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Departmental salaries- Contingent expenses-_-



1944 $36,897,000 523,598,000 1,887,000,000 3,476,800,000 4,286,211,000 73,000,000 1,960,000,000 1,640,000,000 961,058,000 9,024,000,000 210,000,000 467,879,000 5,124,900 2,070,100

1943 Increase $25,018,685 $11,878,315 290,627,642 232,970,358 78,020,065 1,808,979,935 -477,365,413 3,954,165,413 2,643,723,824 1,642,487,176 152,537,470 -79,537,470 535,354,979 1,424,645,021 5,257,981,470 -3,617,981,470 750,025,692 211,032,308 6,796,260,385 2,227,739,615 210,000,000 506,249,610 -38,370,610 -18,679 5,143,579 460,145 1,609,955

It was indicated that several bureaus already have reached the peak of their procurement programs with the proposed appropriations materially smaller than those requested for the current fiscal year. Among these are Aeronautics, Medicine and Surgery, andOrdnance. A total of $961,058,000,an increase of $211,032,308, was requested for the Marine Corps, and $467,879,000, dea crease of $38,370,610,forthe Coast Guard. An appropriation of $210,000,000 was requested for floating drydocks to facilitate speedy repairs to UnitedNationswarships. at advancebases. The bill also proposesremoval of restrictionson the number of men who may be inducted into the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard and removal of the limit on enlisted personnel of the three services who may be assigned t o the Navy Department and headquartersof the Marine Corps and CoastGuard. Appropriations for the United States Naval A c a d e m y would be raised from $3,219,402 to $3,395,000 and an additional $15,000 over 1943 appropriations was requested for the Naval War College.

Shortens Academy Courses

discretion, to reduce the course at the Naval Academy from four to, three years. An act of June 3, 1941, granted the Presidentsuchauthorityuntil August 1, 1945,but it has been interpreted that authority this expired with the class which entered the Academy August 1, 1942.
879) authorizing the President,at his

The Senate has approved a bill (S.

Page 47


N a v y Department Communiques
ried outthreeattacks agaMst Japanese No. 319: March 21, 1943 positions a t Kiska. Bombs were dropped south Paciflc (Dates East Longitude). on the runway, hangarand camp area. 1. On March 19th: Dauntless dive Low flying fighters strafed Japanese perbombers ( b u g l a s ) a n d Wildcat fighters sonnel. (b) A. U. 5. search plane bombed (Grumman F4F) attacked Vila inthe Abraham Harbor on the southwest Coast Central Solomons. Wres were started. of Attu Island. 2. On March 20th: (a) Dauntless dive South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). bombers and Wildcat fighters again at2. On March 26th: (a) During the tacked Vila. (b) Dauntless dive bombers morning Liberator bombers attacked and Wildcat fighters attacked Munda on Japaneseinstallations onNauruIsland. New Georgia Island. A fire was started. Hits were scored on the wharf, runway, (c) On the evening of March 20th Flying officers quarters and barracks area. Four Fortresses (Boeing B-17) and Liberators fires were startedand several Japanese (Consolidated) attacked Japanese pmiplanes were damaged. tions on Kahili in the Shortland Island No. 326: March 28, 1943 area. No. 320: March 22,1943 South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 1. On March 25th: (a) In the afternoon South Pacijic (Dates East Longitude). a force of Wildcat (Grumman F4F) fight1. On March 2lst: (a) During t h e afternoon, Dauntless dive bombers (Douglas), ers strafed a Japanese barge in Roviana Lagoon, Munda, on New Georgia Island. supported by Wildcat fighters (Grumman (b)Onthenight of March 25th-26th. F4F),attacked Munda, o n New Georgia Canton Islandin the Phoenix Island group Island, and Vila, in the CentralSolomons. was bombed by two Japanese planes. Light A supply area and a n enemy gun position damage was inflicted. (c) Additional rewere hit. (b) During the evening, a force ports reveal that on the night of March of Army Flying Fortresses (Boeing B-17) 25th-26th. U. s. planes carried out two bombing attacks againstJapanese posiand Liberators (Consolidated B-24) attacked Japanese positions a t Kahili, in the tions on Nauru Island, instead of one attack as previously reported in NavyDeShortlandIsland area. partment Communique No. 325. In the No. 321: March 23,1943 first of these attacks, Navy Catalina patrol bombers (Consolidated PBY) started fires. North Pactjlc. I n t h esecond attack (previously reported) 1. On March 21st, two groups of Army Liberator heavy bombers (Consolidated) Liberator heavy bombers (Consolidated scored hits on enemy installations. B-24) and Mitchell medium bombers 2. On March 27th: (a) On the early (North American B-25) with fighter escort, morning of March 27th, a total of seven attacked Japanese positions a t Kiska. ExJapanese planes made five attemptsto cept for one large fire, results were not bomb Guadalcanal Island. In two of these attacks bombs were dropped, killing one, observed. injuring 13 others, and causing slight No. 322: March 24,1943 material damage. (b) Avenger (Grumman) bombers, escorted by Airacobra (Bell South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). P-39) and Wildcat fighters, attacked Jap1. On March23d: (a) A force of Army anese positions a t Vila, inthe Central fighters (Lockheed P-38) strafed the Solomons. Six fires were started.(c) In enemy seaplane base a t Rekata Bay in the early afternoon, Avenger bombers, the Central Solomons. Results were not escorted by Wildcat fighters, attacked returned. reported. All U. S. planes Munda on New Georgia Island. A supply (b) During the night of March 23d-24th, a small number of Japanese planes attacked the airfield on Guadalcanal Island. There was some material damage but there were no casualties to personnel. No. 323: March 25, 1943 South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 1. On March 24th: (a) During the evening, Army Flying Fortresses (Boeing B-17) and Navy Avenger torpedo bombers (Grumman TBF) attacked Japanese positions at.Kahili in the Shortland Island area. A fire was started. ( b ) A small enemy ship in the Shortland Island area was bombed with unobserved results. (c) AllU. S . planes returned from the above . attack missions. No. 324: March 26,1943 North Pacific. 1. On March 24th: (a) During the afternoon and evening, Army Liberator (Consolidated B 2 4 ) d an Mitchell (North American B-25) bombers, escorted by fighters, carried out four attacks against Japanese positions a t Kiska. Hits were scored inthetarget area. (b) All U. S . planes returned. No. 325: March 27, 1943 North Pacific. 1. On March 25th: (a) Army Liberator (Consolidated B24) and Mitchell (North American B-25) bombers, escorted by Lightning fighters (Lockheed P-38), Car-

dump was blown up and a fire started. (d) On the same afternoon, Dauntless (Douglas) dive bombers, escorted by Wildcat fighters, bombed and strafed Japanese positions in Ugali, on the Northeast coast of Rendwa Island in the New Georgia group. One building was destroyed and another was set on fire. North Pacific. 3. On March 26th, a force of Army Mitchell (North American B-25) medium bombers attackedJapanese positions a t Kiska. Hits were scored on a hangar. and in the camp area.

No. 327: March

28, 1943

North Pucific. 1. On March 26th, & detachment of our light forces patrolling t o t h e westward of Attu Island, the westernmost end of the Aleutians, made contact with a Japanese force composed of two heavy cruisers, two light cruisers, four destroyers and two cargo ships. The enemy force was headed eastward toward the Aleutians. 2. Gunfire a t long range was exchanged. When the engagement was broken off, the Japanese forces were observed heading westward. 3. Announcement of further details will be made when such information will not be of value to the enemy. No. 328: Mmch 29, 1943 South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 1 On March 29th: (a) During the . morning, Army Flying Fortresses (Boeing B 1 7 ) attacked Japanese positions a t Buin and Kahili in the Shortland Island area. Hits were scored onrevetmentsand a runway. ( b ) All U. S. planes returned.

No. 329: March 30, 1943 South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 1. On March 29th: (a) During t h e morning, a group of Lightning (Lockheed P-38) and Corsair (Vought F4U) fighters attacked theJapanese seaplane base a t Faisi in the Shortland Island area. Five t o seven Japanese planes were Set on fire. (b) Following theattackon Faisi, this same group of fighters carried out a low level strafing attack on a Japanese. destroyer off Alu Island, (southeast of Shortland Island). The attack was carried out at such low altitude that three feet the of wing of one plane was sheared offby the

Page 48

One destroyer sunk. (b) One large transport sunk. (c) Two medium-sized freighters sunk. (d) One medium-sized freighter damaged and probably sunk. (e) One destroyer damaged. ( f ) One medium-sized freighter damaged. 2. These actions have not been announced in any previous Navy Department Communique. N . 335: April 4,1943 O North Pacific. 1. (a) OnApril2d, formations of Liberator heavy bombers (Consolidated B 2 4 ) and Mitchell medium bombers (North American B-25) and Lightning fighters (Lockheed F 3 8 ) made eight attacks against Japanese installations a t Kiska. Hits inthetargetarea were ob(b) served. All U. S. planes returned. On the same dayforce a of Liberator bombers attackedJapanese positions o n Attu Island.
South Pacific (dates East Longitude).




destroyer's mast. The destroyer was left, .Lightning (Lockheed P-38) fighters atburning. (c) All U.S. planes returned. tacked the Japanese main camp with unobserved results. Later the in day, No. 330: March 31, 1943 Mitchell (North American B-25) medium bombers bombed and strafedJapanese inNorth Pacific. stallations and personnel from an altitude 1. On March 29th: ( a ) A force ofArmy below 50 feet. Heavy explosions and large Liberator (Consolidated B-24) and Mitchfires were observed. ell (North American B-25) bombers, South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). escorted by Lightning (Lockheed P-38) fighters, attackedJapanese positions a t 2. On April 1st: (a) During the night Kiska. The runway, camp area and gun of March 3lst-April lst, a Catalina (Coninstallations were bombed and strafed. solidated) patrol bomber attacked a JapaAll U. S. planes returned. nese surface force of five destroyers and one cargo vessel southwest of KolombangSouth Pacific (Dates East Longitude). ara Island. A t the same time Army Lib2. On March 30th:(a)Inthe early erator (Consolidated B-24) bombers carmorning, Flying Fortresses (Boeing -17) the same ried out a low altitude attack on attacked Japanese positions a t Vila in the lorce. Results were unobserved. (b) DurCentral Solomons and at Kahili inthe ing the morning, 30 to 40 Zero fighters ShortlandIsland area. All U. S. planes were engaged by a force of Wildcat (Grumreturned. man F4P). Corsair (Vought F4U) and Lightning fighters northwest of GuadalAro. 331: April 1,1943 canal Island. Sixteen Japanese planes North Pacific. were shot down. Six U. S. planes were shot down but two U. S. pilots were 1. On March 30th: (a) During the rescued. (c) A force of Dauntless (Dougmorning, Army Lightning (Lockheed P-38) fighters, attacked Japanese positions a t las SBD) dive bombers, escorted by fighters, attacked Japanese positions at Suavanau Kiska. (b) During t h e early afternoon, (Southeast coast of Rekata Army Liberator heavy bomber (Consoli- Plantation Bay). Results were not reported. dated B-24) andLightning fighters attacked Japanesepositions a t Holtz Bay, No. 333.: April 3,1943 Attu Island. All U. S. planes returned. North Pacific: (c) Later in the afternoon, Army Liberator bombers and Lightning fighters attacked 1. On April lst, a force cf Army Libthe main Japanese camp area a t Kiska. erator (Consolidated B24) and Mitchell One U. 5. bomber was shot down by anti(North American E 2 5 ) bombers, esaircraft fire in this attack. corted by Lightning (Lockheed P-38) fighters, made f o u r attacks against JapSmth Pacific (DatesEast Longitude). anese installations a t Kiska. :its wdre 2. OnMarch 30th: (a) During the afterscored on the enemy main camp area. noon, a,force of Dauntless (Douglas) dive South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). bombers, escorted by Wildcat (Grumman F4F) fighters, attacked Japanese installa2. On April 2d, Lightning and Corsair tions at Munda, o n New Georgia Island. (Vought F4U) fightersattacked andset Hits were scored and fires started. All on fire a smallJapanese cargo vessel a t U. S. planes returned. anchor a t Vella Lavella Island, New Georgia poup. No. 332: April 2,1943 No. 334: April 3, 1943 North Pacipe. Pacific and FUT East. 1. On March 30th: 1n.addition to the 1. U. S. submarines have reported t h e two attacks reported in Navy Department following results of operations against the Communique No. 331, Kiska received two enemy in the waters of these areas: (a) more attacks. During the afternoon,

2. (a) On April2d, a U. S. reconnaissance plane encountered a Japanese seaplane west of New Georgia Island and shotit down. ( b ) I n Navy Department Communique No. 332 i t was, reported that sixteenJapanese Zero planes were shot down by U. S. fighters northwest of Guadalcanal. Further reports reveal that a total of eighteen Japanese Zeros, instead of sixteen, were shot down by the U. S. pilots. No. 336: April 7,1943 North Padfic. 1. On April 5th, forces of Army Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers and Mitchell (North American E 2 5 ) medium bombers, escorted by Lightning (Lockheed P 3 8 ) and Warhawk (Curtis -0) fighters, carried out five attacks against Japanese installations at Kiska andoneattack against Attu. Hits were scored on enemy positions. South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 2. On April 7th. a group of Dauntless dive bombers (Douglas SBD) and Lightning fighters attacked Japanese positions at Vila, inthe Central Solomons. Fires were started.
No. 337: April 8,1943 South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 1. On April 6th: (a) During the morn-

ing,a force of Dauntless (Douglas SBP) and Avenger (Grumman TBF) dive bombers, escorted by Wildcat (Grumman F4F) fighters, attacked Japanese installations a t Vila, in the Central Solomons. Hits were scored in the target area and a large fire was started. All U. S. planes returned.(b) In the early evening, three Japanese planes bombed Guadalcanal Island. There were no casualties to personnel and only light damage was reported. (c) During thenight of April 6th-7th, Catalina (Consolidated PBY) patrol bombers attacked Vila. A t the same time Flying Fortresses ( W i n g E l ? ) attacked Japanese installations a t Kahili, intheShortlandIsland area, and also small enemy shippingbetween Choiseul Island and Santa Isabel Island. 2. OnApril 7th: ( a ) Duringthe early morning, a force of Dauntless and Avenger dive bombers, escorted by fighters, attacked Vila. Hits were scored on Japanese antiaircraft positions and the camp area. A large fire was started. ( b ) In the early afternoon, a force of Avenger and Dauntless dive bombers, escorted by fighters, attacked Rekata Bay, Santa Isabel Island. A Japanese four-engine flying boat was destroyed. All U. S. planes returned. (c) Fifty Japanese bombers, escorted by 48 Zero flghters, attacked U. S . shipping'in the vicinity of Guadalcanal Island. U. S . fighters engaged the enemy and shotdown 21 Zeros, 5 dive bombers, and 10 other enemy planes whose type was not reported.

Page 49

Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

T w o Ships, Five Planes: A sailor aboard a United States destroyer operating im the Pacific brings the ships score board up to date-two Japanese ships sunk, five enemy planes brought dowm by anti-aircraft fire.
onpreliminm reports which were announced as soon as possible after being received in the Navy Department. 2. Losses sustained by Allied forces from enemy air attack are revised to stand as follows: (a) One No. 338: April 9, 1943 * destroyer sunk. (b) One tanker sunk. (c) One corvette sunk. South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). (d) One small fuel oil boat damaged. (e) A total of seven planes lost. 1. On April 8th: Flying Fortresses (Boe3. Recapitulation andadditional veriing B-17) heavy bombers and Avenger fication establish enemy plane losses as: (Grumman TBF) light bombers attacked Japanese positions a t Kahili in the Short- (a) 25 Zero fighters shot down. (b) 12 dive bombers shot down. (c) 2 planes landIsland area. Due t o bad weather, of unidentified type observed to crash in observation of results was not reported. the water. 2. I n Navy Department Communique 4. O the seven U. S. pilots downed with f No. 337, i t was reported that a total of their planes, five have been rescued. 37 Japanese planes were destroyed i n an enemy attack on U S. shipping i n the . No. 341: April 12, 1943 vicinity of Guadalcanal Island. Later reports have been received revealing t h a t South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). a total of 34 Japanese planes, instead of 1. During the night of April 10th-llth, 37, were destroyed. Catalina patrol bombers (Consolidated PBY) bombed Japaneseinstallations a t No. 339: April 9, 1943 Munda on New Georgia Island, starting a small fire. South Pacffic (Dates East Longitude). 2. On April 11th: (a) In the early 1. FLurther reports of t h e Japanese air morning, Liberator heavy bombers (Conattack on Allied shipping in the vicinity solidated E 2 4 ) attacked Kahili inthe of GuadalcanalIslandon April 7th (as Shortland Islandarea. Hits were made on reported in Navy Department Communithe airfield runway andadjacent anti-. que No. 337) reveal thatthe following aircraft positions. (b) On the same damage was suffered: (a) One destroyer morning, a force of Avenger torpedo damaged by bombs and later sunk while bombers (Grumman TBF) carried out an being towed. (b) One tanker sunk as attack onMunda.Fires and heavy exresult of damage by bombs. (c) One plosions resulted. corvette sunk as result of damage by North Pacific. bombs. (d) One small fuel oil boat sunk. 2. Next of kin of a l l casualties will be 3. Warhawk (Curtiss P-40) and Lightnotified by telegram as soon as possible. ning (Lockheed P-38) fighters twice attacked Kiska during the afternoon of No. 340: Aprll 11,1943 April 10th. Results were not observed. Smth Pacific (Dates East Longitude). No. 342: April 13, 1943 1. More complete reports of theJapSouth Pacific (Dates h s t Longitude). anese air. attackon Allied shipping i n 1. On April 11th: (a) During the evethe vicinity of Guadalcanal Island on ning, Lightning (Lockheed P-38) and April 7 havebeen received in the Navy Corsair (Vought F4U) fighters strafed Department, making necessary a revision Rekata Bay, Santa Isabel Island. A numof the tableof losses previously announced ber of Japanese anti-aircraft positions in Communiques Nos. 337, 338 and 339. were silenced. (b) During the night, FlyThe previous communiques were based

ing Fortress heavy bombers (Boeing E-17) attackedKahili in the Shortland Island area. Two Fortresses failed to return, apparently due t o unfavorable weather. Results of the attack were unobserved. (c) During the same night, a Catalina patrol bomber (Consolidated PBY) attacked Munda o n New Georgia Island. 2. On April 12th: A force of Avenger torpedo bombers (Grumman TBF) and Wildcat fighters (Grumman F4F) bombed and strafed Vila on Kolombangara Island. Fires were started in the camp area. In this same operation Avengers attacked Ringi Cove, three miles northwest of Vila, and started a fire. No U. S. planes were lost i n these two attacks. North Pacific. 3. On April l l t h , formations of U. S. Army planes, composed of Mitchells (North American B-25), Warhawks (Curtiss P-40) and Lightnings (Lockheed P3 8 ) , carried out four bombing attacks on Kiska. Hits were scored and fires were started in the enemy camp area. No. 343: April 14, 1943 Soulh Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 1. During the night of April 12th-l3th, Army Liberator heavy bombers (Consolidated B-24) bombed Munda, on New Georgia Island. 2. OnApril 13th, during the morning, Avenger torpedo bombers (GrummanTBF), escorted by Corsair (Vought F4U) and Lightning (Lockheed P-38) fighters, bombed and strafed Munda. Bombs were dropped on the runway and dispersal areas, and fires were started from hits scored on an ammunition dump and in the camp area.
North Pacific.

Another enemy plane was later observed to crash. U. S. planes lost were one Airacobra, and six Wildcat fighters. One U. S. pilot was rescued.

3. On April 12th formations of Army Mitchell medium bombers (North American B-25), with Corsair (Vought F4U) and Lightning (Lockheed P-38) fighters, carried out six attacks on Japanese installations a t Kiska. Hits were scored on the runway, gun emplacements, and the main camp area. No. 344: April 15,1943 North Pacific. 1. On April 13th, during the day, ten attacks were carried out against Japanese installations a t Kiska by formations of Army Liberator (Consolidated E 2 4 ) heavy bombers, Mitchell (North American B-25) light bombers, and Warhawk (Curtiss P-40) and Lightning (Lockheed P 3 8 ) fighters. Beached enemy fioat planes were strafed. Many hits werescored and fires were started in the runway and maincamp area. South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 2. On April 14th, during the afternoon, Avenger (Grumman TBF) torpedo bombers and Wildcat (Grumman F4F) fighters bombed and strafed Japanese barges and installations i n Viru Harbor, New Georgia Island. Several fires were started. No. 345: A w l 16,1943 South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 1. On April 15th: (a) During the morning Avenger torpedo bombers (Grumman TBF) , escorted by Wildcat fighters (Grumman F4F), bombed Japanese installations a t Munda, on New Georgia Island. (b) During the afternoon Dauntless dive bombers (Douglas), with Wildcat fighter escort, attacked Japanese installations a t Vila, on Kolombangara Island. A building, believed to be a power generating station, was destroyed. (c) Still later in the day Avenger torpedo bombers, escorted by Corsair (Vought F4U) and Wildcat fighters, attacked andsankan80-fwt Japanese vessel in Rekata Bay, on Santa Isabel Jsland. North Pacific. 2. On April 14th formations of Army Liberator heavy bombers (Consolidated

Page 50

B-24) and Mitchell medium bombers (North American B 2 5 ) , supported by Lightning (Lockheed P-38) and Warhawk (Curtiss P-40) fighters, carried out eight attacks on Kiska. Hits were scored in the Japanese camp area, damaging the runway and revetment area.
No. 346: April 1 7 , 1 9 4 3 North Pacific. 1. On April 14th two additional attacks

were made by Army Warhawk (Curtiss P40) and Lightning (Lockheed P-38) fighters against Japanese installations a t Kiska, raising to ten the total of attacks on that date; 2. On April 15th Japanese installations a t Kiska were attacked thirteen times by formations of U. S. Army planes. Liberator heavy bombers (Consolidated B-24), Mitchell medium bombers (North American B-25), and Lightningand Warhawk fighters carried out these raids. Many hits were scored in the main camp and on the runway and hangar areas, causing numerous fires and explosions. One heavy bomber was shown down by enemy antiaircraft fire. No. 347. April 17, 1943 Pacific and Far East: 1.U.5. submarines have reported the following results of operations against the enemy in the waters of these areas: One large supply ship sunk. Two medium-sized cargo ships sunk. One large minelayer sunk. One small patrol sunk. ship One destroyer damaged. One medium-sized transport damaged. 2. These actions have not been announced in any previous Navy Department Communique. No. 348. April 18, 1943
South Pacific: (All dates are East Longitude.) 1. On April 16th: ( a ) During the night, Flying Fortresses (Boeing B-17), Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers and Avenger (Grumman TBF) torpedo bombers attacked Japanese installations a t Kahili and shipping a t Ballale, in Shortland the Island area. A tanker and a cargo ship were possibly damaged. (b) During the night, two Japanese planes attacked Guadalcanal Island, resulting in light casualties to United States personnel and minor damage to maeriel. It is believed that one of the Japanese planes was shot down by United States antiaircraft fire. 2. On April 18th, a number of Lightning ( L e k heed P-38) fighters engaged two Japanese bombers, escorted by six Zero fighters, over Kahili, in the Shortland Island area. The two bombers and three of the Zeros were shot down. Later, another Japanese bomber was encountered by the same group of Lightnings and destroyed. One United States fighter is missing. North Pacific: 3. On April 16th: (a) A formation of Army Liberator heavy bombers bombed Japanese installations on Attu Island. (b) On the same formaday, tions of Army Liberator heavy bombers and Mitchell (North American B-25) medium bombers, escorted by Lightning and Warhawk (Curtiss P40) fighters, carried out ten attacks against Japanese positions a t Kiska. Hits were scored in the vicinity of the runway andinthe main camp area. All United States planes returned.

hours after the pictures are taken.

Shortland ,Island area. Five hits were scored on a large ship of about 10,000 tons which was later seen in a sinking condition. Two other cargo vessels were encountered by Avengers and two hits were scored on one ship anda number of near hitsontheother vessel. (c) Thesame night, formations of Liberator (Consolidated B-24) and Flying Fortress (Boeing E-17) heavy bombers and Avengers attacked Kahili, inthe Shortland Island area. Hits were scored on the runway and dispersal areas, resulting infires visible for 30 miles. North Pacific: 2. On April 17th: (a) During the afternoon, a formation of Army Liberators bombed Japanese installations onAttu Island. (b) On the same dhy, Army Mitchell (North American B-25) medium bombers, escorted by Warhawk (Curtiss P-40) and Lightning (Lockheed P-38) fighters, carried out nine attackson Japanese positions a t Kiska. Hits were observed in the camp and hangararea. One building was entirely destroyed, gun positions were silenced and three beached planes were strafed.
No. 350: April 20,1943 South Pacific (Dates East Longitude). 1. On April 18th: (a) During thenight,

Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers attacked Japanese installations st Munda, in the Central Solomons. Hits were scored on therunway and a large explosion resulted. (b) The same night, Guadalcanal Island was bombed by Japanese planes, resulting in slight casualties to U. S. personnel and very slight damage to magriel. One of the Japanese bombers was shot down.
North Pacific. 2. On April 18th Japanese positions a t Kiska were attacked 9 times by formations of Army Warhawk


L-.S. S a v y Ihotogmph.

No. 349 April 19, 1943

South Pacific: (All dates are East Longitude). 1. On April 17th: ( a ) I n t h e afternoon, Dauntless (Douglas) light bombers and Wildcat (Grumman F4F) fighters bombed the Japanese dispersal and runway areas a t Munda, in the Central Solomons. (b) During the night, Avenger (Grumman TBF) torpedo bombers attacked two Japanese cargo vessels in the

Count em, Shipmates Nineteen Suns Rising adorn the Grumman WildcatFighter of Technical Serg. R. W. Greenwood, USMC, Jamesport, Mo., attached to Renderson Field in Guadalcanal-

Page 51


1st Marine Division (Reinforced) Given Unit Citation
TheFirst Marine Division, Rein-forced, under the command of Maj. Gen. Alexander A. Vandegrift, USMC, has been cited by President Roosevelt for itsoffensive operations in.the Solomon Islands August 7 to December 9, 1942. The citation was presented by Secretary of the Navy Knox to Lt. Gen. Thomas Holcomb, Commandant of the Marine Corps, in the Secretarys office. The First Marine Division, and attachedunits,spearheaded the successful landingassaultonGuadalcanal, Tulagi, Gavatu, Tanambogo, 7 . and Florida August Islands launched the first U. S, land offensive of the war as they drove the Japanese back from the Guadalcanal airfield, and next in the several months inflicted severe losses on the enemy. The citation reads: The officers and enlisted men of t h e First MarineDivision, Reinforced, on August 7 to 9, 1942, demonstrated outstanding gallantry and determination in successfully executing forced landing assaults against a number of strongly defended Japanese positions on Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo, Florida, and Guadalcanal, British SolomonIslands, completely routingall the enemy forces and seizing a most

Official U. S. Marine Corps Photograph.

Guadalcanal Battle Blaze Marine Corps veterans of the Guadalcanal campaign may now wear this battle blaze.Designedby Lt. Col. Merrill B. Twining, USMC, Operations Officer intheFirstMarine Division, the blaze is a medium-blue cloth diamond with a red numeral and whitelettering. White stars on the b a c k g r o u n d represent the which the Southern Cross under Solomons Islands action took place.

In addition to rendering outstandvaluable base and airfield within the enemy zoneof operations in the South ing service while incharge of the ships damage control party, MechaPacSc Ocean. From the above period until De- nician Harper displayed unusual courside cember 9, 1942, this Reinforced Divi- age and initiative in manning the sion not only heldthe important stra- of the vessel with rifles. Dalton skillfully manned the fortegic positions despite determinedand Oerlikon during gun periods repeated Japanese naval, air, and ward land attacks, but by a series of of- when his ships maindunwasinfensive operations against strong en- operative, assisting effectively in preventing the successful operation of emy resistancedrove.theJapanese , from the proximity of the airfield and the submarines 5-inch gun. Washer, acting as gunlayer, coolly inflicted great losses on them by land andairattacks.The courage and and skillfully maintained effective fire determination displayed in these op- through open sights after enemy fire erations were of an inspiring order. had shattered his gun sights. Previously, the Marine ground and air detachments on Wake Island, the cruiser U. S. S. Houston, the Armys French Civilian 15th Bombardment Squadron, and Army and Marine Corpsforces which Gets Navy Cross fought in the Philippines had received Forthefirst time inhistory,the the Presidential Unit Citation. Navy Cross has been awarded to a Civilian of a foreign nation, Mr. Rene a Malavergne, a French resident of Morocco. Seven New Zealanders Mr. Malavergne won the Navys highest decoration for combat action Win USN Decorations by serving as pilot aboard the U. S. S. Seven members of the Royal New Dallas, four-stacker destroyer, under Zealand Navy-four officers and three Lt. Comdr. Robert Brodie, Jr., USN, in enlisted men-have been awarded landing operations during the occumedals in the name of the President pation of French NorthAfrica. Personally taking the helm, Malaof the United States by Secretary of the Navy Knox, for destroying an en- vergne guided the destroyer through heavy seas, breaking over a bar at the emy Japanese submarine near Guamouth of the Sebou River, snapped a dalcanal late in January. The commandingofficers of the two steel cable boom stretched, acrossthe river entrance and steamed into the corvettes which participatedinthe channel. action-Lt.Comdr. GordonBridson, Though shore batteries, machine D. C., and Lt. Comdr. Peter Phipps, D. S. C., both of the Royal New Zea- guns, and snipers on the banks kept the vessel underheavy fire, Malaland Naval Volunteer Reserv-revergne threaded a tortuous way ceived Navy Crosses. Silver Star Medals were awarded among the wrecks of merchant ships that had been scuttled in the channel, LieutenantsWilliam A. Laurieand James F. A. ONeill, both of the Royal often literally ploughing through the New ZealandNavalVolunteers and mud of the shallow river bottom, and Mechanician R.Harper andAble Sea- landed United States raider forces 10 men A. Dalton and.J. Washer, both of miles from an airfield that the raiders successfully captured. the Royal New Zealand Navy. Immediately upon making contact I with the enemy vessel, Lieutenant I Commander Bridson launched a deNAVY CROSS termined depthattack, forcing the I submarine to the surface. He scored 1 I several hitswithgunlire and twice Rear Admiral Charles P. Mason, during the engagement rammed the USN, of Pensacola,ma., for heroism enemy ship. of Lieutenant Commander Phipps heldduring the Battle Santa Cruz, Octo1942, while in command of the vessel under gunfire until he had ber 26, driven it back to the beach. His tac- the U. S. S. Hornet. Throughout the battle, while the Hornet was being tics contributed directly to the ultisubjected to violent attacks by overmate destructionof the submarine. Lieutenant Laurie directed gunfire whelming numbers of Japanese fightof such accuracyand intensity against ers, dive and topedo bombers, Rear Admiral Mason directed the fighting the hostile vessel that her crew was unable to man its armament success- of his ship with cool and aggressive .fully. Lieutenant ONeill conducted determination. The air forces under the gunner action from his exposed hiscommand succeeded in severely battle station on bridge of his ship, damaging andpossibly sinking a large the scoring several effective hits on the number of enemy warships, includingan aircraft carrier, three heavy cruissub.


Page 52

ers, and one light cruiser. In addition to this damage to enemy surface vessels, a total of 70 Japanese planes was destroyed, the guns of the Hornet accounting for 26 of them.

Capt. Charles P. Cecil, USN, of Flat Rock, N. C., who served as commanding officer of a destroyer group of a task force during action against Japanese forces off Santa Cruz Islands, October 26,1942, for conducting his group so that unitsunder his command maneuvered skillfully in forming a tight defensive screen around a United States carrier in spite of intense and violent action sustained for an hour and a half.

Capt.Charles P McFeaters, USN, . of Laguna Beach, Calif., who served as commanding omcer of a transport carrying troops and supplies to Guadalcanal, for taking his ship into Guadalcanal on three occasions with Press Association Photograph. reinforcementsand supplies for the forces ashore, despite heavy aerial Secretary Knox @resents theDistinguished Seruice Medal to Mrs. Eloise Walker bombing, repeated torpedo attacks of Rear Admiral Robert seruices as and bombardments from Japanese English, widowSubmarines, Pacific Fleet. H . English, f o r her husbandsan. airplane Commander shore batteries, and landing his car- crash in the of Franciscoarea. LookingAdmiral English was klled in Sa% on are daughters CorneliaEnglish, left, goes safely and bringing his ship and Ensign Eloise English of the Waues, on duty at the Navy Department. through unscathed.

Two officers who tooktheir destroyers into the unknown harbor of Safi, French Morocco, and landed without loss the assault troops who captured that strategic port, have been awarded the Navy Cross by Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox in recognition of their skill and daring. The officers are Lt. Comdr. Robert E. Braddy, Jr., USN, 39, Ga., who commanded the U. S. S. Bernadou, and Lt. Comdr. George G. Palmer,USN, 35, Charleston, S. C., skipper of the U.S. S. Cole. Old four-stackers, the Cole and the Bernadou .for many months served in the Atlantic antisubmarine patrol. Then, in November 1942, they joined the armadawhich was to carryAmericanforces to French North Africa. They assigned were to attack the group making the for strategically important port of Safi, in French Morocco, and given the suicidal mission of leading the wave of ships which were to carry the first group of assault troops into the harbor. Through the heavy cross-fire, from French shore batteries, the Cole and Bernadou swept into thecrowded harbor. They snaked through the vessels lying a t anchor, and on toward their appointed objectives. Lieutenant Commander Braddy beached Berthe force emnadou to permit the assault barked upon her to landimmediately. Lieutenant Commander P a 1m e r pushed on through the harbor, maneuveredalongsidea dock, and discharged his troops. The soldiers swarmed ashore and made for their objectives. Shortly thereafter, resistance ceased.

action) for sinking a total of 31,000 tons of enemy merchant shipping and damaging anothermerchantman of 15,000 tons in Pacific waters in immediate proximity to enemy shores,

Commander Glenn R. Hartwig, Highland Park, Mich., and Lt. Comdr. Randolph B.. Boyer, USN, of Portsmouth, Va., for bringing their ship alongside their task force carrier whichwas disabled and listing, and aiding the carrier in desperate fight a against raging fires. Repeatedly driven off by the fury of subsequent air raids, CommanderHartwig and Lieutenant Commander Boyer persisted in returning to the side of the stricken vessel during each cessation of enemy action in orderto assist damage-control and evacuate survivors. Theactionoccurred off the Santa CruzIslandsonOctober 26,
USN, of

Lt. Comdr. Earl K. Olsen, USN, of Honolulu, T. H., posthumously, for coolly and efficiently directing the evacuation of the surviving personnel and attempting to carry the body of another officer to a place of safety, after enemy torpedo fire had flooded the engine room where Lieutenant Commander Olsen was stationed during action against Japaneseforces off Guadalcanal on the night of November 30-December 1, 1942. As a result of his gallant spiritof self-sacrifice on behalf of the men on watch with him, he succumbed to smoke and toxic gases.


Lt. Comdr. John J. Shea, USN, of Arlington, Mass., listed as missing in action, for directing the fight against Commander Frank W. Fenno, Jr., fires on the flight deck of the U. S. S. USN, of Westminster, Mass., whose Wasp, after the carrier had been cripsubmarine braved Japanese shore bat- pled by the Japanese bombing attack teries andantisubmarinepatrols to which later caused her to sink. Lieubring a vast amount of gold, silver, tenant Commander Shea disregarded and securities out of the Philippines thedanger from the fires, flying debefore Corregidors fall, a Gold Star bris, and exploding ammunition to in lieu of a second Navy Cross (his carry on his fight. When the water first was awarded for the Philippines pressure failed, heemployed chemical

Page 53

fire-fighting equipment in a desperate effort to extinguish a fire in a ready ammunition locker, and was leading out a fire hose to continue his efforts when a terrific explosion occurred. He was not subsequently seen by his shipmates. Lt. Comdr. John B. Azer, USN, of WestChicago, Ill., for wagingsubmarine warfare against Japanese shipping, sinking 9,500-ton freighter a and damaging a total of 19,139 tons of merchant shipping.

Lt. Comdr. William B. Stovall, USN, of San Diego, Calif., for successfully locating enemy forces, expertly maneuvering his ship into favorable attack position, and boldly engaging the enemy with the result t h a t his submarine was able to sink four large Japanese vessels, three of which were closely convoyedby enemy destroyers.

Lt. William N. "hies, USNR, of Washington, D.C., serving as a pilot during the Aleutian Islands campaign, for constantly seekingout andengaging the enemy, despite t h e hazards of severe weather conditions, thereby inspiring other members of his squadron to supreme efforts. Heparticipated in all-night patrols and bombing attackson enemy Japaneseshipsin Kiska Harbor and succeeded in scoring a hit on an enemy transport, all the while defying continuous and heavy antiaircraft fire. Lt. Spencer D. Wright, uSN, of Newberry, S. C., ,for leading his section intheinitialaerialattack on the Japanesepositions in the Solomons. His section covered the landing operations on Gavutu and Tanambogo Islands. Attackingflight a of Japanese seaplanes off Gavutu, Lieutenant Wright's shot section down six flying boats, then destroyed a motor launch on the sea. He personallyaccounted forthree of the planes and the boat. Lieutenant Wright then led his fliers in a strafing assault on the enemyshoreinthe two islands, destallations on stroying fuel and ammunition dumps, buildings and motor vehicles, and hampering Japanese troop movements, thus paving the way for the landing of the American ground forces and contributing greatly to the successful occupation of the islands. Ensign Neal A. Scott, USNR, of Goldsboro, N. C., posthumously,for exhortinghisgun crews tosustain heavy and accurate fire against the enemy, although his ship had been badly hit and hehimself had suffered a mortal wound, during action againstJapaneseforcesnear Santa CruzIslands, October 26, 1942. His gallantfighting spirit and remarkable courage served as an inspiration

"Press Association Photograpn.

For Cleanrng up Guadalcanal: Maj. Gem. AlexanderPatch, Jr., commander of Army forces on the South Pacific Island, receives the Navy Distinguished Service Medal from Vice AdmiralAubrey W . Fitch. Behind Gen. Patch are Brig. Gen. R. L. Sfiragins, Corps Chief of Staff,and Bt-ig. Gen. William R. Woodwart, Artillery Commander.

to the crew of the ship in helping'to render ineffective the enemy attacks. Ensign Leon W. Haynes, USNR, of Billings, Mont., a pilot of a fighting squadron in enemywaters, for participating in a vigorous and determined dive-bombing attack,inthe face of heavy antiaircraft fire, on enemy ships, and as a result of this attack a t least one enemy ship was sunk. Thomas Joel Maloy,CWT, USN, of Milwaukie,Oreg.,posthumously, for his actions whileserving aboard the 0. S. Atlanta during action against S. Japanese naval forces in the Solomon Islands areaon November 13, 1942. After a torpedo had struck the vessel and his station in No. 1 fieroom was flooding rapidly, Maloy promptly ordered his crew to abandon the area while he remained behind until compelled to relinquish all hope for further use of the fireroom. Subsequently, obtaining an oxygen breathing apparatus, he proceeded to investigate conditions in the forward engine room and was killed while performing this task. Erwin C. Parmelee, CCM, USN,listed as missing in action, of Haddam, Conn., for the success of his efforts to perfect the damage control organization of his ship, illustrated when his ship remained afloat and accomplished the featof reaching port after extensive damage had been wrought by an explosion caused by a torpedo hit which detonated the forward mag-

azines and gasoline tankduring an engagement with enemy Japanese forces on the night of November 30, 1942, Donald Roy McAnn,GMlc, USNR, of Rochester, N. Y., posthumously, who served as a member of a photographic detail aboard a United States warship during an engagement with Japanese naval forces in the vicinity of Santa CrUz Islands on October 26, 1942, for taking station in anexposed position in, the forward port .50 calibergun mount and, in addition to obtaining photographs under extremely hazardous conditions, rendering valuable service in relieving members of the gun's crew a t frequent intervals until he was fatally wounded by a bomb fragment. Sam Davis Presley, AMhIlc, USN, of Carthage, Miss.,who is listed as missing, for abandoning the shelter of his normalbattlestationwhenhis aircraft carrier was attacked by hostile planes during engagement with an Japanese naval forces in the vicinity of the Santa CruzIslands, October 26, 1942, and making his way to a plane parked on flight deck of the the carrier. Climbing into the rear cockpit, he manned the flexible guns in effective fire against raiding aircraft until the plane fell over the side and he crashed into the sea. Ralph Pettengill,WTlc, USN, of New York, N. Y . ,for courageously securing the Number One boiler when the main steam line was damaged causing the

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fireroom to fill with superheated steam during an engagement with Japanese naval forces on the night of October 11, 1942, andcontinuingto fire boiler NumberTwo, until it too was putout of commission; forremaining below until he could no longer see the waterglass, then securingthe second boiler, stopping the auxiliaries, filling both boilers with water and successfully directing the escape of h i s fireroom personnel witha single man, before outinjuryto leaving the flooding compartment.

Robert Lee Rheindt, BM2c, USN, of Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, for his actions during a n aerial attack by Japanese forces. When enemy bombers dove a t our vesselsloaded with gasoline and explosives, Rheindt, standing by in a landing boat, saw a bomb hit a barge carrying aviation gasoline, which immediately burst into flames. Observing men desperately struggling in the water covered with blazing oil, Rheindt unhesitatingly maneuvered hisboatthrough smoke and flames near the furiously burning barge and rescued sixmen before the intense heat and spread of the flames drove him off.

fusing to leave his station and'go below during a crash dive of his submarine until he succeeded in securing a hatch which had become jammed. The submarine was underway in enemy-controlled waters when the approach of Japanese naval units forced her to crash dive. The wheel of the locks for thehatch leading from the deck to the conning tower became jammed, however, andthe hatch would not close sufficiently to keep out the seas. By his action, Breckenridge, risking drowning, saved the conning tower instruments from damage fromtheseasand enabled the submarine to continue on patrol during which 29,600 tons of Japanese shipping were sunk.




Richard Frederick Breckenridge, QM2c, USN, of Tacoma, Wash., for re-

Alvin Lee Marts, F ~ cUSN, of Delta, , Colo., posthumously, for unhesitatingly assisting others in carrying an injured medicalofficer to the amidships dressing station, although he himself had been severely wounded by a tremendousexplosion, during an engagement with Japanese naval forces on the night of November 30, 1942. When he reached the dressing station he collapsed from utter exhaustion and loss of blood and died shortly afterward.

Rear Admiral Lyal A. Davidson, ofNorfolk,Va., commander of theSouthern AttackGroup of the Western Naval Task Force during the occupation of French Morocco on exercising November 7-8, 1942, for brilliantjudgmentandsuperbseamanship in total darkness and conducting the ships under his command in a successful approach to their stationsfor the attack on the port of Safi preparatory to further operations against Casablanca. Early in the following morning, in an efficient ship-to-shore movement, his group effectively silenced three hostileshorebatteries,stormed the port and landed troops and equipment without serious damage or loss of life. Their quick capture of Safi, resulting largely from RearAdmiral Davidson's ingenious foresight and skillful leadership, greatly expedited the unloading of tanks andcontributed in a vital measure to the successof the whole operation.

$ 7

Rear Admiral Robert C. Giffen, Annapolis, Md., who served as commander of the Covering Group of the Task Force assigned the duty of occupying French Morocco in November 1942, for being completely successf u l in the bold and vigorous tactics employed to protect the other groups of the task force engaged in the assault and landing operations, despite difficult conditions caused by sun glare, smoke screens, and the maneuvers necessitated in avoiding submarine torpedoes.His command assisted substantially in destroying or crippling all hostilesurface vessels attempting to sortie from the harbor of Casablanca. Due to the thoroughly Planned and perfectly executed operations of this group, opposition from shore batteries and ships within the harbor was effectively neutralized and aerial and submarine attacks were frustrated.
USN, of

Erst Purple Heart for Coast Guard:Lloyd M. Morris, 24, CBM, recentlywas awardedthePurpleHeart, the first Coast Guardsman in history to receivethe medal. Morris received the award for wounds received during landing operations in Africa. At the ceremony were, left to right: Rear Admirals L. T . Chalker, H. J. Johnson, and E. 1. Gorman, Morris, Vice Admiral Russel R. Waesche, Rear Admirals Stanley V . Parker and RobertDonohue, and Capt.C. A. Park. The six admirals in this photograph are 50 percent of the Coast Guard's total of admirals: One vice admiral and eleven rear admirals, inclzcding three retired.

Rear Admiral John L. Hall, Jr., VSN, of Williamsburg, Va.,who served as acting chief staff to the of commander of the Western Task Force during the landing operations in Africa last November and later as commander of the West Africa Sea Frontier Force and commandant, Naval Operating Base, Casablanca, for organizing, establishing, and assumingcommand of the Sea FrontierForces, although continuing to perform the duties of chief of staff, during the periodNovember 8 to 20, 1942. In addition to preventing acts of sabotage during operations at

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Casablanca, Safi, Fedala, Port and Lyautey,he effectively reestablished the services of these ports, removed merchant ships which were blocking the harbors, salvaged United States vessels which had been damaged during operations, and cleared the way for Western Task Force units and the convoy which followed them.

served as a n inspiring example to the Hornet's crew.


Rear AdmiralMonroe Kelly, USN, of Williamsburg, Va., commander of the .NorthernAttackGroup of the Western Task Force, engaged in the occupation of French Morocco in November 1942,for conducting the ships of his group in complete darkness to 1942. their stations for the assault on the While under constant threat of attown of Port Lyautey which, with certack by air and submarines, the Task tain airdromes in thevicinity, he had Force to which Commanders Burbeen assigned to occupy preparatory roughs and Dow were attached, reto further operations against Casapeatedly steamed for protracted pe-Acme Photograph. blanca. Having successfully comriods in enemy waters and in close pleted the approach phase, directed For Gallantry at Corregidor: he and the ship-to-shore movement early in Commander EugenePar0 received the proximity to enemy territory bases. Largely due to their skill and the morning of November 8, landing Silver Star recently for heroic and determination under fire, only minor troops against. severe opposition. intrepid conduct while attached to damage was suffered from attacking Throughout the ensuing action,which a submarine detachment which car- heavy bombers. I n addition, they lasted until the morning of November riedsupplies into Corregidor and contributed materially to the marked 11, strong hostile batteries were neuassisted in evacuating personnel. success of the other actions through gunfire tralized by heavy and accurate Rear Admiral Edward L. Cochrane, which the Task came Force unfrom the ships of his group, and the Chief of the Bureau of Ships, pre- scathed after inflicting extremely strategic areas captured. sented the medal to Commander heavy damage on Japanese installaParo. a tions and shipping. Rear Admiral Ernest D. McWhorter, a USN, of Blue Springs, Miss., who served turedtheshore batteries. By early as commander of the Air Group of afternoon,all organized hostile reCommander William R. Smedberg, the Western Naval Task Force, prior sistance in the vicinity had ceased. 1 1 USN, of Arlington, Va., who served 1, to and during the attack phase the of as commanding officer of a United occupation of French Morocco in Noa States warship during action against vember 1942, forinsuring the comsubmarine off GuadalCapt. Jerauld Wright, OSN, of Wash- a Japanese plete and successful performance of Although the tasks assigned to the Group, by ington, D. C., for assisting in planning canal, Solomon Islands. the occupation of North Africa and his ship was lying a t anchor unloadthe exhaustive, efficient training and for commanding the submarine in ing ammunition when the submaindoctrination of his Air Group and which General Henri Giraud made hisrine launcheda surprise attack,Comby the detailed planningfor thetasks, during the exacting and comprehen- escape from France. As a member of mander Smedberg successfully evaded maneuvering sive preparation for the protection of the advance party which effected a an enemytorpedo.His landing along the andthe superb functioning of his the Western Naval Attack Force. In successful night entire ship's company enabled him to gaining controlof the air in that area, northern coast of the Africancontinent and kept a secret rendezvous savehisshipand complete an imneutralizing hostile shorebatteries, priorto the outbreak of hostilities, portant mission. and conducting antisubmarine and air combat patrols while at the same Captain Wright participated in vital time providing fighter coverage of our conferences preliminary to the invaz?s own troopslanding at three widely sion of Morocco and Algeria. Commander Henry G. Moran, USN, separated points, the Air Group shot of West Haven, Conn., for skillfully down 26 planes and destroyed more directing operations which resulted than 100 on the ground. in extinguishing many violently blazSILVER STAR 72 ing fires aboard the U. S. S. Hornet during action against Japanese forces Capt. Robert R. M.Emmet, USN, of near Santa Cruz Islands, October 26, Wilton, N. H., who served as comCapt. Apollo Soucek, USN, of Med- 1942,for promptly instituting all posmander of the Center Attack Group of as executive sible counterflooding measures when the Western Naval Task Force in the ford, Okla.,whoserved for working tirelessly landingoperations in North Africa officer of the U. S. S. Hornet during needed, and action against Japanese forces near throughout the ship in attempting to last November, and who was assigned Santa Cruz Islands, October 26, 1942, control the heavy damage. COmthe duty of capturing the town of was firstlieutenant Fedala and an important airfield for skillfully directing difficult opera- mander Moran including handling of the and damage control officer of the nearby,for skillfully conducting in tions, complete darkness on November 7 all heavy towing cable and anchor chain, carrier. enabled theaircraftcarrier units under his command their sta- which to to be taken into tow after. she had a tions for the attack on In the early morning of November 8, he suffered seriousdamage. His couraCommander Theodore R. Wirth, landed troops and equipment in geous leadership in this action and his direction of the USN, of Berkeley, Calif., whoserved Fedala, and in the face of persistent during earlier as executive officer of a United States control of fires aboard thecarrier fire, the CenterAttackGroupcap~

Commander Sherman E. Burroughs, Jr., ns~, Coronado, Calif., of and Commander Leonard J. Dow, WN, of Toledo, Ohio, for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity while serving on the staff of the Task 'Force Commander during a series of highly successful offensive missions, including the attacks on the Marshall and GilbertIslands, the raidson Wake and Marcus Islands, theBattle of Midway, and similar operations in the Central Pacific covering a period from December 6, 1941, to June 14,

Page 96

Major Guy G. Narter, USMC, for receives the Silver Star medal gallantry in action on Guadalcanal. Z?r Commander Dwight Hodge Dexter, Left to right: Secretary of the Navy USCG, of San Francisco Calif., who Robert LeeO'Brien,CBM, USN, of Frank Knox, Major Narter, and Lt. High Springs, Fla., for promptly and landed on Guadalcanal, Solomon IsGen. Thomas Holcomb, comman- fearlessly risking his life extinguish lands, with the Marines on their inito dznt, United States Marine Corps. the fire resulting from an attack by tial occupation of the islands, for establishing and administering the Japanese aircraft, which seriously Local Naval Defense Forces the in face threatened the safety of his ship and of almost daily enemy attacks by air Lt. (jg) Roy M. Billings, US^, of the personnel on board. and nightly bombardment, over a pe- Sacramento, Calif., commander of an riod of many weeks, byJapanese naval Armed Guard crew aboardamer7 2 units. For nearly four months, until chant ship, for directing the fire of Robert 0.Byers, CBM, USN, of Porto evacuatedonaccount of illness, he his men with great success and conmaintained an organization which tributing in largepart to the destruc- Rico, for courageously remaining at his battle station and continuing to was highly essential to the successful tion of at leasteight enemyplanes his as range-finder unloading of troops and thousands of during days of almost continuous at- perform duties tons of vitally needed supplies. tack by German submarines and tor- operator aboard a United States warship accurately and efficiently, depedo and bombing planes. When his spite painful shrapnel wounds, until ship, rocked by explosions and with shrapnel and debris covering the deck, ordered to leave during a lull in the Japanese forces naval dropped temporarily out of the.con- battle with Lt. Comdr. Oscar H. Dodson, USN, of Guadalcanal the on night of Billings and his near Waco, Tex., who served as communi- voy, Lieutenant (jg)their bullet-torn November 12-13, 1942. crew remained cations officer on the U. s. s. Hornet gun stations and a t continued the fight. during action against Japanese forces near Santa Cruz Islands, October 26, a Hiram Jesse Hodge,CGM, USN, of 1942, for directingthe reestablishment EnsignFloyd M. Symons, WN, of Pryor, Okla., for immediately ascerof radio and visual communications after all normal channels had been New Orleans, La., a Gold Star in lieu taining the damage done to his ship after it had been raked by enemy of a second Silver Star Medal; Comdestroyed or rendered ineffectual by mander Eugene E. Paro, USN, of Pa- fire, taking charge and fighting fires enemy bombs. Later, accompanied Nelson, and carrying out the wounded during by a volunteercrew, he entereda com- ducah, Ky., and Ensign Ivan G. partment containing an unexploded USN, of Middleton, Idaho, all of whom a n engagement with Japanese naval bomb in order to destroy the ship's were attached to the Submarine De- forces near Guadalcanal on the night setachment in action against enemy of Novembel' 1,2-13, 1942. He secret publications, Japanese forces at Fort Mills, Cor- moved with his own hands ammuniwhich was dangerously overregidor, P. I., during the period Janu- tion exploded in ary 1 to April 10, 1942, for risking heated, some of which their lives on numerous occasions to mid-air as it left the ship, Lt. Irving J. Superflne, USN, of South carryoutvital missions duringthe Bend, Ind., for boarding anabana prolonged seige of Corregidor and the doned vessel in anactive combat area subsequent evacuation of personnel Luther Graham Keenum, CTM, in order to obtain strategic material, from that hazardous area. UsN, of Columbus,Miss., for bravely while acting as officer-in-charge of a assisting in fighting fires afterhis salvage crew intheSouth Pacific. a ship had been raked by enemy guns After working tirelessly over a period during a n engagement with Japanese of several days, under most difficult Diosdado Rome, CCk, USN,of Hononaval forces near Guadalcanal onthe and trying conditions, he brought out lulu, T. H., posthumously, for stand- night of November 12-13, 1942. I n ing by his battle station in the perhisshipand abargecontaininga formance of his duties despite the order to operate.the magazine floodvaluable cargo, dropping anchor safely that his compartment was ing valve, Keenum daringly entered in spite of enemy observation and fact handling room, thereby flooded and filled with gas as a result a flaming attack. contributing in great part to the savof an explosion whichdamagedhis ing of the ship. ship during an engagement with Japanese naval forces on the night of Lt. Robert E. Dornin, USN, of San November 30, 1942. Although he Francisco, Calif., serving as executive finally made his way'out of the danJames Clyde Hammond, ACMM, officer aboard submarine, for the gerous area and carried on throughUSN, of Pensacola, ma., forhis actions skill and accuracy with which he per- out the remainder of the night and while serving as engineering chief, formed his duties which resulted in part of the next day, he eventually charged with the responsibility of five ships in three convoys being suc- collapsed from the deadly effects of maintaining certain planes of his cessfully attacked. prolonged exposure to the gas. squadron in readiness for combat, on

warship operations during in the Southwest Pacific; acted as first lieutenant and damage control officer during theCoral Sea and Midway actions, and as executive officer in the engagements of August 24 and October 26, 1942, for rendering invaluable service while participating in the ship's mission a'nd again when his ship engaged a Japanese surface force off Guadalcanal onNovember 13, when he remained at his battle station, though wounded in action, persistently alert in spite of exhaustionfrom loss of blood, and ready to take over conning t h e vessel.

"Ofiicial U. 8. N a r y I'hotograph.

Carroll Edgar Witham, CBM, USN, of Long Beach, Calif., whowas promoted to his present rate (acting appointment) in recognition of meritoriUS conduct in action, and Samuel J. Rufi, GM3c, usm, of Warren,Ohio, for entering the smoking mount after an explosion occurred in the forward 5-inch gun mount aboard their warship, causing a number of casualties, extinguishing the flames from the burning clothing of two injured and unconscious members of the gun crew and assisting in carrying to them safety,duringthe opening offensive againstJapanese shore positions in Tulagi Bay, Solomon Islands, August 7, 1942.

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Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, from September 18 to November 7, 1942. Handicapped by extremely difEcult and dangerous conditions, Hammond effectively serviced aircraft with a smallengineering crew. On one occasion, after a severe hostile shelling, he and his crew,although, exposed to fierce artillery fire, labored to salvage undamaged Parts from wrecked planes. Workingday and night in the midst of exploding bombs and bursting shells, their task made doubly difficult by inclement weather and lack of materials, they successfully reconstructed complete aircraft which launched effective attacks against Japanese. the Often

working 24 hours a day t o make possible the extensive flight schedule maintained by hissquadron,Hammond, by h i s exceptional technical ability,and courageous leadership, contributed in large measure to the success and efficiency of operations in this area. Jack Walter Shelton, CFC, USN, of Stafford, Va., for remaining a t his battle station and coolly and efficiently performing his duties as range finder operator, although painfully wounded by shrapnel, during the engagement with Japanese naval forces near Guadalcanal on the night of November 12-13, 1942. He continued to

identify silhouettes as they appeared and gave target angles, speeds and ranges during the height the battle. of (Shelton was advanced to his present rate from fire controlman first class on January 1, 1943.) Frank Percy Reed, CWT, USN, of 'Brooklyn, N. Y., forvolunteering to lead a hose to most dangerouspart the of a fire aboard his warship in an attempt to prevent the explosion of a quantity of ammunition,immediately subsequent to the battle against Japanese naval forces on the nightof November 30, 1942. Takinghisstation in a motor launch, he remained bravely fighting the blaze until orderedto leavewhen the craft in which he stood had to jettisoned, as be it too had become a mass of flames. Murray Wynne Reynolds, CEM, USN, of Dorchester, Mass., who served as senior chief electrician's mate aboard a United States warship during the engagement enemy with Japanese naval forces on the night of and, although November 12-13, 1942, badly wounded, continued issuing instructionsto his menfor effecting necessary repairs to the electrical system which had been putout of commission by enemy fire, until he became so weak from loss of blood that it was imperativetoevacuate himtothebattle dressing station. His courageous and skillful assistance in re-establishing communications, to the bridge and utilizing hand-steering control contributed in great measure to the prevention of further damage to his ship. MarionGreen, CCk, USN, of McClellansville, s. C., foractionon a United States warship during the engagement with Japanese naval forces on the night of November 12-13, 1942. Aftera shell hadstruckand badly damaged his station inthe galley. Green lifted a wounded shipmate to his back and attempted to evacuate him when a second shell struck the galley, killing the wounded man and piercing Green's body with innumerable pieces of shrapnel. Although suffering acutely, he, with utter disregardfor his own personal safety, refused to leave his battle station and remained to care for another wounded comrade. (Green advanced was to his present rate from officers' cook, first class, on January 19, 1943, for meritorious conduct.)

"Press Association Photograph.

For 61,600 Tons of Enemy Shipping Sunk and 30,000 Tons Damaged: Nine officers and men of a U. S. submarine were presented awards a t Pearl Harbor March21 by Rear Admiral C. A. Lockwood, Jr., inceremonies aboard the ship. Left to right, front row,Lt.Comdr. C. C. Burlingame, Vallejo, Calif.; Lt. T. D. Keegan, Staten Island, N. Y . ; Lt. R. K. R. Worthington, Philadelphia; A. R. Stegall, CRM, Seattle, Wash., and Robert Anderson, C mSeattle, Wash. Rear row, Ebs. D. E. Finch, Everett, Wash.;Lt. J. P. T , Bienia. New Bedford. Mass.: Lt. K. G. Nichols, San Diego, and T. Duncan, CMOMM, Sari Francisco. Duncan and those in the front row received the * Silver Star, others the Navy and MarineCorps Medal. Page 58

Richard Thomas Woodson, AFWlc. USN, of Denver, Colo., who served as a radioman and free gunner in a scout bomber of the U. S. S. Hornet Air Group during action against Japanese forces near Santa Cruz Islands, October 26, 1942,for assisting in fighting off a Drolonged attack on his Dlane by nUm&OUS&emY fighters and continuing to man his gun throughout the

The Distinguished Flying


" O f f i c i a l U. S. Coast Guard Drawings.

has been posthumously awardedLt. John A. Pritchard, Jr., USCG, for a spectacular rescue two Armyairmen, marooned of on the Greenland Ice Cap when their Flying Fortress crashed. As portrayed in the drawing at theleft, Lieutenant Pritchard landedwith his wheels retracted and took off from treacherous ice, carrying the two Army airmen to his cutter. He and his radioman, BenjaminA. Bottoms, MMlc,USCG, were lost the following day while attempting rescue of a third flier. Previously, Lieutenant Pritchard had crossed the Ice Cap on skis and snowshoes to rescue three RCAF airmen, similarly marooned. His meeting with the Canadians, portrayed in the drawing at theright, was commemorated when the RCAF presented a plaque to the Coast Guard in appreciation (INFORIVIATION BULLETIN, March 1943). engagement,although he was weak of a from loss of blood asaresult serious wound. His loyal devotion to duty during a critical situation contributedinalargemeasuretothe destruction of a large number of Japanese fighters shot down by his group. Lynn Kessinger Robertson, SFlc, TJSN, of Peoria, Ill., for risking his life to extinguish a fire aboard his warship which seriously threatened the safety of the ship and the personnel on board, while serving in action against Japanese forces. Allen Alfred Eylar,SClc, USN, Of Seminole, Okla., for refusing to leave his battle station, although painfully injured during the action with Japanese naval forces off Guadalcanal on the nightof November 13,1942,thereby helping to maintain his battery in readiness until the engagement was over. When he finally reported to the dressing station, he noticed a fire starting in the galley and heroically assisted in putting it out before going back to have his wounds treated. Louis Deet Bonin, Smc, USN, of Pelly, Tex., for entering a blazing, smoke-filled compartment and, with utter disregardfor his own safety, made a desperate attempt to open a water-tight door in order to extinguish the fire in an adjacent compartment. His actionoccurredimmediately subsequent to the battleagainst Japanese navalforces on the night of November30,1942. William P. Liddle, Jr., PhMBc, TJSN, of Goodwill, W. Va., posthumously, for continuously exposing himself to enemy machine-gun and rifle fire in order to administer to his wounded comrades during vigorous attacks by our force on Japanese-heldvillage the of Matanikau, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. tricate a badly injured ofacer and then assisted in removing another seriously burned and helpless man to a place of safety. His actions occured while serving on a United States warshipimmediatelysubsequent to the battle against Japanese naval forces on the night of November 30, 1942.


Kenneth William Durant, PhMSc, USN, of Algona, Iowa, posthumously, for his actions on Guadalcanal, Soloa mon Islands, during a Marine offenHarry A. Seymour, Jr.,Slc, USN, sive in the MatanikauRiverarea, of Phoenix, Ariz., who is listed as when he worked his way forward with wounded in action, for disregarding the assault elements despite tre- painful burns and injured hands and mendous hostile fire. Afterhe had breaking out fire hose, coupling it administered aid to numerous injured together fighting and fires aboard Personnel, he halted at thecommand his warship duringthe height of batpost in utter exhaustion until a tle near Guadalcanal on the night of Marine, fatally wounded about 15 November 12-13, 1942. Seeing two yards to the front, called for a corps- shipmates whose clothing was ablaze, man. Unhesitatingly, Durant rushed fire forward in the face of machine-gun he courageously extinguished the the and aided in the removal of and sniper fire and was killed before wounded. reaching the stricken man. out to the firing line and rendering first aid treatment to his wounded and dyingcomradesduringactionagainst Japanese forces in Matanikau the River area on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. His courageous action, performed in the midst of heavymachine-gun and fire bursting hand grenades, uniioubtedly saved the lives of several members of theMarine Corps who otherwise have might perished. Robert CrosbyNunes,FC3c, USN, of Portland, Oreg., for remaining in the vicinity of his station battle after it had become enveloped in; flames and assisting in rescuing his injured comrades. Although he himself wassuffering from burns and his hair was on fire, Nunes helped to exof Memphis,Tenn.,forrushing


Carimi, PhM3c,




John Charles Batease, HAlc, USNR, of Richmond, Va., who, during action against Japanese forces on Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands,onSeptember 14, 1942, movedover the hilltop

(See page 61)

Page 59

cer who had been caught in a dangerousundertow and was aboutto go under. Lieutenant When Colonel Snurkowski had brought the officer almost to the beach, both were swept back tosea by an enormous wave which dragged them under the water and then threw them against a jagged rock. Although weak from exhaustion, Lieutenant Colonel Snurkowski nevertheless succeeded in pulling the Naval officer and himself up on the rock in a relatively safe position and managed to hold on until help came. Ensign Sparks, Ben Jr., WSM, of Lochland, Ohio, for rescuing a Naval Reserve officer who landed in the water after parachuting from a plane which was involved in a midair collision. Immediately, upon observing the crash, Ensign Sparks landed on the water as close as possible to the most seriously endangered man,whose life jacket was torn and useless and who had become badly entangled in the shrouds of his parachute.After crawling down on top of the float and pulling the exhausted officer to safety, Ensign Sparks removed his outer clothing and dived repeatedly in the attempt to rescue another victim of the same crash, continuing tirelessly in his efforts until almost overcome by the fumes of gasoline accumulated on the surface of the water.

Cap, took onboard the two Army fliers and, .in a demonstration of superb airmanship, successfully took off his heavily loaded plane and proceeded back to hisship. The next day Lieutenant Pritchard again landed on the IceCap, took aboard oneof the fliers and, after a successful take off, started back for his ship. Soon thereDISTINGUISHED after the plane probably encountered a snow storm which apparently led to FLYING CROSS I I its destruction and to the disappearance of Lieutenant Pritchard and Col. William A. Matheny, USA, of Bottoms. Bottoms rendered valuable assisCarrington, N. Dak., and Maj. manon to Pritchard cis'A. Smith, USA, of Northeast, Md., tanceLieutenant for leading theirheavy bombardment both the flights. He maintained eXgroups in a vigorous and determined cellent contact by radio between his bombing assault against a n enemy plane and mother ship, keeping her Japanese base and contributing to fully informed of the position of the plane, time of arrival at the scene of the fighting spirit which enabled their groups to inflict severe damage rescue operations, conditionsprevalent at the scene, and other pertinent on hostile personnel and material. data. He also assisted Lieutenant 72 Pritchard in rendering aid to the injured and strandedfliers. Maj. Johnathan E. Coxwell, USA, of Billings, Mont., posthumously; Maj. iiEdward A. Jurkens. USA, of Sterling, Ill., and Capt. Dana B. Billings, USA, Ensign James C. Weimer, USNR, of of Ripon, Wis., for leading bombing Baton Rouge, La., for pressing home attacks, as commanders of heavy his attack in the face of heavy and bombardmentgroups,on a heavily accurate machine-gun fire and, with fortified Japanese base and enabling the assistance of two other pilots, their groups to inflict severe damage shooting down in flames a Japanese on hostile personnel and material. twin-engined bomber, while on patrol operations as a pilot of the U. S. S. Lt. John A. Pritchard, Jr., USCG, Hornet Air Groupduringactionin of Burbank, Calif., and Benjamin A. the Solomon Islands area. Bottoms, MMlc, USCG, of Salem, Mass., both listed as missing in action, for saving the lives of two members of an Army bomber crew forced down on CORPS MEDAL theGreenlandIce Cap. Lieutenant Pritchard, at the risk of his own life and that of Bottoms, who was his raLt. Col. Charles V. Snurkowski dioman, skillfully maneuvered his (MC), USA, ofNew Haven, Conn., for the Ice swimming to the assistance of an offiplane to asafelandingon into an area which lay between the main lines of fire, remaining there and unselfishly administering to his wounded comrades until he was seriously injured by a mortar shell which landed nearby.


JoeE. Howell, Flc, USN, of Hartford, Ala., for swimming out and rescuing survivors off enemy-occupied territory despite thefactthat his ship to might have been forced steam away and leave him in the shark-infested waters. He swamout asfaras 100 yards onfour occasions to get the men who weke too exhausted to reach the ship.


Dan Strickland, Slc, usm, of Westminister, N. C., for risking his life repeatedly to swim through oil-covered, shark-infested waters a only few miles from enemy territoryto carry a line to exhausted survivorsof a badly damaged ship, following an engagement with Japanese forces near Guadalcanal. When the line parted, he valiantly assisted several men to a drifting life raft which was eventually towed back to his warship. I I

I .

Lt. Comdr. John F. Tatom, USN, of San Diego, Calif., for deliberately seeking flights into enemy-dominated areas where the most hazardous weather conditions prevailed and for being able, as a result of these flights, to provide Naval and Army aircraft commanderswithdependableinformation and advice vital to air operations against enemy Japanese forces inKiska,whileparticipating in the

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"Wipe that opiniolz o f your

" T h e Keynoter (NTS, Toledo, Ohio).


Earl Gallagher, ARM3c, USM, of Los Angeles, Calif., who listed as missing is in action, for contributing in large -measure to the development of suc72 cessful Communications among the Lt. William F. Eadie, USN, of Evan- planes of his squadron during engageston, Ill., for his successful rescue of ments with Japanese forces on OctoCapt. Eddie Rickenbacker and his ber 26,1942 and November 14.-15,1942, party onNovember 12,1942,after they as a radioman-gunner attached to a had been adrift in the Pacific since bombing squadron. Intercepting a Eadie October 21, 1942. Lieutenant radio contact report from a plane in discovered the raft after a search of another sector, he enabledhis pilot more than 10 hours in his scouting to proceed to a point where he could plane. Helandedhisplaneonthe release his bomb and score a direct hit open sea near the raft, placed the most on a Japanese cruiser. severely injured man in the cockpit a of his small plane, lashed the others Albert M. McClure, ARM~c,USNR, to his wings and taxiedtoward his base 40 miles away, until given as- of Washington, D. C.,who served as radioman and turret gunner in tora sistance by a passing ship. pedo bomber of the U. s.s.Hornet Air a Groupduringactionagainstenemy Harry Claude Ansley, Jr., A R M l c , Japanese forces near Santa Cruz USN, of Augusta, Ga.,listed as missing Islands, October 26,1942,for performin action, for contacting a strong ing his task in the face of extremely force of hostile warships on October heavy enemy antiaircraft Are and, by 26, 1942, during action against Japahis skill and gallant devotion to duty, nese forces in the vicinity of Santa contributing in a large measure the to Cruz Islands, while acting as radiosuccess of the attack on a Japanese man-gunner and, by maintaining heavy cruiser. flight over the enemy force for more a than anhour, furnishingvaluable inKeith Leroy Johnson, ARM3c, USNR, formation which made possible a subsequent attack by our own forces; for, of Minneapolis, Minn.,who was aton November 14, 1942, taking part in tacked by four hostile float planes a against raid a Japanese cruiser while serving as radioman-gunner on a search mission from Henderson force and,later,anattackagainst Field, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, hostile transports approaching Guadalcanal. Encountering fierce resist- for leaving one plane afire and putance by antiaircraft fire and enemy ting the others toflight by his timely fighters, he failed to return from this and effective fire. Although his own plane was severely damaged and his mission. pilot wounded, he fought off an overDavid Bruce Small, APlc, USN, of whelming foe in a critical encounter Detroit, Mich., for his achievement whichotherwisemighthaveproved while serving as bow gunner of a pa- disastrous. trol plane action during against enemy Japanese forces in the Solomon Robert C. Hynson, Jr., ARM3c, USN, in listed as missing in action, of DavenIslands area on October 26, 1942, destroying one Zero fighter and driv- port,Iowa,forconducting effective ing off others with the assistance of strafing attacks with his free machine the starboard waist gunner, so that guns during retirement from a vigor-

AleutianIslandscampaign. On one occasion, while making one of his numerous flights in an Air Corps'bombing plane to Kiska and Attu asan observer, he was subjected to heavy antiaircraftfire over KiskaHarbor and his plane was attacked by a formation of Japanese fighters.

his pilot was eventually able to elude ous raid against a hostile cruiser force the remainder of the Japanese attack in theface of tremendous antiaircraft group and thereby savehis plane and fire, as radioman-gunner attached to crew. a bombing squadron in the Solomon Islandsarea on November 14, 1942. $7 he pressed home an attack William Ernest Edwards, APlc, USN, Later, of Long Beach, Calif., for his achieve- against an enemy transport force ment as pilot of a PBY airplane fol- despite strong fighter opposition and, during the ensuing action, bravely lowing an accident in mid-air. When by a spontaneous burst of flame fanned foughtagainstrepeatedassaults aided in out of the starboard engine and seven Japanese Zeros. He burned the fabric from one wing and shooting down two of the planes. the control surface, Edwards, with his rudder and elevators inoperative, skillfully maintainedcontrol of the COMMENDATIONS planeuntilthe disabled engine fell out of the wing. * Lowering his floats and effecting a precarious landing at Capt. William H. John, British sea,he promptlyorderedall hands over the side, then, despite imminent Merchant Service, for serving as capdanger of fuel explosion aboard the tain of a United States merchant ship which carried an essential cargo blazing craft, made his way to the waist compartment, securedtwo rub- across submarine infested waters and ber life boats and picked up the entire delivered it safely after a dangerous crew from the water. voyage.



Ensign William H. Farrer, USNR, of Arkansas City, Kans., officer-incharge of.the Armed Guard crew aboard a merchant ship, for leading his men valiantly to combat the enemy which attacked with submarines and planes and for doing everything in his power to aid his men to reach safety when the ship was torpedoed and sunk.

JohnHenryRuehl, . Jr., AOM3c, USN, of Redford Township, Wayne County, Mich., for his heroic action while participating in the rescue of the members of a plane which crashed. Ruehl was flying as a passenger in a plane when another plane was seen to crash in a nearby ravine. The pilot of Ruehl's plane flewover thecrashedcraftand immediately landed at thefield to report the accia Are,extindent.Ruehlobtained guisher and boarded a tractor which took him to the edge of the canyon in which the Plane hadcrashed,and proceeded down the slope on foot until hejumped on atruck which was rushing to the scene. When he reached a spot near the wrecked plane, Ruehl leaped fromthe truckand ran to the burning craft

(See page 6 3 ) Page 61

Paul Franklin Ballew, GM3c, mm. of Gastonia, N. C. John Andrew Batinsky, Cox, USNR, of Brooklyn, N. Y . Charles EdwardBieber, Slc, USN, of New Orleans, La. Charles William Clark, GM3c, u s m , of Marianna, Fla. Leo Edward Grimmenga, Slc, USNR, of Brookfield, Ill. HermanDuane Lower, Slc, USNR, of Midland, Mich. Walter Frank Lubas, Slc, usm, of 7k Northbridge, Mass. SIC, USNR, Of Robert Lee Taylor, Slc, u s m , of Argonne McCown, Robinson Creek, Ky., for his conduct Jacksonville, ma. Elmer Clarence Marvin, Slc, USNR, as amember of the Armed Guard crew aboard a merchant ship which of Moline, Ill. was _sunk by enemy forces. During Virgil Franklin Mcmveen, Slc, usm, an attack by enemy high-level bomb- of Brooklet, Ga. Wilton Oscar Parker.~, usm. of Slc. ers and torpedo planes, McCown followed one of the attacking planes Pickens, S. C. with fire from his gun, sending it to David Wessling Michael, Slc, u r n , of Fort Worth, Tex. its destruction in the sea. Curtis Randolph Pierce, Slc, USNR, a of LaGrange, Ga. Seth Thomas, Slc, usm, of Elkview, Hubert Madden Foley, S ~ C , , Of WN Hyattsville, Md., posthumously, for W. Va. his service as a member of the Armed Lawrence Jefferson Thornbrough, Guard crew on a merchant ship in a Slc, USNR, of Clinton, Okla. convoy upon which enemybombers, William Joseph Turegano, Slc, torpedo p l a n e s and submarines usm, ofNew Orleans, La. launched prolonged and sustained attacks. The Armed Guard crew shot of William Carlvan Turner, Slc,u r n , Jacksonville, Fla. down seven attacking planes and the Chester Milton Wallace, Slc, usm, ship was brought to safely port through the assistance of the Armed of West Union, W. Va. Jerry Blaze Waller, GM3c, USN, of Guard crew. Atlanta, Ga. 7Y Charles Raymond Ward, GM3c, USN, The following members of an of Atlanta, Ga. James Williams, Slc, u s m , of Star Armed Guard crew aboard a merchant vessel fortrading gunfire with on- City, W. Va. rushing enemy planes throughoutfive Raymond Woodrow Wilson, GM3c, days of almost continuous air attacks, USN, of Macon, Ga. sending one crashing into sea and the a contributing to the effective antiairThe following members of an craft barrage of the convoy which ac- Armed Guard crew aboard a United counted for several of the .enemy Statesmerchantman whichsuffered raiders: extensive damage as the result of a USNR, GeorgeWilliamAliff,GM3c, near miss, for, during an ensuing of Baltimore, Md. period of intensive enemy activity, where he assisted in removing the injuredpilot and one member of the crew tosafety.Hethenfoughthis way through the flames and exploding ammunition to help extricating in the remaining unconscious crew memberfrom the tangled wreck. A few seconds after the last man had been dragged to safetyone of the gas tanks of the plane exploded in a sheet of flame.

defending theirshipagainst enemy aircraft and, in spite the difRculties of involved, returning the ship to state a of complete repair: John Haywood Minshew, Cox,USM, of Maylene, Ala. Charles Franklin Onstott, Jr., SM3c, USN, of East St. Louis, Ill. USN, of Ora LeRoy SM2c, Beal, Creston, Iowa. William Kodad, R M ~ cUSN, of Dor, Chester, Mass. Stanley Quisenberry Meadows, GM3c, usm, of Mulga, Ala. James Edwh McFerrin, GM3c, USN, of Bessemer, Ala., who is listed as missing in action. Byron Foster Roy, BM2c, us^, of Beedeville,Ark., who is listed as missing in performance of duty. David Phillip Riley, GM3c, USN, of Ludlow, Mass. Hubert Lemaster, GM3c, USN, of Boaz, Ala. Robert Wayne Prescott, Cox, uSM, of Castle Rock, Colo.

The following, members of an Armed Guard crew aboard a merchant ship which was heavily attacked by enemy submarinesand aircraft, for shooting downtwo of the planes by their skillful antiaircraft fire. During thisattackthe vessel suffered two torpedo hits and within the space of a few minutes began to settle at the stern. Despite the heavy machine gun fire fromthe planes the abandonment of the ship was effected successfully and therewere no casualties eitherduringtheattackorin the evacuation : Leonard DonaldHoward, Slc, USNR, of Baltimore, Md. Morton Watson Howard, Slc, USNR, of Huntington, W. Va. Harry Matthew Jackson, Slc, USN, of Walton, W. Va., listed as missing in action.

Twice Wounded

Official U. 8. Coast Guard Drawing and


by Japanese gunflre and forced t o abandon his torpedoed ship near Guadalcanal, George T. Rhodes, MM2c, USCG, polished off a Jap ina fist-fight in the water before he was rescued by three Navy men. The Coast Guard drawing at the right shows Rhodes finishing the Jap, who attempted to steal Rhodes life jacket, with a well-aimed right to the jaw. At the left, the aftermath: receives the Purple Heart from RearAdmiral Robert Donohue, chief of He Coast Guard Personnel.

Page 62

The following membersof a n Armed Guard crew aboard a merchant ship a in a convoywhichwas attacked by a The following members of the numerous enemy planes and subThe followingArmed Guard crew Armed Guard crew aboard a merchant marinesthroughoutthe voyage, for membersforconducting themselves ship in a convoy subjected to numer- shooting down a t least seven enemy i n a courageous and efficient manner ous submarine and air attacks during aircraft anddamaging many more: Frank C. Gay, GM3c, USNR, of Denand aiding materially in the destruc- the voyage, for remaining at their ver, Colo. tion of several enemy aircraft which stations and meeting each recurrent George Cecil Goddard, GM3c, TJSNR, attacked their convoy; for continuing air attackwith an accurate andeffecof El Rito, N. Mex. to perform their duties afterdirected tive barrage of .antiaircraft fire: John Henry Harmon, GM3c, USNR, Francis Charles Capobianco, Cox, torpedo attacks on the vessel which of Denver; Colo. UsNR, of Cambridge, Mass. resulted in its sinking,abandoning Cecil Billy Graff, GM3c, USNR, of David DeanRoark, Slc, TJSNR, of the burning ship only when so orWeldons, Colo. Edgewater, Ohio. dered: Rex Eldon Robertson, Slc, USNR, Frederick Roberts, Donald Slc, Ernest Richard Barclay, Slc, urn, of Dayton, Ohio. USNR, of Albuquerque, N. Mex. of Chicago, Ill. Leo Grant Palmer, BMlc, USNR, of John Frederick Becker, Slc, TJSNR, Joe William Romero, Slc, USNR, of Pocatello, Idaho. Denver, Colo. of Mahanoy City, Pa. Dorsey Austin Standefer, BM2c, USNR, Harold Chester Whitney, Slc, Melvin Lewis Bradley, Slc, USNR, WNR, Los Angeles, Calif. of of Chicago, 1 1 1. of Bellemoore, Del. Patrick Henry Gates,Jr., Slc, USNR, Miron Ernest Wonch, S ~ C , USNR, of Robert William Beine, Slc, TJSNR, of of Weston, Colo. Lansing, Mich. New Athens, Ill. John PrestonGladson, Cox, USNR, Gerhart Yekel, Slc, USNR, of BridgePaul Francis Gallagher,RM3c, USN, of Lusk, Wyo. port, Nebr. of San Francisco, Calif. Arthur David Garvis, GM3c, USNR, John Francis Sullivan, Slc, USN, of LouisGeorge Finch, Cox, USNR, of of F t Collins, Colo. . Quincy, Mass. Lowell, Mass. WilliamMelvin Frazier, Slc, USN, John Reeborn Reed, SMSc, USNR, Carl Ernest Jewell, SM3c, USNR, of of Richmond, Va. of Melrose, Mass. Columbus, Ind. Thomas James Fournier.Slc, TJSNR, Jack Parker, Slc, USNR, of Holland, a of Buffalo, N. Y. Mich. The following members of the Gerard Edwin Ward. Slc, USN, of TJSN,of Preston Oren Peet, Slc, Armed Guard crew aboard a mer- Astoria, N. Y. Osage City, Kan. attached a convoy to Michelo Anthony Inguagiato, Cox, JamesSolomon Peiffer, Slc, USNR, chant ship on five separate dayswhich was attack dur- USNR, Of Chicago Heights, 111. of Lebanon, Pa. Arthur Lee, S I C , USN, of Chicago, Neil Lisha Raymond, Slc, USNR, of ing its voyage by numerous enemy aircraft and submarines, forassisting Ill. Saginaw, Mich. inthedestruction of a t leastthree Elmer Henry Layette, Slc, USNR, of Donald Raymond Strand, Slc, enemy planes : Chicago, Ill. USNR, Minneapolis, Minn. of Irving John Nord, Slc, WNR,of Iron Lambert Essso Reitsma, Slc, USNR, Estel Harding Webb, Slc, USNR, of Mountain, Mich. of Lansing, Mich. Dayton, Ohio. Dennis Joseph OBrien, Slc, USNR, Felix Edward Rey, Slc, USNR, of a of Urbana, Ohio. Orleans, La. Donald Sherman Biggs, Slc, USNR, Harry Edward Pankau, Slc,USN, of Lawrence Buddy Roach, Slc, USNR, of Fenton, Mich., for his conduct as a Milwaukee, Wis. of Danville, Ind. member of an Armed Guard crew DouglasLee Parrish, SIC, USN, of Alfred Eugene Richards, Slc, USNR, aboard a merchant ship during her Dodge City, Kans. of Lansing, Mich. voyage. Throughout the days when Kenneth Orr, GM3c, USNR, of Lyon Paul Francis Lendman, Slc, USNR, the convoy fought its way through County, Ky. of Marion, Ind. bomb-blasted and submarine infested Walter Merle Pattinson, Slc, U&R, Winford Norwood Richardson, Slc, waters the members of the Armed of Belle Fourche, S.Dak. USN, of Conway, S. C. Robert ELee Watson, Slc, USN, Donald Quentin Wardell, Slc, USN, of Jesup, Ga. of Rocky River, Ohio. JohnRaymondWerber, Slc. USN, of San Bernardino, Calif. George Eugene Jorgensen, Slc, USN, of Pacific Junction, Iowa. Harry Holder Grace, Jr., Cox., USNR, of Minneapolis, Minn. Robert Keith Eaton, Slc, USNR, of Duncombe, Iowa. Albert William Edwards, GM3c, USNR, of Backus, Minn. . Edward VincentEngles, Slc, USN, of Oshkosh, Wis. George Scott Dobbs, Slc, USNR, of -Dots and Dashes (NTS, Los Angeles). Toronto, Ohio. of Patrick Joseph Doner, Slc, TJSNR, You ought to be rzicer to them; you Detroit, Mich. carzt tell wherz they m y be cosHenric Matthew Drzymale, Slc, voying you. USNR, of Weirton, W. Va. (Seepage 65)
~ ~~

James Eratus King, Jr., Slc, USNR, of Hawkinsville, Ga. Leo Joseph Solis, Cox, USNR,of New Orleans, La. StanchfieldWright, Slc, USNR, of New York, N. Y. Antonia Dias Lima, Jr., RM3c, USNR, of Ludlow, Mass. Edgar Eugene Nall, .SMOc, USN, of Big Creek, Miss.

Guard crew remained a t their stations and met each recurrent attack with accurate and effective barrages of antiaircraft fire. Despite Biggsdirect exposure to enemy strafing during one of those attacks, he exchanged fire with an enemy plane, set its starboard engine on and fire forced it to withdraw.

Dale HansenDunn, SIC, USNR, of LaHarpe, Ill. Woodrow Dunn, Slc, USNR,of Indianapolis, Ind. Herschel1Leroy Gragg, Slc, USNR, of Quenemo, Kans.

Page - 63


Jacket Numbers
amendment was signed by the President), upon payment of stipulated EZective May 1, 1943, jacket num- premiums. bers will be used in all communicaThis new.amendment includes pertions concerning officers in lieu of sons whose applications for insurance signalnumbers, in accordancewith have been previously rejected because Circular Letter from the Vice Chief of of failure to apply within a 120-day NavalOperations, datedMarch 27, period from the time of reporting for 1943. active duty, as the original act provided. Survey of Men Serving All Navy officers and enlisted men ark reminded that it is to their inAshore terestto secureadequateinsurance All shore activities within the concoverage. Those who do not now tinental limits of the United States carry the maximum amount of Nahave been directed by the Bureau of tional Service Insurance, which is Naval Personnel to make a survey of fixed by law at $10,000, are strongly enlisted men who reported for shore urged to apply for it immediately. with duty before July 1, 1940, a view As an illustration of the wide acof making them available for transfer ceptance of National Service Insurto sea duty by June 30, 1943. Each command has been instructed ance by the Navy, Marine Corps, and more to reportby May 15,1943, theirDis- Coast Guard, a t t h e present to than 1,587,000applications, representtrict Commandant (or, in the case of of activities not operating undera Naval ing $12,228,435,000 insurance, have District, to the appropriatecommand been made by these branches of the approximately charged with distribution of person- service. I n addition nel), showing the number of enlisted 85,000 policies of the United States and men, by ratings, who will have com- Government Life Insurance, pleted three years on shore June 30, more than 42,000policies of commerby 1943. The term Shore duty includes cial insuranceare beingcarried by Naval personnel, with premiums paid priorduty at othershorestations, from monthly pay allotments. shipkeeperassignments, yardcraft, recruit training, service school instruction, hospitalization, etc. BuPers Manual A summarized report for the entire District(orappropriatecommand), There has been someconfusion with showing thetotalnumber available reference to the article numcers of for sea duty, by ratings, is to be sent the Bureau of Naval Personnel Manto the Bureau of Naval Personnel on ualdue to issuance of changes by means of Manual circular letters in June 1, 1943. Reliefs will be provided from men who have completedrecruit advance of the distributionof the Butraining and from class A service reau of Naval Personnel Manual, Reschool graduates,they as become vised Edition, dated October 1,1942. The changes referred to and new the available. Each activity has been directed to article numbers are as indicated place lower ratings training in as below : prospective replacements. Men concerned are to be informed Article of the directive inorder t h a t they may plan their personal and family Ltr. No. Cir. Date jiVo.mold~cormekd manual innew Article to be affairs accordingly. manual Above includes all classes of male enlisted personnel, regulars, Naval Reserve, Fleet Reserve andretired, who do not have an approved Bureau classification for Shore duty only.

Alnav 68
The provisions of Bureau of Naval Personnel Circular Letter No. 159-42 are amended to the extent that enlisted personnel of the regular Navy are now authorized to submitapplications for and accept appointments to permanent commissioned rank in the Naval Reserve inthe mannerpreviously established for Naval Reserve enlisted personnel. The procedure outlined inparagraph 3 of the referenced directive governs andshall be carefully followed. The enlisted contracts of men will be terminated upon the acceptance of their appointments pursuant to the provisions of Article -9107, Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual.

Alnav 69

National Service Life Insurance Act Amended

The NationalService Life Insurance Act has been amended to allow any person on active duty the in Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard, regardless of his date of entry in the service, to secure newpolicies without medical examination upon application within 120 days from April 12, 1943 (thedate upon which the

The Bureau of Naval Personnel requests commanding officers to submit individual recommendations concerning Naval Reserve, regular Navy retired and Fleet Reserve personnelwho are qualified to perform duties under conditions hereinafter described in higher temporary ranks and grades as follows: To ranks up to Lieutenant inclusive, , permanent Commissioned Warrant and Warrant Officers serving as such; to rank or grade not above Ensign, temporary Chief Warrant and Warrant OBcers and Chief and First Class Petty Officers serving as such. In all cases recommendations must be accompanied by reports of physical examination on NSM Form Y in duplicate. For Naval Reserve personnel form only, submit a questionnaire similar to Fmclosure B to Bureau of Naval Personnel Circular Letter No. 15942, and comply with further procedure outlined in that directive. Recommendations and pertinent data tobe submitted promptly via the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery in order to insure receipt in Bureau of Naval Personnel prior to July15,1943. Recommendations concerning Naval Reserve personnel shall be restricted to special service classifications only. Recommendations concerning regular Navy retired and Fleet Reservists shall be confinedto personnel who are physduties The changesissued by Bureau of ically qualified to perform Naval Personnel Manual Circular Let- ashore only. Attention is invited to the instructer No. 22-42 (last Manualcircular tionscontained in Bureau of Naval letter of 1942) and by all Manual cir- Personnel Letter Pers-66s (over) cular letters beginning with No. 1 4 3 Q R l F 1 9 D M 2 dated February 9, edi1943 (appearing in February 15th must be entered in the Revised Bureau of Naval Personnel Manual is- tion of the Navy DepartmentBulletin.) suedunder date of October 1, 1942, Recommendations previously subin order that the Manual may be up mitted will not be considered unless reaffirmed andaccompanied by reto date.

Page 64


ports of physicalexaminations and offered, commencing July 1, 1943, a t questionnaire form where appropriate.the Naval War College, Newport, R. I., should be forwarded to reach the BuPersonnel selected forpromotions under this directive will be placed on reau of Naval Personnel by May 25, eligibility lists and appointments will 1943: Command Course:15 line officers o f be made as the needs of the service the Regular Navy to be selected; of require. theranks of Captain, Commander, and Lieutenant Commander. Physical Fitness Preparatory Staff Course: 50 line officers of the Naval Reservet o be seProgram of tne Navy lected; of theranks of Lieutenant Lieutenant, and LieuBureau of Naval Personnel Circular Commander, Letter No. 54-43 is quoted as follows: tenant (Junior Grade). Each course will last approxi1. It appears desirable to clarify t h e relationship which should exist mately 5 months. ashore and afloat between the Physical Training Program, the Physical $50 Uniform Gratuities Maintenance Program, and Recrethe Article H-8704, Bupers Manual, ation Program. and Section302, Naval ReserveAct of 2. Physical Training is required 1938, provide for the payment to Naval only a t Training Activities. It is an Reserve officers an additional $50 uniintegral part of the over-all Training form gratuity each four years from Program, administered through regu- date of receipt of the initial $100 unilar Training authorities, and in acform gratuity, provided that cordance with standard curricula and requirements of the regulations other have policies determined by the Bureau of been met. Applications should be Naval Personnel. submitted to the Bureau of Naval Per3. The Physical Maintenance Pro- sonnel on & A Form 445Revised. S the gram is designed to help maintain A the physical condition of all members of reausurvey of thatrecords of this Buindicates a number of Naval the Service other than those in TrainReserve officers now eligible have not ing by stimulating their interest and submitted vouchers for the additional guiding their activity in such mainteuniform gratuity. A nance. This program will be admin- $50officers will be eligiblelarge number of on and after istered by the various commands in September 8, 1943. accordancewithadvisory directives from the Bureauof Naval Personnel; Railroads Stop the administration being largely done under the direction of the Physical Serving Lunch Fitness Officers in the complements Because of the difficulty in obtainof the commands. ing sufficient food supplies under the 4. The Recreation Program inrationing program and the cludes, as it always has, the respon- point sibility of providing facilities for and scarcity of nonrationed foodstuffs, andoperating a program of games, The Chicago & North Western, Union Pacific Railsports, and contests for voluntary Pacific, and the Southern the participation of Naval personnel dur- roads, including Texas& New Orleans Railroad, have established a program ing leisure time, includingPhysical dining Maintenance accomplished by this of serving two meals perday in car service on transcontinental trains. means. The Physical Fitness Officers Enlisted and noncommissioned perand Specialists (A) attached to comor mands will be available to the officers sonnel traveling on mail orders the same groups holding cash allowances administering the Recreation Prowill be served luncheon. Commisgramuponrequest of the latter to serve as coaches, directors of athletic sioned officers and their families will be considered in the same category as contests, etc. civilians and will not be served the 5. Any previous instructions or noon meal. correspondence in conflict with this Only exceptionsto the program for letter are hereby superseded. Aphysical fitness manual is now civilians are that luncheon will conin the course of preparation and is tinue tobe served on the streamliners expected to be available for distribu- and thaton the Pacific Limited westbound on the C. & NW. Railroad, tion within the next few weeks. luncheon and dinner willbe served between Chicago and Omaha. Courses i Naval n Breakfast service will continue up to 1 2 oclock noon but one cup of cofW a r College fee per person per day will be served Applications for the following for breakfast only. Dinner will start courses of instruction which willbe a t 4:30 p. m. on all but the Southern Pacific System,where the hour will be 4 p. m., and will continue until all are served.

Enlisted Training Courses

Requests that are forwarded to the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division,,Washington, D. C., for those enlisted training courses thatare now in preparation, for but which no definite publication date is available, are crossed off each BNP 676 order and letter request when received. With the present working force, it is impossible to retain back orders for such courses. These publications, therefore,must be re-ordered at a later datewhen official notices of their availability have appeared in circular letters to all ships and stations. Such notices will also appear in the Bureau of Naval Personnel Bulletin. The first part of the material for the new enlisted training course for Radio Technician 3c is now ready for distribution. This course, which is available only to Radio Technicians 3c or strikers for that rate, is a special a edition that is based on correspondence course conducted by the Capitol Radio Engineering Institute. It differs from the regular enlisted training courses in that the materialconsists of 41 assignments, each assignment separately bound. The PT&E of the regular enlisted courses is replaced by two pamphlets titled Introductory F in a 1 mamination, Volumes 1 and 2. Volume 1, which contains the test material forassignments 1 through 20, is ready for distribution. Additional copies of the examinationpamphletsmay be ordered whenever the men are ready to use them. Introductory The Final Examination is a restricted publication, and must not be removed from the presence of the training officer. A separate Course Key, also bound

(Seepage 67) Page 65


in two volumes, has been prepared for the use of the trainingofficer, Volume one contains the answers andthe methods for solving all the problems in assignments 1to 20. Care must be taken in handling the Key volumes as only one set of the Course Keys (answer books)willbe furnished to the Commanding m c e of each ship, stationorotheractivity requesting the course. A supply of Volume 1 of the Introductory Final Examination, Volume 1 of the Radio Technicians Key and assignments 1 to 5, and 6 to 10 are now available from: The Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Division, Washington, D. C.; the Director of Training, meventh Naval District; and theDirector of Training Fourteenth Naval District. The remaining assignments, in packages of five consecutiveassignments, will be distributed as follows: 11 to 15, 16 to 20, 21 to 25, 26 to.30, 21 to 35, 36 to 41. Volume 2 of the Introductory Final Examination, which covers assignments 21 to 41, and Volume 2 of the Key for these same lessons will be issued with assignments 21 to 25. Therefore, it will not be necessary to write for the remainder of the course oncean activity has received the initial installmentof Radio Technician 3c Training Course. That order will have been placed,on the mailing list and the balance will be completed withoutfurther request. cular Letter No. 128-42 prescribed Form BNP 903 as manner the of designating such beneficiaries for the The following publications carry much news of interest in the teaching purposes intended by law. 3. ArecentComptrollerGenerals of Recognition and should beconsulted periodically by all Recognition decision (Comp-Gen EL32089of Febinstructors: Navy Bulletin, 0 N. I. ruary 22, 1943) denied the payment . Weekly, Bureau of Aeronautics News of this lump sum to the widow of an officer, because she was not designated Letter. The Commanding Officers of ships specifically, in the mannerprescribed by the Secretary of the Navy, as the andstations receive these publicaofficers beneficiary forthis specific tions regularly. purpose. 4.AllA-VCN) officers of the Naval Personnel Accounting Reserve and (NAVC) officers of the Marine Corps Reserve should insure Procedure that they havecompleted and sent t o A perfection of the standardsystem the Bureau of Naval Personnel or t o as apof personnel accounting has been de- MarineCorpsHeadquarters, Form BNP 903. In the veloped by ChiefYeoman Abraham propriate, Lipschitz, which the Commanding event an officer has previously subOfficer, Enlisted Personnel, Navy Yard, mitted Form BNP 903 and desires t o change the beneficiary listed therebn, MareIsland,reports reducespaper a new Form BNP 903, induplicate, work materially and is a labor and may be submitted. Payment may be time saver. beneficiary designated in The system.could beused to advan- made to the the form bearingthe latest date. This tage at activitieswithcomplements be of 300 to 3,000 men, where tabulating form may authenticated by the signature of another commissioned ofmachine equipment is not use. in witnessing a Briefly, the system employs the gela- ficer. This is simply tin duplicating process, and with one procedure and requires no oathor 903 should be typewriter operation reproduced the affidavit. Form BNP forwarded directly to the Bureau of required number of file cards and notifications formuster roll record, Naval Personnel by the officer conexpiration of enlistment, longevity pay cerned. periods, annual census, allowance, checking in and out, marks, division Seamens Handbook officer notifications, pay office, post Operations List of Aircraft office, master-at-arms, b e r t h i n g, For Shore Leave chaplain, dispensary, educational, and The Seamans Handbook for Shore money allowance forquarters.SpeLeave, an interesting and valuable and Surface Crafi cially printed cards on ruled or perfo- book for any officer or enlisted man In the Ami115,1943, issue of the rated sheets, standardin size, are who may go. on shore leave abroad, Navy Bulletin, the Chief of Naval Per- required. is offered by its publishers, the nonInterested commands may obtaina profit AmericanMerchant MarineLisonnel publiskied a list of recommended aircraft and surface craft to more detailed description of the sys- brary Association, forsalethrough beused in recognition training. Its tem, together with sample forms, by Ships Serviceactivities. This volume purpose is to standardizeand simplify communicating direct with the Com- contains information on amusements, this subject and all interested activi- manding Officer, Enlisted Personnel, jnexpensive hotels, excursions, lities areurged to be guided by this list. Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor, Calif. braries and points of interest in 443 ports in 62 countries and 46 islands, a Two advance copies of the list have glossary of common words and been sent to each of some 8,006 ad- Lump Sum Payments phrases in each several foreign lanof dressees, As changes .become effecguages, and in addition provides tive inthisoperationallistthe re- to A-V(N) Officers warnings of local customs, of value to vised lists willbe published in the 1. The Naval Aviation Cadet Act of the uninitiated. m e book is of pocket Navy Bulletin. 1942 provides in part as follows: the price $1. Of When officerscommissioned pur- size and normal course, through Ships Service a subsuant to aviation cadet training are Aircrafi Recognition stantial discount will apply. released from active dutythathas been continuous for one or more years Interested Ships Service officers Booklet they, or in the event of death of such should communicatedirectly with the The handbookAircraft Recogni- officers after continuous active duty AmericanMerchantMarineLibrary tion put out by the Naval Aviation for one or more years, the beneficiary Associatioh, 45 Broadway, New York, Training Division, now being dis- specially designated in the manner N. Y. prescribed by the Secretary of the tributed, willbefollowed in greater Navy School of sum coverage to all ships and stations by Navy, shall be paid a lump of for each complete year the advance Joint Army-Navy Recog- $500 Music Radio Broadcasts nition Pictorial Manual. This new of continuous commissioned active The 100-piece bandand5kvoice and completepictorialmanual will service. * * * 2. Bureau of Naval Personnel Cir- chorus of the U. 8. Navy School of reach addresseesduring May.

Sources of Information

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Music is now heard each Wednesday from 1230 to 1300 E W. T in a stir. . ring musical program over the Mutual BroadcastingSystemNetwork, originating from the Naval Receiving Station, Anacostia, D. C. In addition to music the program features information pertinent to various naval activities. Since many graduates of the U. S. 0845__________________ WGEO 15330 19.6 India, Scandinavia, NavySchool of Music are presently WBOS 15210 19.7 assigned to band units at naval stations and other shore establishments 1415 _-_-______________ WRUL 15350 19. Europe, North Central WKRX 17760 16 Africa. within the continental United States, WKRX 1900___________--____- 9897.5 32 Greenland, Iceland. and those ships operating in coastal waters, the program is of added interest to naval personnel. I Newspaper radio listings may be dresses listed above direct and not to lowing report for the past 6 months: consulted for time and local stations the Bureau of Naval Personnel. CorMonth: Percent Average carrying the broadcast. respondence on this subject will not September _______ 98.7 $8,383.59 be answered by this Bureau. October __________ 93.9 8,455.00
November December January February

National Service Life Insurance


Total17,934, 1943.

___-_____________ -

Neptune and Arctic Circle Certificates

The attentionof the Service is again invited to the fact that correspondence and publicity on the subject of Neptune and Arctic Circle Certificates may easily jeopardize the security of a ship or fleet. Neptune Certificates are available at the Naval Supply Depot, NavalOperating Base, Norfolk,Va., and the Naval Supply Depot,Naval Operating Base, Oakland, Calif. These certificates are available on requisition without charge when it is definitely ascertained how many will be required. Vesselswill notcarrythese certificates in stock. Arctic Circle Certificates are now available at the Naval Supply Depot, Naval OperatingBase, Norfolk, Va., under the same conditions as the Neptune Certificates. Requests for these certificates should be madeto one of thead-

It is believed that the above figures testify eloquently as to thekeen concern of commanding officers of the Fleet in theindoctrination of their crews in the fundamentals of .shipboardfire fighting, a subject which all hands agree is of primary importance in attempting to eliminate preventable ships losses.


Farragut News.

I ilzteltd to go places duriltg the

next black-out!


The effectiveness of the Navy program in training officers in the Naval Training School (Insurance) and then assigning them to the various Naval Districts and Training Stations is indicated by a report received from the Commandant, First Naval District. The report is that of the .Naval Training Station, Newport, R. I., and it discloses that during the month of February 99.96 percent of the men who attended lectures conducted by the insurance officer, applied for policies in an average amount of $9,933. This is an almost perfect record and is the best monthly report received to date. Excellent results have been obtained a t this station as revealed by the fol-




99.6 9,340.48 99.7 9,732.04 99.8 9,899.71 99.9 e, 933.DO

Attendance At Fire Fighters School

Fire Fighters Schoolat the Naval Operating Base, Norfolk, Va., is published as an item of possible interest to others in the Naval Service:
Number of students: Month and year July 1,489_ - _ _ _ _ _ and August 1942. 1,564 September 1942. 2,199_ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1942. October 3,166 November 1942. 2 , 2 1 5 - - - - - _ - - - _ - _ - - Decemberl942. 2,319- - - _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ January 1943. 2 , 1 5 6 - - - - - - - - - _ - - - _ _ February1943. 2,826 March 1943.

These figures togetherwiththose received from all other training stations indicate that the Navys policy to have its personnel 100 percent insured, in the interest of the morale and well-being of the men and their families, its being successfully carried out by the trained insurance officers. Application is purely voluntary and i t is the duty of the insurance officer to explain the benefits of National Service Life Insurance in such manner that the applicant will appreciate its value and realize that it is to his advantage to continue the insurance in force after heleaves the service.

o f students who have attendedthe

The following report on thenumber




Rinsldi in the Hoist.


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