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A quantitative and qualitative exploration of performance appraisal in financial services

Barbara Lond

A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of East London for the degree of Doctor of Occupational Psychology

May 2010

VOLUME I
CONTENTS Study 1 Study 2

Preface to the thesis

This thesis examines performance appraisal in financial services and comprises two separate studies, conducted within separate timeframes, but are linked. Study 1 is a quantitative study exploring the role of performance appraisal ratings as they relate (along with other variables) to the progression of ethnicity and gender staff groups. This study was conducted in one financial services organisation using performance appraisal data over three years, so had a longitudinal element. Study 2 is qualitative and focuses on gender. This study uses interview data from women in male-typed positions, and in the upper echelons of financial services organisations in the UK. The second study explores these senior womens experiences of being appraised or evaluated. studies enable a glimpse into the "glass ceiling" 1 from a UK perspective. Both The

quantitative study explores the relationship of ratings at different organisational levels, with the job function, and with respect to ""solo status2" individuals.

Recent research from the financial services sector conducted by the EHRC in 2009 shows that women are under-represented in the top echelons, and receive up to 80% less pay than men, and that stereotyping within organisational processes is one possible cause. The study found that some Black and Ethnic Minority ("BME") staff also experience negative effects. It is likely that "performance" or the appraisal of it leads to differential treatment of different groups of staff and impacts on some groups differentially and unfairly. Research shows that women and some BME groups

1 2

The concept of the glass ceiling is outlined further on p29 in Study 1. Solo status is the term used to describe a range of negative effects on the members of gender or ethnic groups where these individuals, the only members of their social category (ie. gender or ethnicity), are present in a homogenous group.

experience organisations such that their progression is thwarted, or at least affected such that they are treated differently. Financial services organisations have come under the spotlight in recent times with many under threat of closure, as well as affecting the global economy. If organisations are performing poorly, they are likely to fail (Flamholtz & Aksehirli, 2000). Being treated unfairly can lead to negative effects on staff including demotivation and lack of productivity. It is likely that something is awry within financial services organisations and it is feasible to suggest that how performance is measured and appraised is one issue worth considering. In addition, financial services

organisations are thought to be "macho" and may therefore reward one set of values, rather than a diverse set of values. Therefore the diversity may not be reflected in what is valued in terms of the organisational culture and ultimately the processes within, including performance ratings and being evaluated. That financial services

organisations are "macho" may mean that the organisations value masculine attributes and become places which serve to support and value men, even white men. Certainly, the suggestion is likely with so few women at the top of these organisations (EHRC, 2009).

Glass ceilings are thought to be responsible for the lack of progression of both women and ethnic minorities at the top, as they create barriers to progression. However, the concept is not one which can be examined or operationalised in the usual sense of psychological research, but rather is an inclusive concept. One way to examine aspects of how the glass ceiling operates can be taken from a US author, Barreto (2009), who notes that we need to firstly examine "numbers" as well as "experiences". Study 1 and
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Study 2 examine both of these angles and therefore provide a glimpse of how the glass ceiling operates in the UK. The barriers can be objectively examined in one sense (Study 1), and explored further in Study 2 in terms of one group who feels the effect of glass ceilings senior women in financial services who are trying to break it. Examining performance appraisal seems a sensible mechanism for explore the glass ceiling effect, both from an objective and subjective perspective.

Performance is assessed and measured in organisations, and performance appraisal involves human perception, human behavior and decision-making, the results of which, in an organisational context where bias and stereotyping operate in various guises, can have life-long consequences, where the possibility of people being evaluated unfairly is an issue. This is especially true where decisions outside of the formal performance appraisal process (the oft-conducted annual event) have more influence as subjectivity creeps in.

Both women and ethnic groups are still both underrepresented at the higher levels within large sectors of the UK economy (financial services and the NHS), (Equality and Human Rights Commission [EHRC], 2009; Kalra, Able & Esmail, 2009; Mistry & Latoo, 2009). Research shows that differential barriers (ERHC, 2009) and opportunities exist (Perrone, Sedlacek & Alexander, 2001) at various career stages for men, women and BME groups leading to inequitable consequences. groups therefore exists. Differential treatment of certain

Both OP and social psychology (the basis of research in groups and stereotyping) have long research traditions but need to keep pace with the changing nature of organisations which have become more globalised and complex, raising diversity issues not encountered in previous times (Gubbins & Garavan, 2009; Jogulu & Wood, 2008; Wang, Farme & Walumbwa, 2007). Performance is therefore one of the most important variables in the OP field. How people are evaluated, the effect of the results of

performance are surely vital to understand, theories of which were developed many years ago in a mechanistic (in organisational terms), less complex and diverse context, yet may still be reminiscint in the practice of OP itself in how we examine people in organisations, including the result of that evaluation (ratings) and how different groups do or do not progress. Further, how different groups are appraised and progress is something which occupational psychologists should be at the forefront of examining, not just from a quantitative, but also a qualitative perspective, to gain a deeper understanding of these important issues, as there are wider social implications beyond the workplace. Also of importance for occupational psychologists is performance, at the heart of any organisations success, what it is and how it is realised for women and minority ethnic groups; appraisal for example can result in being promoted or dismissed (Fletcher, 1995; Kakar, 2008) and affect individuals wellbeing, especially if it is done unfairly (Bagdadli, Roberson, & Paoletti, 2006; Coyle-Shapiro, 2005).

Performance forms the core research focus for OPs. Indeed, the British Psychological Society promotes OPs as concerned with the performance of people at work developing an understanding of how organisations function and how individuals and
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groups behave at work " (Occupational Psychology, British Psychological Society, website).

The suggestion above is that some groups may be treated unfairly within financial services organisations. The implicit suggestion is that unfair systems (eg. performance appraisal) are implemented. Everyone would wish to be recognised and treated fairly based on meritocratic principles, rather than on what some see as subjectivity, where traditional values such as masculinity (and status) are the basis for comparison within organisations. Discrimination creates unfairness. Paradoxically, treating people fairly involves an amount of caring yet this is considered a dialectic to power (Rafael & Adeline, 1996). However, meritocratic principles are engendered within a fair

organisational culture which impacts externally as well as internally. People inside and external to organisations are diverse, but this aspect may be lost to some organisations that would rather run, still, on rather traditional lines. It takes more than rhetoric

however to change things (Hoffman & Ford, 2010) and ensure that merit becomes at least part-way enacted as a reality. Unfortunately, there has been much rhetoric about equal opportunities and managing diversity, and now there is "employee engagement". However, where the same organisations have few women at the top and whole occupations staffed by a particular demographic group, we cannot change things unless we really understand the issues first.

The issues are complex and situated within historical and societal factors which have a bearing on how women and some minority ethnic staff are viewed within organisations
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and therefore what is valued. The effect of dyads and groups impact upon affective and cognitive processes (Hall & Lord, 1995) and are largely automatic (Blair, Judd & Fallman, 2004). Gender and some minority ethnic groups are vulnerable to negative stereotyping which leads to unfair discrimination, a factor in the maintenance of the glass ceiling (Barreto, Ryan & Schmitt, 2009; Eagly, 2002; Parker, 2001; KoracKakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997). Bias is still a problem and considered inherent (Randall Smith, DiTomaso & Farris, 2002), although often unintentional (Weeks, Weeks & Frost, 2003), and where it is systematic, can be a factor in the inequitable disribution of both performance ratings and rewards.

In understanding glass ceilings, and Barretto's above-mentioned "numbers" as well as more experiential aspects (and "glass walls") she suggests, we can then pinpoint where the problems may lie in terms of this understanding and therefore develop more effective interventions. Initiatives focusing on recruitment are laudable, but are not

effective in breaking glass ceilings which occur over a period of time.

An overview of the central features of the introductions in Study 1 and 2 As mentioned above this thesis comprises two studies and the whole thesis is broadly about being evaluated in organisations, from an objective and subjective perspective.

Performance and the appraisal of it are central features of both studies. A performance appraisal system is usually implemented within an organisational culture. Performance and its history, including the psychometric tradition, is the focus in Study 1, and
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organisation culture and the gender aspect is the focus of Study 2 (in the introductions, and theoretically), although there are overlaps and links between the two studies. Organisations comprise groups of people, and bias and stereotyping operate against groups (ie. an individual becomes representative of the group), another core feature of the thesis, enters into all HR processes, as all involve human decision-making.

The glass ceiling effect is also common to both studies. Glass ceiling (and glass wall) effects are the result of stereotyping and (systematic) negative bias against traditionally under-represented groups (women and some BME groups). Because glass ceilings involve stereotypes, it is necessary to outline the concepts, theories and research evidence around the cognitive processes which account for decision-making around performance appraisal and other organisational decisions, and these are outlined in Study 1. Performance appraisal ratings are the result of decisions made about an individual's performance, along with the attendant biases inherent in decision making. These biased decisions will impact on receivers of faulty decisions creating differential treatment.

Where there is unfairness in organisational processes, this can lead to demotivated and dissatisfied staff. The issues of organisational justice and the psychological contract are therefore outlined (in Study 1) and there is much research on the negative consequences of implementing unfair organisational processes. The author felt it was important to highlight some of the research on negative outcomes for employees in terms of absenteeism, lost productivity, low motivation, etc., for completeness. The
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research on some consequences of developing and implementing unfair systems seems a logical extension of the full picture and understanding of the importance of treating people fairly. Indeed, the current obsession with "employee engagement"

seems unconcerned with previous research which highlights the importance of having fair systems in place and ignores bias and stereotyping as a factor where there is unfairness (eg. Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development (CIPD), 2010). The terminology may be different but the effects are still the same.

Analytical Framework to illustrate the thesis The following framework provides a graphic illustration of how the two studies forming this thesis fit together, includes the important features as mentioned above, and also includes the outcomes and the implications of the research, including the effect on "performance", the central feature of the thesis:

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Figure 1: Analytic Framework for the thesis

The boxes in Figure 1 represent the whole thesis in terms of the literature of both studies and their focus, as well as the actual process and outcome of the research itself. The solid box represents the central feature of the thesis performance and the appraisal of it. The light dotted boxes represent the broad theories and aspects of the thesis. Firstly are the epistemological assumptions for the thesis. Then, there is

performance and psychometric theory (as applied to performance ratings) and finally, the organisational culture; performance appraisal processes are implemented within an organisational culture which impacts on both individual and organisational processes (see the two boxes labelled "Process"). institutional processes. These processes refer to individual and

Both involve bias and stereotyping, and both create unfair

discrimination, a result of human decision-making, which in turn lead to glass ceiling


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and solo status effects. The "Outcomes" box of both studies include the Study 1 ratings (Men, Women and BME groups), and the women's experiences (Study 2). The impact of both studies ("Impact explained" box) is explained in the discussion sections of the thesis and covers the impact in terms of organisational justice, the careers of women and BME groups, diversity management and occupational psychology theory and practice, which further input into performance and appraisal theory.

Specific features of the thesis This thesis had an exploratory but also quasi-experimental research design. The

quantitative study provided the what question from an objective, and post-positivist standpoint examining performance appraisal ratings, grades, and other nonperformance factors (i.e. "solo status" and functions). Regression analysis provided clues as to the cumulative effect of some theoretically important predictor variables on the employee grade (progression) from a longitudinal perspective (over a 3-year period). The qualitative study provided the why question, in relation to women (a focus of the financial services sector at the time of writing). The qualitative methods were chosen with a view to obtaining the womens views and opinions, describing these, and interpreting their experience of being appraised or evaluated within financial services institutions. Study 2 was conducted within a social constructionist and feminist framework.

In Barretto's terms, the thesis fulfils an examination of the "numbers" (Study 1) and "experiences" (Study 2) required to investigate glass ceiling effects, a result of
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cumulative unfair discrimination. However, the term is largely from the US. This thesis provides a glimpse therefore into the workings of the UK glass ceiling effect within financial services, an important sector on the global stage where performance and evaluation is likely to come under the spotlight bearing in mind the negative impact the sector has had on the global economy during recent times.

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STUDY 1

Examining gender and ethnicity variables, and relationships with performance ratings and other organisational outcomes

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Table of Contents: Study 1


Examining gender and ethnicity variables and relationships with performance ratings and other organisational outcomes 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview of Study 1 1.2. The Glass Ceiling 1.3. Performance appraisal history and the issues surrounding the use and value 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.3.3. 1.3.4. 1.3.5. A short history of performance appraisal research Definitions of performance Putting the research into practice Performance appraisal usage in organisations including ratings How individual and organisational performance are linked and the differential competency requirements Groups in organisations and effects on decision-making via stereotyping and bias More on the invisible glass ceiling: the visible impacts on women and BME staff Occupational segregation as a glass wall effect Other biases: Attributions and leadership Page 27 29 30 30 33 33 34 35 36 36 39 41 42 43 44 45 47 47 48

1.4. Stereotyping, bias and effects on decision-making 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3.

1.4.3.1. 1.5. Summary

1.6. Some implications of implementing unfair organisational processes 1.6.1. Psychological contract, organisational and procedural justice

1.7. Demographics and effects on performance ratings and other organisational variables 1.7.1. 1.7.2. Research relating to gender, performance ratings and other organisational outcomes Research relating to ethnicity, performance ratings and other organisational outcomes

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1.8. Salience of demography (gender and ethnicity) and the "Solo status" effect 1.9. Previous effects on progression 1.10. The issue of organisational tenure 1.11. Building and expanding on existing research 1.12. Rationale for study 1 1.13. Research hypotheses 2. Method 2.1. Organisational information 2.2. Sample 2.3. The organisations performance management system 2.4. Performance appraisal training 2.5. Annual performance review meetings 2.6. The performance appraisal instrument 2.7. Procedure for the study 2.8. Validity and reliability 2.9. Variables used in the study 2.10. Analyses used throughout the study 2.11. Variables relating to ethnicity 3. Analysis 3.1. Results 3.1.1. Results of analysis relating to ethnicity Relationship between ethnicity and high and low performance ratings Relationship between ethnicity and grade (Year 3) Relationship between ethnicity and manager and non-manager grade (Years 1-3) Relationship between ethnicity and department or function Proportions of ethnic minority employees (Solo Status effect) and the effects on performance ratings and grades 3.1.1.1. 3.1.1.2. 3.1.1.3. 3.1.1.4. 3.1.1.5.

50 51 52 53 54 55 58 58 58 60 61 62 62 63 64 66 69 70 72 72 72 74 75 76 77 78

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3.1.1.6. 3.1.1.7. 3.1.1.8. 3.1.1.9.

Effects of all predictor variables on mean grade received by ethnic groups (Year 3) Predictor variables regressed onto grade for Asian staff (Year 3) Predictor variables regressed onto grade for Black staff (Year 3) Predictor variables regressed onto grade for White staff (Year 3)

81 82 84 86 88 89 90 90 91 93 94 95

3.1.1.10. Summary of regression analyses for ethnicity and mean grade (Year 3) 3.1.2. Results of analysis relating to gender Relationship between gender and performance ratings Relationship between gender and high and low performance ratings Relationship between gender and grade (Year 3) Relationship between gender and manager and non-manager grade (3 years) Relationship between gender and department or function (Year 3) Proportions of females (Solo Status effect) and the effects on performance ratings and grades of males and females Effects of all predictor variables on mean grade for males and females (Year 3) Summary of regression analyses for gender and mean grade (Year 3) 3.1.2.1. 3.1.2.2. 3.1.2.3. 3.1.2.4. 3.1.2.5. 3.1.2.6.

3.1.2.7. 3.1.2.8. 3.2. 4.

97 102 103 106 106 106 106 108 110 111


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Overall summary of results

Discussion 4.1. Overview 4.2. Ethnicity 4.2.1. 4.2.2. 4.2.3. 4.2.4. Ethnicity and performance ratings Ethnicity and function Ethnicity and grade Solo status and effects on performance ratings and

grade in relation to ethnic groups 4.3. Gender 4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3. 4.3.4. 5. 6. Gender and performance ratings Gender and grade Gender and function Solo status and effect on performance ratings and grade 113 113 114 119 122 124 127

Conclusions Implications for future research for performance appraisal and other HR processes Limitations

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List of tables (Study 1) Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Variables from appraisal forms and database Other variables Mean Overall Performance Ratings for Collapsed Ethnicity Census Groupings (1=high, 5=low) Numbers of Staff in Each Collapsed Census Group in a High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Performance Rating Category (Year 3) Numbers of Staff in Each Collapsed Census Group in a High (7-8) or Low (1-2) Grade Category (Year 3) Ethnicity and Number of Managers and Non-Managers for All Ethnic Groups for Years 1-3 Numbers and Percentages of Ethnicity Groups Working in Departments/Functions (Year 3) Numbers of BME and White Staff in a High (10%>) or Low (9%<) Proportion Department/Function in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) OPR Category (Year 3) Numbers of BME and White Staff in a High (10%>) or Low (9%<) Proportion Department/Function in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Grade Category (Year 3) 67 68 73

Table 4

74

Table 5

76

Table 6

77

Table 7

78

Table 8

79

Table 9

80

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Table 10

Descriptive Statistics for Mean Grade for Ethnicity Groups (Year 3) Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors With Mean Grade (Asian staff) Regression table for Asian staff in relation to grade (Year 3) The Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors With Mean Grade (Black Staff) Regression Table for Black Staff in Relation to Grade (Year 3) The Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors With Mean Grade (White staff) Regression Table for White Staff in Relation to Grade (Year 3) Effects of Predictors Relating to Ethnicity (All Groups) and Grade Compared Mean Performance Ratings for Males and Females (1 = high, 5 = low) Numbers of Males and Females in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Performance Rating Category (Year 3) Number of Males and Females in a High (7-8) or Low (1-2) Grade (Year 3) Number of Male and Female Managers and Non-Managers for Years 1-3 Numbers and Percentages of Males and Females Working in Departments/Functions (Year 3) Numbers of Males and Females in a High (10%>) or Low (9%<) proportion department/function in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Performance Rating Category (Year 3)

82

Table 11

83

Table 12

84

Table 13

85

Table 14

86

Table 15

87

Table 16

87

Table 17

89

Table 18

90

Table 19

91

Table 20

92

Table 21

93

Table 22

94

Table 23

96

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Table 24

Numbers of Males and Females in a High (10%>) or Low (9%<) Proportion Department/Function in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Grade Category (Year 3) Descriptive Statistics for Mean Grade for Males and Females (Year 3) The Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors with Mean Grade Regression TableAll Predictors on Grade (Year 3) and Effect on Males The Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors with Mean Grade Regression TableAll Predictors on Grade (Year 3) and Effect on Females Comparison of Regression Beta Weights for Males and Females (Mean Grade Year 3 as Dependent Variable) Comparison of different demographic groups and results of hypotheses (as to significance)

97

Table 25

98

Table 26

99

Table 27

100

Table 28

101

Table 29

102

Table 30

103

Table 31

104

List of appendices Appendix A Appendix B - Full list of variables - Print screen of list of research of research articles from International Journal of Assessment and Development (last 10 years) 228 231

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Abstract Study 1

Study 1 aimed to examine the relationships between performance appraisal data over a three year period to assess the impact of performance ratings on the progression of men, women and different ethnic groups (BME) within one financial services organisation. Several hypotheses were posed for the purposes of the study based on past research relating to gender and ethnicity. The study used archived performance appraisal data and examined a large number of performance appraisal documents (N = 5,220) over three years from a global financial institution. ANOVA and Chi Square examined these relationships, and regression analysis was used to examine some theoretically important variables against the dependent variable "grade" (progression). Regression analysis of predictor variables including solo status effects, (where individuals are the only members of their social category and experience negative affects), were regressed onto employee grade. Analysis of ratings was also examined at different grade levels.

A number of relationships were found between demographics (gender and ethnicity), ratings and other organisational outcomes; for example women received higher performance ratings than men for all three years, but not significantly so, whilst being underrepresented within the high grades. Black employees received the highest

performance ratings whilst Chinese employees received the lowest ratings in Year 2. White employees received the lowest rating in Years 1 and 3 but not significantly so. Overall, the results relating to gender were stronger than for ethnicity, especially as far
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as grade was concerned. Although women were not represented in high grades, and were in lower grades than men overall, this did not accord with them receiving commensurately lower performance ratings. The regression analysis revealed a

different pattern of results between ethnic groups, and also between men and women. In particular, there was a different pattern of results for men, and for White groups, than either women or the three BME groups, where there were significant effects of the predictor variables for women and BME groups, but not men.

The results indicate that different rules of progression apply to men than for women and BME groups. The results overall elucidate factors which may account for progression of some groups and not others. implications are discussed. The implications for future research and practice

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1.
1.1

Introduction
Overview of Study 1

Performance and the appraisal of it may involve both performance and nonperformance factors, and does involve managers making decisions (whether formal or informal) about other's "performance", which ultimately impacts on progression. There is much criticism of the process, yet it is still widely used. Borman calls performance appraisal "perhaps the most important dependent variable in industrial and organizational psychology" (2004, p.238). There is however potential for unfair

discrimination in the process leading to inequitable outcomes for some groups, and creating glass ceiling effects (Barreto, 2009).

Whilst direct discrimination against some minority ethnic groups and women has declined, indirect discrimination is thought to lead to unfair consequences for women and some minority ethnic groups. Indirect discrimination for example is said to be one factor in White men's advancement (EHRC, 2009), and presents a major obstacle to others (Korac-Kakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997). Where non-performance factors may

inadvertently become part of an organisations decision-making process, including performance appraisal ratings and other processes, the cumulative effect may be one which sees different demographic groups occupying different roles, or even different career paths, affecting career mobility for these groups. These effects are partly the result of biased decisions being made in organisations leading to unfair discrimination (Dipboye & Colella, 2005).

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There is extensive research literature on performance appraisal (see Arvey & Murphy, 1998; Fletcher, 2001; Fletcher & Perry, 2001; Latham & Mann, 2006; Murphy & Cleveland, 1995; Smither, 1998 for reviews), yet there is little research that has addressed performance ratings awarded to different demographic groups within the UK (Dewberry, 2001), on different BME groups, nor other factors in combination with performance appraisal ratings which may serve to help us understand how these factors may cumulatively link to affect the employee grades (ie. effect on progression) on different groups. This study therefore explores performance appraisal ratings, the link with grade, and also examines "solo status" and department/function (role complexity) on employee grade within a field setting. Both performance (rating) and non-

performance factors are examined to understand where any differences may lie for different demographic groups. Instead of only Black and White groups as in previous studies (Dewberry, 2001), this study examines four demographic groups, ie. Asian, Black, Chinese, and White.

The next sub-sections outline literature firstly on the glass ceiling, followed by a brief history of performance appraisal and the various definitions of performance itself. Also outlined are cognitive processes involved in how biased decisions are made, and the effects of procedural and organisational justice. There is much evidence of research relating to gender and ethnicity, and the unequal distribution of performance ratings which, although not usually specified, could be said to be a glass ceiling effect. The next sub-section outlines some of this research. Some research on Kanters solo

status effects is presented, where some minorities experience negative effects in a


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majority-populated department or function.

Also presented is some research on

previous effects of some important organisational variables on progression, including the impact of tenure and implications for women. glass ceiling effect. Following is a brief outline of the

1.2

The Glass Ceiling

The glass ceiling is a metaphorical term that describes the subtle, yet very real barriers to progression of women and BME staff (Barreto et al., 2009; Stockdale & Crosby, 2004; Korac-Kakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997). The glass wall is a similar term which is akin to the "occupational segregation" effect (Barretto, 2009). Both kinds of barriers lead to differential progression rates for under-represented groups where these groups are stereotyped as being more "suitable" for less powerful or prestigious positions (Barreto, 2009). progression. Ceilings prevent upward progression whilst walls prevent lateral

As stereotyping is a cognitive process (Allport, 1954), the glass ceiling and wall effects result from organisational decisions being made about employees based on their suitability of that group to either a certain role or hierarchichal level. Stereotypes and attitudes towards these under-represented groups mean that managers will make biased decisions. Decisions are made regularly in organisations recruitment

decisions (glass walls mean that only certain groups may be considered for certain roles), lateral or internal move decisions (more glass walls, where only certain groups are considered more "suitable"), or upward promotion decisions (glass ceilings mean
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that maybe only "white men" are considered "suitable" for certain higher level roles). Performance appraisal rating decisions, and the promotion decisions which may flow from them are a part of the glass ceiling effect. Before embarking on research

examining barriers to progression for women and BME groups, it is necessary first to succintly outline the history of performance appraisal itself.

1.3

Performance appraisal history and the issues surrounding the use and value

1.3.1 A short history of performance appraisal research Performance appraisal is often considered by authors as one of the most important human resource practices (Boswell & Boudreau, 2002; Judge & Ferris, 1993). It also has a long research tradition as a topic of occupational psychology (Fletcher, 2002). Performance appraisal and other human resource (HR) activities have also become part of a more strategic approach to integrating these activities with organisational objectives (Fletcher, 2001; Gubbins & Garavan, 2009). HR activities are therefore concerned with improving performance.

Performance appraisal research in the 1970s was very much in the psychometric tradition, evaluated against quality criteria of validity and reliability, with the emphasis on reducing rating errors, assumed to improve the accuracy of measurement (Kuvaas, 2007). Issues relating to bias were also addressed, but only narrowly related to

measurement issues of the performance ratings themselves (Kuvaas, 2007).

Landy and Farr (1980) changed direction of the research, and Ilgen and Feldman
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(1983) and DeNisi et al. (1984) followed. They considered that the search for rating error could not be improved upon, and turned to information processing (i.e., how the rater processes information). The focus at this point therefore was more on accuracy of judgement.

The current focus of performance appraisal research has now moved on to consider some of the context in which performance appraisal systems are used (Catano, Darr & Campbell, 2007). The baby of bias (gender and ethnicity) though appears to have been thrown away with the bathwater of accuracy in the new research tradition. There is little emphasis on the factors that bias performance rating3

As performance is complex and variable (Chockalingam & Ones, 2000), this has given rise to methodological issues in measuring exactly what is true performance (Cook, 1995). Along with this, appraising performance is ultimately a human decision-making process. It is therefore difficult to concur with conclusions by Arvey & Murphy (1998) and a review by Landy, Shankster & Kohler (1994)4 that there is no bias present in supervisory ratings. Stauffer & Buckley (2005) believe that other authors implicitly

support this view. Researchers such as Ford & Kraiger (1985) did conclude bias was present but that the small effect size that found differences between Black employees receiving lower performance ratings than White employees appears to have led to

. The focus of bias is lacking in both OP and HR Development (HRD) research (see for example Stauffer & Buckley (2005) whose article "reconsiders the belief among personnel psychologists-the belief that supervisory ratings are not biased on the basis of race (p. 586) and Bierama, 2009, who critiques from a feminist perspective, the research and practice of the HRD profession and practitioners, and especially, that issues of bias and equality has not formed part of the professions agenda for a number of years.. 4 The Landy, Shankster & Kohler (1994) work is a review of personnel selection ratings used to "measure" performance. The work can be applied to supervisory ratings to be used in performance appraisal. It is the work of "measurement of performance" which is important. The issue of bias applies whether it is used in selection or appraisal research. In any event, research in any form

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research of this kind being stalled somewhat, especially at higher organisational levels (Agars, 2004).

As a small effect size is a psychometric problem to be ignored, Arvey & Murphy (1998) etc. omit the human effects of such. This is understandable since the focus was on psychometric properties (of measuring performance). Both Eagly (2003) and Agars (2004) make the point however that even small effect sizes have rather large cumulative implications on the numbers of people affected by such effect sizes.

The issue is complex however with evidence not only of rating bias, but of other biases throughout the careers of women and BME groups (An-Ju & Sims-Nova, 2005; McKay et al., 2007; Sackett & Lievens, 2008) leading to inequitable results for these groups, especially within financial services, where women are under-represented for example (eg. EHRC, 2009).

Obviously the notion of performance itself is important.

Objective factors can be

observed whilst subjective ones cannot, for example. How we define performance in research has importance in terms of how it is then measured and implemented in practice. The next section follows up on these issues.

relating to bias, stereotyping or unfair discrimination is more or less missing from today's research agenda of both OP and HR professions.

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1.3.2 Definitions of performance Definitions of performance are wide-ranging. Recently, Sackett & Lievens (2008)

concluded there were three major dimensions: task performance, citizenship performance, and counterproductive behaviour. Campbell, McCloy, Oppler & Sager (1993) point out also that, knowing what to do is combined with how to do it (p. 35) and they also conclude that performance is not the result of performance but includes factors which cannot be observed such as cognitive factors, including declarative and procedural knowledge, skill and motivation. Racial, sexual, ethnic, and personality

biases (Feldman, 1981) may therefore affect the outputs of performance (Campbell, McCloy, Oppler, & Sager, 1993) in this view. Different definitions of performance

include the range of factors which may constitute performance and includes observable and unobservable aspects but which may influence how performance is perceived. The definitions have implications for practice.

1.3.3 Putting the research into practice Performance appraisal research suffers from flawed designs (Murphy & Cleveland, 1995) and comprising much of it in laboratory settings (Murphy & Cleveland, 1995; Dewberry, 2001). Highly experimental and controlled research has its place in terms of identifying specific variables to be used in field settings (Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt & van Enger, 2003; Gardner & Deadrick, 2008). Nevertheless, commentators have cited the lack of field research as a problem for performance appraisal research and practice (Eagly et al., 2003). In addition, laboratory studies find stronger effects than field

studies, yet much of the research has been in the laboratory (Brewer, 2000; Post,
29

DiTomaso, Lowe, Farris & Cordero, 2009). The ultimate goal of performance research is surely to translate the findings into practical implementation and use of performance appraisals by practitioners.

1.3.4 Performance appraisal usage in organisations including ratings Despite the criticism, performance appraisals are still used extensively in organisations (Fletcher, 2001; 2004; Parker, 2001; Pettijohn, Parker, Pettijohn & Kent, 2001; Nurse, 2005; Nickols, 2007) and many organisations use a system which is fairly similarthe end result may be an overall performance rating (OPR) which reflects performance (Catano et al., 2007) whatever that may be for a particular organisation. Some still use the system for awarding pay rises (Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development [CIPD] 2007).

A high performance rating is used as an indication of high performance for an individual (Parker, 2001; Pettijohn et al., 2001). In this way, this can be considered to be objective success (Ng, Eby, Sorensen & Feldman, 2005) even though it may have been derived by managers using subjective means. More importantly, high ratings for employees can lead to progression (Post et al., 2009). However, organisational

practices vary in how they use performance ratings (Furnham, 2004). Research has found, for example, that employees are often dissatisfied with performance ratings as well as the process (Catano et al., 2007; De Criere, 2002; Milliman, Nason, Zhu, De Ciere, 2002) although there is no objective means of directly attributing a certain score to a certain grade; an overall performance rating is awarded on a subjective basis
30

even though it may become an objective index and "sign" of success in some organisations.

1.3.5 How individual and organisational performance are linked and the differential competency requirements

In order to be successful, the organisation must perform certain tasks (Flamholtz & Aksehirli, 2000) and individuals must be able to meet their own performance criteria (Fletcher & Williams, 1992; Furnham, 2004) and understand what good performance is (Fletcher, 2004). In this way, individual and organisational performance is linked.

In addition to different competency and skill requirements within the organisational hierarchy, managerial skills are generally more technical the lower down the organisation, whilst interpersonal skills and long-term strategic-level skills are more important for higher management levels (Eagly et al., 2003; Katz, 1974; Kraut, Pedigo, McKenna & Dunnette, 1989; Mintzberg, 1973). Where individuals perform

successfully, this may be expected to be reflected in higher performance ratings and objective career success such as a higher grade at some point (Post et al., 2009). Indeed, some organisations, especially financial services, will look unfavourably upon an individual who receives a poor rating on several occasions such that there is a strong likelihood they may be dismissed (Burdett, 1994; Kabanoff, 1994; Mahoney-Phillips, 2008; zbilgin & Woodward, 2004; Waal & Coevert, 2007). At the other end of the scale, employees receiving a high rating will be, or ideally should be, selected for a higher grade when this becomes available and on an equitable basis in demographic (gender and ethnicity) terms. This is the basis of a seemingly meritocratic and
31

objective system (Post et al., 2009, p. 351).

Organisations are complex of course and human processes interfere both with performance appraisal decisions on awarding performance ratings, as well as on other processes, such as the design of the competency requirements themselves. Stereotyping and bias are the mechanisms through which organisational decisions become distorted, and are addressed in the next subsection.

1.4

Stereotyping, bias and effects on decision-making

This subsection has several parts including how group effects influence decisions in organisations and the cognitive factors involved, glass ceiling effects relating to women and minority ethnic groups, as well as occupational segregation effects. The subsection also briefly outlines attribution, leadership categorisation and leader/member exchange theories, which all have implications for both women and BME groups working in organisations, which are especially "White" and/or "masculine", as the groups face various barriers from stereotyping and bias.

1.4.1 Groups in organisations and effects on decision-making via stereotyping and bias People become stereotyped largely as a result of being in a social group (Wilder, 1981) and as individuals in organisations belong to social groups (eg. gender, ethnicity) it is the group effect that can influence how people are perceived via stereotyping (Wilder, 1991). Stereotyping then leads appraisers making biased, or "faulty" decision-making or bias (DeNisi, Cafferty & Meglino, 1984; Tversky, Slovic & Kahneman, 1982) based on
32

the stereotypes they form. Faulty in the context of this study because the decision may not relate to performance, for example but to the characteristics assigned to a social group.

Stereotypes, defined as cognitive structures, influence a perceiver's decision, such as a rater, about a social group (Allport, 1954; Cleveland & Landy, 1983). Stereotyping is automatic and difficult to control however, influencing judgements of individuals (Blair, et al., 2004), resulting from information processing deficits (DeNisi & Williams, 1988). Busy managers are likely to form automatic views of staff based on stereotyping and bias as a result of this (DeNisi & Williams, 1988) and negative stereotyping may override any "objective" "good" performance.

Bias is activated by a group member and this information is generalised across a whole group. Although recent US research shows this process is more- fine-grained than first thought (with more within-person effects) (Blair, et al., 2004), the effects of bias can be systematic resulting in erroneously influencing the conclusions about groups where group factors become the object of performance measurement rather than an assessment of an individuals performance resulting in unfair discrimination (Tajfel, 1970; Fiske, 1998). The group member is then representative of the individual

representative group, the social group (Fiske, 1998). Where stereotyping and/or bias relating to appraisees occurs, this may be evident in systematically lower performance ratings given over time to historically marginalised groups (Appelbaum, Audet & Miller, 2003) where performance evaluation is then, inadvertently, based on factors other than
33

actual performance but rather, group characteristics (Heilman 1995; 2001).

Ingroup and outgroup effects are responsible factors in systematic bias where leaders for example may be biased against people in certain minority groups (Brewer, 1979; Lord & Maher, 1991; Wilder & Shapiro (1991). Social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) predicts managers favour their own demographic group, and behave in ways that "enhance" their own group. These effects could pose a problem where, for example, most managers are White men (Caven, 2006). The similarity-attraction paradigm also influences managers, as they are attracted to their own race (Byrne, 1971). In the context of performance appraisal ratings, for example, raters may favour individuals who belong to their group (ingroup) over out-group members (Igbaria & Wormley, 1995). The decisions of raters are therefore influenced by the group context. The effects that ensue where group membership is salient in making judgements about others are well-researched (Eagly, 2002).

Recent research by Post, et al. (2009) highlights how different stereotypes work together (ie. gender, work context, competencies being assessed) and highlights the complexities of the job role, gender and the work context in which performance evaluation occurs.

The above subsections outline how stereotyping and bias work to influence decisions about people in organisations. The decisions can relate to the award of performance ratings themselves, but also the decision to promote, and at the start of careers where
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the EHRC (2009) study found men dominate the higher earning brackets for example. All of these decisions impact on progression. On a more institutional basis, "Glass ceilings" result from decisions about people in organisations, creating barriers for both women and minority ethnic staff and also have stereotyping and bias at their core. Recent research examines how stereotypes can work in different context.

1.4.2 More on the invisible glass ceiling: the visible impacts on women and BME staff

Where negative stereotyping leads to biased decisions, this can permeate throughout the whole organisation, and operate as invisible barriers to progression. How does this negative stereotyping manifest itself? Women for example viewed through a gendered lens, a bias, (Barreto et al., 2009; Eagly, 2002; Olsson & Walker, 2003; Ruderman, Ohlott & Kram, 1995) leads them to conform to their social roles (Carli & Eagly, 2001; Eagly, 2002) and punished if they do not (Rudman & Phelan, 2007). This, some

authors maintain, results from the masculinist nature of organisations which value "rationality", "being tough". Women may not be assumed to be this way, hence the "lens". In addition, senior women, especially, are expected to be nice as well as agentic to conform also to social stereotyping of being a woman and a leader (Carli & Eagly, 2001; Eagly & Karau, 2002). The glass ceiling effect means that gender is the deciding factor on how a woman may be perceived or evaluated (Ogden, McTavish & McKean, 2006), a non-performance factor. It means women are firstly stereotyped as women. Importantly, glass ceilings are invisible but the effects are real as women feel the effects of not conforming to their various and conflicting roles. Authors note that
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dealing with these counter-stereotypical issues is problematic for women as it causes conflict and stress (Rudman & Phelan, 2008), leading to a negative impact on women's progression. Women may reach the glass ceiling and can go, or decide to go no further. That women are under-represented in financial services suggests possible

negative stereotyping leading to glass ceiling effects which the EHRC (2009) study found.

Glass ceiling effects work in the same way for BME staff as they also face a number of barriers. For example, research has found that less access to formal and informal networks is afforded to BME staff compared to Non-BME staff (Forret & Dougherty, 2004; Ibarra, 1995). BME staff also receive fewer opportunities for training and

development which would benefit their progression (Higginbotham, 2004; Stark & Poppler, 2009). Also, it has been found in the US over the years that Black employees believe they do not receive as much important career information as do White employees (Alderfer, Alderfer, Tucker & Tucker, 1980; Ilgen & Youtz, 1986; Mor Barak, Cherin & Berkman, 1998) and a study by Fernandez (1985) found that BME staff experienced restricted advancement opportunities. Further, a study by Weeks, Weeks & Frost (2003) found that pay increases for Black employees were lower than for White employees; more specifically, class influenced the decision for Black but not White targets. The studies do not often refer to them as "glass ceiling" effects, but they could be categorised as such. Barreto et el., (2009) for example, outlines the wide range of barriers which impact on women and BME groups including lack of progression, less access to networks and training. Alvarez (2009, 2010) in addition points to racism and
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unfairness as a factor in glass ceiling limitations on some ethnic groups. In these ways, it is still the "group" effect at work where people are seen first as a member of a social group (stereotyping) which then leads to the biased decision.

As pointed out previously, stereotyping and bias leads to the phenomenon of glass ceiling effects (Barreto et al., 2009; Korac-Kakabase & Kouzmin, 1997). Women and some BME groups share similar and unique effects when glass ceilings are present, but generally glass ceilings affect progression of these groups where they are underrepresented at the top levels in some organisations.

1.4.3 Occupational segregation as a glass wall effect Occupational segregation also results from stereotyping, where people become grouped into certain positions based on their gender (Anker, 1997; Barreto et al., 2009; Betz, 1994; Deutsch & Silber, 2005; Hirschfeld, Jordan, Feild, Giles & Armenakis, 2005; Meyer & Maes, 1983) or ethnicity (Kalra et al., 2009), either on a skill-related basis (ie. more secretaries are women), or on a hierarchical basis (more top managers are men). This glass wall effect (Barreto, 2009) leads to under-represented groups being in functions with little visibility within the organisation and like the glass ceiling, impacts on progression and success (Post et al., 2009). Glass walls in this view lead to glass ceiling effects. These effects demonstrate the inherent nature of the barriers to Further biases exist in how

progression where bias impacts on decision-making. behaviour is explained and briefly outlined below.

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1.4.3.1

Other biases: Attributions and leadership

Attribution theory and the causes of behaviour Attribution theory explains how people (managers, for the purpose of this study) understand the causes of behaviour (Kelley, 1972), and according to the theory, biases lead to explanations of the causes of success or failure so has implications for being appraised (Feldman, 1981). The theory has three dimensions. Firstly, whether an event is related to the person's ability or effort (internal), or luck (external), secondly, is the event controllable or uncontrollable (by the person), and thirdly, is the cause of the event stable or unstable (Weiner, 1986; Kelley, 1972). Managers may erroneously act inappropriately if their understanding is not correct. Fundamental attribution errors,

where a person overestimates the personal factors and underestimates the situation may mean that managers are more likely to assume that employees' poor performance is due to a lack of ability or effort rather than to task difficulty or luck. Research using the theory finds women (eg. Alimo-Metcalfe, 1993) and some BME groups have negative attributions made about their involvement in events (eg. being external, not due to effort or ability), so there are implications for performance appraisal as well as promotion decisions in relation to progression.

Leadership categorisation theory Another type of bias can occur where leaders are categorised as prototypical (Lord & Maher, 1991). Where a perceiver "sees" an individual more as a leader (than not), the perceiver allows the person to exert leadership upon them, and follows them. This theory has relevance for global organisations where leader prototypes may differ across
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countries (from the Western model), and some authors suggest that new prototypes are needed (eg. Chen & Velsor, 1996). It is feasible some appraisers may appraise staff in different countries, especially global financial services. For example, leadership

prototype dimensions were found to be highly correlated with cultural dimensions in European countries (Smith, Dugan, & Trompenaars, 1996). Another study found a "White standard" existed where "being White" acted as a signal about leadership (Rosette, Leonardelli, & Phillips, 2008). In this way, positive stereotyping works.

Leader/Member Exchange Leader/member exchange theory predicts high performance where high quality relationships between supervisors and their subordinates exist. The theory has been used in a number of studies relating to gender (eg. Varma & Stroh, 2001) and ethnicity (eg. Stark & Poppler, 2009), and with a range of other variables. Stark & Poppler (2009) for example found that the relationship between the supervisor and subordinate was the most important predictor of performance, over and above the racial demographics of the two. The theory reminds us to take account of the demographics in a supervisor/subordinate dyad, although mixed effects have been found.

1.5

Summary

The above subsections outlined how stereotyping and various biases can lead to faulty decisions being made about different groups in different ways, including in performance appraisals. These decisions can occur prior to and as part of a formal appraisal process, for example the decision to promote, and may affect women and
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some minority ethnic groups unfairly (Powell & Graves, 2003). Erroneous attributions relating to behaviour can also affect performance appraisal, and leadership categorisation theory has relevance for being appraised at managerial levels. The

institutional resulting effects of continuing biased decisions may be seen in glass ceilings and occupational segregation (glass walls) effects, but the ultimate result leads to unfairness in organisational systems and inequitable results as the research shows.

Bias and stereotyping in making performance rating decisions, as well as in other various HR other processes, including indirectly through glass ceilings and occupational segregation effects, therefore can work together to create barriers and ultimately disadvantage for women and BME staff (Korac-Kakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997). It is important that we understand the full extent of these issues, bearing in mind the low representation of women and BME groups in some sectors.

Where the author outlined above how unfair systems operate and unfair decisions are made, the section below now turns to considering some implications of implementing unfair organisational systems, including performance appraisals, using the concepts of the psychological contract and procedural justice.

1.6

Some implications of implementing unfair organisational processes

Organisations operate many HR systems, including performance appraisal. Where they are designed and implemented unfairly, this can lead to negative consequences for individual and the organisation. This subsection outlines the concepts and some
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relevant research to illustrate.

1.6.1 Psychological Contract, organisational and procedural Justice The concepts of psychological contract, organisational and procedural justice explain and predict how implementing unfair systems and procedures such as performance appraisal can affect people in organisations in various ways.

Firstly, the psychological contract is defined as individual beliefs, shaped by the organisation, regarding terms of an exchange agreement between individuals and their organisation (Rousseau, 1995, p. 9) and involves both implicit and explicit promises made by managers to staff in the course of organisational life (Bagdadli, Roberson & Paoletti, 2006; Cropanzano & Folger, 1992). Mistrust can occur if for example

organisational systems are violated (Milward, Purves, & Cropley, 2003). Organisational justice (Greenberg, 1987) is concerned with the concept of fairness in organisations (Gilliland, 1993). This research has increased significantly over the past decade (see Colquitt, Greenberg, & Zapata-Phelan, 2005, for a review). One reason for this

increase is that perceptions of fair treatment have been linked to a number of beneficial employee behaviours (Conlon, Meyer & Nowakowski, 2005) and obviously of importance for organisations. For example, meta-analytic reviews have yielded a

moderately strong positive relationship between procedural justice, the perceived fairness of decision-making processes (Thibaut & Walker, 1975; Leventhal 1980), and task performance (Cohen-Charash & Spector, 2001; Colquitt, Conlon, Wesson, Porter & Ng, 2001) where fair decision-making may improve how individuals complete their
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tasks. Clearly, fairness is important. In particular, procedural justice is fostered where procedures utilise accurate information and are consistent, unbiased, offer mechanisms for correction, represent the concerns of key groups, and are ethical (Colquitt, Greenberg & Zapata-Phelan, 2005). Studies examining procedural justice have found that an unfair organisational process will lead to dissatisfaction and lower performance (Cropanzano & Folger, 1992). These are important implications in relation to

performance appraisal processes, and include both informal and formal aspects occurring within the process, as well as the written documentation. Indeed, recent

studies have found links between trust and attitudes toward performance appraisal (eg. Hedge & Teachout, 2000).

Similarly, organisations and researchers have been recently using the concept of employee engagement (eg. CIPD, website) to explain how staff may become dissatisfied with organisational processes. Employee engagement is currently a major factor which public and private sector organisations are now focusing on (CIPD, 2007a) and includes factors prior to and during an employees tenure, for example, performance appraisal, and is seen as a mechanism to manage the employment relationship. Interestingly, the three concepts above link closely to employee

engagement, with the concepts highlighting the implications for under-represented groups when implementing systems such as appraisal which may be unfair.

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1.7

Demographics and effects on performance ratings and other organisational variables

This subsection turns to specific evidence relating to gender and ethnicity, and the relationship with performance appraisal ratings and other variables which affect progression.

1.7.1 Research relating to gender, performance ratings and other organisational outcomes There has been previous and current evidence to suggest that women receive either higher, lower or the same performance ratings (Fogarty, Parker & Robinson, 1998; Landau, 1995; Landy & Farr, 1980; Lewis, 1997; Smith et al., 2002). The picture is not clear due to different definitions of performance, appraisal ratings and the various methodologies used in studies (Campbell et al., 1993) as mentioned in a previous section. Different contexts also influence ratings given to them (Cardy, Sutton, Carson & Dobbins, 1998). In any event, whether women receive higher or lower ratings is less relevant where higher performance ratings do not translate to some progression, or where different rules apply to men and women in relation to performance ratings. Where an organisations performance appraisal purpose is to decide on promotions, a lack of progression indicated by lower grades for some groups, could potentially create problems for the organisation in procedural justice and psychological contract terms as outlined above, as some people will become less motivated and satisfied if promises (either implicit or explicit) are unfulfilled (Bagdadli et al., 2006; Cropanzano & Folger, 1992; Siegel, Post, Brockman, Fishman & Gardner, 2005; Post, DiTomaso, Lowe,

Farris & Cordero, 2009; Roch, Sternburg & Caputo, 2007).


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Landy and Farr's (1980) previous research found several effects examining performance ratings and gender. In a majority of the published studies, which they cited, their conclusion was that there was no consistent effect of rater gender on ratings obtained in various research contexts including instructional, laboratory and simulated work settings (Landy & Farr, 1980). Other more recent research in different contexts as mentioned above, as well as various theories, has found a wide range of results (eg. Post, et al., 2009; Salter, Green, Ree, Carmody-Bubb & Duncan, 2009; Stark & Poppler, 2009). It is clear that the range of research is informative, but much of it does not focus on the outcomes of ratings over time.

The next subsection examines similar issues relating to ethnicity and being evaluated.

1.7.2 Research relating to organisational outcomes

ethnicity,

performance

ratings

and

other

Where performance appraisal ratings and ethnicity are concerned, research predominantly conducted in the US (Dewberry, 2001) has found that Black ratees receive slightly lower ratings than their White counterparts and found to account for between 1 and 4% of the variance in performance (Ford, Kraiger & Schechtman, 1986; Stark & Poppler, 2009), performance being based on objective and subjective criteria (cognitive, absence and job performance criteria). Some consider this to be small (eg. Arvey & Murphy, 1998). However, as Stark & Poppler (2009) point out, discrimination claims in the US involve performance ratings so the issue is obviously a real one in practical terms regardless of the small effect size (Agars, 2004).
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Like gender, an individuals ethnicity is difficult to ignore and is visible (Blair, et al., 2004; Catano et al., 2007; Fredman, 2001). Some minority ethnic groups may be

viewed in stereotyped ways, either positively or negatively (Alvarez, 2009; Wilder & Shapiro, 1991). For example, in a US context, Asians are stereotyped as being diligent, smart, well-organised, motivated, well-educated, passive, quiet, short, reserved and submissive whilst Hispanics have been stereotyped as being unintelligent, lazy, too emotional, kind, friendly, lively and passionate (Alvarez, 2009; Fernandez, 1991). Other stereotypes are likely to operate in the UK, with a changing workforce demography (Office for National Statistics, 2009). These stereotyped views may have an impact on some minority ethnic groups being viewed negatively and awarded lower performance ratings than White groups (Dewberry, 2001; Landau, 1995). Others consider however that some performance differences may be real (Milkovich & Wigdor, 1991).

Varying results have been found between field and laboratory studies (Post et al., 2009). In addition, most of these studies use only Black and White ethnic categories (Dewberry, 2001; Ford et al., 1986; Landau, 1995; Pulakos, White & Oppler, 1983; Waldman & Avolio, 1991) and not different ethnic groupings even though differences may be experienced by these different groups based on stereotyping (Alvarez, 2009; Landau, 1995).

The studies and some of the context on which these findings were based may not now be relevant to today's complex and diverse organisations and Dewberry (2001) and Tansley, Harris, Stewart & Turner, (2006) further make the point that there is little field
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research in the UK which examines "ethnicity" and ratings. The US research is certainly informative. The UK context, like the US is large and dynamic (Stockdale & Crosby, 2004) but with European Union countries joining (Stott, 2007) the concepts of race and ethnicity are continually being debated, especially "invisible" aspects of diversity (Office for National Statistics, 2009). It seems therefore important for more research to be done in the UK as it presents a different context to the US.

The next subsection turns to evidence of solo status effects which applies to and impacts upon both gender and ethnicity groups in various ways, including the eventual effect on performance ratings. Once again, bias and stereotyping operate.

1.8

Salience of demography (gender and ethnicity) and the "Solo status" effect

Solo status is a group effect and occurs where an individual is different from a majority group (in a function or managerial level) such that they do not share the same social identity as the group (White, 2008; Wilder & Shapiro, 1991). Stereotyping is the

mechanism and works to increase the persons visibility as the solo person. The person then becomes representative of the minority group as a whole. This is thought to put added pressure on solo status individuals and lead to stress (Craig & Rand, 1998; Niemann & Dovidio, 1998; Yoder, 1991; Zinner, 1988). Kanters (1977) theory of

tokenism is similar, where she found token women (women working in groups, where the ratio of men to women was approximately 85:15) were subject to greater performance pressure than men. She concluded from this study that the womens presence created ambiguities for them in terms of the group culture (masculine). Men
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responded to this ambiguity in the ensuing culture by increasing the male camaraderie within the group. Because of the heightened difference, women were marginalised and not included in informal networking which is important for progression. The effect on solo individuals is a type of a bias (Craig & Rand, 1984; Crocker & McGraw, 1984) as decision-making is affected. Recent research however has shown that people who cognitively appraise the situation as a challenge rather than a threat may actually perform higher (White, 2008). Individual differences therefore may play a part in solo status contexts in whether people perform better or worse. The phenomenon would appear to be an important one especially where, because of some groups being progressively under-represented in the higher echelons, negative effects could occur at different managerial levels on the way to the top. Indeed, the EHRC (2009) report into financial services mentioned above, reports women are more likely to be promoted to supervisory posts, but men to managerial posts (p.79). The study finds stereotyping to be a major explanatory factor for the negative effects against women.

1.9

Previous effects on progression

It is instructive to note at this stage that historical effects of biased recruitment and selection may still be present in organisations (prior to equality legislation); White men will have progressed already and some recruited into more select roles and departments which sees them progressing more quickly (Simpson & Ituma, 2009). So even where White men do not receive higher ratings, say, than women or minority ethnic staff, current recruitment efforts focusing on targeting women and minority ethnic people mean that current higher performance ratings will make no difference to either
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women or minority ethnic staff. There are therefore processes inside the organisation (eg. historically where White men are already on progression tracks and have been for some time (Simpson & Ituma, 2009)) acting as an invisible career barrier which sees some BME groups and women low visibility departments. This could be especially relevant to financial services organisations, which have predominantly recruited White men in previous times (Regini, Kitay & Baethge, 1999) and may still be in the organisation. Where previously there were no diversity or effective performance

appraisal processes in place, it is easy to see how the effects of contemporary diversity efforts may be inadequate if not addressed appropriately to take account of these historical concerns. In addition, where diversity strategies only focus on say recruiting women and minority ethnic staff into the organisation, this is laudable, but lack of progress of some demographic groups is unlikely to be acknowledged at later career stages so that women and minority ethnic staff may still not progress as quickly as White men.

1.10

The issue of organisational tenure

The issues in the preceding subsection elucidate that tenure poses an interesting dilemma for both women and minority ethnic staff, especially taking into account the historical effects of both groups having little visibility in organisations until recent campaigns such as Opportunity 2000 which aimed to increase women in the workforce (King, 1994). Tenure is taken to be a "sign" of loyalty (Landau, 1995). Where, as outlined above, some White men may have progressed to senior roles because of various processes (including the glass escalator effect, where men progress quickly
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into feminised professions) (Hutlin, 2003), progression may also ensue because they do not take career breaks. Career progression requires a long tenure in some cases (Regini et al., 1999). Women and other minorities may leave because of unfriendly organisational cultures (Dipboye & Colella, 2005) and not, as human capital theory predicts, because of choice or failure (Koran-Kakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997). Certainly the EHRC (2009) study highlighted some of these issues.

Tenure has more often than not been used as a moderating variable (eg. Moser & Galais, 2007). However, in this study, it has been used as an independent variable to examine its contribution alongside other variables in relation to progression. This

seems theoretically sensible bearing in mind the basis for tenure to contribute differentially to the progression of demographic groups which may be unequal.

1.11

Building and expanding on existing research

Previous research on performance appraisal has built an empirical basis which has not come to clear conclusions. Much of this and similar research is US-based (eg. Lance & Bennett, 2000) and the context of the UK is different. Also, the author could locate few studies in the UK in the work psychology literature related to issues raised in the US. However, statistics such as the one that finds minority ethnic people underrepresented in the NHS and in the police force (Choudhury, 2007; Kalra et al., 2009; Mistry & Latoo, 2009) would suggest more UK-based research is needed.

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Much of the research on performance appraisal is laboratory-based and calls have been made for more UK field research. These are real limitations to a research base which is relevant for a UK context. In addition, organisations are changing and becoming more global and it is important to understand the implications for UK organisations that operate globally such as financial services. Diversity and cross-cultural are surely

important to understand, especially as they relate to being appraised in organisations, and especially where they combine with other factors to affect progression differentially for some groups. Bias and stereotyping are likely to be factors where there are different demographic groups in organisations, as the research shows.

1.12

Rationale for study 1

The above sections outlined concepts and theories in relation to performance and appraisal, and presented research on some processes that may undermine the progression of women and minority ethnic staff, including bias in performance ratings. A number of biases are involved in appraisers making decisions about employees (including awarding ratings and promotions), and some of these are more relevant at higher levels (eg. leadership categorisation). There are also indications that factors outside of appraisal presented as contextual effects around decision-making may occur together to produce unequal effects on different demographic groups leading to differential rates of progression for groups.

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1.13 Research hypotheses The focus of this study was to explore performance appraisal ratings awarded within a UK financial institution from a gender and ethnicity perspective including the role they played in progression. The study also examined a number of variables over a 3-year period to assess their effects on the mean grade (progression) received by gender and by ethnic groups.

In particular, the study seeks to examine the following hypotheses:

Hypotheses relating to ethnicity

1. That Black and Minority Ethnic staff (BME, i.e., Asian, Black, Chinese) received a lower performance rating than White staff for all three years.

2. There was a relationship between ethnicity and the two highest (1-2) and lowest (78) performance ratings for Year 3.

3. a) There was a relationship between ethnicity and being in a high or low grade, such that Asian, Black and Chinese employees were more likely to be in lower grades than White employees. b) There was a relationship between ethnicity and whether the person was in a manager or non-manager grade.

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4. There was a relationship between ethnicity and the department or function employed in (Year 3).

5. a) There was a relationship between proportions of BME staff in a department and whether a staff member was in a high (1-2) or low (4-5) performance rating category (Year 3). b) There was a relationship between BME and White staff being in a high or low grade, in high (10% or more) and low (9% or less) proportion

departments/functions (Year 3).

6. The effect of all predictor variables (proportions of BME staff in a branch, department/function, Overall Performance Ratings (OPR) for years 1-3, service and age) differentially affected the mean grade for different ethnic groups in Year 3 (ie. the cumulative effect of predictor variables over three years).

Hypotheses relating to gender 7. Women received a lower performance rating than men for all three years.

8. There was a relationship between gender and the two highest (1-2) and lowest (4-5) performance ratings for Year 3.

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9. a) There was a relationship between gender and being in a high or low grade. b) There was a relationship between gender and whether the person was in a manager or non-manager grade for all three years. (Chi square analysis was conducted to explore this relationship).

10. There was a relationship between gender and which department/function the person was employed in (Year 3).

11. a) There was a relationship between the proportion of women in a branch/ department and the performance rating received by men and women (Year 3). b) There was a relationship between the proportion of women in a branch/ department and the grade received by men and women (Year 3).

12.

The effect of all predictor variables (proportions of women in a branch, department/function, Overall Performance Ratings (OPR) for years 1-3, service and age) had differential effects on the mean grade received (Year 3) by both men and women.

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2.

Method

This study used archived performance appraisal data (1998-2000) from a global financial services organisation to examine the relationships between demographic factors (gender and ethnicity) and performance ratings and other organisational data variables. The study was quasi-experimental as the participants were not randomly allocated, and an opportunity sample was used.

2.1

Organisational information

The organisation employed a total of approximately 71,000 people globally in 2001, of which almost 50,000 were employed in the UK. Of this total, 29,693 (60%) were White women, 1,819 (4%) non-White women, 981 (2%) were non-White men and 18,433 (37%) were White men. The organisation also employed a total of 1,000 people in the UK who had a disability. 31% of all managers were full-time women with 11,039 (65%) of all women employed on a part-time basis. 70% of all managers were men but only In 2001, 2.4% of all

1% (n = 511) of men were employed on a part-time basis. managers were Asian, 1.6% were Black and 92% were White.

2.2

Sample

The study sample comprised 1,680 employees from across the UK and who performed various roles in retail and investment banking, and from staff and executive groups. All staff (whether staff or executives) had identical performance appraisal forms.

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The senior diversity manager identified 1,000 White employees to match the 1,000 NonWhite (BME, Black and Ethnic Minority) employees from various departments and branches across the UK. The sample was initially drawn from a random selection from the organisations database across branches and departments, which employed small and larger numbers of BME employees. The rationale for this initial selection was to gain access to an equal number of non-White and White employees, as there was a much smaller number of non-White employees in this organisation and the organisation wished to identify these people across the desired number of branches/departments. Line managers in these various branches/departments were sent a memo identifying these employees asking for a completed appraisal to be sent to the senior diversity manager for each person for three years.

From a total sample of 2,000 performance appraisal forms requested, 1,743 appraisals were returned (87%). The appraisal forms were scrutinised and any forms which did not include performance reviews for the four quarters (the final review being at the end of each year), as well as any appraisal forms from staff members who had been on long-term sick leave or on maternity leave were deleted from the sample, leaving a total usable sample of 1,680 appraisal forms to be analysed. For each of the 1,680 identified employees, line managers had returned completed appraisal forms for 1998, 1999, and 2000.

The eventual sample comprised 47.7% who worked in branches, 14.5% in head office departments and 29.4% in operations; 10.9% were managers, and 80.7% were non55

managers. Of the sample, 28.6% were Asian, 15.2% were Black, 1.6% were Chinese and 46.3% were White employees, 21.0% were men, 70.6% were women.

2.3

The organisations performance management system

The organisation had a performance appraisal process as part of their performance management system, which was undergoing change during 1999/2000. An

unpublished study, commissioned by a previous diversity manager within the organisation conducted in the same organisation in 1998, had found that BME employees received lower performance ratings in the previous year. The organisations appraisal process changed during the period of this study whereby two booklets were produced for all staff. The full effects of the changes were completed by 2000 when the performance appraisal form was changed. However, the change to the appraisal form was minor: the column skills total was dropped from the performance appraisal forms from 2000, and the separate sections for Strengths and Developments were also deleted and included in the Summary section of the form. Otherwise, the performance appraisal forms for all three years were identical.5

The organisation had a common appraisal and objective setting system stated in new booklets provided in 2000 to be, a common language to rate performance. These booklets outlined the performance management system that comprised the performance appraisal system. The performance management system included

objective setting, two of the core objectives for all staff being business growth and

It is not known the extent of the change process as the relevant person was not available to verify the extent of changes. The changes however were visibly observed by the author.

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personal development. The aim of the whole performance management process was to reward performance through a personal factor and the award of an Overall Performance Rating which influenced salary awards and future development prospects. The personal factor award related to achievement of objectives as applied to particular individuals and included behaviour and contribution to team efforts. Key

result areas (objective indices, eg. number of sales) for all jobs were specified in these booklets. The performance appraisal process involved line managers agreeing

objectives and included the objective key result areas as well as subjective judgements to be made by the appraiser. Leadership was specified as a core objective for

management roles only. It was specified in literature provided to appraisers that line managers were required to have line-managed individuals for at least 12 months prior to appraising a subordinate.

Progress of employees was reviewed quarterly with performance measured against objectives. At the annual review meeting, the appraising manager advised employees of their personal performance factor, discussed progress and set action plans for the next year.

2.4

Performance Appraisal Training

All managers were required to attend appraisal training6, also attended by the author. The two booklets referred to above were provided to attendees, which outlined the

However, due to organisational constraints and the nature of the study, it was not possible to ascertain whether in fact this was the case. The author attended the appraisal training course (for line managers) but there was one participant who had been employed in the organisation for 12 years and had only attended the appraisal training after this time.

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performance management and appraisal system. One booklet gave an overview of the whole performance management system used, which was for appraisers only, and another booklet (also handed out to attendees) was directed towards both appraisers and appraisees. In the latter booklet, advice was provided to appraisees on how best to collect evidence for the review meetings. The booklet stated that the information was also available on the organisations intranet. Seven core standards applied to all

employees and four descriptors were provided for each of these core standards.

2.5

Annual Performance Review Meetings

Managers conducted annual review meetings where the appraising manager discussed progress and set action plans for the next year. The appraisal form was completed either during the appraisal interview or some time later when the appraising manager had reflected on the meeting. However, there were no controls to ascertain when the appraisal form was completed in relation to the performance appraisal meeting.

2.6

The Performance Appraisal Instrument

The appraisal forms themselves consisted of a persons name, staff number, grade, position and reviewing manager, as well as a section for the OPR. Additionally, there were sections in the appraisal form where the appraisee and appraiser could write their own comments.

The other OPR component comprised a 5-item rating as follows:

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1 2 3 4 5

O=Outstanding H=High Achievement G=Good performance I =Improvement required U=Unacceptable

New rating definitions were provided for the 5-item rating scale although appraisers were advised to use the same ratings as above for 2000. Also included was a section relating to whether objectives were Not Met, Met, or Exceeded.

2.7

Procedure for the study

The 1,680 appraisal forms returned were from 280 branches, 95 operations departments and 93 head office departments. Once the completed appraisal forms were received, a unique identifier was written onto each page and the year the appraisal was conducted. For instance, the first appraisal received would be assigned the

number 0001/98, 0001/99, 0001/00. This number was also entered onto a spreadsheet along with the staff number, name, gender, age and BME grouping. The unique

identifier was used to identify the information, allow for confidentiality and to enable matching of further data. Also entered was length of service, contractual status (parttime/full-time), whether person had a disability and also level of education. The

information entered from the appraisal forms was performance rating, line manager name, line manager gender, skills totals, number of strengths and number of developments.

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Information was also provided from the organisations central database situated in another UK Location. This information was downloaded onto a spreadsheet and

contained the staff number, staff gender, staff race ("B" or "W"), staff race (11 census classifications), department ID, department name, disability, contract, age, years of service, and education level for each of the employees in the sample. The unique identifier and the staff number enabled the data from the two spreadsheets to be matched. The information from the two sources was constantly cross-checked to

ensure it was correct. For example, a random sample of the hard copy appraisal forms was checked against the information in the spreadsheet (and which also contained the staff number, also on the appraisal form). A full list of all variables used in the study is attached as Appendix A.

2.8

Validity and Reliability

This study did not deal directly with validity in a formal sense (eg. Brewer, 2000) in relation to the overall performance rating. For example, ratings were not correlated with objective indices of performance. Although objective indices were used in the

organisations performance appraisal process, they did not relate in a way that could be objectively examined. The OPR was subjective, based on the appraisers view of the whole job performance of the appraisee for the year and is a common rating used in organisations in this way (Borman & Motowildo, 1993).

The rationale for the lack of formal validity of performance ratings was due to archived data from within a natural organisational setting being used for the study where the
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performance appraisals had been completed for the three years when the study was commenced. There was no opportunity for elaborate scientific controls. This study, therefore, should be viewed as an exploration of the relationship between performance ratings and other outcomes of the performance appraisal process, including the effects on progression. This is feasible bearing in mind one purpose of the performance

appraisal process in the organisation was to award higher grades.

Some measure of reliability is attained because of the large samples used (Cohen, 1960) and the use of the same 5-point rating for the three years. However, due to the nature of the study (using archived data), formal test, retest and inter-rater reliability could not validly be conducted due to the lack of scientific control mentioned earlier above and nor appropriate for the study.

Overall performance ratings of employees by their line managers have been used as a valid method to assess performance in organisations in previous studies (Gattiker & Larwood, 1995; Lyness & Thompson, 2000). The ratings measure used in the present study was deemed to have face validity: the ratings were commonly applied to all individuals in the organisation and were known by all to measure success and affect progressthe purpose of the performance appraisal process was outlined in the organisation's Performance Management booklet referred to above, and was also communicated via performance appraisal training for appraisers. The reliability of the overall performance rating (OPR) as a scale measure is assured by the general agreement and understanding of the definitions applying to each of the scales of 1-5.
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For example, although the scale is numerical, there were also qualitative, subjective definitions to each of the scale measurements. It was generally agreed in the

organisation that 1 was quantitatively and qualitatively larger than 2, 2 between 3, and so on between each of the OPR rating scale points, and the training attended by the author confirmed this. This generally accords with Cohens (1960) analysis of reliability where agreement is reached between scales by two judges. In addition, in the

organisation where this study was conducted, the numerical scales were published in the Performance Management Handbook and on the intranet which all staff and managers had access to. Clearly though the rating is subjective one persons rating may not equate with anothers. In addition, it was the organisations policy that where a rating of 5 (lowest) was received for two years running, disciplinary action was taken. Because there were policy decisions attached to the rating measurements which were uniform, this gives some credence to the reliability of the OPR rating scale and the magnitude of difference between each of the rating scale indices.

2.9

Variables used in the study

The variables used for this study relate to data from the appraisal forms as well as organisational data provided from the central database. The variables are listed below:

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Table 1 Variables From Appraisal Forms and Database


Appraisal form data relating to years Year 1 Variables

Overall performance rating, skills totals (reverse scored from 1-7 for each skill), grade code (manager, non-manager), number of years in grade (in 1998), number of strengths, number of development areas. Overall performance rating, skills totals, grade code (manager, non-manager), number of strengths, number of development areas. Overall performance rating, grade code (manager, non-manager), grade8all* (4 nonmanager grades, 4 manager grades)

Year 2

Year 3

*Variable only applies to Year 3.

The variables in Table 1 above, Overall performance rating and Grade code apply to performance appraisals for all three years. The variable code grade code was coded as 1 = manager; 2 = non-manager. The variable grade8all refers to all of the 8 grades within the organisation (Year 3). For Years 1 and 2, much of the data is missing related to the 8 grades and so could not be used in any analysis. For this reason, the variable, "grade8all", only applies to Year 3.

Other variables: Other variables (Table 2 below) relate to demographic data including ethnicity and gender variables and this information was obtained from the organisations database (matched via the staff number on the database with the staff number on the appraisal form).

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Table 2 Other Variables


Variable Definition

Four collapsed ethnic groupings

Asian Black Chinese White 9% or less non-White employees

Proportion of minority ethnic staff: Branch/department with low number of non-White employees Proportion of minority ethnic staff: Branch/department with high number of non-White employees Contractual status

10% or more non-White employees

1 = Full-time 2 = Part-time 1 = Branches 2 = Head Office Departments 3 = Operations (including processing) 1 = O level or GCSE 2 = A level 3 = Degree or prof. qualification 1 = Has disability 0 = Does not have disability 1 = Male 2 = Female 1 = 0-10 2 = 11-20 3 = 21-30 4 = 31-40 5 = 41-50 6 = 51-60 7 = 61-70 8 = 81-100 1 = up to 29 2 = 30-39 3 = 40-49 4 = 50+ 1 = 1-5 2 = 6-10 3 = 11-15 4 = 16-20 5 = 21-25 6 = 26-29 7 = 30+

Functions

Education

Disability

Gender

Proportions = (% of females in a branch/department)

Age

Service (Years)

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Proportions: The variables in Table 2 above relating to the proportion of Non-White (BME) employees within a particular branch or department use the percentage figure of 10% as the cut-off point. This figure was arrived at in discussion with the diversity manager. Also, the proportions of BME employees within the organisation varied widely depending on which region a branch or department was situated in. It is feasible that other percentages could be used. From an examination of the literature (e.g., Kanter 1977) and taking into account the organisational factors, it was considered that the threshold of 10% was a reasonable figure to use and broadly in line with literature.

2.10

Analyses used throughout the study

A number of analyses using one-way ANOVA, Chi Square and linear regression were employed to assess the effects of gender and ethnicity relationships with solo status, performance ratings and employee grade. Together, they provided a pattern of data, which could be examined in relation to the research questions, each one providing a different focus. For example, ANOVA was used to examine significant differences

between ratings. Chi Square was used to examine the categorical properties of high and low ratings, both of which have different consequences for staff who receive them.

Regressions can be used to test theoretical assumptions and the influence of predictor variables to assess how much a predictor adds to the prediction of a criterion, over and above that which can be accounted for by other important predictors (Hinkle, Wiersma & Murs, 1994). The criterion variable used in this study ("grade8all") was the mean grade (8 grades), attained by employees in Year 3.
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The predictor variables are thought to be theoretically important in relation to progression. For example, for the variable Department/Function, depending on which department or function a person works in may result in progressing quicker due to the nature of the work and experiences the different functions providebranches in a small town for example are qualitatively different to a head office department with high visibility to the rest of the organisation. Function data for all three years may predict a higher grade if the function the person worked in had a high visibility factor, a highly prestigious role, for example, in a head office department. In this way, the cumulative effect of being in a high visibility function may more likely affect the grade a person is in over a three year period rather than say a one year period. The cumulative effect, therefore, of examining theoretically important predictor variables on the important variable of interest, the employee grade, is useful, especially from a longitudinal perspective where a pattern may be discerned between groups. The

Department/function variable was transformed to take account of its categorical properties to be used in regression analysis (Field, 2009).

2.11

Variables relating to Ethnicity

Throughout the study, four collapsed categories of ethnicity were used: Asian Black Chinese White

These were derived from the government census categories, which currently numbers 11 and comprise more refined definitions in each of the above categories. However, for
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the Chi Square analyses relating to proportions, only the two categories were used (i.e., BME and White).

Analysis using the four collapsed categories was conducted because some literature shows that different ethnic groups experience differences in some organisational outcomes (Stark & Poppler, 2009) rather than Black and White groups as used in some US studies (eg. Kraiger & Ford, 1985). The effects of stereotyping (and possible unfair discrimination) are not uniform across all BME individuals. Some groups experience either relatively more positive or negative stereotyping. Using the 11 categories as above however would have resulted in some of the categories having few participants in some categories. As the study used regression analysis involving a number of

variables, it was necessary to have the minimum required number of observations in any one category to ensure that the analysis was robust and fulfilled the criterion for a parametric test. Indeed, as Field (2009) recommends, not all variables need to be included in a regression.

The next section provides results of the analyses, whilst the section 4 discusses these findings.

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3.

Analysis

The relationships between gender and ethnicity (including solo status effects of both of these groups), grade and overall performance appraisal ratings (OPR) were explored using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Chi Square. A range of predictors was also regressed onto the Year 3 grade as the dependent variable using linear regression and showing separate analyses for the different demographic groups.

The Results subsection below describes results of all analyses and the discussion appears in the subsequent subsections.

3.1

Results

The first part of this subsection provides the analyses relating to ethnicity, performance ratings and grades. The subsection then follows with analyses relating to gender. Both subsections report on the results of regression analyses where all independent variables are regressed onto the mean grade for all the demographic groups separately.

3.1.1 Results of analysis relating to ethnicity Hypothesis 1: The first hypothesis stated that BME staff (Asian, Black, Chinese) groups received a lower performance rating than Non-BME (White) staff for each of Years 1-3. Table 3 presents mean performance ratings for staff categorised as Asian, Black, Chinese (BME), and White (Non-BME) for three years.

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Table 3 Mean Overall Performance Ratings for Collapsed Ethnicity Census Groupings (1=high, 5=low)
BME Staff Asian Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 M SD n M Black SD n M Chinese SD n M Non-BME Staff White SD n

2.65 .567 524 2.72 .530 467 2.77 .528 421

2.70 .540 222 2.78 .540 234 2.82 .505 224

2.85 .366 30 2.45 .596 22 2.77 .612 22

2.63 .605 704 2.70 .538 750 2.76 .535 725

For Year 1, the highest7 mean rating was 2.85 for employees in the Chinese ethnicity group while employees in the White category received the lowest mean rating of 2.63. The means were subjected to a one-way ANOVA which revealed non-significant differences between them, F(df3, N = 1358)1.621, p = .183.

For Year 2, Black employees received the highest mean rating of 2.78 with Chinese employees receiving the lowest mean rating of 2.45. One-way ANOVA results were significant, F(df3, N = 1473)3.244, p = .021. A post-hoc Tukeys HSD was employed to assess where the differences lay and this revealed Chinese and Black groups of staff showed the largest difference in mean ratings, F(df1, n = 256).328, p<.05.

Performance ratings for Year 3 were also subjected to one-way ANOVA and revealed that Black employees received the highest mean rating of 2.82 with Asian and Chinese employees both receiving a mean rating of 2.77. White employees received the lowest mean rating of 2.76. These results however are not significant F(df3, n = 1392).848, p =

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.468.

The results of the above analyses showed mixed results Year 1 and Year 3 revealed non-significant resultsBME staff did not receive lower performance appraisal ratings. For Year 2 the result is significant as Chinese staff the lowest rating. Black staff in that year received the highest rating.

Hypothesis 1 is therefore partially supported. Chinese received the lowest rating in the BME group.

3.1.1.1 Relationship between ethnicity and high and low performance ratings Hypothesis 2 stated that there would be a relationship between ethnicity and a high or a low performance rating received. Table 4 shows the number of staff in each of the collapsed census groups who were in a high or a low performance rating category (for Year 3). Table 4 Numbers of Staff in Each Collapsed Census Group in a High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Performance Rating Category (Year 3)
Asian High performance rating category Low performance rating category 97 (31%) 10 (31%) Black 40 (13%) 6 (19%) Chinese 5 (2%) 1 (3%) White 175 (55%) 15 (47%)

Although numerically the rating is lower, the performance ratings in the organisation range from 1-5, with 1 being high, 5 being low.

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Table 4 shows the number of staff in each of the collapsed census groups who were in a high or a low performance rating category (for Year 3). An inspection of the results matrix shows that there are differences between the observed and expected frequencies of some groups and the rating category they occupied with results subjected to a Chi Square analysis to explore differences between these frequencies for the four collapsed groupings (Asian, Black, Chinese, White). The analysis revealed that there was no difference between the groups and whether they occupied a high (1-2) or low (4-5) performance rating category, 2(3, N = 349) 1.609, p = .657 (two-tailed).

Hypothesis 2 is not supported. The observed and expected frequencies within each category are reflective of what would be expected in the population. Any relationship between ethnicity and whether they received a high or low performance rating was therefore more than likely due to sampling error.

3.1.1.2 Relationship between ethnicity and grade (Year 3) Hypothesis 3 a) stated that there would be a relationship between ethnicity and being in a high or low grade, such that Asian, Black and Chinese employees were more likely to be in the low grades than White employees. Table 5 above shows the total numbers of staff in each of the ethnic census group categories who were in either a high or a low grade category.

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Table 5 Numbers of Staff in Each Collapsed Census Group in a High (7-8) or Low (1-2) Grade Category (Year 3)
Asian High grade category Low grade category 9 (36%) 119 (31%) Black 4 (16%) 58 (15%) Chinese 0 (0%) 6 (2%) White 12 (48%) 198 (52%)

Chi square analysis was employed to examine this hypothesis. The result, however, is not significant, F(df3, N = 406).643, p = .886.

Hypothesis 3 a) is not supported. There is no significant relationship between ethnicity and being in a high or low grade category for Year 3.

3.1.1.3 Relationship between ethnicity and manager and non-manager grade (Years 1-3)

Hypothesis 3 b) stated that there would be a relationship between ethnicity and whether the person was in a manager or non-manager grade for each of the Years 1-3. Table 6 shows descriptive statistics (numbers and percentages) relating to the data.

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Table 6 Ethnicity and Number of Managers and Non-Managers for All Ethnic Groups for Years 1-3
Year 1 Asian managers Asian non-managers Black manager Black non-managers Chinese managers Chinese non-managers White managers White non-managers 32 357 8 200 2 15 49 609 (35%) (30%) (9%) (17%) (2%) (1%) (54%) (52%) 34 356 15 175 3 15 49 573 Year 2 (34%) (32%) (15%) (16%) (3%) (1%) (49%) (51%) 61 463 37 241 6 24 96 752 Year 3 (30%) (31%) (18%) (16%) (3%) (2%) (49%) (51%)

Chi square analysis was employed to explore these relationships. However, this result is not significant 2(3, N = 994) .643, p = .886 (two-tailed).

Hypothesis 3 b) is not supported. There was no relationship between a staff member's ethnicity and being in a manager or non-manager grade.

3.1.1.4 Relationship between ethnicity and department or function Hypothesis 4 stated that there would be a relationship between ethnicity and the department or function employed in (Year 3).

Firstly, Table 7 below shows descriptive statistics for the numbers of staff, by ethnic grouping, in each of the bank functions/departments:

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Table 7 Numbers and Percentages of Ethnicity Groups Working in Departments/Functions (Year 3)


Number of staff in 4 ethnic groups Asian (n = 523) Black (n = 278) Chinese (n = 30) White (n = 847) Branch 303 (58%) 115 (41%) 12 (40%) 444 (52%) Head Office 70 (13%) 55 (20%) 6 (20%) 135 (16%) Operations 150 (29%) 108 (39%) 12 (40%) 268 (32%)

A Chi Square analysis was computed to examine this relationship which was significant, 2(6, N = 1678) 2.197, p<.001 (two-tailed). Cramers V (effect size), however, is 0.81 indicating that only around 1% in the variance is accounted for by staffs ethnicity and which department or function they were employed in, in Year 3.

Hypothesis 4 is supportedthere was a relationship between which ethnic group a person occupied and which department or function they were employed in, in Year 3. However, the low effect size indicates that other factors are involved in this relationship.

3.1.1.5 Proportions of minority ethnic staff (Solo Status effect) and the effects on performance ratings and grades

Analyses were employed to explore the relationship between the proportions of BME staff in a department/function and performance ratings (high and low) and grades (high and low) using categorical variables.

Table 8 firstly shows the numbers of staff in each of the high and low proportion categories:
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Table 8 Numbers of BME and White8 Staff in a High (10%>) or Low (9%<) Proportion Department/Function in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) OPR Category (Year 3)
BME staff High rating High proportion category Low proportion category 108 (56%) 34 (33%) BME staff Low rating 9 (60%) 8 (53%) White staff High rating 86 (44%) 70 (67%) White staff Low rating 6 (40%) 7 (47%)

Hypothesis 5 a) stated that there would be a relationship between BME and White staff being in either a high or low performance rating category and being in high (10% or more) or low (9% or less) proportion departments/function. Chi square analysis was employed to examine this relationship. The results are mixed. There was a significant relationship between the BME and White groups in the high rating category 2(df2, n = 194)3.086, p = .01 (two-tailed); there was no significant relationship in the low rating category 2(df2, n = 104)2.552, p = .279 (two-tailed). Therefore, the relationship

between being a BME or White staff member in high (10% or more) or low (9% or less) proportion department or function and who occupied a high performance rating category was more than likely a real relationship rather than as a result of sampling error. However, for the same groups in the low performance rating category, the relationship was more likely due to sampling error. Cramers V (effect size) was .312 for a high rating. Therefore, the variance is around not quite 1% with other factors accounting for the relationship.

Only two groups were used for this analysis, rather than the four collapsed census groupings. This was because the proportions of staff related to the BME group as a whole. To use the four groups would have yielded too few entries for the table, uninterpretable and unwieldy.

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Hypothesis 5 a) is partially supported. There was a relationship between the ethnicity of staff group members and working in a high or low proportion department/function, and whether they occupied a high performance rating category with an associated effect size which is very small.

Hypothesis 5 b) stated that there would be a relationship between BME and White staff being in either a high or low grade and being in high (10% or more) and low (9% or less) proportion departments/function. Table 9 below provides descriptive statistics.

Table 9 Numbers of BME and White9 Staff in a High (10%>) or Low (9%<) Proportion Department/Function in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Grade Category (Year 3)
BME staff High grade High proportion category Low proportion category 118 (57%) 7 (47%) BME staff Low grade 6 (100%) 65 (44%) White staff High grade 88 (43%) 8 (53%) White staff Low grade 0 (0%) 84 (56%)

Chi Square was employed to examine this relationship. This result is significant for both high and low grade categories respectively, 2(df2, N = 209)3.225, p<.01; 2(df2, N = 119)1.004, p<.01. Where there are either high or low proportions of BME staff in a department/function, both BME and White staff were more than likely to occupy both top and bottom grades equally. Cramer's V (effect size) is .291 in relation to bottom grades, and .634 for top grades, meaning that ethnicity accounts for around 1% and 4% of the

Only two groups were used for this analysis, rather than the four collapsed census groupings. This was because the proportions of staff related to the BME group as a whole. To use the four groups would have yielded too few entries for the table, uninterpretable and unwieldy.

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variance in being in a low grade and a high grade (in a high or low proportion department/function) respectively.

Hypothesis 5 b) is supported. Depending on the proportions of BME staff in a particular department or function, there was a relationship between the ethnicity of a staff member (either BME or White) and whether they were in a high or low grade. The variance relating to ethnicity and being in a higher grader was higher than that for low grades. The effect sizes are both small meaning that other factors account for the relationship which is slightly stronger as far as high grades are concerned. The ethnic group of a

staff member therefore had a stronger effect at higher grades and applied to both high and low proportion branches.

3.1.1.6 Effects of all predictor variables on mean grade received by ethnic groups (Year 3)

The ANOVA and Chi Square analyses were further tested using regression. Hypothesis 6 stated that predictor variables would differentially affect the mean grade for different ethnic groups for Year 3.

Table 10 provides descriptive statistics for the hypothesis:

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Table 10 Descriptive Statistics for Mean Grade for Ethnicity Groups (Year 3)
M Asian Black Chinese White 3.35 3.36 3.40 3.26 Min/Max 1-8 1-7 2-6 1-8 SD 1.135 1.118 1.163 1.118 N 524 278 30 848

One-way ANOVA is not significant; .F(df3, N = 1680)472

3.1.1.7 Predictor variables regressed onto grade for Asian staff (Year 3) Table 11 below firstly presents indices to reveal the relative strength of the individual predictors. Bivariate correlations between the independent variables and mean grade for Asian staff were negative apart from department/function and proportion of BME staff (in a department/function). Significant results are indicated by OPR Year 2, OPR Year 3, Head Office function, Age and Service.

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Table 11 Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors With Mean Grade (Asian staff)
Predictors OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of BME staff ***p<.001; **p<.01 Correlation between each predictor and mean grade -.271 -.380*** -.286** .255*** -.081 .048** .192** -.076 Correlation between each predictor and mean grade controlling for all other predictors -.083 -.259*** -.135** .260*** .042 -.142** .198** -.040

When all of the predictor variables were regressed onto the mean grade for Year 3 for Asian staff, the model shows that around 26% of the variance account for the predictor variables which was significant, F(df7, n = 294)12.795, p<.001. OPR Year 2, OPR Year 3, Head office function, Age and Service were significant variables. Table 12 below presents results for the regression analysis for Asian staff:

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Table 12 Regression Table for Asian staff in relation to grade (Year 3)


Variable OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head Office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of BME staff B -.152 -.533 -.274 .798 .093 -.239 .164 -.091 SE B .106 .16 .117 .173 .129 .097 .047 .132 -.080 -.266 -.130 .240 .038 -.187 .268 -.036 T -1.435 -4.593 -2.337 4.622 .720 -2.459 3.465 .687 Sig. .152 .000 .020 .000 .472 .015 .001 .492

Dependant variable: Mean Grade Year 3 Asian staff

3.1.1.8 Predictor variables regressed onto grade Black staff (Year 3) Table 13 below presents the results showing the relative strength of the individual predictors. Bivariate correlations between the independent variables and mean grade for Black staff were negative apart from Service and Proportion of BME staff (in a department/function). Significant results are indicated by OPR Year 1, OPR Year 2, Head office function, Age and Service.

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Table 13 The Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors With Mean Grade (Black Staff)

Predictors OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of BME staff ***p<.001; **p<.01

Correlation between each predictor and mean grade -.375* -.331** -.329 .266** -.189 -.048*** .307*** .130

Correlation between each predictor and mean grade controlling for all other predictors -.191* -.220** -.114 .230** -.047 -.254*** .401*** .037

When the predictors were regressed onto the mean grade for Year 3 for Black staff, the model revealed that around 38% of the variance in the mean grade is accounted for by the predictor variables, which was significant, F(df7, n = 158)30.337, p<.001. OPR Year 1, OPR Year 2, Head office function, Age and Service were significant variables. Table 14 below shows these results:

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Table 14 Regression Table for Black Staff in Relation to Grade (Year 3)


Variable OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head Office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of BME staff B -.326 -.376 -.232 .569 -.085 -.392 .249 .083 SE B .134 .133 .162 .192 .143 .119 .046 .179 -.184 -.200 -.112 .217 -.041 -.263 .436 .032 T -2.444 -2.823 -1.437 2.968 -.590 -3.286 5.478 .460 Sig. .016 .005 .153 .003 .556 .001 .000 .646

Dependant variable: Mean Grade Year 3 Black staff

As the number of participants were too few (around 15 per variable required), the analysis was not computed for Chinese staff.

3.1.1.9 Predictor variables regressed onto grade for White staff (Year 3) Table 15 below shows the indices to indicate the relative strength of the individual predictors against the dependent variable. Bivariate correlations between the

independent variables and mean grade for White staff were positive for Head office function, Age, Service and Proportion of BME staff.

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Table 15 The Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors With Mean Grade (White staff)
Predictors OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of BME staff ***p<.001; **p<.01 Correlation between each predictor and mean grade -.244*** -.238*** -.152 .306*** -.092 .013*** .289*** .042 Correlation between each predictor and mean grade controlling for all other predictors -.138*** -.147*** -.062 .286*** .027 -.161*** .321*** .035

For White staff, the regression analysis shows that around 26% of the variance in mean grade is accounted for by the predictors, and is significant, F(df7, n = 552)62.734, p<001. OPR Year 1, OPR Year 2, Head office function, Age and Service were

significant predictors. Results are shown in Table 16 below: Table 16 Regression Table for White Staff in Relation to Grade (Year 3)
Variable OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head Office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of BME staff B -.228 -.287 -.114 .807 .056 -.183 .205 .050 SE B .070 .082 .078 .115 .087 .048 .026 .061 -.134 -.147 -.058 .272 .026 -.164 .345 .031 T -3.280 -3.498 -1.462 7.015 .645 -3.820 7.959 .814 Sig. .001 .001 .144 .000 .519 .000 .000 .416

Dependant variable: Mean Grade Year 3 White staff

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3.1.1.10 Summary of regression analyses for ethnicity and mean grade (Year 3)

Overall, the regression equations explain a significant amount of the variance in the dependent variable (mean grade), with R2 values of .262 for Asian staff, .256 for White staff and .388 for Black staff. Although much of the variance in the dependent variables remains unexplained, the analysis provides insights into the effect on the mean grade of some predictors according to the different ethnic groups. A higher amount of variance predicted the mean grade for Black staff than for Asian and White staff (lowest amount of variance).

Hypothesis 6 is partially supported. Depending on the ethnic category of staff members (Asian, Black, White), some predictors differentially predicted the relationship with the mean grade and not a result of sampling error.

The table below presents the results of the preceding regression analyses relating to Hypothesis 6 for comparison.

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Table 17 Effects of Predictors Relating to Ethnicity (All Groups) and Grade Compared
Asian Variable OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of BME staff -.080 -.266 -.130 .240 .038 -.187 .268 -.036 Sig. .152 .000 .020 .000 .472 .015 .001 .492 -.184 -.200 -.112 .217 -.041 -.263 .436 .032 Black Sig. .016 .005 .153 .003 .556 .001 .000 .646 -.134 -.147 -.058 .272 .026 -.164 .345 .031 White Sig. .001 .001 .144 .000 .519 .000 .000 .416

It can be seen from Table 17, only OPR Year 2, Age and Service significantly predict the mean grade similarly across the different ethnic groups. The remaining variables predict the mean grade differently for different groups. Compared to the Branch

function (baseline variable, Field, 2009), the Head office function is a significantly larger predictor of the mean grade than the Operations function for all ethnic groups.

3.1.2 Results of analysis relating to gender As for the analyses relating to ethnicity above, the first part of this subsection provides the analyses concerning the differences between gender and mean performance ratings and grades. The subsection then follows with analyses exploring relationships between gender and other variables.

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3.1.2.1 Relationship between gender and performance ratings Hypothesis 7 stated that women received a lower performance rating than men for all three years.

Table 18 provides descriptive statistics for this hypothesis. Table 18 Mean Performance Ratings for Males and Females (1 = high, 5 = low)
Males Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 M 2.64 2.68 2.75 SD .638 .606 2.75 n 288 323 324 M 2.66 2.72 2.78 Females SD n

.565 1070 .517 1150 .514 1068

This table shows that females received slightly higher mean ratings than males for all three years. However, a one-way ANOVA revealed these differences were not

significant: Year 1, F(df1, 1357).287, p = .592; Year 2 F(df1, N = 1472)1.378, p = .241; Year 3 F(df1, N = 1391).862, p = .353.

Hypothesis 7 is not supported and the result is more likely due to sampling error rather than a real difference between performance ratings for males and females.

3.1.2.2 Relationship between gender and high and low performance ratings Hypothesis 8 stated that there would be a relationship between gender and the two highest (1-2) and lowest (4-5) performance ratings for Year 3.

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Table 19 below shows descriptive statistics for this hypothesis.

Table 19 Numbers of Males and Females in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Performance Rating Category (Year 3)
Males High performance rating category Low performance rating category 78 (90%) 8 (9%) Females 239 (91%) 24 (9%)

Table 19 above shows that 90% (n = 78) of the high ratings are accounted for by being male whilst 91% (n = 239) of high ratings are accounted for by being female. In terms of low performance ratings, 9% (n = 8) of males and 9% (n = 24) of females received a low performance rating for Year 3.

Chi square analysis was employed to examine this relationship. However, the result is not significant, 2(df1, n = 349).002, p = .961 (two-sided).

Hypothesis 8 is not supported.

There is no relationship between whether a staff

member is a male or female and whether they received a very high (1-2) or very low (45) performance rating (Year 3) revealing that such a relationship is more than likely to have arisen due to sampling error.

3.1.2.3 Relationship between gender and grade (Year 3) Hypothesis 9 a) stated that there was a relationship between gender and being in a high or low grade category for Year 3.
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Table 20 Number of Males and Females in a High (7-8) or Low (1-2) Grade (Year 3)
Males High grade (7-8) Low grade (1-2) 25 (100%) 71 (19%) Females 0 (0%) 310 (81%)

Table 20 above shows that for Year 3, males accounted for 100% (n = 25) of the high grade category (Grade 7-8) whilst females were not represented in the highest grades. For the low grade category, 19% (n = 71) of males and 81% (n = 310) of females were represented in low grade categories respectively.

Chi square analysis was employed to explore the relationship between gender and being in a high or low grade10. This result was significant, 2(df1, N = 406)8.603,

p<.001, two-sided. Cramer's V was found to be .460, thus around 2% of the variance of occupying a high or low grade category is explained by the gender of employee in Year 3. It can therefore be concluded that there was a significant relationship between the gender of employee and whether they were in a very high (7-8) or low (1-2) grade category for Year 3.

Hypothesis 9 a) is supported; such a relationship is unlikely to have arisen due to sampling error and is more than likely to be representative of the population. However, the effect size is small so that other factors account for the relationship.
10

The rationale for choosing the highest and lowest grades was because although the labour force consisted largely of females, they formed a higher percentage of the low grades than did males, whilst in the higher grades, males formed the higher percentage, or females were absent from the grades.

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Hypothesis 9 b) stated that there would be a relationship between gender and whether the person was in a manager or non-manager grade for all three years. Chi square analysis was conducted to explore this relationship.

3.1.2.4 Relationship between gender and manager and non-manager grade (Years 1-3)

Firstly, Table 21 below presents descriptive statistics for this hypothesis: Table 21 Number of Male and Female Managers and Non-Managers for Years 1-3
Year 1 Males (manager grade) Males (non-manager grade) Females (manager grade) Females (non-manager grade) 58 203 33 978 (64%) (17%) (36%) (83%) 62 197 39 922 Year 2 (61%) (18%) (39%) (82%) 118 267 82 1213 Year 3 (59%) (18%) (41%) (82%)

Chi square analysis revealed the difference between observed and expected frequencies was significant for all years as follows: Year 1 2(df1, n = 1272)1.122, p<.001); Year 2 2(df1, n = 1220)1.062, <.001; Year 3 2(df1, n = 1680)1.673, p<.001), all are two-sided. Cramers V, however, shows that gender accounts for only around 1% of the variance in whether males and females were in a manager or non-manager grade for Years 1 to 3. The effect size applies to all three years respectively (i.e., .297, .295 and .316).

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Hypothesis 9 b) is supported. There was a significant relationship between the gender of employees and being in either a manager or non-manager grade for Years 1-3. However, the effect size is small indicating other factors account for this relationship.

3.1.2.5 Relationship between gender and department or function (Year 3) Hypothesis 10 stated that there was a relationship between staff gender and which department/function the person was employed in11.

Firstly, descriptive statistics are provided in Table 22 below, showing the numbers of males and females employed within the three major departments/functions of the organisation at Year 3:

Table 22 Numbers and Percentages of Males and Females Working in Departments/Functions (Year 3)
Branch Males (n = 523) Females (n = 278) 155 (40%) 719 (56%) Head Office 75 (20%) 191 (15%) Operations 154 (40%) 384 (30%)

These results were subjected to a Chi Square analysis to assess the relationship between the gender of the employee and the department or function in which they were employed; the result is significant, 2(df1, N = 1678)2.743, p<.001. However, with an associated effect size indicated by Cramers V (.128), just over 1% of the variance in the function in which a person worked was accounted for by gender so that other factors

11

This information from the organisations database was only available for Year 3.

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accounted for the relationship.

Hypothesis 10 is supported, but with a small effect size showing little variance between the two factors; other factors were involved in the relationship between gender and department/function for Year 3.

3.1.2.6 Proportions of females in department/functions (Solo Status effect) and the effects on performance ratings and grades of males and females

Analysis was conducted to explore the relationship between the proportions of women within a department/function and grades (high and low) that men and women occupied. Chi square was also employed to explore the relationship between the same proportions and performance ratings (high and low).

Proportions of females and the relationship with performance rating Hypothesis 11 a) stated that there would be a relationship between the proportion of women within a department or function and whether males and females were in a high or low performance rating category.

Table 23 shows descriptive statistics for this hypothesis:

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Table 23 Numbers of Males and Females in a High (10%>) or Low (9%<) proportion department/function in High (12) or Low (4-5) Performance Rating Category (Year 3)
Males High OPR 34 (16%) 13 (43%) Females High OPR 176 (84%) 17 (57%) Males Low OPR 6 (22%) 0 (0%) Females Low OPR 21 (78%) 1 (100%)

High proportion category Low proportion category

Chi square analysis was conducted to explore this relationship which revealed a significant result for the high rating category, Fishers Exact Test (df1, n = 240)1.228, p = .002 (two-sided). Cramers V showed a value of .226 indicating that around 0.5% of the performance rating was accounted for by gender for Year 3. The result was not

significant for low performance rating category, Fishers Exact Test 1.000.

Hypothesis 11 a) is partially supported. There was a significant relationship between the proportion of females in a department/function and a high performance rating category but not a low performance rating occupied by males and females in Year 3.

Proportions of females and the relationship with grade Hypothesis 11 b) stated that there would be a relationship between the proportion of females in a department or function (high or low) and the grade category (high or low) occupied by males and females in Year 3. statistics for the hypothesis: Table 24 below provides descriptive

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Table 24 Numbers of Males and Females in a High (10%>) or Low (9%<) Proportion Department/Function in High (1-2) or Low (4-5) Grade Category (Year 3)
Males high grade High proportion category Low proportion category 9 (100%) 8 (100%) Females high grade 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Males low grade 50 (16%) 4 (50%) Females low grade 259 (84%) 4 (50%)

Chi square analysis was conducted to explore this relationship which was significant, Fishers Exact Test .031 (two-sided). Cramer's V showed a value of .141 indicating that around 0.2% of the variance between being in a low grade category and being in a high or low proportion department/functions was accounted for by gender. No statistics were able to be computed for the high grade categories due to the lack of entries for females in this category.

Hypothesis 11 b) is supported.

There was a significant relationship between the

proportion of females in a department or function and being in a low grade category (male and females). In both the high and low proportion departments or functions, males were in a higher grade overall. Due to the lack of entries for females in the high grade categories, the result should be viewed with some caution.

3.1.2.7 Effects of all predictor variables on mean grade for males and females (Year 3) Hypothesis 12 stated that the effect of all predictor variables (Proportions of females in a department or function, Overall performance ratings (OPR) for Years 1-3, Service and

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Age) had differential effects on the mean grade occupied by both males and females (Year 3).

Table 25 provides descriptive statistics for the dependent measure (mean grade) for males and females.

Table 25 Descriptive Statistics for Mean Grade for Males and Females (Year 3)
M Male Females 3.89 3.09 Min/Max 1-8 1-6 SD 1.516 .902 N 385 1295

One-way ANOVA is significant; F(df3, N = 1680)162.697, p<.001

Multiple regression was employed to test the contribution of the predictor variables to the prediction of the mean grade for Year 3 for males and females as separate groups.

Overall, the regression equations explain a significant amount of variance in the dependent variablefor males this was 4%, whilst for females, 9% of the variance in the mean grade was explained by the predictor variables. Although much of the

variance in the dependent variables remains unexplained, the independent variables provide insights into the effect on the mean grade (Year 3) of the independent variables for males and females.

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Effect on Males Table 26 presents indices for the relative strength of the individual predictors. Bivariate correlations between the independent variables and mean grade were negative apart from Head Office function, Age and Service. Significant results are indicated by the variables OPR Year 1, and Proportion of females (in a department/function). Table 26 The Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors with Mean Grade
Predictors OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head Office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of females (in department/function) ***p<.001; **p<.01 Correlation between each predictor and mean grade -.280** -.320 -.258 .293 -.197 .124 .194 -.250** Correlation between each predictor and mean grade controlling for all other predictors -.202** -.168 -.137 .157 -.108 -.009 .132 -.184**

To test this hypothesis, multiple regression analysis was conducted which reveals that 29% of the variance in the mean grade received by males is explained by the independent variables and is significant F (df7, n = 127)4.429 p<.01.

Significant beta weights apply to OPR Year 1 and Proportion (of females in a department/function) only. Table 27 shows these results:

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Table 27 Regression TableAll Predictors on Grade (Year 3) and Effect on Males


Variable OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head Office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of females Dependant variable: Mean grade B -.413 -.384 -.355 .561 -.312 -.019 .127 -.572 SE B .178 .202 .229 .313 .256 .177 .084 .272 -.185 -.166 -.131 .165 -.108 -.013 .180 -.175 T -2.319 -1.908 -1.550 1.789 -1.221 -.106 1.500 -2.104 Sig. .022 .059 .124 .076 .224 .916 .136 .037

Effect on Females Table 28 below presents indices to show the relative strength of the same individual predictors. All the bivariate correlations between the strength measures and mean grade were negative apart from Head Office function and Service. Only OPR Year 3 was not significant.

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Table 28 The Bivariate and Partial Correlations of the Predictors with Mean Grade
Predictors OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head Office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of females ***p<.001; **p<.01 Correlation between each predictor and mean grade -.305*** -.300*** -.247 .298*** -.245*** -.021*** .312*** -.215*** Correlation between each predictor and mean grade controlling for all other predictors -.138*** -.218*** -.097 .235*** -.135*** -.233*** .345*** -.123***

Table 29 below shows the results of the regression analysis relating to females where the same independent variables were regressed against grade for Year 3 as for males above. The result shows that 35% of the variance in mean grade was accounted for by the predictor variables and is significant, F (df7, n = 622)9.570, p<01. All beta weights are significant except for Year 3.

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Table 29 Regression TableAll Predictors on Grade (Year 3) and Effect on Females


Variable OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head Office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of females B -.182 -.322 -.138 .551 -.214 -.219 .173 -.399 SE B .052 .058 .057 .091 .063 .037 .019 .129 -.128 -.206 -.087 .213 -.116 -.228 .357 -.107 T -3.475 -5.568 -2.419 6.027 -3.394 -5.964 9.159 -3.094 Sig. .001 .000 .016 .000 .001 .000 .000 .002

Dependant variable: Mean Grade (Year 3)

3.1.2.8 Summary of the regression analyses for gender and mean grade (Year 3) Regression analysis explained a significant amount of variance between males and females. For females 35%, and for males 29%, of the variance in mean grade (Year 3) was explained by predictors. However, a large amount of variance is unexplained. All independent variables were significant for females whilst for males only OPR and proportion of females were significant indicating a different pattern of results for males and females (see Table 30 below).

Hypothesis 12 is supported. There are differential effects of predictor variables on the mean grade received by males and females.

Comparison of the beta weights for males and females in relation to grade shows the different pattern of results in Table 30 below:
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Table 30 Comparison of Regression Beta Weights for Males and Females (Mean Grade Year 3 as Dependent Variable)
Males OPR Year 1 OPR Year 2 OPR Year 3 Head office function Operations function Age Service Proportion of females -.185 -.166 -.131 .165 -.108 -.013 .180 -.175 Sig. .022 .059 .124 .076 .224 .916 .136 .037 -.128 -.206 -.087 .213 -.116 -.228 .357 -.107 Females Sig. .001 .000 .016 .000 .001 .000 .000 .002

3.2

Overall summary of results

ANOVA, Chi Square and regression analyses were employed to explore the relationships between demographic variables (relating to gender and ethnicity) and organisational outcomes for three years including performance appraisal ratings and other organisational data variables.

Table 31 below shows combined results for both ethnicity and gender groups for comparison purposes. The table is explained below:

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Table 31 Comparison of different demographic groups and results of hypotheses (as to significance)
Demographic group Gender Rating No Hilo rating No Hilo grade Yes Demographic group differences for Mgr Grade Function Proportion 3 Years and OPR Yes Yes Yes, high rating, M and F Proportion and Grade Yes, Males, in hi and low prop, Males higher Yes, both hi and low grade All predictors Yes

Ethnicity

Yes (Y2)

No

No

No

Yes

Yes, high rating. No, low rating

Yes

Overall, the results relating to gender were stronger than for ethnicity, especially as far as grade was concerned, where males occupied a higher mean grade in Year 3, and also occupied manager grades for all three years. Females received a higher

performance rating in all three years, but not significantly so. In addition, whether a staff member was male had a significant relationship with the grade, especially where the proportion of females was small. There were differences between both the number of predictors of the mean grade for males and females, as well as their magnitude. In addition, for females, a higher percentage of variance in mean grade is explained by the predictors than was the case for males.

For BME groups, results relating to ethnicity and overall performance ratings were not significant for Year 1 and Year 3, but significant for Year 2Chinese staff received the lowest performance, Black staff received the highest, whilst White staff received the lowest rating for those years. Where proportions of BME staff (combined) were high, there was a significant association between which ethnic group a staff member occupied and receiving a high performance rating, but not a low rating. In terms of
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proportions, the variance relating to ethnicity and being in a higher grade was higher than for low grades, with small effect sizes. The ethnicity of staff was therefore stronger as far as high grades were concerned.

Both gender and ethnic groups showed similar results in relation to functionthere was a significant relationship between the BME group and function, and between gender and function. These relationships are clarified in the regression analysis with

differences evident between gender and ethnicity groups and the function they occupied.

Regression analysis also showed that there was an effect of all the predictors on the mean grade depending on which ethnicity or gender group employees were in. Regression equations explain a larger amount of variance of all predictor variables on the dependent variable (mean grade) for Black staff than for either Asian or White staff (for Asian and White staff, the variance explained was equivalent), and explained a larger amount for women than was the case for men. In addition, the results for

regression analysis revealed a significant result for older females and the effect on a grade receivedthe older the female, the lower the grade.

Because of the significant and generally strong gender effects found within this quantitative study especially in relation to grade, and the significance of these results for progression of women within financial services, it is the gender aspect that is examined further in Study 2
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4. Discussion of Results

4.1

Overview

This study examined the relationship between gender, ethnicity, performance ratings, grade, as well as solo status and occupational segregation effects. The study was conducted in a large global financial institution within the UK which employed around 50,000 people at the time of the study and used archived performance appraisal data for three years so had a longitudinal element.

This section discusses these results. The section also discusses the findings in relation to international research and UK evidence. Finally, the study considers the results in relation to Study 2, the qualitative study.

4.2

Ethnicity

4.2.1 Ethnicity and performance ratings There is research evidence mostly from the US that generally, lower ratings may be given to Black employees (Pulakos et al. 1983; 1996; Kraiger & Ford 1985; Ford et al., Elvira & Town, 2001) and the conclusion reached that systematic bias may be a reason (Dewberry, 2001; Stark & Poppler, 2009). Most of the research also uses mainly

laboratory studies, although differences in field and laboratory studies are also found (Stark & Poppler, 2009). The results from Study 1 however are mixed as far as ratings are concerned. Significant results were found for Year 2, with higher ratings for Black staff for that year whilst Chinese staff received the lowest rating. The mixed results
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concur with some of the US literature. However with a few exceptions (eg. Landau, 1995), the US studies have generally used only Black and White groups (Dewberry, 2001), when examining performance ratings. The results for Year 1 and 3 were not significant, although it is useful to note that White staff received lower ratings in those years. White staff were in higher grades overall.

The organisation in which the study was conducted at the time was undergoing some changes to the performance management process during Year 2 and may have contributed to the significant increase by Black staff in the performance ratings during this period. The research design, method of study and organisational constraints It appears though that

however precluded any examination of these changes.

systematic bias as far as performance ratings are concerned was not an issue for Black staff but was for Chinese staff in one year. Diversity efforts may have been targeted towards Black staff, being a larger minority ethnic group in the UK generally, at least in some parts (Office of National Statistics, 2009). Managers awareness may have been raised regarding the issue of ethnicity and performance appraisal because in the year before this study was done, an unpublished study found that BME received lower performance ratings (using only '"Black" and "White" categories). Where this may have been the case, raters may have over-compensated by awarding higher ratings to Black staff, a result found in other research, a result of stereotypical expectations being exceeded (eg. Post et al., 2009). Also examined were relationships between ethnicity and any of the groups receiving either a very high (1-2) or very low (4-5) performance ratings but none were found.
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4.2.2 Ethnicity and function There is some research evidence that BME employees are employed in lower status positions (Stark & Poppler, 2009). Systematic bias can enter into other organisational decisions apart from performance ratings, for example, recruitment decisions and decisions to promote, following a performance appraisal process. Other research

shows that certain functions are staffed predominantly with people from some ethnic groups and are prevented either from reaching higher levels or being mobile across different sectors (EHRC, 2009; Stark & Poppler, 2009). For example, it has been found that Black and Asian doctors are concentrated in the lower levels in the UK (Mistry & Latoo, 2009). Different functions carry a higher status and can lead to higher rewards so the long-term consequences of systematic effects of lack of career mobility can be profound and have wide social implications, especially if the social group concerned already experiences discrimination of other kinds. Social mobility and career mobility go hand-in-hand (Whitcavitch-Devoy, 2006; Schroeder, Miles, Savage, Halford, & Tampubolon, 2008).

The sample data for the current study was collated from Branches, Head Office and Operations departments. Head Office functions comprise lucrative functions such as corporate banking (McDowell, 2001; EHRC, 2009) in comparison to both Branch and Operations departments which have less complex functions. The significant results relating to ethnicity and function suggest there may be some subtle barriers either for new joiners in the recruitment process where some ethnic groups are selected for certain functions, or that employees are not mobile once inside the organisation leading
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to occupational segregation effects. However, the Chi Square result shows a small effect size for the relationship so other factors may be involved.

The results of study 1 appear to support some of the literature where structural (glass ceiling) barriers may be preventing some BME groups from moving to different functions. Some consider that racism is a factor in glass ceiling effect (eg. Alvarez, 2009). The results therefore accord with some literature that finds not only are some functions staffed with a predominant ethnic group, the higher levels comprise mainly White staff (Stark & Poppler, 2009). Negative stereotyping, and a number of biases may also be present when some BME groups are being considered for some functions as some theories predict (eg. similarity-attraction). However, the data is insufficient to support a conclusion of this sort and further research is needed as to why different groups occupy certain functions. George and Chattopadhyay (2002) found higher

status group members looked unfavourably upon lower status members, if they formed the bulk of the workforce. Studies such as this may be informative.

Organisations would be wise to investigate whether and how different minority ethnic groups progress within these different functions and roles and at different career stages. Although there is no evidence of systematic bias operating within the performance ratings awarded to Black or Asian ethnic groups, there was for Chinese staff in one year. However, bias and stereotyping may occur in other decision-making processes at various stages of an employees career creating occupational segregation effects. Much of the research in this area is from the US (Dewberry, 2001). The UK has a
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different social history and context. Current anecdotal evidence claims that Eastern Europeans experience discrimination in the UK, for example, and is considered as a particular problem for the European Union (Stott, 2007). Indeed, as one commentator notes in an email from a research group examining migrants: "Previously seen as a welcome workforce, immigrants now tend to be perceived as violent individuals, troublemakers and people with a low integration capacity" (Squire, 11 March 2010). These ideas represent Eastern Europeans being viewed as a stereotypical group. The US research can be informative.

It would be useful for further investigations using field studies to examine these important issues to determine how different ethnic groups are recruited into organisations and in which functions they are employed in. Different functions, for

example, provide higher visibility and opportunity, and can lead to progression (Ogden et al., 2006). Where certain groups are not represented higher up in the organisation echelons, research such as this would appear to be imperative.

4.2.3 Ethnicity and grade Several hypotheses examined the relationship between ethnicity and grade as occupational segregation effects outlined above apply not only to functions, but also to managerial levels. In these scenarios, the high grade or lucrative function may serve as a "signal" (bias) to assessors that high grades and lucrative functions "suit" certain groups of people, or managers may prefer their own, as similarity-attraction theory predicts (Byrne, 1971). The bias affects decision-making around who should be
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promoted to the top jobs, either in managerial or functional terms. However, for all of the hypotheses posed, none were supported. It appears from the results of this study that although there are indications of occupational segregation within functions, the same effects are not apparent as far as the grade is concerned. This was the case for all of the three years. This study does not support the research that, for example, finds White staff at higher levels in some functions (Stark & Poppler, 2009).

4.2.4 Solo status and effects on performance ratings and grade in relation to ethnic groups

This result provides some support for the solo status effect and how this impacted upon the grade an employee was in. Where there was a high or low proportion of BME staff, White staff were more likely to occupy top grades, as well as bottom grades (but with a small effect size, indicating other factors). The result was not significant for BME staff and is indicative but inconclusive.

As far as performance ratings were concerned, staff equivalently occupied high and low rating categories. There is research evidence that where there are solo status (Crocker & McGraw, 1984) members in a function or department, the person's ethnicity is salient which may cause discomfort for the BME solo staff member such that performance may be affected (Neimann & Dovidio, 1998) and BME staff may therefore receive lower performance ratings because of this. Research finds this (eg. see review by Thompson, M., Sekaquaptewa, 2002). However, this was not the case in this study so does not support this research in this respect.
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There is no literature the author could locate which examined solo status effects on grade, although one US study used different groups and examined the effect on ratings given to BME staff (Smith et al., 2002). Other aspects of progression (through grades) should be examined further using different ethnic groups as independent variables. The analysis relating to solo status effects in Study 1 precluded an examination of the different ethnic groups and were rather examined as one combined group. As some

evidence shows, bias and stereotyping are inherent (Smith et al., 2002), often unintentional (Sassenberg & Moskowitch, 2005) and may operate such that different groups of staff experience differential rates of progression in organisations. Internal career ladders within organisations should be examined to understand the effects on different groups of staff.

Certainly there are fewer BME staff in whole sectors, for example, the NHS, and the wider factors should be examined to understand these effects also (eg. solo status, and also issues of "class"). Any bias in decision-making in organisation processes which leads to unfairness and thwarted career potential should be researched and field research within organisations conducted to understand these issues further. However, due to Study 1 being a quasi-experimental one, the results may not generalise to other sectors. It is suggested however that research be conducted in different sectors.

The next subsection turns to discuss the findings relating to gender and variables examined.

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4.3

Gender

4.3.1 Gender and performance ratings A number of hypotheses examined performance ratings and gender. There is research evidence, although mixed, that some females receive lower ratings than males (Gupta, Beehr & Jenkins, 1980; Pazy & Oron, 2001; Stark & Poppler, 2009), although these results vary according to contextual and situational factors, for example where performance criteria differs, eg. whether task-based or not. There is also evidence that gender stereotypes affect how a female is perceived in various settings, including groups of various composition (Chen & Velsor, 1996; Jackson, 1992; Pazy & Oron, 2001; Powell & Graves, 2003). However, in this study, females did not appear to be disadvantaged as far as ratings that they received were concerned. There was also no differential effect of being in a higher (1-2) or lower (4-5) performance rating category and being a male or female. Where a low performance rating may lead to dismissal (as happens in financial institutions, Mahoney-Phillips, 2008) and a high rating could eventually lead to a promotion (as was stated in the organisations performance management literature), women did not appear to be disadvantaged as far as performance ratings were concerned. This result accords with some of the literature which finds that women receive equivalent or higher performance ratings than men, and depends on the context, including the competencies being assessed, and other factors, including women having to conform to social stereotypes, and counter-stereotypes (Eagly, 2002). It seems that as far as performance ratings were concerned, systematic bias in the organisation was not an issue.

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4.3.2 Gender and grade Two hypotheses examined relationships between gender and grade and both were supported. Hypothesis 9a) examined gender and being in a high or low-grade category and used all 8 grades (as the information was available), whilst Hypothesis 9 b) examined gender and being in a manager and non-manager grade. Stereotyping is a likely issue in this, especially in financial services where the EHRC (2009) found this to be a factor in a range of effects leading to women being marginalised throughout their careers within the sector, commencing from recruitment, where men dominate the highearning jobs (p. 45). Women may not be seen as leaders, according the leadership categorisation theory, or may be unable to manage the counter-stereotypes they face in the masculine cultures (Eagly, 2002).

The analyses in Study 1 highlight the effect of being a male or female manager on the grade received over the 3-year period and shows clearly that women were not represented in high grades or manager grades. The study accords with the EHRC (2009) research, and also interestingly, the relationships between gender and grade were, overall, significant whilst between gender and performance ratings they were not. Bias and stereotyping appears to work therefore outside of the performance appraisal discussion where the decisions about promotions are made.

These results suggest several things. Females may or may not receive higher performance ratings than males. However, where performance ratings should lead to a higher grade, this did seem to occur in the organisation. The organisations literature
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relating to performance management stated that a higher grade would result from a high performance rating. Making promotions based on performance ratings is still the

practice in organisations today (eg. CIPD), or at least on some performance-related basis, especially in financial services (EHRC, 2009). However, in the organisation

studied, this does not appear to have been the case; a high rating did not lead to a high grade as far as women were concerned. There may be little or no bias in ratings, but the important factor is in the decisions at other points in people's careers such as the decision to promotion (to a higher grade), and internal recruitment decisions, which could lead to occupational segregation effects which the same EHRC study found.

In addition, there was an age effect from this study so that as females got older, the effect was more pronounced; females did not receive a commensurately equivalent high grade as older males. Lower down the hierarchy (i.e., the lower grades), females

actually received a higher performance rating. Evaluation bias or distortion (Smith, et al., 2002) worked in favour of females at this level. One reason for the age effect may be that females have career breaks due to childcare responsibilities or had many career breaks which interrupted their careers. Women are seen as lacking commitment for example (Siegel, et al., 2005). To support this age effect argument, there was a linear correlation for example, between the grade received and tenure, which is hardly surprising. However, because there was no relationship between the performance

rating received and a commensurate grade, this suggests that in this organisation, tenure had a stronger effect on an employees grade and there was little relationship with the performance rating. Where females do have career breaks and a higher grade
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relies more on tenure as the results show, this would obviously put females at a disadvantage. But this is where effective "diversity management" should make a

difference. By understanding these issues and developing effective policies to balance out the non-negotiable nature of these women's responsibilities. For women, career breaks appear to be a "signal" for something quite negative about them. How can they demonstrate commitment for example, if they cannot possibly comply? Organisations need to take account of research for example which shows women have different career paths than men (Lyness & Thompson, 2000).

Although numerically, females far out-numbered males in the organisation, and indeed in other financial services sector generally (EHRC, 2009), they were not represented at the higher management levels. This accords with other research which finds this, (eg. Ogden, et al, 2006). Clearly, something happened to females whereby although they were given performance ratings at least at the same level as mens, they were not recognised as being higher performers by being awarded a commensurate grade. That women leave financial organisations needs to be examined more carefully to understand why this happens. Certainly, there are anecdotal reports and "social myths" (Gertz, 1990) that women leave organisations to have children. These myths may add to a "construction" (Fairclough, 1991) that being a woman is a signal to not be considered for a promotion, for example (because they will leave anyway).

The findings of Study 1 do show that there was a clear pattern of different relationships between men and womenthe most telling of these is the different pattern of
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relationship between performance and grade which had a continuing impact upon women and their apparent progression (in grade terms)the more women advanced in age, the less they were represented in higher grades generally. This could be either a result of unfair discrimination relating to gender and/or age, or it could be due to the different lives of women. Women may become carers for parents in later life. These effects need to be examined. Flexible working policies and the unfair or lack of

implementation of these to account for these issues could be a factor.

Further evidence of a different pattern of results between males and females is elucidated in the regression analysis which clearly shows that the predictor variables had significantly different effects between males and females suggesting further that different rules operate for the two groups. All of the predictor variables were significant for females, but only two for males. There has been and still is, much criticism

regarding performance appraisals (Catano et al., 2007; Wanguri, 1995) although there is also confusion around the conceptperformance appraisals involve being appraised over a long period of time, it is a process as well as an outcome (the performance rating received), and there are contextual factors relating to the process itself (that as an organisational process, it is implemented within an organisations culture which may mean that espoused factors may confuse how it is enacted). Further research needs to be undertaken in relation to men and women, and how, for example, decisions are made about them. Qualitative research would be ideally suited to these investigations.

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There is much evidence regarding gender stereotyping (Fuegen, 2007; Eagly, 2002), and research which examines the contexts within which women are evaluated which highlights benefits for women (Post et al., 2009). Stereotyping is an issue, but research shows that automatic stereotyping can be changed (Sassenberg & Moskowitz, 2005). However, the research net needs to be cast wider to under how decision-making affects progression of females, including at the recruitment stage, how people are appraised, and also the type of feedback and development people receive. Alimo-Metcalfe (1993, 1996) for example found men and women receive different feedback. Although there have been strides to increase minority ethnic staff and females at the recruitment stage, there is still evidence that certain groups are favoured for certain jobs (EHRC, 2009; King, 1994). In addition, there is evidence that complex roles are filled by males, or indeed any role where the rewards are greater either in status or remuneration (EHRC, 2009; Ozbilgin & Woodward, 2004).

If we were to accept some of the conclusions by some authors that there is little real difference between ratings and gender, then men really must be performing better, especially if a high performance rating is equated with objective success. However, this study shows that performance ratings are not the complete picture when it comes to progression for women; overall, they do not appear to link to a commensurately high grade. Stereotyping and biased decision-making may be occurring within various HR processes, and at different stages of women's careers. The picture is complex however and further research needs to be conducted.

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4.3.3 Gender and function The results show that there were significant differences between which department males and females were employed in. This result is also in line with some literature which shows that females are assigned to lower status functions (McDowell, 2001) or in roles with lower complexity, sometimes because they are sidelined into these roles (Eagly, 2002; zbilgin & Woodward 2004; Ogden et al. 2006). This then leads to

females not having the visibility and development opportunities to progress (Liff & Ward, 2001; Higginbotham, 2004). For example, an unpublished study, conducted by the Law Society in the UK found that females left the legal profession because of many reasons, one of which was the inability to demonstrate higher levels of capability due to being assigned administrative tasks which consumed their time (Duff & Webley, 2004). These effects are thought to be a form of bias where females may be viewed through the gender lens rather through the performance lens (Eagly, 2004; Howard & Hollander, 2000). Further, anecdotal evidence supports the research. In a blog attached to a report by Scheman (2009), a woman adviser to Wall Street (26 years) remarks:

Wall Street does not want successful women unless it is in a secretarial or other administrative role ... that the token women put in as "Director of Diversity" continue to disappoint as they fold to pressure and first "behave" and do what they are told and not make waves ....

Organisational norms, it seems, may be so strong that women have no choice but to conform. Certainly they did in the Law Society referred to above. In that study they
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chose to leave, but only because they were so dissatisfied by the strong masculine culture (McDowell, 2001; De Cremer, 2006). An assumption may be made that

because females are thought to be better at administration, they are assigned these roles (Duff & Webley, 2004). This could lead to women not being seen as capable, which then leads to them becoming dissatisfied then leaving the organisation which evidence has found (Heilman, 2001; Eagly, 2002; Heilman & Parks-Stamm, 2007; Post et al., 2009). Certainly, there is evidence that women leave organisations because of their dissatisfaction with organisational cultures (Liff & Ward, 2001) rather than purely because of choice, or failure (Korac-Kakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997).

Organisations would be wise to investigate why females leave, and their lack of mobility within their careers especially in financial institutions which are thought to reward masculine values (McDowell, 2001). Focusing on the real issue of organisational

culture and how this impacts on women, rather than the problem of females (Bilimoria & Piderit, 2007) may be one step in the right direction. Work-life balance issues would appear to be a major factor as far as women are concerned, including raising awareness of the very real "fact" that where women do take career-breaks, this does not become equated with not being committed.

Women may be disadvantaged as far as progression is concerned in other ways as the findings showed. For example, networking and visibility are major predictors of success (Lyness & Heilman, 2006; Ogden et al., 2006), and where this study finds that women are significantly more likely to be employed in branches, women may be disadvantaged
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as they are then less visible. Branches are usually smaller retail branches. They are very different in quality and kind to the large corporate offices where the top job holders (who have influence) reside. This may explain how 70% of managers in the

organisation were men while only 30% were women even though they comprised a larger majority of the total organisation population at around 60%. If this was the case, then clearly the performance appraisal process was not a fair and equitable one where individuals receiving similar ratings were not being treated equally, at least in terms of gender.

Where legislation only focuses on increasing the numbers of females into organisations (eg. the Opportunity 2000 campaign), it is hardly surprising that private organisations do not focus their efforts more on understanding further these issues, for example, that there are differential effects between men and women and the grades they occupy over a long period. In addition, other issues are ignored. For example, as already

mentioned, women have a different career path because of work-life issues (Scheman, 2009) and there is evidence that their careers are not linear (Brown, Cooper, HawkinsRodgers & Wentworth, 2007; Whitmarsh, Brown, Cooper, Hawkins-Rodgers & Wentworth, 2007). These issues suggest that the lives of women may not be taken into account where campaigns such as Opportunity 2000 were designed. Laudable as they are, focusing on initial recruitment of women into organisations such as this campaign did, ignores the other more important issues of progression within organisations, especially financial services, which the EHRC (2009) study highlighted.

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Although the hypothesis relating to gender and department/function is supported, the effect size is small with only 1.6% of the variance accounting for the relationship, suggesting other factors are involved. In addition, causality is not implied in this result but is an indication of a significant association between which department men and women are employed in and deserves further investigation. However, in the regression analysis, for women, both Head office and Operations functions significantly predicted the relationship with mean grade at Year 3 but not men. Because the baseline variable (Field, 2009) is the "Branch" function, the Head office function, where it is a significant predictor, indicates it is further away from the Branch function (low status) as a variable than it is for the Operations function, which is close in terms of status. As far as men were concerned, it did not appear to matter which function they worked inno function predicted a relationship with the mean grade for men at Year 3.

4.3.4 Solo status and effects on performance ratings and grade in relation to gender

Where the proportion of females in a branch or department was high or low, both men and women were in a significantly high performance rating category but not a low performance rating category (Year 3). The analysis was similar for a high grade. There was a significant relationship between the proportion of females in a department or function and the grade received by a male or a female. The effect on the grade

received by males and whether there was either a high or a low proportion of females was such that in both the high and low proportion departments or functions, males were in a higher grade overall. Due to the lack of entries for females, the result should be
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viewed with some caution however. There appeared to be some effects of solo status relating to females in departments or functions with a low proportion of females such that both males and females are affected. Further research is required in this area. This result is informative rather than conclusive owing to the lack of causality, which can be inferred, but also due to the lack of experimental controls afforded using archived data. The results support some research which finds solo status affects men and

women differently in different contexts (eg. White, 2008).

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5.

Conclusions

As far as ethnicity was concerned, these are curious but inconclusive findings. Black staff received higher ratings, Chinese staff the lowest in one year. Neither is there a difference between BME and White groups in terms of occupying a higher or lower grade category. There are however indications of relationships between the ethnicity and function. Further, when a number of predictor variables were regressed onto the mean grade, there were differences in both the predictors which are important and the significance of those predictors in terms of the impact on the outcomes of BME and White staff which indicated a different pattern of predictors for both groups.

The pattern for women was quite different.

There was a mismatch between the

performance ratings where there was no significant difference women actually received higher ratings than men but not significantly so. However, women occupied lower grades overall and were not represented in higher-grade categories. Further, there appeared to be a different pattern of results, which indicates that men and women had different progression routes. Considering women are the majority gender overall in financial services (EHRC, 2009), the result is one worth investigating further, considering women decrease in representation the further up the hierarchy they reach, with very few at the top levels. Some women may leave of their own choice, but some research suggests not, but rather they are forced because of unfriendly organisational cultures (McDowell, 2001; De Cremer, 2006).

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Overall, it is feasible to suggest that stereotyping and various forms of bias could be a likely factor in the different pattern of results found for men and women, and also for different ethnic groups. Where there is little difference found in relation to performance appraisal ratings, this does not provide the complete picture as far as how different demographic groups may progress within organisations. Organisational decisions are made on a daily basis so what occurs outside of formal decision-making processes may be a more important factor to focus research efforts on in relation to improving the progression rates for under-represented groups in financial services organisations.

The diversity department who commissioned this research was at the time focused on the issue of "ethnicity" and may have led to the less strong results as compared to the issue of "gender". BME staff had received lower performance ratings in the previous year. That "Chinese" staff received lower performance ratings in Year 2 may be an indication that targeted approaches work. BME staff were the targets for diversity

intervention the year prior. It also raises the issue that gender may be an issue which the financial institutions now need to focus on in light of the EHRC (2009) study, with the suggestion that stereotyping is a major factor leading to inequitable results between men and women.

There were some rater consequences, a useful point to bear in mind when considering in general the non-significant findings for performance ratings. These included a review of the rating given by a senior manager (the appraising manager having given the rating and completed the performance appraisal form), an employee signature on the
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performance appraisal form, as well as a section where the employee could express their views on the performance appraisal form. There was also a grievance procedure in place for unfair ratings, where appropriate. In addition, the organisation at the time had a diversity department which supported this research. Appraisal training was given to line managers, and appraises and line managers were required to have had line management responsibilities for 12 months prior to conducting any appraisals. This was also mentioned in the performance management booklet referred to in the methodology section.

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6.

Implications for future research for performance appraisal and other HR processes

Kandola in 2004 raised the issue that HR professionals need be wary of bias and stereotyping when implementing performance appraisal systems. This would feasibly apply to all HR processes, which operate as integral conduits between staff and management (Fletcher, 2004). The EHRC (2009) study for example, found stereotyping to be a factor in the under-representation of women in the top echelons of financial organisations.

Organisations also need to consider the wider issues when thinking about how they design and implement HR processes such as appraisal, especially where organisations talk of engagement (Cartwright & Homes, 2006) and what factors account for engaging employees. This would seem to be imperative as far as research and

interventions for people at work, who spend so much time there. Being "fair" leads to people feeling satisfied and motivated and there is a large research base, for example, in relation to the effects of implementing HR systems, such as performance appraisal, in a fair manner. It is important to consider therefore concepts of psychological contract, organisational and procedural justice and the more recent employee engagement concept, all of which have implications for the appraisal of performance.

Organisations also need to monitor their performance appraisal systems to ensure they are fair and that high ratings correlate with success in an equitable manner across different demographic groups, especially when it is stated as such in the organisation's
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literature. It would be unwise for organisations to express one view, but act in the opposite way when implementing HR policies as this is likely to cause cognitive dissonance. Organisations may also need to be cognisant of "emotional contagion" effects (Decety & Ickes, 2009; Hatfield, Cacioppo & Rapson, 1994) of treating people unfairly. Where staff receive equivalent ratings for example, if people observe the

progression of some groups and not others, this is likely to cause demotivation and dissatisfaction (Coyle & Shapiro, 2005). Where retention issues are at stake, a very important issue in some sectors, this would appear to be an important factor to take into consideration. Indeed, even in the current climate of recession and redundancies,

organisations would be short-sighted to not consider fairness issues once the recession has ended and organisations will be looking to recruit. In a recent survey of HR

professionals for example, they considered that "engagement" and retention issues were major factors for organisations in 2009 (30% and 80% of respondents effectively, CIPD, 2007a). However, another view is that the recession may drive fairness and equality issues further underground (Woods, 2010).

OP research and HR practice link OP research needs to be translated into practice, and also to be used by HR practitioners. Considering the relatively few occupational psychology practitioners in the UK who appear to be involved in performance appraisal, it seems as if overall, performance appraisal research and practice by occupational psychologists is not a priority. An examination of a list of research articles from the International Journal of Assessment and Development over the last 10 years would attest to this (see print
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screen attached as Appendix B. As one author has pointed out, it is more difficult to standardise performance appraisal once the employment has commenced (Milkovich & Wigdor, 1991) and hence the focus on recruitment/assessment research.

Effective training highlighting how bias and stereotyping operate in various guises would ameliorate or certainly raise consciousness to reduce them as research has shown (eg. Sassenberg & Moskowitz, 2005).

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7.

Limitations

Several factors limit the conclusions that can be drawn from this study.

Firstly, although this was a sizeable sample used in the study, the effect size is an important determinant of power and some of these were small suggesting other factors were involved. results. That organisations are complex, many other factors can confound

A second limitation is the correlational and cross-sectional nature of the study, which limits the strength of any causal conclusions.

A third limitation relates to the generalisability to the larger population of employees. Although the sample was from one global financial institution, it may be premature to generalise to all types of employees in other financial institutions and other organisations.

A fourth limitation relates to the research design and attendant variables used in the study and the effect of any definitive conclusions to be reached. As the study was quasi-experimental (Whitley, 1996) and participants were identified in the performance appraisal data forms, there was no opportunity to allocate participants randomly. Because of the quasi-experimental nature of the study, confounding variables could not be fully examined.

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STUDY 2

Senior womens experience of performance appraisal: how they are evaluated: "different yes, discrimination no"

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Table of Contents: Study 2


Senior womens experience of performance appraisal: how they are evaluated: "different yes, discrimination no." 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview of Study 2 1.2. Organisational culture, The Glass Ceiling and its impact 1.2.1. 1.2.2. 1.2.3. 1.2.4. 1.2.5. 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.3.3. Organisational culture and how it is enacted creating a glass ceiling Organisational culture in financial services organisations and the impact on women Stereotyping of the culture itself Diversity management as a device to create an inclusive culture which appreciates difference How appreciating difference can work for women Overview of evidence of barriers women face in organisations Work-life balance and women's progression Women in senior positions and how men and women are evaluated Authentic leadership and organisational culture Page 137 138 138 139 140 142 143 144 144 145 146 146 147

1.3. Women in organisations

1.3.3.1.

1.4. Differences between men and women, the changing social and organisational context and consequences for women 1.5. Emotion at work 1.5.1. 1.5.2. 1.5.3. Women and emotions at work How women are stereotyped according to their emotions How gender stereotyping of emotions operates

148 149 149 151 151 152 153

1.6. Summary 1.7. Rationale for the research 1.8. Research aim

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2.

Method 2.1. Study design 2.2. Participants and recruitment of participants 2.3. Participant profile 2.4. Procedure 2.4.1. 2.4.2. 2.4.3. Communication with participants and informed consent Interview questions Interview procedure

154 154 154 155 156 157 157 158 159 159 161 162 163 163 163 164 167 168

2.5. Semi-structured interviews 2.6. Analysis of data 2.7. Epistemological considerations which influenced the method and analysis for Study 2 2.8. Themes within thematic analysis 2.9. Procedure of data analysis 2.9.1. 2.9.2. 2.9.3. 2.9.4. 2.9.5. Transcription of data Coding of data Data management Table of themes and sub-themes derived from the data analysis Confidentiality and protocol relating to transcribed data

3.

Data analysis 3.1. Explanation and overview of the thematic map 3.2. Analysis of selected themes 3.2.1 The experience of being women within a male-dominated environment 3.2.2 How women experience balancing work and family 3.2.3 How men and women are evaluated within the organisation 3.2.4 Men and women are evaluated differently in terms of their emotions

170 170 172 172 175 185 194


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3.3. Summary of the thematic analysis 4. Discussion of data analysis and findings 4.1. Overview 4.2. Masculine organisational culture and the systems of maintenance 4.3. The organisational culture as a "Glass ceiling" that women unwittingly co-create 4.4. The implications for objective performance appraisal and other systems 4.5. The enacted organisational culture and the effect on women with or without children 4.6. How men and women are evaluated and the implications of this for women 4.7. Women being evaluated on their emotions and how this might impact on them 4.8. The paradoxes created and possible impacts 4.9. Summary of data analysis and findings 5. 6. 7. Implications for research and practice Limitations Conclusions

200 202 202 202 204 208 212 214 215 217 218 219 223 224

List of Tables (Study 2) Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Profile of the participants Stage of analysis within thematic analysis Examples of initial codes (Alphabetically sorted) Development of the "Authenticity" theme How the theme "Authenticity" was labelled 156 160 165 166 167

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List of Figures Figure 2 Figure 3 Final thematic map Thematic map relating to the theme: The experience of being a woman within a male-dominated environment Thematic map relating to the theme: How men and women are evaluated within the organisation Thematic map relating to the subtheme: Men and women are evaluated differently in terms of their emotions 170 172

Figure 4

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Figure 5

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List of appendices (Volume II) Appendix C - Email communication to participants including participant consent form Appendix D - Full interview schedule and interview questions Appendix E - Scanned page showing manual coding of interview data Appendix F - Table of themes and sub-themes Appendix G - CIPD website search for "bias" 271 273 275 276 323

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Abstract Study 2

Study 2 explored the views and experiences of senior women in financial institutions relating to being evaluated. Interviews were conducted with a sample of eight senior women from financial institutions from the UK in male-typed roles. Thematic analysis (Braun & Clark, 2006) was applied to identify patterns and themes within the interview data. Overall, this thematic analysis illustrates the latent effect of how the

organisational culture operates from their perspective, including how it influenced their experience as employees in their organisations, in particular as women.

The womens perspective was mixed regarding how men are treated in their organisations. Some of the women deny any discriminatory behaviour, yet some of the women also consider that men and women are evaluated differently. However, the accounts overall show the strong relationship of the organisational culture on how these women are stereotyped by managers including the issue of children as a salient factor in being evaluated. There also appear to be different rules for men and women, and they are appraised or evaluated strongly on their emotions. As senior women, they however play a part in what appears to be a co-creation of this culture by denying that discrimination exists and stereotyping both women and men.

Insights are offered on the implications for women, performance management and appraisal, diversity management, organisational change and development, as well as development for women in general.
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1.

Introduction

1.1 Overview of Study 2 Where Study 1 provided an objective, "what" question of an aspect of the glass ceiling (as to performance ratings and other variables which linked to progression for different demographic groups), Study 2 aims to elucidate further aspects of the glass ceiling (relating to women) by interviewing senior women about their experience within financial organisations related to their appraisal or evaluation.

Study 2 is also designed to build upon Study 1 by expanding on and qualifying the gender issue from that study from the perspectives of women, where in that study, women in one financial services organisation received higher ratings, occupied lower grades overall, yet were the majority gender in the organisation.

This section presents the case for how women experience organisations, including the impact of the organisational culture, in particular financial services organisations, and being evaluated or appraised within that culture either as part of a formal system (the annual event), as well as being evaluated or appraised generally. The section also outlines existing research, reviews and discusses relevant research regarding performance appraisal, gender and culture, and considers the gaps and possible links between, organisational culture and women being appraised or evaluated. The section concludes with the rationale for the study and a statement of the specific research aim to be addressed in Study 2. These are cited both in the context of the previous research and the outcomes of Study 1.
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Where Study 1 outlined the glass ceiling, the next sub-section explores the glass ceiling further in particular, in relation to women (the focus of Study 2) and how organisational cultures link to the glass ceiling to create barriers for them impacting on their advancement.

1.2

Organisational culture, The Glass Ceiling and its impact

1.2.1 Organisational culture and how it is enacted creating a glass ceiling Organisational culture is understood to consist of values, belief systems and shared assumptions, which give meaning to organisations (Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Hatch, 1993; Schein, 1985). The glass ceiling is a metaphorical term to describe the upper limit women can reach within organisations, and where the effect is invisible. Systems such as performance appraisal are developed and implemented within organisational cultures and decisions made in light of the organisation's culture. Where this is a

masculinist one, this may have implications for how women are viewed (eg, Bierama, 2009; Eagly, 2001, 2004), therefore how they are evaluated (either as part of a formal system or not), and how decisions are made in general, which cumulatively can impact on their progression.

Belief systems which inter alia form part of an organisations culture are passed via individuals working within organisations, and new members learn the culture in the day-to-day activities of work and systems. In this way, organisation cultures provide a

strong force for how people behave within them (Hofstede, 1980; Itzin & Newman, 1996; Wen-Dong, Yong-Li, Taylor, Shi & He, 2008). Organisational members also
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construct the culture as they interact with others (Fairclough, 2001) and make sense of the work practices (Bate, 1994). The "reality" of an organisation's actions and ideas become shared and "socially constructed", including ideas of leadership (Berger & Luckman, 2002). It is also thought that organisations differ in their characters or type masculine cultures are characterised by hierarchical authority, independence, autocratic leadership styles and topdown communication (Coates, 2004; Hochschild, 1979; Kanter, 1977; Marshall, 1993) and impact on women. Barriers are created where

organisation cultures make it difficult for women to progress (An-Ju and Sims-Nova 2005; Barreto et al., 2009; Liff & Ward, 2001; Ruderman et al. 1995). This, some

authors believe, keeps women below the glass ceiling (Barreto et al., 2009; Liff & Ward, 2001).

Women in financial organisations may fare worse than men because of the masculinist nature of these organisations (Burdett, 1994; Kabanoff, 1994; zbilgin & Woodward, 2004; Rushton, 2006) where men feel more comfortable with men (Ruderman et al., 1995). This creates more of a problem for women at higher levels where they are in a minority and the gender difference may be highlighted (Lyness & Heilman, 2006).

1.2.2 Organisational culture in financial services organisations and the impact on women The banking and financial services professions are thought by many to be characteristic of masculine cultures (Burdett, 1994; Kabanoff, 1994). Today, organisations are

diverse (Ruderman et al., 1995) often operating on a global scale, requiring different competencies than the traditional manufacturing environment (Eagly, 2004). The recent
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collapse of the banking industry (2008) and other major corporate failures (e.g., Enron, Lehman Brothers) has signalled to some (eg. Menotti, 2008; Roberts, Albrecht & Gates, 2008) that new paradigms are required to replace the masculine, traditional militarytype organisational management structures (Clegg, Hardy & Nord, 1995, p. 1303) reminiscent of past organisations (Eagly et al., 2003; Eagly 2004). Todays

organisations are fast-moving and dynamic (Gubbins & Garavan, 2009) and call for a more appropriate management philosophy and structure (Chen & Velsor, 1996) which suits the nature of these more, so-called fluid organisations calling for a different way of being within them.

1.2.3 Stereotyping of culture itself Writing about organisations has become infused with ideas of masculinity and femininity including ways of being within them. Some commentators consider for example that a female ethos12 ... is becoming increasingly prominent (Clegg et al., 1995, p. 1302), although this sets up the idea of maleness and femaleness as opposites (Derrida, 1973) and may be unhelpful. However, the call for change to a new paradigm has been expressed since 1989 (Lawler (III), 1989, p. 91) but the "old boys network" remains, and is said to be a barrier to womens progression (Agars, 2004; Kalra et al., 2009). Stereotyping in organisations and ideas about organisation and leadership are common, and men and women may then think and act in stereotypical ways (Heilman, 1995).

12

Feminist authors consider that talking and writing about women in this way, as "binary opposites" is a problem for women. The comment from this author is made to highlight this point. Comments such as this one set women up against men as different entities, whereas gender is more of a continuum, especially in a workplace context.

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Many authors consider that the male stereotype (e.g., rational, aggressive, strategic) is linked to values and ideas about organisations (Morgan, 1986; Korac-Kakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997) where the masculine stereotype is encouraged (Korac-Kakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997) and the feminine discouraged (Eagly, 2004; Korac-Kakabadse & Kouzmin, 1997). The idea of "binary opposites" is highlighted with no resolution of the two. In these situations, one needs join the "other" more dominant side and deny their "naturalness". This may be women. Indeed, research supports this view where the impacts on women working in organisations, particularly "masculine" organisations are varied, for example, women feeling uncomfortable, having to work harder to meet the same objective standard, and leaving the organisation (Eagly, 2002; Forschi, Lad, & Sigerson 1994; Liff & Ward, 2001; Ruderman et al., 1995). Where they are thought as the "other"13, this is hardly surprising. Where progression of women is not evident, unfair discrimination may be an explanation (Barreto et al., 2009; Liff & Ward, 2001; Weyer, 2007). The enactment of the gendered culture (Kanter, 1977) is often subtle as authors and researchers regarding the glass ceiling concept contend (Barreto et al., 2009; Itzin & Newman, 1995). Feminist authors believe that organisations are couched in hegemonic terms (Bierama, 2009; Parker, 2001) so that research does not address the issues for women adequately, and eventually impact on practice. Diversity

("difference") management is one way organisations try to mitigate the effects of past unfair discrimination. 1.2.4 Diversity management as a device to create an inclusive culture which
13

This idea of the "other" can be explained further and is linked to a previous footnote. Several feminist authors give insights as to the "binariness" of gendered terms, especially where organisations are considered masculine and couched in the hegemonic terms that Bierama (2009) and Parker (2001), women are then thought of or spoken about as the "opposite" or "other". As Fiaccadori (2006) puts it, "Specifically, it is through the refusal of identification (or disidentification) that what she calls abject others develop; bodies who do not seem to count but who are nonetheless necessary to the creation of the heterosexual subject (Butler, 1993: 34). As Grosz says, for Butler identity is performed or produced through action ..." (p.5).

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appreciates difference

Diversity management aims to foster inclusive organisational cultures, thereby minimising glass ceiling effects. Diversity management as a concept refers largely to appreciating differences (Carter, 1999; Kandola & Fullerton, 1994; Stockdale & Crosby, 2004) and has come about as a response to the changing workforce landscape and how to realise the potential of the diverse workforce (Barreto et al., 2009), rather than previously homogenous ones. In the modern organisation, the extent of diversity is such that there are no opposites, but rather a continuum of different ways of being. This seems a feasible way to imagine the organisation reality.

The management of diversity is said to involve strategic, structural, cultural and personnel considerations (Cao, Clarke & Lehaney, 1999; Cos, 1993; Friday & Friday, 2003; Jackson & Alvarez, 1992; Stockdale & Crosby, 2004), where group identities need to be understood to enhance group processes as one important aim (Barreto et al., 2009). Group identities will be many and varied. Where diversity is managed effectively, organisational processes, such as performance appraisals, would be expected to be designed and implemented in a manner which values not just "masculine" qualities but is more reflective of a diverse range of competencies needed to the run the same diverse organisations, within an inclusive culture enacted in a nongendered fashion. The inclusive culture suggests not opposites, but different parts of the one whole (Fiaccadori, 2006). In this kind of culture, one would expect men and women to be equally valued for their unique contributions (Carter, 1999), rather than a culture that enacts behaviours and actions which may reflect negative stereotyping of
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women and lead to them being excluded, or set up against the "other" where their identity as women is subversed (Butler, 1990).

1.2.5

How appreciating difference can work for women

An excellent example of diversity and thinking beyond valuing "masculinity" can be seen in some interesting aviation studies which examined gender and performance in pilot roles (McFadden, 1996). In one study, although women lacked visual spatial ability, they became as skilled as men in time with training. In another study, although female pilots were thought to have caused more crashes on investigation they found that they were younger and less experienced than male pilots (McFadden, 1996). It is clear from studies such as this that being female was not the issue but a failure to appreciate all of the factors within a role, such as the lack of experience between men and women. Certainly, pilot studies using ability tests confirm the lack of gender difference between males and females (Carretta, 1997; Carretta & Ree, 2000). These studies also highlight firstly that taking a more creative approach to selecting women into traditionally male roles led to a focus on recognising the needs of women in terms of the training offered and in recognising their lack of experience in a traditional masculine role. The studies also elucidate how performance may be conceptualised and perceived from a gender perspective. There is much evidence however which reveals many barriers to womens advancement (Agars, 2004; Bajdo & Dickson, 2001; Kottke & Agars, 2005; Metz, 2005; Post et al., 2009) and refutes ideas that lack of performance for example, is the reason. One may look at the low representation of women at the top echelons and conclude however they cannot perform as well as men. When taking a more objective
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assessment of mens and womens abilities, little difference is evident (Carretta, 1997; Alimo-Metcalfe, 1993). There is ample evidence of the barriers women face in

organisations based on subjective evaluations of women, some of which is presented in the next subsection.

1.3 Women in Organisations 1.3.1 Overview of evidence of barriers women face in organisations Research examining the barriers women face in organisations is wide-ranging and generally falls into a number of themes: (a) sex-typing of managerial roles and the think manager, think male scenario (Schein, 1973); (b) the mens club phenomenon (e.g., Coe, 1992; Simpson, 1997; Wajcman, 1998); (c) gender discrimination within human resource management practices (Collinson, 1991); (d) evidence that women receive less training and development opportunities than men in organisations (Higginbotham, 2004; Payne, 2000; Tharenou & Conroy, 1994;); (e) research findings that women perceive the overall development process more negatively than men do (McDowall, Silvester & Rust, 2003) and finally (e) research around work-life balance issues including potential stressors (eg. Peeters, de Jonge, Janssen & van der Linden, 2004). The themes present a wide range of barriers leading to men and women being treated differently in organisations. Women may be seen as not conforming to their gender or work roles (Carli & Eagly, 2001) and be penalised either in subtle or more non-subtle ways, such that they do not progress as readily as males (Eagly, 2002) and the barriers for women therefore remain. Evidence of this nature is indicative of a glass

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ceiling effect where the outcomes, although not tangible, are having differential effects on men and women.

Work-life and flexible policies are said to improve women's situation in organisations, by taking account of their unique experience as women. The next section outlines

research relating to work-life balance and how this, in various ways, impacts on women.

1.3.2

Work-life balance issues and womens progression

Work-life balance policies are one way that organisations seek to combat the lack of progression for women (Ogden et al., 2006; Scheman, 2009; Wang, Farme & Walumbwa, 2007; Whittle, 2008; Yasbek, 2004). The concept is a broad one which is an attempt to recognise the priorities between work and life (Duxbury & Higgins, 2001; Guest, 2002). Organisations may espouse flexible working and policies, but a culture can provide subtle yet strong cues to women to avoid taking advantage of flexible working. For example, Liff and Ward (2001) found that women were reluctant to broach issues about flexible working because of the strong presenteeism culture to work long hours. These effects occur even though policies exist within the organisations to take account of the "reality" of work-life issues, for example, flexible working policies (Doherty, 2004; Duff & Webley, 2004; Ogden et al., 2006). It is thought however that a lack of women at the top may be another indication of work-life balance policies not being effectively implemented. This stems from initiatives not being given priority from men at the top who may have transactional leadership styles (focused on action), where transformational leadership (focused on empowerment) has been found to be important
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for this purpose (Wang et al., 2007) as transformational leaders behave in ways which inspire and motivate employees to focus on fairness and equality (De Cremer & Tyler, 2007; De Cremer et al., 2005). Because of the complexity of todays organisations and the diversity of its members, however, more complex leadership skills may be required including both transactional and transformational styles (Burns, 1978). Certainly

financial and other institutions have changed but it may be that leadership ideas have remained static as some authors note eg. (Regini et al., 1999).

1.3.3 Women in senior positions and how men and women are evaluated In terms of the specifics of how men and women are evaluated, evidence has persistently shown that where the same competencies are being judged, men will be favoured over women (Agars, 2004; Eagly, 2002, 2004). For example, in a recent study within a financial services organisation, male leaders were assessed as more successful even when the male and female leaders demonstrated an equivalent level of social and emotional intelligence competencies (Rankin, 2002). Research such as this obviously poses a problem for women who are trying to break the glass ceiling for example, to reach the highest levels and points to lack of equivalence, or different standards being applied to men and women.

1.3.3.1 Authentic leadership and organisational culture Women may be discounted as potential top leaders through other means. For example, the relatively recent authentic leadership model is a type of leadership where one can be oneself (Endrissat, Muller & Kaudela-Baum, 2007). However, where organisations
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implicitly encourage or reward masculine behaviours or attributes, it is feasible that it is only males who are allowed to be oneself, as glass ceiling effects may prevent women from enacting a more authentic style. Women in some organisation cultures such as financial services may be strongly socialised to adopt a more masculine way of being, bearing in mind the strong effect that organisational culture has on individuals to conform (Schein, 1985). Organisational cultures may therefore implicitly deny, through subtle sanctions, what they see as stereotypically feminine attributes (Eagly, 2002) and therefore a masculine culture is perpetuated. Authentic leadership may become a

model which is adopted as important for organisations, but bearing in mind the construction of the leadership concept itself as masculine (Eagly et al., 2003), masculine cultures, unfriendly to women, may render women incapable of enacting this style due to the conformity exacted upon them so their authenticity is denied and identity subversed (Butler, 1990). In terms of the authentic model of leadership

therefore, women become deemed ineffective.14

1.4

Differences between men and women, the organisational context and consequences for women

changing

social

and

That there are some differences between men and women of course cannot be denied and there is ample research on this, including evidence of status differences between the sexes (Ridgeway, 1988; Yoder, 1991). However, social aspects about womens roles are changeable and supported by a context (eg. society), whilst biological factors are not (Eagly, 2002; Shields, 2007). For example, roles for men and women have changed dramatically in recent times (Caven, 2006; Eagly, 2002; Hochschild, 1979) yet
14

Leadership theories are often written about by men, so hegemonic, in nature (Parker, 2001).

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it has been noted by some authors that women are still expected to do the caring role within organisations (Fischer & Smith, 2006). One study found for example that women solicitors left their roles because they were assigned mundane administrative duties and they tired of these (Duff & Webley, 2004). Duff & Webley clearly showed that women may be expected to perform domestic duties in the office but that women do not go along with this expectation. This study showed that women are forced to leave because of expectations of them to conform to their social role, even where they are in highly professional roles such as a solicitor. These women felt it was easier to leave rather than challenge the effect of the organisational culture and norms to conform to their social role. Eaglys (2002) review using role congruity (between females and

leadership) points to much research which finds sanctions for women not conforming to social roles resulting in prejudice and disadvantage for women.

The next section turns to emotion, an aspect of difference rarely considered in research, and even less so as the basis of being evaluated, but which may impact negatively on women at work.

1.5

Emotion at work

Both men and women, depending on the context of the situation, may perceive emotions displayed in a working situation differently and according to whether a man or a woman is displaying emotion. This subsection outlines some of the evidence relating to differences between men and women and in particular how both groups are stereotyped according to being viewed negatively as a result. The implications for
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women and being appraised or evaluated are also discussed.

1.5.1 Women and emotions at work Women have, for centuries, been said to be emotional whereas men as unemotional (Fischer & Smith, 2006). This seems curious as men and women obviously experience emotions and is part of being human (Shields, 1987). Emotions are universal but it seems that emotions when displayed by women are thought of more negatively than when men display emotions. Emotions are gendered in this respect, men as The important question

passionate and women as emotional (Shields, 2007).

though, as Shields asks, is under what conditions does gender matter? and What is at stake in those situations? Clearly, in organisations where women are being

evaluated, it is extremely important.

Whereas 20 years ago, gender was assumed to be a stable and trait-like component of identity (Shields, 1987; 2000), recently gender has been construed as an ongoing enactment. However, the ideas about emotions and their stability may still be present. Where a traditional view of organisations remains which values masculinity the assumptions relating to emotions being gendered and part of ones identity may also remain. The potential for negative stereotyping of women then becomes possible.

1.5.2 How women are stereotyped according to their emotions The concept of emotion or being emotional in relation to women appears to mean something different when talking of emotions in relation to men. Where anger is a
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negative emotion which can cause distress for people, being emotional is something only ascribed to women (Shields, 2007). In addition, where women get angry, this is perceived differently to when men are angry (Shields, 2007). This is captured in the comment that When the womanly art of living up to private emotional conventions goes public, it attaches itself to a different profit-and-loss statement (Shields, 2007). In other words, men and women may display emotions in public, but there are different values attached. Where organisations value masculinity (or engender a transactional or heroic culture, Hatcher, 2003), it seems feasible that emotionality by women will be seen in a negative light and they may be evaluated accordingly. Emotional displays by women in organisations may not therefore be condoned in the traditional view.

Shields (2007) in her analysis of emotions and gender clearly points out how historical views about traits and abilities were dominant and created gender hierarchies. She further illuminates how emotion was used, to, what she calls, legitimate systems of subordination (p. 92). These generalised assumptions where women are stereotyped in emotional terms are still alive and can be illustrated most markedly by Shields (2000) again, in a case described by her: The Virginia Military Institute VMI case (p. 3). In that case, a military organisation lost the right to prevent admission of women, the women being seen by the institute as more emotional, less aggressive, suffer more from fear of failure, and cannot withstand stress as well (ibid., p. 3). Shields considers that where organisations are concerned, women in general will be stereotyped owing to the gendered nature of organisations and emotions. In this respect, organisational

culture provides norms and spaces that allow men to express their emotions. Women
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on the other hand need to be constrained and controlled and are therefore subordinated by their emotional displays. The system of legitimisation (Shields, 2007) is therefore maintained. Stereotyping is the mechanism which allows this to occur.

1.5.3 How gender stereotyping of emotions operates

The operation of gender stereotyping of emotional displays works in a similar way to other stereotyping, ie. inferences are made because of lack of information (Fiske, 1998; also see Study 1 for discussion). The operation of this sort of stereotyping is

demonstrated in an interesting study by Robin, Johnson and Shields (1998) which showed the effect of distance in time between events and the relationship with judging emotions. This study used a game condition where participants had to make

judgements about emotion where emotional displays of others showed an influence of gender stereotypes. Where reports and perceptions of events more closely matched stereotypes, distance and time were factors. This is of course the same way that other stereotyping works (Fiske, 1998).

1.6

Summary

The introduction provided the framework for the study including how women are stereotyped within masculine cultures. Women may be seen through the gender lens rather than as competent individuals (Eagly, 2002). Other biases and stereotyping

operate against women, especially, as some consider, in financial services which are generally thought of as "masculine". This is despite the sector being generally staffed by women (EHRC, 2009). It is strange therefore that so few women are at the top as
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the EHRC study showed. Indeed, it is a mystery. As stereotyping leads to inequitable results, and the ERHC (2009) found this to be an explanation for so few women at the top (including working practices that disadvantages and marginalises women), it is useful to examine senior women's experiences of these organisations and gain insights to their experience of being evaluated, especially as this HR process (and here is meant the annual, objective, performance appraisal event) is still favoured and valued by organisations, regardless of the criticism it receives.

1.7

Rationale for the research

This research focuses on senior women in traditionally male-typed positions in financial services organisations in the UK. In this way, these women are at the centre of the investigation as we know so little about their experience in these organisations. Men and women may fare unequally in these organisations in terms of being evaluated (informally "judged", in this respect). Research shows that different contexts are

important for how women experience organisations. It is particularly important therefore that we understand women's experiences in "masculine"-typed organisations, and especially in non-traditionally feminine roles where stereotyping may apply to the role and the gender of the person within (Eagly, 2001).

Women may choose to leave the organisations although glass ceiling theory would suggest their choosing may not totally be womens own choice, but rather are forced due to the unfavourable cultures as some research suggests (eg. Caven, 2006; Liff & Ward, 2001; Ogden et al., 2006). Womens experience with organisational processes
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(including being appraised or evaluated) may be a factor in both scenarios. However, we know little about their experiences, and especially senior women in this sector.

Understanding these senior womens perspectives is the most reasonable response to understand some of the current issues for these women. As well as examining women being evaluated, and within the particular culture of financial services, which will provide valuable insights (bearing in mind the effect this has), the study also examines emotion, an aspect that has been rarely considered in the literature as one where men and women may fare unequally, with implications for senior women being evaluated in organisations.

This is important for occupational psychologists and in turn practitioners who may be tasked with understanding the particular issues that senior women face, especially with the myriad of issues involved.

1.8

Research aim

This study sought to examine the experiences of a sample of senior women participants in financial services organisations, and in particular, how they are evaluated either informally or formally (i.e., through a performance appraisal process). (See Appendix D for a full list of interview questions).

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2.
2.1

Method
Study Design

Study 2 uses qualitative methodology within a broadly social constructionist and feminist framework. Thematic analysis was used to explore the themes that emerged from semi-structured interview data. The thematic analysis followed the Braun and Clark (2006) method of analysis.

2.2

Participants and recruitment of participants

The sample consisted of 8 females who were senior managers within global financial institutions and whose peers were predominantly male. The participants' details were obtained from various sources. By necessity participants were selected using a mixture of purposeful and snowball sampling. Firstly, a commercial database, to which the author has access, was consulted which contains contact information for senior executives and decision makers of organisations within the UK and Ireland. Two

directories were used to identify all of the financial institutions within the UK using the search term banks and financial institutions". The Yellow Pages directory was also consulted for the same purpose to ensure that all institutions were identified. reasons for this were that the author expected the sample size to be quite small. The

In addition, personal networks (the Financial Services Research Forum) and online networks (e.g., Zoom) were used to identify women who fit the criteria (see below).

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The professions of HR and Training were not included in the sample. It was obvious from the database that although these positions were predominantly held by women, they also represented a non male-dominant profession in occupational segregation terms (Anker, 1997), where some roles are considered to be held predominantly by a particular gender.

Women who hold the senior positions at or near to the glass ceiling in financial institutions can be said to form a small minority (Meyerson & Fletcher, 2000). They have often competed with men for these roles, making them the sample of interest for Study 2. In addition, because financial institutions generally have strong internal career structures (recruiting predominantly at entry-level), this sample provides a wealth of insights into not only these womens own experience but useful perceptions and insights about other women and men in senior positions. These women also had experienced being an appraisee and appraiser with opportunities to observe this process from both positions.

2.3

Participant Profile

Table 1 shows the demographic data collected from the 8 participants. All of the participants had completed a number of appraisals for others (some quite large), and varying amounts of having appraisals as an appraisee. Some of the participants had commenced their career within their current organisations; some had been employed in other financial institutions, whilst others had embarked on careers prior to their financial one. Only one of the participants had commenced their working life in an occupation
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not related to financial services or business. Table 1 Profile of the participants


Information P1 Time in current role Functional role Domestic situation / caring responsibilities Age 9 months Finance Married. 2 children 47 P2 2 years P3 2 years Participant number (Px) P4 3 years P5 2 years P6 3 years P7 3 years P8 8 years

Operations Single None 35

Operations Married, no children 42

Operations Married / None 40

Operations Single None 29

IT/Operations Married, children 47

IT/Operations Married None 47

General Manager Married, Children 62

The issue of sample size was an important consideration also. The author wished to sample from across the UK, but only in non-traditionally masculine roles, and expected the sample to be small. For example, and in light of these issues, Morses (2000) article on Determining sample size was useful for understanding the scope of the research area, the number of participants needed, and making a decision to consider the broadness and narrowness of the topic (Morse, 2000) and questions (Braun & Kitzinger, 2001; Clarke & Kitzinger, 2004; Braun & Clarke 2006).

2.4

Procedure

This subsection provides details of communication with participants, as well as the interview procedure and development of the research questions.

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2.4.1 Communication with participants and informed consent A senior executive of one of the sampled organisations advised on the limited time availability of these women and provided an edited version of an e-mail communication that would not alienate them (see Appendix D). For example, the first communication stated that an interview would last for up to 2 hours. On advice from the senior

executive, this time was reduced because of the busy schedules these women would likely have. The senior executive advised that the interview should last no longer than one hour. Consent of the women was obtained at the initial communication stage and throughout all dealings with the women themselves. A consent form was sent in

advance of the meetings and contents reiterated prior to the interviews, as well as the invitation to stop the interview at any time should they so wish. Debriefing occurred at the conclusion of each interview.

The author also contacted the British Banking Association by email (a suggestion by an OP colleague), explaining the research, and to ascertain if there were any protocols to comply with, however, there were none.

2.4.2 Interview questions The interview questions developed by the author were firstly piloted with one female in a senior position within a private hospital. Because this is a traditionally feminine

occupation, this was useful in highlighting the questions to ask females working in more, what are thought to be, masculine cultures (McDowell, 2001; Ogden et al., 2006; Powell & Maniero, 1992; Powell, Butterfield & Bartol, 2008) by reflecting on the contrast
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between the two diverse cultures (a hospital and a financial institution). As well as having practical experience in working in both settings, the author also consulted some literature to highlight how the different cultures may operate (eg. Cohen & Liani, 2009; Hamlin, 2002; Lane, 1999; Miller, 2007). The piloting was also useful for timing

purposes. Also, owing to the limited time availability of the participants as mentioned above, the questions needed to focus on the relevant areas of the research. Following the piloting and transcription of these questions, adjustments were made to the final list of questions. The full interview schedule and interview questions appear in Appendix D).

2.4.3 Interview procedure The interviews were between 45 minutes and 1 hour in length. Six of the interviews were conducted face-to-face and two by telephone. The reasons for this were time constraints of the women (one was only able to be interviewed in her parked car) and logistics. These women travelled extensively, or were based in other parts of the UK.

The author consulted various research, which compared face-to-face and telephone interviews to ascertain, for example, reliabilities between the two methods (Leeuw, 1992; Rhode, Lewinsohn & Seeley, 1997), which found excellent inter-rater reliability between these two methods. Other research has shown similar reliabilities between telephone and face-to-face interviews for selection purposes (Silvester, Anderson, Haddleton, Cunningham-Snell & Gibb, 2000).

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Following consideration of this research, and considering the semi-structured nature of the interview (using the same transcript) and more importantly, the time-limited nature of the interviews, the author felt that the data quality would be fairly similar between the two methods.

2.5

Semi-structured interviews

Semi-structured interviews were used for this study as they allow for a focused, yet flexible two-way approach to communication, allowing for questions to be created during the interview by both interviewer and participant (Fielding, 1993; Silverman, 2001; Valentine, 1997). This method was considered most appropriate for this sample of women and research design.

2.6

Analysis of data

Thematic analysis was undertaken for this study and is considered theoretically flexible (Braun & Clarke, 2006). It involves the analysis and reporting of patterns or themes within a data set and can be used to interpret the research topic (Braun & Clarke, 2006).

There are 6 overall phases within thematic analysis shown in Table 2:

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Table 2 Stage of analysis within thematic analysis


Analysis phase 1. Familiarising yourself with your data Description of the process Transcribing data (if necessary), reading and re-reading the data, noting down initial ideas. Coding interesting features of the data in a systematic fashion across the entire data set, collating data relevant to each code. Collating codes into potential themes, gathering all data relevant to each potential theme. Checking if the themes work in relation to the coded extracts (Level 1) and the entire data set (Level 2), generating a thematic map of the analysis. Ongoing analysis to refine the specifics of each theme, and the overall story the analysis tells, generating clear definitions and names for each theme. Selection of vivid, compelling extract examples, final analysis of selected extracts, relating back of the analysis to the research question and literature, producing a scholarly report of the analysis.

2. Generating initial codes

3. Searching for themes

4. Reviewing themes

5. Defining and naming themes

6. Producing the report

Source: Braun and Clark 2006 (p. 87)

A number of decisions were made prior to analysing the data and is recommended by Braun and Clark (2006). These were decisions around whether to use an inductive (data-driven) or theoretical approach, what counted as a theme, how and whether to identify semantic or latent themes and the usefulness of these to the interpretation. Epistemological considerations relating to the data, method used, and the ultimate value of any eventual findings (Braun & Clark, 2006) were also considered. The entire data set was read and re-read in light of these issues prior to and during the analysis.

To guard against anecdotalism, several techniques were used as recommended by Silverman (2001) and comprised line-by-line analysis of all of the data, constant comparative and deviant-case analysis of segments of data. Data was therefore treated
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in a comprehensive manner, where all aspects of the themes were included (Silverman, 2001).

2.7

Epistemological considerations which influenced the method and analysis for Study 2

The author considered the epistemology for the study carefully, especially in terms of the assumptions made about the research context and the participants, the "reality" for these women. Because of the hegemonic nature of organisational writing generally (eg. Bierama, 2009), and the statistic of so few women at the top of financial services organisations, the author wanted to understand women's experience within this reality. As organisations have a certain "type" of quality in cultural terms (eg. Morgan, 1986), it is this "reality" the author was looking to understand the women's experiences (reality) from within these organisations, considered to be masculine. Social construction is concerned with identifying patterns, and organisational norms provide the blueprint (culture) for people to behave within them (Schein, 1973).

Thematic analysis is flexible, and can be an essentialist or realist method, which reports experiences, meanings, and the reality of participants, or it can be a constructionist method, which examines the ways in which events, realities, meanings, and experiences and so on, are the effects of a range of discourses operating within society. The thematic analysis method is also characterised by theories, such as critical realism (e.g., Willig, 1999), which acknowledges the ways individuals make meaning of their experience and in turn, the ways the broader social context impinges on those
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meanings, while retaining focus on the material and other limits of reality. In this way, and as Braun and Clark (2006) suggest, thematic analysis can be used to reflect reality and to unpick or unravel the surface of "reality (p. 4). Thematic analysis was the chosen approach for this analysis as the womens experience of being evaluated or judged is found and delivered through processes within an organisations culture which is a microcosm of societys (Thomas & Plaut, 2008). The flexibility of thematic analysis was useful as it allowed the exploration in the analysis, between women's own experiences (within a masculine culture and discourse), and also identifying patterns across the data, in social construction terms. Putting women at the centre of the

analysis required an examination of reality from their perspective, using semi-structured interviews (flexibility) hence the broadly feminist and social constructionist framework.

2.8

Themes within thematic analysis

A theme within thematic analysis is defined by Braun and Clark (2006) as one which has captured something important about the data in relation to the research question and represents some level of patterned response or meaning within the data set (p. 82). They also stress, however, that researcher judgement is required to determine a theme (Braun & Clarke, 2006). A theme is not based on quantity, but rather, the

importance of the theme to the overall research question (Braun & Clarke, 2006). For this research, a theme was considered important if it related to aspects of gender, culture, evaluation, performance, and indicated women's experience within their organisation (either positively or negatively). The themes were therefore focused on the broad parameters set by the research question (taking a largely inductive approach to
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later analysis).

2.9

Procedure of data analysis

2.9.1 Transcription of data The author transcribed all of the material from the interviews as they were completed. This was done to ensure that the author was physically close to the data (Bird, 2005; Riessman, 1992) in that the data had been listened to several times prior to analysis being commenced (Step 1). The transcription produced 347 pages of data.

Following transcription of all of the interviews, the full interview transcript was sent to each participant to ensure that it was an accurate representation of what the participants had said (Moustakas, 1994).

2.9.2 Coding of data Coding was undertaken by hand rather than using a computer-based system as it was felt that a more reflexive process would follow using a manual approach (being slower to undertake), where reflection is considered a long considerative, analytic, critical evaluative thought, as well as being there (Lisle, 2000, p.113). Codes serve to

categorise what otherwise appear to be discrete events, and help with later steps of summarising into themes (Charmaz, 1983).

The analysis commenced by reading through one participants interview and making initial notes in the margin about themes that were immediately obvious. This was
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followed by a line-by-line analysis and initial codes were entered manually onto the transcript, for example, where a line of text indicated something important about the research question, a note was made by hand in the margin of the page of interview text data (see Appendix E for example). Any linkages with other codes and themes were also noted (Step 1).

2.9.3 Data management Once the transcripts were analysed, to assist the management of the data and latent patterns, the author entered the data into a spreadsheet. Columns were created as follows: Participant number Page number Line number Code number Extract Initial code Theme Subtheme 1, 2, 3 Links

Individual extracts from the Word document transcripts were cut and pasted into the extract column of the Excel spreadsheet along with the identifying information also entered onto the spreadsheet columns above. This allowed the author to refer back to the original transcript as required. Much of the text around the research question

information was retained for data integrity (Silverman, 2001).

Once the data was entered into Excel under the initial theme headings, this data was printed out. The text extracts and related code identification (participant number, line
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number, etc.) were cut from the printed pages and sorted into piles. This allowed for easy movement between piles as required.

The mechanical process (Krippendorf, 1980) of entering the data in a spreadsheet to be later analysed further for coding, was commenced some time after much interpretative work had started.

Initial codes were entered into a spreadsheet and sorted alphabetically, with duplicates removed and some codes were renamed. A total of 1,546 codes were initially assigned. Examples of these initial (sorted) codes are shown in Table 3. below:

Table 3 Examples of Initial Codes (Alphabetically Sorted)


Accepts control of emotion regardless of what caused it Accepts culture Accepts men are emotional Accepts reality of culture Accepts status quo Accepts that men and women evaluated differently Achieved goals Achieving to gain things Acknowledgement of legal position Acknowledges another woman would be nice Acknowledges diversity is gender-based

This list of initial codes was then used to assign an initial theme (Step 2), and also assign an initial code in the spreadsheet as to whether the code was latent. The initial
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theme was analysed and used to develop the subtheme information. The subtheme information was used to develop the label (Moustakas, 1994). For example, the

development of the theme Authenticity is shown in Table 4 below, along with the initial code from which it is derived (handwritten into the original transcribed interview text), the subtheme which relates to the initial theme, and the original extract, all as entered into the Excel spreadsheet:

Table 4 Development of "Authenticity" Theme


Initial code Denies femaleness Initial theme Authenticity Subtheme I mean, those are the practical things. We had some hilarious training when I was at [bank 1] about handbags and shoes, and those- oh, I always wear heels as well, I don't like to be shorter than men. So its-its all of those sorts of things. I learned long ago that what you can't do is try to act like or speak like someone else. And actually as a woman in an industry where the senior people are predominantly or have been predominantly male, you have to be really careful not to say So-and-so's successful so I'll conduct a meeting the way he conducts a meeting, because you cant do it. I learned a long time ago you really have to do things the way that sits right with yourself Rita Chakrabarti, well shes the massively inspirational figure, shes massive, and I think the reason shes successful is because shes totally true to her values, I dont know her personally, its just my perception, so she seems to be totally true to her values, she seems to be incredibly calm all the time which I find it amazing and the way she argues her case is absolutely incredible, she never raises her voice, she never gets down to a personal level, so I think its really strong personality, its like her brand, this is her, this is how she is, Culture Because otherwise I look quite young, you know, and its just those sorts of things and-and wearing jewellery and making sure that you're not wearing anything thats tooyou dont wear anything thats showing too much flesh, those sorts of things, so definitely aware of those sorts of things. I also tend to lower my voice and speak quite slowly, and that sort of- I think that helps.

Does not emulate men way of doing things

Authenticity

Example of someone true to values

Authenticity

Fitting in with macho culture by denying femininity

Authenticity

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Human

Authenticity

Ability to express

Because there are things that youre going to see that will just make you go, oh, no, because there are elements of it that are not human, but its-its the way it is, it's the market, it's money and it's- you know, if you dont like it I think you should just be honest and do something that, you know, maybe makes you feel less horrid. They can bluster and, sitting behind a desk, display a lot of the body language of dominance or whatever. But actually you can dominate through your ability to debate, to be logical, to take them to the next step until they cant actually come back with any rebuttal. So, there are ways to deal with some macho behaviour. Thats one thing I suppose Ive learned along the way.

Ignores dominance by using different approach

Authenticity

Progression

Table 5 below illustrates how the theme Authenticity was labelled. Table 5 How the Theme "Authenticity" Was Labelled:
1. 2. Initial major theme (derived from initial codes) Summary of subthemes Final label for the major theme Authenticity Authenticity Ability to express, admired in others, culture, denied, desired, gender aspects, ideal, other culture, prevented, progression, success How women are able to experience authenticity

3.

As shown in Table 5 above, the initial major theme was identified as Authenticity, derived from the initial codes (Table 4 above). This code was then analysed to derive subthemes (2, Table 5). Finally, the subthemes and text were re-read to arrive at the final label, How women are able to experience authenticity. This general process was followed for labelling of themes.

2.9.4 Table of themes and Subthemes derived from the data analysis A full table of themes and subthemes as outlined above is shown in Appendix H. The table also includes the identifying information relating to the location of the extracts, and
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the number of occasions each theme appeared in the transcripts. This information was initially used in the production of the thematic maps used throughout the section on Findings.

The themes were reviewed a number of times (Step 4) using both the spreadsheet information where information was easily manipulated by changing the name of the theme where it did not appear to fit, and writing the theme names on post-it notes to develop the thematic map. For example, the following codes were changed from:

Major theme Authenticity

Subtheme Ability to express

Initial code Human

to
Major theme Experience of being female Subtheme Ability to express herself Initial code Human

Using both the spreadsheet information and the post-it notes to develop the maps enabled the overall story (Step 5) to be developed, as well as identifying clearly the subthemes within the major themes. Once the overall thematic map was finalised, the major themes and subthemes were checked against the original spreadsheet, which was checked against the transcripts to ensure the theme was adequately captured.

2.9.5 Confidentiality and protocol relating to transcribed data Throughout the transcript extracts, [square brackets] were used to insert information to protect the womens confidentiality or to enhance the meaning. Bearing in mind the small sample, this was extremely important to consider, and it was expressed to the
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participants that this would be the case.

The next section reports on the findings of the analysis. The section firstly gives an overview of all of the themes derived from the transcripts and which appear in the thematic map, also illustrated in that section. The analysis continues further to give an interpretative reading of some sub-themes within the major themes.

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3.

Data analysis

The following section reports on the thematic qualitative data analysis. The overall thematic map developed from the data is outlined, explaining the major themes that emerged from the analysis. The analysis for the relevant themes in relation to the research aim is then presented.

3.1

Explanation and overview of the thematic map

Following the approach advocated by Braun and Clark (2006) and as outlined in the methodology section, the author produced a final thematic map of the major themes to address the overall research aim and is shown below in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Final thematic map

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The green boxes contain the major themes and the latent themes are in yellow boxes. The remaining themes are in White boxes and remain for completeness.

As shown in Figure 2 above, seven major themes were derived, two latent. The themes impact on the women as employees and, particularly, their experience of being a woman within a financial institution. The epistemological assumptions provide the

framework for the analysis. Each major theme (green) comprises a web of sub-themes (not shown above, but are in the individual thematic maps which follow). Major subthemes are in blue (individual maps).

Organisational culture is a major latent theme (yellow) that appears in many of the other themes and sub-themes, and the latent effect is on how men and women are evaluated (in the womens view), the womens experience of being an employee and ultimately her progression within financial organisations. Progression is affected by the decisions made by the women and the emphasis on the term is deliberate: her decisions are affected by the organisational culture. Women's progression importantly is ultimately as a result of their experience, particularly within a male-dominated environment, as they see it.

The following subsections now turn to the analysis of the two selected major themes How men and women are evaluated in the organisation and Experience of being a woman in a financial institution. Individual thematic maps relating to these themes and their related subthemes are shown at the beginning of each of the following subsections
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within this section. The major theme headings are underlined and sub-themes which relate are in italics.

In some of the individual maps, there are grey boxes which contain the elements that form to make up the (blue) major sub-themes (these elements are included in the analysis text, not as separate headings). The term "element" refers to the initial

categories derived from the initial coding of the data (see Appendix A).

The analysis of the first major theme and its associated sub-theme follows: 3.2 Analysis of selected themes

3.2.1 The experience of being women within a male-dominated15 environment Figure 3 Thematic map relating to the theme: The experience of being a woman within a maledominated environment

15

The term "male-dominated" is the term used in the literature, eg. Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani (1995). The term is also used by the women themselves in the interviews. For example, see P6, p182. This is despite the financial services sector actually being dominated by women (see EHRC, and also Study 1).

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This first theme in Figure 3 relates to the various mechanisms which impact on womens experience of being a female employee within a male-dominated environment. The term male-dominated environment derives overall from the womens views. This

major theme is also linked (in the overall thematic map) to how women are evaluated in their organisations. The womens experiences are as a result of the realities of their liveswork and family issues are a major subtheme. The impact of the organisational culture plays its part through its paradox of the espoused and enacted practice dichotomy, especially related to how she experiences her work-life issues. The

individual thematic map relating to The experience of being a woman within a 'maledominated' environment and its subthemes are shown above.

The women experienced the latent effect of the organisational culture in terms of its espoused and enacted practices. Some of the women talked in semantic terms of "culture".
... I feel that I could be more successful now.... I think in general within senior women are not given all the opportunities that men are. Theyre not discriminated against but because we work in very male- dominated cultures they're just not given the opportunities ... we dont think or look like men and yet most of us are managed by men, the organisation and people inevitably tend to sort of recruit in their own image ... the women in this organisation are not proactively managed upwards, theyre not, Have they got the right leadership training, have they been given the right stretch assignments, it probably applies to a lot of men as well, but ... and incidentally I think its the same with [bank] you know, [bank] and women and [bank] and women, it's not just a [bank] thing, its a general gender point.
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P5, line 15, page 6, code 38

The espoused nature of the organisations culture is evident in women are not given all the opportunities men are. These organisations after all, operate mostly with diversity policies, which espouse recognising differences between men and women. However, this participant is clear in this statement about opportunities not afforded to women. The participants voice points markedly to how women are treated compared to men in a discriminatory way. The participant recognises its origins though. This commences at recruitment where, as she describes, firstly its a male-dominated culture, and secondly most of us are managed by men, and also people inevitably tend to sort of recruit in their own image (meaning men). The statements together provide a clear view of a culture that may be difficult to be enacted in a way other than a masculine one where these values are recognised. This participant also recognises this stating that its the general gender point in the sector as a whole, that men and women are treated differently. More interesting though, she refrains from wanting to acknowledge clearly that discrimination existstheyre [women] not discriminated against. She justifies the discrimination and appears to accept or resign herself to itbecause we work in very male-dominated culture, they are just not given the opportunities (emphasis the authors own). The lack of opportunities for women is justified by the nature of culture within which they are situated. In this sense, this participants understanding of

discrimination appears in a sense confused, as if the justification cancels out the effect. The phrase about the culture is a signpost to women not to expect anything else apart from discriminatory behaviour, but the women dont recognise it as suchit is just the way it is, appears to be the unsaid statement. However, in their eyes, it is not
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discrimination. It is clear that they experience the culture as discriminatory, it is enacted in a way which does not allow women the same opportunities as men, yet they are reluctant to name it as such. The effect of the organisation culture may be such that the women either believe that nothing can be done, for example, by internalising this idea, a kind of "learned helpless", or they may have witnessed events where the outcomes are such that they decide it is not worth the effort.

3.2.2 How women experience balancing work and family This major sub-theme (blue box, see in Figure 3 above) examines how women experience balancing work and family. Some of the women in this study had children and some not. The women with children had described their experience about the impact of having children on their careers. However, women without children also

noticed this about other women and commented about the reality of women with children within the financial services industry, as they saw it. This is exemplified clearly in the extract below:

This is not a good industry if you have got children. P2, line 1, page 18, code 191

Once again, this is a clear statement and points to the enactment of an unfair culture, but it is specific about its effect on women with children. For women who either join or are thinking of having children, the view is quite a stark one and acts as a sign that the two dont mix. Women will not fare well if you have children.

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There are however other views around work-life balance expressed by these women:
Its probably also being a little bit more happy with your lot if you like, if you're able to accommodate family and job and, you know, you're happy that youve got the balance right, you might just not want to over-stress one aspect at the expense of another, there's more to balance out really, its a matter of how supportive the partner is I think, ultimately we do the bigger burden with childcare... P3, line 5, page 1, code 18

Although it is framed in more positive terms, it is not entirely. The women have to accept or resign themselves with being happy with their lot, as this participant says. Women consider that having a supportive partner plays a large part in being able to manage their work-life balance issues and puts the onus on the woman and her partner rather than the organisation:

I always have to prove that I dont get any special treatment because that was the deal then and they were- so I had to stay late, when I stayed late till midnight, whatever, I had to stay late regardless so there was absolutely no- I couldnt pull anything like that to say, Oh you know, Ive got a kid therefore Im going home, it would not wash at all and that was actually quite hard, that was really hard so I had a husband that works shifts so we managed that between us.

P4, Page 11, Line 6

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In this view, the impact of the espoused yet enacted organisation is again raised. Where organisations have diversity policies, women should not need to worry about the reality of their working lives as these policies recognise differences. However, these women point out the clear enacted nature of the organisation they are working in.

The above participant outlines the reality of work-life balance issues for women with children. She also highlights the supportive partner as a factor in being able to balance work and home responsibilities. There is no mention of diversity or other support as a factor in the management of her home and work life. This participant also expresses the view that even where there are flexible working opportunities offered, women do not take advantage of them owing to the strong norm of presenteeism and resentment from others as she sees it. The enacted nature of the culture has a strong effect on how these women balance their work and life and there is little support. Also, there is antagonism along with it: I always have to prove that I dont get any special treatment because that was the deal. The special treatment" refers to flexible working and

specifically as a woman. It is as if the organisation wants to "treat everyone the same". The point of flexible working however is to engender an organisation which supports "Special treatment", to name it as this. The participant says she works till midnight so there is no sense of there being any flexibility indeed, she made the deal not to.

Others in the organisation do not recognise the realities of womens lives so this aspect of support for the women to take advantage of flexible working is clearly not managed. One would expect these aspects of culture to be managed through its enactment of
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suitable policies and processes; otherwise one may think what is the point of having whole departments dedicated to this purpose? It is interesting that the women do not recognise this or mention support available in the organisation, apart from husbands, and points to them in some sort of denial, or accept thats the way it is, partly because the organisations (masculine) culture is set up to support the men within them. The organisations may pride themselves on "treating everyone the same", which seems rather misguided as not all people in organisations are equal. Flexible working and equal opportunities is a kind of legal "special treatment" designed to support those who have been unfairly treated in the past. However, financial services organisations do not take on board the issues seriously enough meaning that women are denied the same opportunities that men are. Stereotyping leads to people being viewed through the same lens but with a different result. Unfortunately, the result for women means they are penalised. The denial of "special treatment" (a fair opportunity to progress), also suggests the dominant making decisions about the dominated, or the "other". Although it may seem the woman in the extract above is going along with the culture, she is sacrificing herself to work to "prove" that she is like everyone else. By doing this, she is making even more of a sacrifice to prove the point.

Women with children in these organisations are also stereotyped as the participant below clearly illustrates:

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... and if you elect to do the flexible working thing you are absolutely as night follows day ruling yourself out of being seen to be ineligible for all sorts of senior roles and unfortunately you then get stereotyped so I am, you know, believed to be talented. successful, you know, driven, noisy, all think rest of it, but Im also critically seen as a woman with [xxx] children who is juggling a lot of other things and therefore not surprisingly I'm not seen as somebody who could move to the next stage of leadership P6, line 8, page 7, code 47

Like the participant above (P4, p.167), this participant (P6) also knows that flexible working is not an option. In fact, she is quite emphatic that even though there may be flexible working in place, the reality is that promotion will not follow if these practices are used. There is no mistaking this, and the certainty of her belief is matched with an unambiguous analogy to express this realityas night follows day. Also like P4

(p.167), there is a sense of antagonism in the statement. Instead of work-life balance being an acceptable mechanism to support women with children, taking advantage of the practice leads to a stalled career. The main factor seems to be that children are salient in any decision about promotion, regardless of how brilliant a woman is, indeed it is critical. There is also the suggestion from the participant herself of accepting this rejection for promotion on the basis of her external realityit is not surprising. This is another "deal". It gives a sense of how the culture works. It is as if these women are willing to play along. Maybe that is why they get ahead. The view that non-

performance factors are perceived by (male?) evaluators as the basis for promotion is highlighted. The above participant also highlights the mutually exclusive way that
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women with children are perceivednegative stereotyping is felt to be the cause and this appears to negate any chances of being promoted. In this way, taking advantage of flexible working is seen as immediately taking oneself out of the career track for women. However, not all women are equal:

Well I think you know, I dont really know is the answer, the senior women in this organisation are a mixture of childless and women with children, I dont think its fair to say that the childless ones are doing better, although there would be an

understanding that if you were in your mid-40s without children say your male colleagues would probably imagine you were more committed because you know, they tha- thats a whole working mother thingI think that does have a sort of subliminal effect on people thinking Well shes never going to be able to, you know, stay here all night, or shes never going to be able to step in because shes got a child on sports day ... P6, line 22, page 9, code 70

The participant above points again to the clear stereotyping that operates for women with children (i.e., the perceptions about, and expectations of, male colleagues about women with children). The subjective evaluation of women by men is clear; women are seen as more committed where they dont have children. The effect of being

stereotyped is also clear where the participant expresses the web of beliefs prevailing in organisations about women, with or without children, based on the mere fact of being a woman. The participant does not consider that childless ones are doing better. The term "subliminal" is used and expresses the feeling of the enacted (glass ceiling?) versus the espoused culture. Maybe it is the "invisibility" of the glass ceiling. One thing
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may be said and done (espoused), but the enacted culture sees the women being viewed as not being able to progress, even develop in her role. The feeling is also clear, she is never going to ... step in. This represents a feeling of futility about women with children. The rest of the story about women via this stereotyping effect is

conjectured leading to beliefs about women, which it is easy to see, would lead to various roles and opportunities being denied to them. It also demonstrates through the womens views, how the stereotyping plays out and highlights the belief system involved. Although the view is from the womans point of view, the effects of the mens views apply to them. That the participant considers that women without children are not necessarily doing better leads to a feeling that women are viewed negatively as far as climbing the corporate ladder is concerned.

The following extract is from a woman without children. However, even where women do not have children, the issue of children and women is such that a participant who does not have children, thinks about, or is reminded about children. It affects her

experience such that where women are concerned, having or not having children is a salient factor:
I cant because its not socially acceptable or work acceptable to do that but yet if I have a child I c- that would be acceptable, do you know what I mean. It does irritate, I dont think about it a lot, but it does irritate me that my lifestyle decisions, my life decisions are not seen, it seems, as important as someone who chooses children and also, you know, I do find that my current boss did- and again, this is an assumption thing, did sort of say Well you dont have children, did you not want any?
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P7, line 28, page 9, code 95

It is clear that as far as women are concerned, decisions made in relation to them are made with children as a factor. The participants manager mentions the issue of

children, even though the participant doesnt have children, so that women are firstly perceived as being with or without children. The participants experience of being

viewed in this manner is clearly one of irritation, although she hesitates at the expression of any form of open dissatisfaction to say that she doesnt think about it a lot. The subjective and gendered nature of views about women is clear from the participants point of view. Although it is a simple statement asking about children, the effect on the experience on the woman is clear and more importantly, suggests the idea that even women managers are enacting a culture that appears to be made for men, and where women are seen through a gendered lens. The feeling of checking-upon on this participants intentions about children could be taken to check first if she is a normal [woman], did you not want any?, or to check that where she were to say yes, something ominous may be decided by the manager.

The final participant expresses the real constraints for women in these organisations and the eventual effect that the enacted culture has on women in terms of work-life balance:

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Well, it is- it is womens choice but its womens choice because they say Hey, I cant be bothered with this, you know, because why do I think this male-dominated culture is going to acc- is going to acknowledge my talents and give me the breaks to get to the top. In practice its difficult, they dont let me do flexible working, I'm having a baby, I can't see my managers being very supportive of this, there are no women at the top of this organisation, I think Ill drop out and become an entrepreneur, or go into some other industry [xxx]. Most women who drop out dont drop out to go and become full-time mothers, they drop out to go and do something where theyre gonna feel theyre gonna have more control over their over their work and their advancement, is the interesting thing.

P6, page 28, line 17, code 154

This participant emphatically traces, albeit hypothetically, the difficult time some women have within these organisations. She points out that yes, women do choose to leave (emphasis is authors own); however their choices are constrained by firstly the maledominated organisational culture, which prevents flexible working, having children is not supported and there are few women role models at the top. Women do leave, and this participant speaks probably from her long experience within the organisation. At some point, women decide to leave to have more control over their own progression. The extract also points to womens aspirations as demonstrating they are ambitiousthey are leaving to further these ambitionsthey are not leaving because of their caretaking responsibilities. The question is raised as to how these women are supported, if they are prevented from taking up flexible working as well as how performance appraisal and development processes work. This participant provides an answer, acknowledging the
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male-dominated culture within which she works, and clearly acknowledges the glass ceiling they won't give me the breaks to get to the top. In practice, could be changed to, the enacted culture. The latent effect is obvious, and the participant hints as much, that it is the male-dominated culture.

The participant also expresses some underlying feeling that the decision to leave may come about after some realisation. Its as if she expressing her beliefs about

meritocracy but then it changes why do I think the [culture] is going to acknowledge my talents and speaks as if she once thought that it would, or is led to believe it would (via the espoused culture?) but then realises it is not possible. There is the clear underlying assumption that women are not considered as promotion prospects, especially if they have children. This presents a clear difference between men and women in the organisations and points to different rules for both and a culture which supports men to reach the top. It may not even be support, but rather the women go along with the espoused culture, making deals not to actually take advantage of them in practice, it doesn't pay. This also suggests that the organisation will be replete with rules for evaluating them differently too.

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3.2.3 How men and women are evaluated within the organisation

Figure 4 Thematic map relating to the major theme How men and women are evaluated within the organisation

This next major theme (green, Figure 4) relates to how both men and women are evaluated within the organisation and the individual thematic is shown above in Figure 4. Evaluation is often used interchangeably in the literature with the term appraisal, but is felt to be a more useful term to differentiate the performance appraisal process, both of which could lead to progression. For the purpose of this study, performance appraisal is predominantly related to the womens experience of an actual performance appraisal process, whilst the term evaluation for the purposes of this theme involves both formal and informal appraisal processes and is mainly concerned with the participants views of how men and women are viewed informally, and therefore evaluated (either formally or informally).

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Some of the participants felt that they are judged differently from men, and they also acknowledged the subjectivity of evaluation being inherent in how people are perceivedthe same behaviours amount to different standards, men as positively and women as negatively evaluated:

I think there's lots of assumptions about men and women in terms of how they're evaluated. I think sometimes you can In men ...

observe what objectively looks like very similar behaviour in men and women and yet its described differently. someone whos forward and direct, someone who is asserting themselves in a conversation. ... The same behaviour from a woman might be described as being pushy and just wanting to get herself inserted in the conversation. Ive heard those things happen [performance review] ... conversations where women were described in terms of what they used to bemeaning that they were once 25 and someone used to know them. You dont hear that said about men. The view sometimes of women is more of a girlish view, a younger view, even though they might be 40 now. ... theyre still talked about as they once were. P8, line 25, page 23, code 114

The participant points to assumptions made about both women and men, more particularly in terms of how they are evaluated. The participant is highlighting how behaviours are viewed differently depending on whether the observer is a man or a woman. The actual behaviour objectively is the same but that women are evaluated negatively for the same behaviours. Someone who is forward and direct is assertive (positive) whilst the same behaviour is pushy and wanting to get herself inserted in the conversation. The contrast in views is clear about men and women, where women
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are viewed negatively. The participant provides an insight to how men view women in organisations, and points to conversations she has actually overhead where women are viewed, as she calls it, in a backward-looking way, about what women were (authors own emphasis) like. This is suggestive of the men somehow wishing women were still the way they were, in a subordinate position? It also suggests some disdain for these senior women who are trying to advance, who have possibly renounced their authentic nature as women (to act more like "leaders"), and actually provides a clue as to the nature of the glass ceiling. Men are "wishing" the women away, escaping from the reality of the new world by retreating into a fantasy world of how women used to be. The extract above provides how negative stereotyping and bias operates for women, especially women who are trying to progress.

The next participant provides a further hypothetical, yet very telling vignette about how this bias may enter into conversations about women and being promoted:

I have observed ... the only analogy I'm going to give you, but so youve got Fred ... the manager and Fred's got two very talented people ... both ... working incredibly well, theres Jill and ... Bob ... hes known for a long time ... come into his team and is just doing a great job, really outperforming ... and, Jill, shes arrived recently and has really surprised ... about her capabilities, both very, very bright over-achieving types and ... at the end of the year ... he chats to his manager, maybe, So, how are Bob and Jill doing?, and its ... Bobs really doing a fantastic job, hes surprised us, I think hes absolutely- we should be looking at him for the next role, hes absolutely on for
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the next challenge and Im backing him all the way. Hows Jill doing?, you know, Jills done a fantastic job, doing very well, really, has really surprised us, I think, lets see how she goes but I think shes doing extremely well and thats the sort of feature I see. ... Shes doing a great job, lets see how she goes, ... Bob. Fantastic job, why dont we give him a shot at the next one, and that I think is the subliminal approach. P6, line 20, page 14, code 131

The participant above is relaying the situation where a man and a woman are being considered for a promotion. It is provided as an analogy which gives the idea that is somehow more real than not and may mirror a similar situation that has occurred. The situation clearly points out how men and women are viewed as far as their performance is concerned and how they are evaluated on it. Although in the participants story the two hypothetical people are similar in terms of their achievement and drive, so objectively they are very similar, the chance is taken on the man. The men are viewed in a more positive light, with the manager "backing him all the way". The man is trusted. Both the man and woman are described in positive terms, but the negative effect is on the womanthere is no trust, but "let's see how she goes". Bearing in mind the

likelihood of a man and woman being considered for a promotion is likely to be rare at these top levels, it is easy to see, along with the previous extract, how women are denied the opportunity at the last hurdle. The risk is taken on the man. The participant uses the term again, ie. the subliminal approach, and is referring to the bias that is present in the minds of managers when considering men and women for promotions. They are being appraised or evaluated, but it is highly subjective. The situation in the vignette reflects the trust placed in the men over women where there is a promotion to
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be had, and also elucidates the kind of decision-making about promoting men and women: men are positively and women negatively stereotyped leading to a stalling of the woman's career.

The comments in the above extracts (P8 and P6) which imply by hypothesis or actual observations that men are treated differently were also expressed by other participants. Although the participants (except one) stated that they thought women were judged differently, they also seemed to acknowledge and accept that this was the case.

Where women did question whether women were treated differently, sometimes they contradicted themselves or were not clear. In the next extract, the author begins with the question to what extent would you say men and women are evaluated differently, if at all?":

P1 not ostensibly, not in my experience. -ostensibly they are except when it comes for ... new opportunities so you will still hear it if its, Oh whos going to be country manager in Kenya, you cant do it because shes a woman ... and theyll say its not because of us, its because of the regulators ... which is all just rubbish ... Quite frankly. So youll see it-see it in that sense, you will see it in the sense ... of ... if youre being evaluated ... for suitability for the top board role the fact that youre different from the existing characteristics of the people on the board would be seen not necessarily as a good thing- you need to be seen as becoming more like them, whereas ... thats a ... mis-judgement because ... you dont want to become a clone of- a 50 year old males that are on the board, youve got different things to add
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and thats the whole- ... point, you know, so you get quite a lot of feedback at this level which would be Well, if you were just a bit more forceful ... Im not trying to be you, Im trying to be me, so you get evaluated through ... what is perceived traditionally as being successful characteristics at the top levelP1, line 3, page 5, code 34

The participant, like the extract above, mirrors the same situation when men and women are being considered for top jobs. They are viewed differently. However, the participant answers the question initially as ostensibly not. This is the "espoused culture" at work, and she has internalised the effect by espousing that there is no discrimination in terms of how men and women are evaluated. There is a clue as to the women's denial of discriminatory behaviour against them. She also provides several scenarios of how women are informally evaluated daily, and which may cumulatively lead to bias against womenthe glass ceiling. The word ostensibly suggests this participant does not want to believe men and women are treated differently. It also suggests the latent effect of the enacted culture. The word also leaves room for doubt. It could also possibly refer to the organisations espoused culture, saying they have diversity and other policies, many of which these organisations have, which say they treat people fairly. The participant provides both hypothetical comments made by

managers about women in the organisation, as well as actual examples of her own experience. The examples provide a sense of the subtle gender discrimination that Barreto (2009) talks about. Although hypothetical, the examples are telling. The overall feeling by the participant is of women being viewed negatively, negative in the sense that the answer is no to women where there is an interesting overseas job or more
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powerful and, no doubt, lucrative role, roles which these women have probably aspired to by joining the institution in the first place. The participant talks of the traditional values and may refer to the values of success in a time when males were predominantly employed within financial institutions, apart from the lower, clerical, roles which women occupied (Regini et al., 1999). Once again, it speaks of a subtle culture that discriminates against women and highlights the hidden, slow but real effect of the glass ceiling which culminates in women's progression being thwarted.

Other participants point out differences in how men and women are treated, but are reluctant again to express that there is any systematic discrimination against women:

theres absolutely no reason why you shouldnt compete on an equal, hours-worked playing field with the men, but I dont think theres anything systematic here P6, line 32, page 9, code 72

The above statement is interesting because the participant defines the objective basis of equality, as she sees it (i.e., equal hours worked). But what is not said is more interestingit is as if this participant knows there is something else going on [subliminal?], hence the very exact nature of the equality being in hours worked (and easy to justify). Staff are either at work a certain number of hours or they are not. However, it also raises the issue of flexible workingwomen or men who need to leave early because of caring responsibilities. One would think that the hours worked would not be the first thing a woman would think about in terms of the equal playing
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field, especially in todays organisations, which are not industrial entities such as factories (the traditional, mechanistic organisation) with everyone seated at their machines ensuring that every single minute is to be accounted for, but rather more fluid and flexible. It seems like the wrong yardstick to use to determine the equality between men and womenhours worked. Yet it is something that sprang to this participants mind in terms of the difference between men and women and speaks something of the long hours culture which is corroborated in other participants views and research (e.g., Liff & Ward, 2001). The participant seems aware that this aspect of the culture is the main thing to think about in terms of men and women in that they are being watched or monitored about the hours worked and knowing that you can work the long hours means that equality has been achieved.

The womens denial of discrimination is once again evident in this participants extract and appears in many of the transcripts. The issue of the women wanting to see

objectivity is also evident although much clearer in the above account. Objectivity is in the form of hours worked so that if this happens, there cant be anything systematic going on. This cry for fairness is expressed. Not only are women denying flexible working options, but are working hours beyond the normal call of duty as expressed in another extract (till midnight). Women know they need to do this. However, even doing this still does not equate to fairness for them.

Other participants point to objectivity being present in some of the systemsit must be fair appears to be the answer to their hidden doubts. It is as if they are asking, It is
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fair ... isn't it? The women know that subjectivity exists in their evaluation of them, but somehow believe fairness will win out. However, the above participant hints at the doubt, yet for some reason states clearly "I don't think there's anything systematic here". As in the extract above, P6 wanting to know the world plays fair, as they probably do, by working equal hours. The denial is evident, and it seems as if there may be some other fairness expected, by not denigrating the organisation. They are playing fair, so the organisation must be. This could be the force of the espousal of fair practices within the organisations expressed by the women, yet the enacted culture is more evident. The women's external voices express this but the external reality of the organisation's enacted culture may confuse women's perspectives.

... so I think that perspective you get evaluated through the levels of what is perceived traditionally as being successful characteristics at the top level and those are different characteristics sometimes than women possess or want to possess but not ostensibly, I dont think they have a different stamp versus what I- havent observed. P1, line 27, page 9

The above reply above relates to the question to what extent men and women are evaluated differently, that can be in any respect really and hints at women being viewed negatively against the traditional, successful characteristicsalthough not stated, this would relate to masculine characteristics of being tough, and so on. The participant then alludes to women being different however, similar to other participants, this participant does not commit herself to a clear statement that men and women are evaluated differentlythe end of the statement I dont think they have a
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different stamp , the participant observes, attests to this. The women view men and women being evaluated differently, but refrain from calling this discrimination or maybe wanting to see that it is, justifying the difference in evaluation in various ways. The above participant, although acknowledging that women are judged against traditional criteria, doesnt view this as being discriminatory towards women and appears once again as a form of denial.

3.2.4 Men and women are evaluated differently in terms of their emotions Figure 5 Thematic map relating to the subtheme Men and women are evaluated differently in terms of their emotions

This is a major subtheme (blue) and relates in particular to how men and women at work are evaluated in emotional terms and the individual thematic map appears above
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in Figure 5. The actions and consequences of both men and women are viewed at a latent or interpretative level (Boyatzis, 1998), rather than the women expressing that the organisational culture accounts for how they are evaluated in emotional terms. As a result of the culture (as a microcosm of society), women stereotype both men and women in terms of emotions. Women are controlled by sanctions imposed on

emotional display and there are double standards about emotions in the form of different rules for men and women. The subtheme is an aspect of the major theme How men and women are evaluated within the organisation.

The women participants expressed views that pointed to differential evaluation of women relative to men in terms of emotions at work. The following initial extract is clear in the view:

I think we get massively judged on our emotional responses P4, line 15, page 18, code 101

This statement was made as a response to the question To what extent men and women are evaluated differently ?. Without hesitation, the participant replies (as recorded), and there is no sense of uncertainty in this. The reply stands as it is above to the question asked and the participant is emphatic in her use of languagewomen are massively judged. The term judged used is interesting as a change from

evaluated (the term used in the author's question) and suggests a stronger emphasis about being evaluated in terms of emotions.
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Women and men may be evaluated or judged either because they express the same emotions, or because womens emotions may be viewed as negative. The next

participant highlights a double-standard as far as men and women are concerned in being evaluated in emotional terms. Where women are angry, they are being

emotional, but where a man is, hes making a point. So there are different standards for men for the same kind of emotions expressed. If women are judged negatively where and when they display any emotions, they will either be perceived as not being tough, and therefore being judged as not being capable of undertaking leadership roles (where one participant was given feedback to this effect for a board role, P1), or will be perceived to be aggressive, and be evaluated negatively as some research shows, where either role or gender incongruity comes into play (Eagly, 2002). The participant below illustrates this standard and highlights how women are prevented from acting in the same way as men:

Its a double-, you know, its a- its a whereas if a man does he's making a point. But like the conversation earlier today these men who were raising these voices that was not seen as a problem until I pointed it out to them. I didnt raise my voice back but Im sure if I had they would have felt it was unacceptable, so I do think that is something that women who, and Im going back to the gender point, women who exhibit emotion, a male emotion, be seen as losing control and I wouldnt say all men are never seen like that, but I think its more accepted if a man does it. P7, line 43, page 15, code 161

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The participant refers to the double- standard she expresses as being used in the situation she had experienced in a meeting on the day the interview with the author was held. She points to the men raising their voices in the meeting, but felt unable to also raise her voice knowing it would be unacceptable and seen as losing control. Although she concedes that not all men are never seen like that, she also considers that its more accepted for men to be angry and show their emotion. In this way,

womens emotions are controlled but not mens, with implicit norms for behaviour for men and women, with different standards for each, even in a highly volatile meeting, such as the one the participant describes. However, even these high-achieving women, and with no doubt well-developed interpersonal skills to have reached these high levels, find the situation in their organisations difficult as far their emotions are concerned:

Yes, anger. I have to really keep it under control, yeah. I-I mean, I'm better at standing back now and reading the situation, but I do struggle with because I'm quite fiery, I struggle with it every day and I know I have to keep it- keep a lid on it, I can let it out sometimes though, I'm allowed to let it out in appropriate situations P2, line 17, page 31, code 345

This participant expresses the difficulty, indeed the struggle every dayshe has a fiery personality (so could be tough?), yet she is not allowed to express this, and explains this as being allowed to let it out in appropriate situations. Although both men and women would be required to act "appropriately", acting "professionally", the nature of the extract suggests that "letting it out" applies to women. She has to "keep it under control". The suggestion is that this is not the usual professionalism required which, at
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these higher levels, women maybe be practised at, but something deeper, occurs often, and affects how she feels. The extract suggests rules are applied as sometimes she fails to comply, "I'm allowed".

Another participant expresses the rules around women and emotionsthey are not supposed to get angry. However, neither are they to be openly upset:

I just dont think you can- I think you can be openly angry or aggressive about something but I dont think you can be openly upset about something. And I think people would be a bit more surprised if women get angry than if men get angry. Its a bit more, I wont say unusual but its a bit moreI dont know, were not supposed to get angry, were not supposed to- I dont know what were supposed to do, but were not supposed to get angry and I dont think men have the- men dont have the cycle of emotions that we have every month, cause its always, I know exactly when Im most likely when Im going to have an emotional reaction to something and it's all a cyclical effect. Men dont have that hormonal change, they just have testosterone all the time. I definitely think theres something in that. P3, line 17, page 21, code 148

This also tells of womens emotions being controlled, but also expresses some confusionshe doesnt know what were supposed to do. The participant also uses a stereotypical view of women to explain why women do get emotional, in that men dont have the cycle of emotions that we have every month, as well as a stereotypical view of men they just have testosterone all the time. The underlining by the author
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expresses a justification and acceptance of mens behaviour and is in a sense fatalistic. There is no sense that things can change if there are stereotypical biological (essentialist) explanations for differences between men and women.

The negative judgement of women in emotional terms can be clearly seen when a participant describes a situation where she had a very difficult time with a junior (temporary) colleague who she originally was trying to help, but who in the end was quite seriously undermining her position (an emotional situation), and where the participant describes herself as becoming very emotional. Instead of her manager being supportive, she recorded the emotional situation in a performance appraisal. Her manager also gave the stark warning that the emotions she felt did not warrant her seeking help from the HR department and neither would it have benefitted her, telling her that if she had gone to HR, it would have been on her file. The situation certainly warranted an emotional outburst (the first in the very long time she had been employed), yet the consequences were clearly laid out to her in no uncertain terms. It would be difficult not to be emotional in such situations. One would expect that where a situation warrants, then support would be expectedwhat would be the point of a support mechanism if not needed for non-regular events such as theseespecially from a senior director being treated like an over-reactive junior who may not be expected to have learned the unwritten politicsit speaks of a reactive and "monitoring" culture where on hearing someone had been emotional (a woman) is warned as if it was a crime of the most heinous organisational sort. Bearing in mind banks do dismiss staff on the basis of poor performance appraisal ratings, the warning is even more serious.
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Support would be expected if not from the manager, then from the HR department. However, neither of these routes seemed to be available. The emotional outburst

became a situation of being monitored, and recorded in a performance appraisal instead. The informal interaction in this instance became embedded into the formal system, with negative effects on the woman concerned. The purpose of the

performance appraisal system is indicated as one which is not to support or develop staff, but rather to provide a "legitimacy" (by the HR department) to control women. This action accords with Bierama's (2009) ideas that HR professionals are in a dilemma as they are required to meet the expectations of the managers they serve.

3.3

Summary of the thematic analysis

Overall, this thematic analysis shows how the women experience being appraised or evaluated within financial services organisations. It shows the latent effect of how the organisational culture operates from their perspective, including how it influences their experience on them as employees in their organisations. The women overall consider that men and women are evaluated differently, although at the same time they justify this in different ways. The accounts also show the strong relationship of the culture on how these women are stereotyped by managers, especially where there are issues of progression or development. The women provide accounts of how they are evaluated subjectively, but at the same time, they are wanting to see the objectivity and believe in the "meritocracy". The effect of the latent organisational culture as the espoused voice of the women is clear, but it is in contrast to the enacted practices which leads to a paradoxical situation for women. The issue of children is a salient factor in being
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evaluated. The further latent effect of the organisational culture (both espoused and actual) is exposed in its impact on the women. There also appear to be different rules for men and women, and they are appraised or evaluated strongly on their emotions. As the women stereotype themselves and other women this helps construct an organisation to enact its masculinist ideals to discriminate against women. Women however deny any discriminatory behaviour even when they themselves describe clear discriminatory behaviour. The women justify this by denying gender issues, or they see it differently, accepting the differences as part of the culture.

The next section discusses these findings, especially in relation to the research literature, and some in light of the findings from Study 1. The section also includes ideas for further research.

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4.

Discussion of data analysis and findings

4.1 Overview Study 2 set out to explore the views and experiences of a sample of senior women within financial institutions in the UK as they applied to being evaluated or appraised. The women occupied roles where they have competed with males (i.e., not traditionally thought of as feminised occupations) and who were on the way to or very close to the glass ceiling level. The epistemology for this study was a feminist and socially constructionist one, and focused on the production of knowledge where women were central to the analysis. This section discusses the studys findings in relation to the research aim, assessing the findings against the available and relevant literature, and against the findings of Study 1.

Two major themes from the analysis were How men and women are evaluated in the organisation and Experience of being an employee in a financial institution. Organisational culture was a latent major theme and appeared in many of the other themes and sub-themes affecting how men and women are evaluated, womens experience of being a female employee.

4.2

Masculine organisational culture and the systems of maintenance

The nature of the organisational cultures are maintained through various systems but also is co-created by the women themselves. The women in these organisations

express the espoused nature of the organisation in terms of it being "fair" for instance, yet the reality is there are few women at the top (EHRC, 2009). If the organisations are
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indeed fair and meritocratic (where objectivity is used as the basis for evaluation and not subjectivity), then surely we would have more women at the top? The women are bought into the idea though that their organisations are fair. The women use

stereotypical terms for example which serves to differentiate them from men and the unwillingness to see discrimination as an explanation may act as an impetus for any current and future lack of culture change needed within financial services organisations (EHRC, 2009). The women themselves are therefore complicit in maintaining the

masculine cultures by not challenging them.

The women are also "bought into" the idea that it is just the way they are, and seem to promote the idea. The women are therefore socially constructing the idea that these organisations are somehow outside of scrutiny and the rules of fairness do not apply to them. They admit that these organisations are "not a place for women with children". They have internalised the espousal of fairness, yet openly provide insights into the discriminatory nature of some of the practices. They may feel it is too dangerous to upset the status quo. Organisation culture acts as the glue for how the people behave within them. The organisational cultures of the various women in these accounts impact on the women indirectly, ie. latent, and elements of the organisation's culture are apparent within the women's accounts. Bearing in mind the strong effect that

organisational cultures have on members (Hofstede, 1980; Schein, 1985), this is not surprising. In general, the women failed to mention performance appraisal, either as a formal or informal mechanism, as part of their progression. Instead, the impact of the organisation culture operates such that the glass ceiling effect is highlighted, via the
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constraints on the womens behaviour. The rules for men and women are highlighted illuminating the effect of the glass ceiling and results in the latent effect of the culture on the progression of women.

4.3

The organisational culture as a "Glass ceiling" that women unwittingly co-create

Glass ceiling effects were illuminated within the accounts of the women in various ways. As women co-create the culture by denying discrimination exists (in the face of clear evidence against this), the women themselves also act to maintain glass ceiling effects. One way to challenge the glass ceiling is by challenging the very cultures that maintain them. Recognising that discrimination exists in organisations is surely the first step in doing this. Despite the existence of glass ceiling effects, the most interesting finding is that the women themselves, although espousing fair practices, in the context of many of the organisations having diversity policies, either implicitly or explicitly, were reluctant to accept that discrimination exists. This was the case even where the women gave clear examples of differences between how men and women were treated. The women

appear to accept the status quo and put any differences in treatment between men and women as being just the way it is in financial services. The acceptance was telling, especially bearing in mind these are senior women (leaders) who would be required to create an organisational culture, an aspect of leadership endeavours, and lead the way for other women following in their footsteps. This is not a criticism of the women

themselves, but the organisational cultures may be so strong that they dont feel able to challenge the cultures. Holvino (1998) recommends an organisational development

remedy to engender a culture of fairness which values diversity, but of course women
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need a "safe" space to air their views. Currently, the women use a kind of defence mechanism of denial that any discrimination exists at all. In this way they are denying their authenticity and the organisation culture (and the women as part of engendering it) serves to deny the identities of the women also (Butler, 1990). The women enjoin therefore in "essentialising" women in a dichotomous way (Alcoff, 2008; Fiaccadori, 2006), as well as their identities (as the "Other") through their actions (Fairclough, 2001; Butler, 1993).

We do not know of course why women deny discrimination but is worthy of further research to understand why women express sometimes clear evidence of unfair practice, but are not willing to admit discrimination exists. As women in senior positions, and bearing in mind that many authors express that organisational culture change is needed for real change to happen (Hoobler, 2005; Stockdale & Crosby, 2004), Study 2 shows that women know there are differences in how men and women are treated, yet they do not want to recognise that there is any discriminatory behavior. They may unwittingly be perpetuating glass ceiling effects yet feel they have no choice. This presents a dilemma for them. That they are operating within, what is well-known as a "tough", a culture which does not support them (although they may not recognise this as such) may lead them deny this aspect via cognitive dissonance (Freyd & DePrince, 2001) allowing them to hold these seemingly incompatible beliefs simultaneously as cognitive dissonance theory predicts (Festinger, 1957).

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The importance and the elucidation of the effect of the espoused and enacted organisational culture is highlighted in this research. Saying one thing whilst doing another does not help cultures change, and indeed has shown to have negative consequences in procedural justice and psychological contract terms (Irving, Bobocel & Montes, 2004), although a recent meta-analysis shows organisational trust and commitment mediates breaches of the contract (Cantisano, Domnguez & Depolo, 2008). These women may be committed in that sense and may be a factor in their "denial". Certainly, "deals" are made, as some of the participants express (eg.

Participant 4, p. 173).

Women leave the organisations but the "story" may be constructed around women leaving for child-rearing and family responsibilities. Women and maybe society buy into this, according to Fairclough (2001), who posits that communication (and media) is a powerful force in constructing ideas about society and institutions. Women in the media for example are reported as not supporting family friendly issues in the workplace (The Guardian Online, 2009; 2010), policies as a "necessary evil, and "humiliating". Societies and institutions in Fairclough's view are therefore connected. There is little research evidence in the literature of how the enacted organisational culture operates, although there is evidence of work-life policies, for example, being precluded from being taken up by women (Liff & Ward, 2001). These are important issues to consider how work-life issues are socially constructed both within and external to organisations so that we can understand how, in Fairclough's terms, they influence each other. More qualitative research in this area would be useful.
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It is interesting to note the findings of Study 1 which used archived performance appraisal data (1999-2000) and provides answer to the "what" question in a financial services organisation. Women received higher performance ratings than men in all three years, yet women were not represented in higher grades. This mirrors the same situation today. Women are not represented in the top echelons. It is not of course possible to equate high levels between both Study 1 and Study 2. Certainly though, the high grades were the top grades represented within the organisation in Study 1, and the organisation literature stated at the time they acted upon them. There was certainly legitimacy and "validity" therefore for the high ratings, stating that these would be linked to a high grade. Study 1 also found a very different pattern of results between men and women, and points to different objective rules for men and women. Study 2 finds subjectivity was evident within the women's experiences of being evaluated and also different rules applied to them. The existence of a glass ceiling cannot be denied when viewing the two studies together and the implications for women progressing within these organisations. In both objective and subjective terms, different rules apply.

Women however believe in the meritocracy of these objective systems but it may not be until the women reach the higher levels that their realisation cannot be sustained any longer. But still, instead of admitting discrimination, they may leave. Is this because they have dealt with the "counter-stereotypical" issues (Rudman & Phelan, 2008) for too long, but they do not realise this until later?

Women experience being evaluated negatively in many situations, including the different rules for men and women about how emotions are displayed. Study 1 supports
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the findings by highlighting the different objective evidence of a performance appraisal system. This study used archived data, yet today, the situation remains as the EHRC (2009) study showed women remain in lower levels. Study 2 however showed that women may tire of being treated unfavourably and may leave because of this, rather than a popular view that they leave because of child-rearing responsibilities.

4.4

The implications for objective performance appraisal and other systems

As women are evaluated within the organisations on subjective bases, most of these experiences fall outside of any objective performance appraisal or evaluation system. The views of male colleagues are evident in these womens experiences of their organisations. Women are evaluated negatively in many respects.

Participants in the LIff and Ward (2001) study found that the culture operated such that progression lay outside of any formal system (Liff & Ward, 2001). This study accords with this research. The implications for women getting ahead on their merits appears to be compromised both as a function of the organisational cultures, but also because the women themselves appear to go along with these cultures. Further research is needed to understand why and how women are complicit in this. This is best achieved within a feminist framework, yet there are few resources the author could find which could clearly frame an organisational/feminist epistemological perspective to understand these issues further. Alcoff (2008) points out that we must "avoid buying into the neuter ... universal thesis ... that covers ... androcentrism with a blindfold" (p.1). That much of the writing on organisations is couched in hegemonic terms (Parker, 2001), more work
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may need to be done to introduce a feminism which, as Alcoff (2008) says, does not construe women in a set way. By leaving women out of the equation in current writing on organisations, this already puts women in an invisible space (Butler, 1990) where it is difficult for them to be heard.

It is also useful to consider the role of an organisation's function such as the HR department in the maintenance of masculine-oriented organisational cultures and the systems that they enact. Staff in HR departments in general work with management and also produce and implement policies, such as diversity, performance appraisal, etc. (Fletcher, 2004). One recent feminist commentator considers for example that HR

professionals may foster masculine philosophies and critiques human resource development's (HRD) practices and what she considers is the negative effect on women and recipients (p. 68) where the practice of (HRD), although having humanistic roots, has "co-opted into hegemonic practices of management which she sees as preventing change" (Bierama, 2009, p. 69). Bearing in mind that diversity initiatives, often enacted by HR departments (although to be useful should be mainstream, that is, implemented at every level of the organisation (Stockdale & Crosby, 2009)), are usually implemented to combat discrimination through various mechanisms, eg. policies, this study calls into question how this is being undertaken in financial services organisations where, for example, work-life policies are talked about (the women in this study know they have them), but the people responsible do not implement them effectively. Considering the spotlight on financial services and the lack of women in the upper echelons, the failure of these organisations to implement women-friendly
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strategies and policies is clear from the statistic of so few women at the top (EHRC, 2009). However, as so many HR practitioners are women, I share Bierama's view of the irony of the field's perpetuation of masculine, rational philosophies and practices and that the field aligns itself with the masculine ideal to "build HRD's credibility among the management elite" (p. 70). This also puts the HR field in a position where challenging the status quo in masculine-dominated industries as financial services is not realistic.16

This study also shows that, although the popular (constructed) and feasible "story" may be that women leave because of child-caring responsibilities, this research shows that this may not be the case, and highlights glass ceiling effects at many levels which may influence the women such that they may leave. What we dont know is, at what stage(s) do women think of leaving? It may be they realise the paradoxical situations they are in, but takes a long time. The women may be thwarted at various stages. Certainly, there was an age effect in this research17, as there was also in Study 1. Further research around the temporal and cognitive aspects around women's experiences and their careers, in particular within financial services would provide insights into this.

16 Interestingly, the author notes that the work-life balance topic has virtually disappeared from the HR agenda during 2009 on the CIPD website. Bierama (2009) also noted that in her analysis of 600 Academy of HR Development conference articles from 19962000, the research excluded equity, and very few studies promoted diversity, women's voices and experience were ignored and gender was rarely used as a category of analysis. Bierama (2009) in the same article also cites Swanson as suggesting "unisex research" as a way of avoiding bias, and Bierama calls this editorial view as a "prime example of masculinist rationality and an exhibit of a powerful elite White male telling us what should, and should not count for knowledge (p. 71). Bierama sees Swanson's editorial as "indicative of HRD's general apathy towards power dynamics and their influence on organisational life or interest in critique. Bierama (2009) also notes that HRD is in a "no-win" situation as the practitioners are required to serve two distinctly contradictory groups - employees and management, so that they abandon ethical principles in favour of managerial expectations.
17

The age effect was apparent in a separate analysis of the "younger" and "older" women. The younger women were more idealistic, and explained in detail the "objectiveness" of the performance appraisal system, said it worked, for example, and did not,

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The question also arises as to who, in these organisations, is responsible for enactment of a culture that will support diversity? Appreciating differences between men and

women is a goal of diversity efforts yet women direct some criticism of some efforts, but women are also controlled by the very culture that needs to change (Sheman, 2009). Thomas and Plaut (2008) consider that the not attending to diversity is an aspect of resistance to it, where no-one is explicitly expressing any concern at all. If nobody labels behaviours as discrimination (the women appear not to want to), then this is likely to continue. The media are complicit in this, or they are reporting actual denial by some women (eg. Davies, 2009). Together, the women and the organisation can be

considered both as individual and organisational forms of diversity resistance leading to inaction and little change. For some reason however, the women may indeed perceive the costs too great to make any changes to the status quo, a view shared by some authors (Thomas & Plaut, 2008).

The women interviewed appear to believe in meritocracy, gave mixed examples of unfair practices but one participant named it as a gender thing, saying that it "wasn't just a bank thing". Some of the women gave not so much their views on fair practices, but their views that they thought their organisations were fair towards them. They were bought into the idea that they must be fair, because the organisations after all have policies. The women are trying to express the organisation is rational so have taken on the hegemonic ideal of the rational and controlled organisation, even though there is evidence that the organisations have unfair practices. The contradiction is clear in the

overall, express their paradoxes as much as the older women. This "insight" from the analysis is not robust, but rather an observation which was noted.

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finding by the EHRC (2009) that there are many unfair practices in financial services resulting from stereotyping of women. The women's ideas about their organisations were positive and have bought into the espousing of fairness, but the reality is different, as the EHRC study shows. As Bierama (2009) states, these ideas may serve to keep the status quo of organisation cultures static.

4.5

The enacted organisation culture and effect on women with or without children

The enacted cultures of financial services appear to be one which sees women through the gender lens rather than the competence lens (Bem, 1993; Bem, Eagly & Bem, 1994; Howard & Hollander 2000). Eagly's (2002) review of studies using role congruity of prejudice towards women leaders, posits that women are penalised whether they do or do not conform to their social role (where women do not act like females). In a similar vein, the warmth v competence model (Cuddy, Fiske & Glick, 2008) finds that women are not perceived as both (Cuddy et al., 2008). Certainly, the evidence in this study supports aspects of this research. For example, the women (who are leaders) are viewed firstly as a mother (warm?), even where they are very competent, and have received high performance ratings. Even where women do not have children, Study 2 found that the women reported their managers as commenting or enquiring about children. It is as if women are being assessed on their qualities as women first, (can they conform to the masculine model?) then competence. This equates to Eagly's role congruity where women are viewed through the gender lens rather than the competence lens.

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There is research evidence of organisations, although having flexible working policies, do not implement them effectively. Another ERHC study conducted in 2008, for

example, found that employees in managerial jobs in a number of countries reviewed were less likely to request reduced hours, and when they did, they were less likely to succeed. The Liff and Ward study (2001) also found women were reluctant to take up flexible working policies. Some of the women in Study 2 were of the view that the financial services sector was not a good place for women with children. However, media reports about high profile women reported as rejecting flexible working as "humiliating" (eg. The Guardian Online, 2009; 2010) serve to foster the idea that women do not need support. This reflects the idea that "caring" is an anathema to "power", and may be another factor in women's denial of discrimination. They may want to construct a "power" image (Fairclough, 2001). The truth is, some women simply cannot manage without some support. The women in this study mention husbands as their main

support and that the reality of taking up flexible working is non-existent if women want to progress. Men and women do have different lives and responsibilities, and not taking account of this reality is denying women the opportunity to progress, the very thing that flexible working was designed to counter the effects of. However, there is a real

resistance by the organisations to support women, even though they espouse it. Bierama (2009) points to HR development practitioners as not effective in supporting the policies women need to progress. As the developers and implementers of policy, yet having to conform to managerial expectations as she states, women are in a no-win situation. It is no wonder they leave. It is only when women may have been with organisations for a number of years the lack of support becomes more obvious.
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It would be useful for researchers to explore further the temporal aspects of flexible working, ie. who needs the support when, to what extent, etc. Organisations may be foolish to not take account of younger generations who may require flexible working for all sorts of reasons. Where flexible working is denied only, say, for women with

children, this would be a cause for concern.

4.6

How men and women are evaluated and the implications of this for women

The enacted organisational culture is also played out where women are viewed and evaluated differently to men. The women in this study, although appearing to deny discrimination, provided clear scenarios where it was clear that men and women are evaluated differently. Many of the women's accounts refer to conversations overheard, relay their own direct experience, or used hypothetical vignettes to illustrate points where clear differences exist between how men and women are evaluated. All the women were based within a context where many have had long careers within the financial services industry.

Women are seen as a different entity, the "other", to be viewed differently, with different rules to be applied because they are women. The strong norm to become like men is clear and this begs the question of what other factors women are evaluated on, and how the evaluation takes place. It is clear that the culture is masculine, which is

interesting as the financial services itself is predominantly female-dominated (EHRC, 2009). The culture will then guide how policies are designed and implemented. HRD are part of this. Bierama (2009) would doubt this would be done to women's advantage
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as HR professionals are "forced" to act for management, with a "rational" management philosophy were women are held up to the "ideal" of men. Any derivation from this will see women as "irrational" (Bierama, 2009).

4.7

Women being evaluated on their emotions and how this might impact on them

Women are judged on their emotions, expressed clearly from some participants. There was also evidence of women being sanctioned for displaying emotionsindeed, one womans (understandable) emotional outburst was recorded in a performance appraisal form. This could no doubt have extreme consequences in terms of

progression, not only because women are judged negatively, but also, where women are aware of being judged on emotional terms. Women in their accounts expressed how they need to keep their emotion in check. This study provided evidence of the womens emotions being controlled, and women being sanctioned for displaying emotions. This is rather like Hansons pathologising of women (with a problem), and Foucaults monitoring, where behaviours are examined and documented (Foucault, 1977; Hanson, 2001). Where emotions are likely to run high in these organisations (they are described as being tough), and bearing in mind the evidence from one participant in a meeting where men were raising their voices, this leaves one to ponder on just how women do make a point in these situations? These high-achieving women find it difficult. Clearly they are not able to by raising their voice, or by doing so in the same way that men do. In this way, emotions are controlled.

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Where implementing a more proactive diversity strategy, research such as this leading to practitioner awareness would appear to be beneficial, especially as there may be implications for women being evaluated negatively on issues, which are not currently part of the formal appraisal process or generally recognised in the literature as part of the performance appraisal repertoire.

Women also used stereotypical terminology to describe mens and womens emotions even they thought that women were more emotional and that mens emotions meant that the men were not emotional. This would seem to suggest that how these women described their experiences is tinged with social constructions (Fairclough, 2001) and popular notions of how men and women behave (Olsson & Walker, 2003; Wharton, 1992; Willig, 1999). Shields (2007) for example refers to the work of Richards (2002) as the repeating circulation of folk knowledge to scientific psychology and back again (p. 94). In some way the women in this study reproduce social constructions of men and women in this way (Fairclough, 2001), enabling a co-creation of a cultural divide between them such that women are seen as emotional. Taking a gendered view of the organisational culture is one way to examine and challenge these views and may lead to the real organisational change required to combat the glass ceiling, as some authors note (Barreto et al., 2009) by taking an organisational development approach to change (Holvino, 1998). As some authors note, the literature on organisational theories is

generally viewed through a hegemonic lens rather than a gendered one, where women are rendered invisible (Zack, 2005). Certainly, research on emotions is largely ignored in the literature as far as organisations are concerned, yet negative implications for
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women for expressing emotions may occur. It is an area largely unexamined in terms of women in terms of being evaluated unfairly, procedural justice or the reasons why women leave. However, the author shares the concerns of Eagly (1995) regarding the controversy of comparing men and women in psychological studies, but also her call to consider the role that their research plays in discourse on the status of women in society (p. 145) and raise the further caution, especially in organisational studies, lest the hegemonic lens becomes a straightjacket to further improvement for the status of women in organisations.

4.8

The paradoxes created and possible impacts

The women in this study by denying that discrimination exists within their organisations are paradoxical. Some of the women were positive about diversity policies, yet also described clearly how differently men and women were treated. It is as if they dont notice. The women provide accounts of how they are evaluated which are subjective and cut across many of their experiences. Their interactions are perceived as The effect of the espoused and

dichotomous with subliminal or hidden agendas.

enacted culture may be evident in their perception of a two-tier system of the culture. Where enacted and espoused cultures are analogous, this can be expected to affect the women such that they may, in procedural justice terms, not trust the organisations cultures. The women sense that there are other things going on.

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4.9

Summary of data analysis and findings How men and women are

Two major themes were discussed within the study:

evaluated (within a male-dominated culture) and How men and women are evaluated within the organisation. Some of their associated sub-themes were also analysed. The author assumes the women to be competent, viewed through a competence lens rather than a gender lens. The women after all are high-achieving women in very senior positions in these organisations. Women operated within male-dominated

cultures such that their progression is affected. The latent effect of the organisation culture may work to prevent women from being authentic and also to affect how they are viewed, appraised and evaluated in organisations. Women denied discrimination exists, whilst at the same time, describing discriminatory behaviour. In this way, they appear co-create a culture which maintains the status quo. The women's reaction could be a "learned helplessness", where they know nothing will change, or a reaction to reduce any cognitive dissonance around what they realise is a paradoxical situation for them, operating within a culture which espouses one thing but enacts another. Women are evaluated negatively on their emotions.

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5.

Implications for research and practice

There are several implications for research and practice from Study 2 as follows:

1. It appears that there is a dichotomy in terms of whether senior women, as champions of culture change, should focus on gender or not. Holvino (1998) points to

organisational development as a way of engendering change, and senior leaders are at the helm of cultural change efforts. The HR professional, as the arbiters and conduits in organisations would appear to be extremely important as the agents of change and practice. As Bierama points out though, HRD "preserve power relations in a manner that marginalises women ... ". Further, "This masculine epistemology is manifested in HRDs performative value system that effectively devalues, ignores, and silences non-dominant groups, preserving patriarchal power in both theory and practice."

Certainly, there are gendered practices occurring in some of the organisations as the women explained and experienced them. Researchers might therefore want to take a gendered view when examining aspects of importance that relate to womens progression in organisations which will support practice. It is therefore imperative that epistemological frameworks which focus on an inclusive agenda would appear to be extremely important in any research endeavours (Hick, Kershner & Farrell, 2009), if we are to understand firstly, then make effective interventions to change. There are

contests as to which research and epistemological frameworks are best suited. If we have still inequality after almost 30 years of equality legislation, surely a new Equality
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Bill as is being discussed, is still bound to fail unless we firstly understand, from the women's perspective, their issues in the workplace. Bias is, for example, an issue in designing and implementing performance appraisal and other HR systems, and a result of stereotyping, as the EHRC (2009) study showed, is at the heart of inequality yet a search of the CIPD website, revealed the term to be absent in terms of an issue within HR processes (see Appendix G).

2. As men and women are better represented in the lower ranks in organisations, it would appear that both groups would benefit from understanding how the dominant culture affects the subordinate one. This would raise consciousness and is an

important step in seriously making changes to the status quo. Considering the evidence in this study that women are treated differently to men, and bearing in mind the women's reticence at openly acknowledging discrimination, leadership courses would be wise to include equality aspects within their training. Certainly, it has been suggested by one author to include these types of issues in MBA courses as this is a missing aspect (Simpson & Ituma, 2009). Considering the plurality of perspectives (not just gender) within global organisations, this would seem feasible, and to also consider the issue from Black womens perspectives on leadership (e.g., Parker, 2001) to engender a more inclusive standpoint, often talked about but with little understanding of how to go about this. Certainly, including aspects of inequality in management education,

including the importance of an epistemology that engenders inclusiveness would be one way of engendering change and appear to be extremely important to really tackle these issues.
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3. There are implications for Occupational Psychology (OP) practitioners. Interestingly, after an e-mail to almost the whole of the UK occupational psychology population during this research, there was extremely little response (two) as to who was involved in implementing performance appraisal systems. It seems to be on the back-burner as far as practitioner implementations go and there were few insights to be gained from discussions with other occupational psychology colleagues working with performance appraisal systems, apart from psychometric ones. This research is a call to

practitioners to put performance appraisal back on the agenda, and from a gendered perspective. The women in this study themselves recognised that men and women are treated differently. Until we understand womens experiences and the effect the

organisational culture has on women, we will never get to grips with understanding their experiences from their own perspective, obviously necessary as the targets of lack of representation at the top of financial services organisations (EHRC, 2009). Organisational theories are couched in hegemonic knowledge and discourse (Parker, 2001), and it is important for OPs to explore beyond this dominant discourse to understand womens own perspectives about systems such as performance appraisals which, if designed and implemented effectively, are thought to assist with motivation, development and progression (Fletcher, 2001; 2004; Milkovich & Wigdor, 1991). As OPs provide information for HR practitioners who are at the coal-face of organisational implementation, this needs to be done with the needs of organisations in mind (i.e., addressing the inequalities that still remain), but without maybe, what Hick, Kershner & Farrell (2009) calls, clever simulations of scientific methods (p. 17).

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4.

Even though there is legislation in place, organisations need to support flexible

working as a strategic business measure to support the development of women. This fits with the espoused nature of the support for women in these organisations. Men and women have different career needs and authors point out the complexity of womens lives and the implications for understanding womens career issues (eg. Fitzgerald, Fassinger & Betz, 1995). Where women are main child-carers, flexible working was introduced to effect protection for women. However, policies may not be being Considering the CIPD

implemented to facilitate the complexity of womens lives.

promotes itself as "... well placed to contribute to the development of public policy across the spectrum of workplace and employment issues" (CMI, 2008), it is surprising to see work-life balance off the CIPD's agenda in recent years (apart from Ireland).

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6.

Limitations

1. These women were interviewed about their retrospective experiences. As with other studies using this method, the data can suffer from the memory processes inherent from seeking views of participants after the event (Silverman, 2001).

2.

The methodology precluded an exploration of issues such as decision-making

processes, for example, temporal aspects of when and how the women changed their aspirations.

3. The study was conducted from with a broadly feminist and social constructionist framework. This enabled women to be at the centre of the analysis and understand how women construct their experience. Other frameworks would give valuable insights into a complex area, from different stakeholder perspectives.

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7.

Conclusions

The present study reveals two major themes relating to how women are evaluated in financial services organisations. This study has shown how the organisational culture impacts on the women in terms of being appraised or evaluated. It also shows how women trust their organisations in the meritocracy of it policies and systems in relating to being evaluated or appraised, but worryingly they are not willing to admit, even after providing evidence, that unfair practices and paradoxes between espoused and enacted organisational practices serve to subordinate women's voices. This could inevitably lead to women leaving as is so often reported, but it seems that the glass ceiling plays a part in this. More worryingly, the women themselves play a part in this.

Given the low proportion of women at top levels in financial services organisations, it seems there is much work to do to change organisational cultures, including the women themselves so that equality may be achieved. The issue of women being evaluated negatively outside of any formal appraisal system, including how their emotions play a part, would appear to be important. However, media reports of women not supporting flexible working, and reports of the glass ceiling being shattered within the wider society, may mean that this is difficult to do. organisations take. Espousing equality may be the route these

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Overall conclusions of the thesis


The overall conclusions from both of these studies show that there are different rules for White men, women and minority ethnic groups. Firstly, although women do not receive lower ratings than men, they fare worse in terms of the link with the relationship to them progressing, where women are represented in less complex roles, and where women are not represented within higher grades. The independent variables in study revealed a different pattern for men and women and indicated different rules for both. The results in Study 1 also imply that decision-making outside of a formal appraisal process may be more important for progression. An "objective" process may be communicated within the organisation which serves a rhetorical and even a compliance purpose in the event of a complaint. It is only the longitudinal element of Study 1 that provided the real picture of the link between performance ratings and progression. In addition, the

women interviewed in Study 2 provided insights into the different rules which applied to them in their experience of their organisations, including how they were evaluated in comparison to men, including the different rules about how they were evaluated, including, being evaluated on their emotions.

As far as BME staff are concerned, Black staff appear to fare worse than other groups as the predictors explained a larger amount of the variance in the dependent variable (mean grade) than either Asian or White staff. There also appears to be a relationship with being in a BME group and being awarded a high performance rating but not a low rating. These results indicate some different rules for different ethnic groups. As the functions staff worked in consisted of either complex or non-complex roles, occupational
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segregation effects (Anker, 1997) may limit the opportunities for women and minority ethnic staff (Deutsch & Silber, 2005; Meyer & Maes, 1983; Miller, 2007; Ogden et al., 2006). It therefore appears that demography may be a factor in terms of organisational decision-making as far as being evaluated goes. Regardless of performance ratings, women and BME staff occupied the lower grades and were represented in different roles than White men. Black staff were significantly more affected. The cumulative differences are seen with a different pattern of results for Black staff and women. There are indications of different paths for White men, and BME staff and women.

The evidence in this thesis elucidates how the organisational culture works in terms of the espoused and enacted nature of the organisational culture in relation to women being evaluated and also the common rhetoric around "equality" and the view that some think the glass ceiling has been smashed (eg. Barretto, 2009). For example, that

women receive higher performance ratings as shown in Study 1 highlights the espoused nature (we are fair as we give high ratings to women) but contrasts with women not represented in higher grades (the enacted result of the culture). Women however cocreate the organisational culture by denying that discriminatory behaviour exists, even in the face of their own clear evidence to the contrary. However, that seemingly

"objective" performance ratings are higher may cloud the issue and is deserving of further research. BME staff may feel similarly. Further longitudinal research would be useful as to the impact of organisation's culture on different demographic groups and their experience. Certainly this has been called for (Stauffer & Buckley, 2005).

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The research and anecdotal evidence is that women leave because of child-caring responsibilities or that they are less committed (Caven, 2006). The evidence in this study provides that this is not the complete picture. They may, but only after some reflection of how the organisational culture affects them throughout their career. This study leaves the way open for more research to be done in this important area where women may trust organisations, but after a while realise that they will not progress after all. Yes, they do leave, but not, as human capital theory predicts (choice, failure), but there are influences which force them to make this choice. Unfortunately though, the anecdotal evidence may become fixed in the minds of organisational members leading them towards assumptions about women and therefore not take diversity initiatives seriously, or to understand and investigate the issues further.

Some of the significant results in Study 1 had small effect sizes, so that any conclusions should be approached with caution. However, the strongest results related to the

different predictors which accounted for the grade over a three year period, and illuminated the different rules which apply to men and women, and between some BME groups (eg. less predictors for "White" staff). The implications for organisations to

address these issues are clear, especially with evidence of differential progression of some groups.

This thesis adds to existing knowledge by elucidating why senior women in financial services do not reach the top and also highlights the difference between some BME groups and White staff in their progression found within the results of Study 1. The
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findings should be of interest to stakeholders within the sector who have a genuine desire to foster fair organisational cultures and understand the real concerns which face demographic groups, for example, different rules applying, in order to enhance all groups' career aspirations towards reaching the top echelons in an equitable manner.

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Overall implications for practice


There are several implications for practitioners from Study 1 and Study 2, including organisational culture, occupational segregation, glass ceiling, psychological contract, diversity, career derailment (women may choose to leave, but their aspirations may be thwarted) and work-life balance not realised. The implications for retention of staff, and the oft-mentioned "employee engagement" cannot be overstated. There seems to be little understanding of how unfair systems impact on engagement. The implications for working with organisations to change cultures, supporting women to do this, is clear. This may involve glass ceiling coaching, with both men and women leaders.

As performance appraisal is a system enacted by an organisations culture, an organisational development approach as advocated by Holvino (1998), for example, should be considered where an adequate diagnosis is made (including the cultural stage of resistance to diversity) if organisations wish to seriously address BME groups' as well as women's progression and move from rhetoric to action, truly "engaging" organisational members. As one author puts it, people are not naive observers. It may be however that OD is still rather more to do with implementation (training, workshops), rather than an initial and appropriate diagnosis for a specific condition. This kind of specificity to progress the changes, currently espoused by the government (eg. More women in boardrooms, (Sparrow & Asthana, 2010)) would appear to benefit organisations.

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There are organisational implications in the training systems for organisations. Recent research in cognitive psychology shows that stereotype reduction is a real possibility (Sassenberg & Moskowitz, 2005). We may firstly though need to reach the stage of being able to speak about bias, stereotyping and discrimination first, before organisational cultures face up to hearing that they may indeed use negative stereotyping and may also systematically discriminate on an unfair basis. Certainly, organisations need to understand how these factors impact on various issues leading to occupational segregation, glass ceiling effects, etc. and should be part of the OD approach Holvino (1998) recommends. Developments in cognitive psychology research such as Sassenberg & Moskowitz (2005) for example, shows that automatic stereotype activation can be overcome, but only after extensive training.

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APPENDICES (STUDY 1 AND 2)

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Appendix A Full list of variables used for Study 1


Variables in SPSS Variable name uniqid98 Opr98cod Sort Nominal Ordinal Define ID 1 O Outstanding 2 H High Achievement 3 G Good 4 I Improvement required 5 U Unacceptable Skills total (reverse scored) Grade 1=Manager 2=Non Manager Grade code for 98 and 99 from appraisal forms. Grade code 00 must come from database because example shows no grade, yet can ascertain the grade8 code. dateg98 gradeyrs stren98 dev98 mgen98 Nominal Ordinal Ordinal Ordinal Nominal Date of grade Number of years in grade as at 2000 (year of database) No. of strengths No. of developments Manager gender 1=Male 2=Female ID 1 O Outstanding 2 H High Achievement 3 G Good 4 I Improvement required 5 U Unacceptable Skills total (reverse scored) Grade 1=Manager 2=Non Manager NA No. of strengths No. of developments Manager gender 0 Not able to stay from data 1=Male 2=Female Grade 1=Manager 2=Non Manager Manager gender 0 Not able to stay from data 1=Male 2=Female NA 1 Sig above level required 2 Consistently better than level required 3 Consistently achieved level required 4 Not consistently achieved level required

sktot98** grcode98

Ordinal Ordinal

uniqid99 ppf99 opr99cod

Nominal Ordinal Ordinal

sktot99 grcode99

Ordinal Ordinal

dateg99 stren99 dev99 mgen99

Nominal Ordinal Ordinal Nominal

uniqid00 gradecode

Nominal Ordinal

mgen00

Nominal

ppf00 opr00

Ordinal Ordinal

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str00 dev00 idles dptcode deptid deptname deptfunc

Ordinal Ordinal Nominal Nominal Nominal Nominal Nominal

totmbr totfbr totminbr ethcen

Scale Scale Scale Nominal

5 Significantly below level required No. of strengths No. of developments ID Les HSBC 1-400 or thereabouts Dept code see Name and place of department Dept ID Dept name Dept function 1 Branches 2 HO departments (see which they are) 3 Operations 4 Contracted out Total members of staff in a dept/branch Total females in dept/branch Total minority in dept/branch Ethnicity census (11) 1 Asian any other background 2 Asian Bangladeshi 3 Asian Indian 4 Asian Pakistan 5 Black African 6 Black any other black background 7 Black Carribean 8 Chinese or other Chinese 9 White British or Irish Staff gender 0 Not able to stay from data 1 Male 2 Female Disability 0 Does not have a disability 1 Has a disability Contract 1 FT 2 PT Age Continuous variables Service (Tenure) Continuous Education level 1 O level or GCSE 2 A level 3 Degree or prof qual Degree class st 1 1 hons 2 2.1 hons 3 2.2 hons nd 4 2 hons rd 5 3 hons 6 Ord 7 Pass Degree place Staff gender Staff gender 0 Not able to stay from data

stgen

Nominal

disab

Nominal

contr

Nominal

age servc educlvl

Ordinal Ordinal Ordinal

degcl

Ordinal

degpl idminaz staffgen

Ordinal Nominal Nominal

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race

Nominal

smplm smplf smplmin totstfbr empcent hilocode

Scale Scale Scale Scale Ordinal Nominal

1 Male 2 Female Race B=Black W=White Sample male Sample female Sample minority Total staff in a branch/dept EM Percent of EM in branch/dept Hi-lo proportion of minority in branch 1 High nos EM 10% and over 2 Low nos EM 9% and under

Grade years new Stren98/99/00 new Dev 98/99/00 new Age new Service new Ethnicbw New ethcn

Proportion of females in branch Grade 8 all

1=Black 2=White 1 =Asian 2=Black 3=Chinese 4=White Total in branch divided by females 1 Non man so2 2 Non manager so3 3 Non manager so4 4 Non manager so5 5 Manager M93 6 Manager M94 7 Manager M95 8 Manager M96 1= 0-10 percent females in branch 2 =11-20 percent females in branch 3 =21-30 percent females in branch 4 =31-40 percent females in branch 5 =41-50 percent females in branch 6 =51-60 percent females in branch 7 =61-70 percent females in branch 8 =71-80 percent females in branch 9 =81-100 percent females in branch

Propfrange

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Appendix B Print screen of tables of contents from International Journal of Selection and Assessment (2000-2009) 2009

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Appendix C Dear Participant

Thank you for agreeing to take part in this research. This is a doctoral project and I am conducting interviews with a sample of female senior executives. The interview will be around two hours maximum and ideally a face-to-face interview would be best for this purpose. However, telephone interviews can be considered if more convenient. The interview will need to be audio tape-recorded and will be transcribed verbatim and analysed. The transcript and analysed interview data will of course be sent to you if you so wish. The interviews are conducted under strictest British Psychological Society ethical standards and confidentiality is assured. These interviews form the qualitative component of the research (I have already completed the quantitative component within a large financial institution) examining your experiences of various aspects of influences in your career, including performance appraisal, feedback and development issues arising from this. I attach a consent form to be completed and signed. This can either be digitally signed and emailed to barbaralond2002@aol.com, or faxed to 020 8257 2202. If you would like any further information, please contact me on 07967 561 573 or email me on barbaralond2002@aol.com.

Kind regards Barbara Lond B.Com., BSc., MSc., LLB

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PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM


I have read the information relating to this research and I agree to the fair and lawful processing of information for the purposes of analysis and research in line with the Data Protection Act 1988. I agree to the interview being audio tape-recorded. I understand that the researcher using data collected will not use the data which makes the information identifiable to me and that I will not be identified in any way in anything that is written or reported about the research. I also understand that the interview can be terminated by me at any stage. Signed: . Date: ..

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Appendix D Full interview schedule Script and questions Thanks again for participating in this study xxx. As I said in the email, the purpose of the interview is to also explore your thoughts (perceptions and experiences) around what has impacted on them in terms of your career progression, what makes things difficult and what has helped, bearing in mind they are in a male-dominated sector or profession. So its a semi-structured interview. Also, as stated in the consent form, you can stop the interview at any time. I firstly meant to ask you how long youve been in your current role. History influences on career, what has helped, what has hindered Tell me about your career? What has influenced you? How have you made choices? What about performance appraisal process, how has that worked for you? From your experience, do you think men and women have different experiences of the performance appraisal process? Has anything hampered your progression? [internalised/or external factors] What could have made you even more successful? How has it been working a profession/sector predominantly staffed by males? How have you coped (or not)? Do you know women who have/have not family, what differences are there between them and you? What is the culture like where you currently work? How does it make you feel? Training and development What sort of training and development have you received from an organisation? / OR so youve given me information on training and development received. Was this linked or did it follow from performance appraisal? Do you have a mentor? How does that work? Has this helped you in your career? How do you network? Are they male, female, both? Location? Why do you think you are as successful as you are today? Successful men and women Can you think of other senior female managers that you know who are successful in other sectors? Why do you think that is? Is it different from banking? Can you describe other females who have not reached the upper echelons in banking and why you think that is? What about females in other sectors who are unsuccessful and why you think that is. To what extent would you say men and women are evaluated differently? To what extent do diversity efforts in banking make a difference? To what extent have you thought about gender and how to get round the supposed differences.
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How does gender work in the top echelons in banking? How do you feel about it? [gender or getting the job done] Emotion Have you ever been emotional at work? How have you expressed that? Were you viewed differently as a result? Has this changed over time, or have you changed over time? To what extent would you say men and women are evaluated differently in emotional terms? To what extent are men emotional at work? How does this work? How does emotion link with your sector and/or profession? How does that work`/ Solo status How do you feel about being one of a few women in your sector/profession? Do you think that women are treated with stricter standards than men? Do you think men are treated differently?

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Appendix E Scanned page showing manual coding of interview

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18

Appendix F

Table of themes and sub-themes


Ptcp no. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Line 8 10 18 21 27 28 30 38 1 1 3 3 4 7 10 10 14 18 22 24 26 28 34 35 37 1 10 12 15 20 21 23 24 Pg No. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 Code No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Initial code Training Idea how to get back Less role within banking Corporate big boys Looking after Persuaded Functions worked in Culture of the UK Looked after Functions worked in Functions worked in Relationships Putting up with Putting up with Settling down Controlled Next phase How she is Mentoring Putting up with Support Lot of factors have helped Success Slowing down Different strategy now Negative evaluation performance appraisal Process People follow processes Her experience of feedback Good feedback Doesn't mind negative feedback Hardy Formal appraisal not as important as regular feedback Focus on corporate line Relationships important Major theme Training Progression Progression Men and women Caring Progression Profile info UK Culture Caring Profile info Profile info Relationships Culture Culture Aspiration Emotion at work Progression Personality/Trait Mentoring Culture Progression Progression Success Aspiration Sub theme 1

Strategy Strategy Culture Personality/trait External influence

Personality/trait

Adapting Adapting Changed to less Controlled Aspiration How it works Adapting External influence Various

Changed

Evaluation Performance Appraisal Espoused practice Feedback. Feedback. Feedback Personality/Trait Performance Appraisal

How it works How it works

Experience of feedback Positive Negative feedback

Experience of pa

1 1
18

25 27

3 3

34 35

Actual practice Relationships Important

Missing cells indicate

276

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

28 29 29 31 31 32 33 35 40 40 42 1 5 6 8 12 13 23 26 27 31 31 34 36 41 44 3 3 5 10 11 12 15 17 28 31 35

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

Relationship with manager Openness to constructive criticism Relationship with manager Nature of feedback Human Learning Important Nature of feedback Criticism as learning Her view of other women and men Her view of women Her view of men Her view of women Her view of men Her view of women Advantages and disadvantages Her view of men Husband advice Corporate line Representation of women in bank Keen to promote Doesn't worry about gender Workforce percentages Advantage of being minority Enjoys being the minority People remember you Uses feminine wiles Denial Being female can get things done Men are different with women Environment Corporate line Diversity in terms of nationalities in bank Diversity linked with success Culture as espoused Women at the top and children Things have changed in terms of men Work-life balance challenges

Relationships Feedback. Relationships Feedback. Relationships Learning Feedback. Feedback Men and women Men and women Men and women Men and women Men and women Men and women Experience of organisation Men and women Experience of being female Culture Diversity Espoused practice Gender Workforce Experience of being female Experience of being female Experience of being female Experience of being female Culture Experience of being female Men and women Culture Culture Diversity Diversity Culture Work and family Men and women Work and family

Experience of manager Open to criticism Experience of manager Nature of Human Important Nature of Negative feedback Her view Her view Her view Her view Her view Her view

Her view Husband as support

How it works Status quo supported

Advantage Advantage Advantage Advantage Denied Advantage Her view

How it works How it works Espoused practice

Her view Challenges

277

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

37 39 40 42 42 6 6 8 16 22 35 41 41 8 11 11 11 16 25 29 33 2

5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8

73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94

Gets on with things UK culture and children Has outside help Women with children Women with children Training early stages Training now Questions success Wants to appear as if training not needed Current view of herself Helping others Espoused v actual culture Women not progressing Women and networking Networking her view Interpretation of networking Self promotion Networking Other women similar Dealing with people important Women similar Women have not achieved due to self limiting beliefs Work-life balance doesnt exist Women self-limit themselves Acknowledges the challenge of work-life balance Factors related to flexible working and women Managers role in not supporting flexible working men and women need flexibility Culture prevents flexible working Factors which prevent progress Flexible working Women as own worst enemy Women lack confidence Skills not as important as other things

Tenacity UK culture Work and family View of women View of women Training Training Progression How she operates

Personality/Trait Children External support Work and family Work and family

Her view of success

Personality/Trait Culture View of women Networking Networking Networking Personality/Trait Networking Experience of being female Organisationl objective View of women Personality/Trait

Espoused practice Progression Women and networking How it works Men and women

How it works Other women

Perception of others

1 1 1

4 7 13

8 8 8

95 96 97

Work and family View of women Work and family

Cynical about wlb

Espoused

16

98

Work and family

Men and women

18

99

Culture

Status quo

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

19 20 28 30 32 34 40

8 8 8 8 8 8 8

100 101 102 103 104 105 106

Men and women Culture Progression Work and family Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Progression

Career Enacted

Progression Progression Her view of success

278

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

41 41 42 4 7 8 9 12 16 20

8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116

1 1

23 23

9 9

117 118

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

27 32 32 32 36 7 13 17 21 22 23 28 29 29 36 36 40 1 3 4 5

9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11

119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139

Training not as important Women wait to be noticed Women and self promotion Women not chosen for overseas assignments Assumptions made about women Excuses made to not send women overseas Women evaluated negatively for top jobs Men at the top recruit in their own image Wanting to be authentic Women get feedback to be more forceful for top jobs Wants to be authentic, not like a man Lack of diversity at the top influences feedback given to women Denial of reality Espousing the culture Example of diversity effort Example of diversity effort Recruitment agency promote status quo Diversity at recruitment level Idea to promote diversity Culture is inclusive Diversity as multicultural UK culture compared Culture of bank very different Espousing the culture Diversity as a core strength Diversity is a critical success factor Diversity at recruitment level Recruiters part of problem Human Wants to be authentic. Diversity needed Confusion around communication Equality is expressed

Training View of women Personality/Trait View of women Experience of being female Development Evaluation Culture Authenticity Evaluation

Value Progression Progression Progression Assumptions Thwarted Progression Status quo Desired Feedback

Authenticity Diversity

Desired Consequence of lack of Denied Espoused practice How it works How it works Status quo How it works Her view Enacted How it works

Culture Culture Diversity Diversity Culture Diversity Diversity. Culture Diversity UK culture Culture Culture Diversity Diversity Diversity Diversity Diversity and impact Authenticity Diversity Men and women Men and women

Espoused practice Ideal of diversity Ideal of diversity How it works Status quo Her view Desired Desired

Her view

279

1 1 1 1 1 1

9 11 13 15 16 18

11 11 11 11 11 11

140 141 142 143 144 145

27

11

146

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

28 31 34 36 37 40 8 10 12

11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12

147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155

1 1 1 1 1 1

12 13 13 13 14 22

12 12 12 12 12 12

156 157 158 159 160 161

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

22 25 27 32 36 43 44 44 1 4 5 9 10

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13

162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174

Wants to be dealt with as a woman Confidence has grown with seniority Has reacted in the past Gets on with it Accepts status quo Emotions controlled around sexist comments UK culture is male dominated and not inclusive Old boy network Bank culture not as bad as others Excludes herself from external networks Worse on the outside Espousing the culture City has not changed People should be authentic Whole person focus Accepts control of emotion regardless of what caused it Emotions controlled. Harsh on herself for being emotional Has reacted in the past Emotion was result of being bullied Criticism as learning Criticism accepted regardless of whether its feedback or just criticism Accepted criticism as learning Accepts status quo Enjoys feedback Harsh feedback causes upset Confidence takes time Men tough with each other Accepts status quo Culture as accepting of harsh criticism Males dealing with people Males unaware of effect of feedback Feedback effects Controlled emotions UK culture.

Authenticity Personality/Trait Emotion Tenacity Culture Emotion

Desired Change Coping with culture Personality/Trait Accepts controlled

UK culture

Male dominated

Culture Culture Networking UK culture Culture Culture Authenticity How she operates Emotion

Macho Rationalised External networks Compared Espoused practice Not changed Ideal Authenticity Accepts

Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion Feedback Feedback

controlled controlled Coping with culture Justified emotion Negative feedback Negative feedback

Learning Culture Feedback Feedback Personality/Trait Emotion Culture Culture Relationships Feedback. Feedback Emotion at work UK culture

Feedback Accepts Her experience of Men and women Change controlled Accepts

Men and women Men and women

controlled

280

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

11 15 16 16 17 18 19 22 25 26 34

13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13

175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185

Culture different here Diversity City culture is difficult Espousing the culture Acknowledges what culture is like Gets on with it Accepts status quo Enjoys being the minority Acknowledges another woman would be nice Women as competitors Other cultures in organisations a problem Ways the gender difference plays out Difference between men and women How talk excludes women Acknowledges diversity is gender-based Denial of reality IT a boys job Progression not linear Management consultancy boys job Different experiences Multitasking Overseas assignment Did stuff she didn't like Saw benefit of doing stuff she didnt like Gets on with it Was prepared when a project came along Male manager gave her a chance Promotion following a piece of work and relationship with manager Relationship with manager New department Internal women's network Progression following relationship at internal womens network Relationship led to a change in role Informal progress Undermining role

Culture Diversity Culture Culture Culture Tenacity Culture Experience of being female Diversity Experience of being female Culture

How it works Difficult Espoused practice Accepts Personality/Trait Accepts Advantage Gender Other women

1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

38 38 1 3 5 19 33 37 37 40 43 30 31 32 33 35 37

13 13 14 14 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

186 187 188 189 190 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Men and women Men and women Men and women Diversity Culture Men and women Progression Culture

Experience of being female Her view Differences between men and women Gender Denied Her view of success Other organisation

Men and women Development Tenacity Tenacity Tenacity Progression Development Progression

Nature of Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Strategy Chance given Example of promotion-self

2 2 2 2

37 42 44 45

2 2 2 2

13 14 15 16

Relationships Progression Networking Progression

Experience of manager Lateral move Internal Networking

2 2 2

4 6 18

3 3 3

17 18 19

Relationships Progression Women as helper

Progression Her view of success

281

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

28 34 8 17 22 7 9 24 29 30 25 28 33 33 37 37 41 42 2 3 3 5 7 8

3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 8

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

Strategic Self talk Training Self talk Strategic combined with operational HR role Corporate line Enjoys fast pace and change Type of person she is Slowing down Money was not a motivator Feminist Independence Downplaying Likes learning Type of person she is Really likes banking now Drivers Realised variety was good for progression Uses intuition to make choices and decisions Also uses logic Men get scared of women's intuition Understands men and logical way they think Uses men's way of doing things to advantage Insight Relationships important Espousing the culture Knows the actual reality as against the espoused culture Acknowledges what culture is like Human nature is to relate to who you feel comfortable with Relationships. Giving to people what they want Helping. Perceptions important Devalues hard work? Ability important but recognises the reality of perceptions

How she operates

Undermining
Training

Undermining
How she operates Role of HR dept Culture Motivation Personality/Trait Aspiration Motivation Experience of being female Personality/Trait Learning Personality/Trait Motivation Motivation Performance appraisal

Changed

Progression How she operates Decision making Emotion Men and women Men and women

Performance Management Decision making Her process Men and women Experience of being female Uses masculine ways to advantage Decision making Important Espoused practice Awareness of contraction in culture Accepts Diversity lack of

2 2 2 2

10 18 22 24

8 8 8 8

44 45 46 47

Dual thinking Relationships Culture Culture

2 2

27 29

8 8

48 49

Culture Relationships

2 2 2 2 2 2

31 34 35 37 38 40

8 8 8 8 8 8

50 51 52 53 54 55

Relationships Experience of being manager Personality/Trait Reality Perceptions important Progression

282

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

42 45 1 1 1 7 8 11 22 22 28 29 31 33 34 35

8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

Relationships override ability Results plus relationship Human. Wants to link to own kind Clicked with a male manager through MC Top people are difficult to penetrate Not humans at the top Likes people who are like herself Top people distant Gets on with it Human. Relationships Regional culture Connecting Woman coach Promotion followed making a link with person Mentoring performance appraisal Process Measured on competencies linked to objectives Types of objectives Knows the process more than others Woman had issues with the P.A. process Espoused Compared to another company current company is good Another company P.a. process not good Relationships in another company As you get higher up you have to accept this paradox Denial of reality Recognises meritocracy as not feasible Denies men and women evaluated differently Relationship. Denies hard work is key Perceptions important

Relationships Relationships Human Relationships Relationships Culture of top Culture at top Relationships Culture of top Tenacity Human Relationships Culture Relationships

Performance Performance

Connecting Example culture at the top Observation of culture Her view of relationships culture at the top Personality/Trait

Development
Progression

Her view of relationships Coaching Example of promotion-self How it works How it works Performance appraisal How it works

2 2 2

36 43 4

9 9 10

72 73 74

Mentoring Performance Appraisal Competency

2 2 2 2 2

8 29 49 5 9

10 10 10 11 11

75 76 77 78 79

Performance Appraisal

Performance Appraisal Culture Culture

Experience of pa Espoused practice

2 2 2

9 9 18

11 11 11

80 81 82

Performance Appraisal Relationships

Experience Her view of relationships

2 2

22 22

11 11

83 84

Paradox Culture Paradox

Culture Denied Actual v espoused practice Evaluation

32

11

85

Men and women

2 2 2

32 34 37

11 11 11

86 87 88

Relationships

Reality

283

39

11

89

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

40 41 44 44 46 46 46 6 9 15 21 23 26 31 35

11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105

Paradox of being measured against objective competencies Old boy network Futility of objective approach Silenced even if you have a problem Futility about trying to highlight problems Denial of reality HR role as silencing Gets on with it Relationship Trust Espoused Denial of reality Keen to express how objective the process is Acknowledges reality Workforce proportions The corporate line is representative of population Adaptable and accommodating? Paradox of examining the objectivity when in fact subjectivity is more important Denial of reality Acknowledges power deficit Males make hiring decisions Old boys network Mens language Acknowledges reality Women as strangers even though there are 50% in the organisation Networking Relationships Networking The reality of how it works Power of the boys club explained Women dont play ball No plan to be CEO Given up on idea of being CEO

Performance Appraisal

Competencies

Culture Espoused practice Culture Culture Culture Role of HR dept Tenacity Relationships Adapting Culture Culture Espoused practice Workforce Workforce Espoused culture

Macho

Experience of being female Oppression Denied Performance appraisal Personality/Trait

Espoused practice Denied

2 2

43

12 12

106 107

Personality/Trait Performance Appraisal

Status quo Men and women

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 1 6 7 10 11 13

13 13 13 13 13 13 13

108 109 110 111 112 113 114

Culture Men and women Men and women Culture Men and women Culture Experience of being female Networking Relationships Networking

Denied Experience of being female Experience of being female Macho Experience of being female Men and women How it works

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

19 19 22 26 26 30 38 39

13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13

115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

Culture
Culture Experience of being female Aspiration Aspiration

Actual practice Macho Other people's view Not as bigger Career

284

2 2 2 2

45 45 4 11

13 13 14 14

123 124 125 126

21

14

127

2 2

26 27

14 14

128 129

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

2 5 7 10 12 12 19 24 25 27 30 33 35 37 39 43 43 46

15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147

Acknowledges reality Futile to try and 'win' Accepted her limit Offered travel but declined as thinking about relationship Offered travel but declined as thinking about relationship Assignment doesnt sound attractive Assignment location a consideration for relationship Gets on with it Travel and being flexible to progress Likes the stimulation Does something uninteresting Uses hindsight to make into positive Gets on with it Gets on with it City easier now How it's changed Tough in the city Few female graduates in the past history of the male culture Men didnt do much in the past Gets on with it Old boys network-past How to put up with it Give as good as you get Understands men and how to use to advantage Mentor Joined in Joined in Accepts status quo How you need to be to put up with it How it's changed history of the male culture Other banks same Culture of professionpast How the city is/was Got on with it

Culture Culture Personality/Trait Development

Accepts Oppression Self aware declined

Development

declined

Development Development

unwanted Work and relationship

Tenacity Progression Motivation Tenacity Decision making Tenacity Tenacity Culture Culture-past Culture Gender Culture-past Culture-past Tenacity Culture-past

Personality/Trait Strategy

Personality/Trait Her process Personality/Trait Personality/Trait How it's changed Observation of culture Difficult

Observation of culture Effect of past on current Personality/Trait Effect of past on current Coping with culture Fitting in Experience of being female How it works Coping with culture Coping with culture Accepts Coping with culture Observation of culture Observation of culture Observation of culture Observation of culture Observation of culture Personality/Trait

Culture
Culture Men and women

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

46 47 47 1 7 8 9 13 15 17 21

15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158

Mentoring

Culture Culture
Culture

Culture
Culture-past Culture-past Culture Culture Culture-past Tenacity

285

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

22 24 26 28 28 29 32 34 35 36 38 38 41 43 43 44

16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174

Accepts reality How it's changed Accepts reality Espoused culture HR role. Easier for men Use female advantage People remember you Work harder Get on with it Minority position useful One of them-passed the test Political game Accepted it Control emotions Can see people who dont accept the way it is Building reputations Hard for women who have children Outside help important for women with children Flexible working causes resentment Hard for women lower in the organisation Money important for women with children Reality of family life at work Problems of people with children Not child friendly Women may be held back from outsourcing childcare Industry not good if you have children Impression management View of flexible working for others Culture changed Husband as support Women damaged by having children Not child friendly Reality of having children and impact on work

Culture Culture-past Culture Culture Role of HR dept Men and women Experience of being female Experience of being female Personality/Trait Tenacity Experience of being female Men and women Culture Culture Emotion at work Culture

Accepts Observation of culture Accepts Espoused practice Experience of being female Positive Positive

Personality/Trait Positive Experience of being female Adapted controlled

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

49 9 18 21 24 25 29 35 38 38

16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17

175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184

Relationships Experience of being female Work and family Impact of being fair Experience of being female Work and family Work and family Work and family Culture Experience of being female Work and family Progression Flexible working Culture Experience of being female View of women Culture Work and family

Work and family External support

Work and family Reality of women's life

Children a problem Work and family Work and family

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

38 50 1 3 5 5 8 8

17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18

185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192

Children a problem Her view of success

changed Progression Work and family Work and family Children a problem

286

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

10 12 23 27 30 37 46 4 5 10 39 39 1 7 9 14 25 27 33 4

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21

193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

7 9 10 10 13 26 26 30 34 37 38 40 2 6 15 21 27 34

21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22

213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230

Women not coping Choice between work and family Culture. Trust Culture. Diversity Relationships important to getting things done Culture Moving to a more data driven culture Culture affected by external events How T&D works Training quality Training quality Development outside of PM how T&D defined and interesting Taking development into own hands Training quality Training is boring Finds own coaches and mentors Relationships and networking important to get ahead Surprise at how long she's there Work type workload Likes variety Motivated by External development Networking relationships Self sufficient Relationships important Mentoring informally arranged Does not like formal Self directed Formal mentoring for graduates Purpose of women's network Networking Networking and purpose Relationships-how she relates How she promotes the internal network Strategy as self

View of women Work and family Culture Culture Culture Diversity Relationships Culture Culture Culture Development Training Training Development Development Development Training Training

Choices need to be made Observation of culture Trust How it works Performance

How its changed Observation of culture Operation of it Value Value External Operation of it Proactive Value How it is Coaching and mentoring Networking

Development
Relationships

Decision making

Career

Motivation Motivation Development Networking Personality/Trait Relationships Mentoring

External

Important How it works Coaching and mentoring Coaching and mentoring Internal

Development
Personality/Trait

Development
Networking Networking Networking Relationships Networking How she operates

Purpose Performance Internal

287

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

36 39 1 11 13 17 18 23 25 27 32 36 40 43 45 2 4 5 11 15 24

22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24

231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251

directed Self promotion UK culture not about boasting Females are reticent Diversity Men speak at women's network HR processes What females are like in the bank Younger people dont sell themselves Personality Self promotion-accepts it's uncomfortable Self promotion. Female networking helped next role Relationship worked How she finds a job So women's networking works like men's Espoused systems Espoused v actual culture Getting on is about relationships Purpose of women's network Relationships and getting things done Networking works beyond formal development Internal women's network has given her opps Women helped her Diversity - they want it to happen Women should help each other Help each other Modest Not traditionally ambitious Likes change How progression actually works Gets on with it Accepts status quo Personality Toned down personality

Personality/Trait UK culture Diversity Diversity Men and women Role of HR dept Perception of other women Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Networking Relationships Progression Networking Culture Culture Relationships Networking Relationships Networking Culture How it works

Performance appraisal

Perception of others

How it helped her progress Decision making How it works Espoused practice Espoused practice Progression Internal Progression How it works

25

24

252

Networking

How it works

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

32 42 44 45 1 4 9 10 11 12 13 15

24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264

Other women Diversity View of women Experience of being female Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Motivation Progression Tenacity Culture Personality/Trait Personality/Trait

Desired

Positive Success Aspiration

Actual practice Personality/Trait

288

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

27 1 1 3 8 13 15 20 26 38 42 44 44 1 3 5 8 10 12 15 17 21 26 28 29 30 35 37

25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27

265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292

Women controlled into behaving a certain way Being macho is admired Women she would like to work with Likes the man's world and accepts it Wants to be feminine Culture Wants to be feminine Praises femininity Women good at what they do Gets on with it Emotion Insight needed Suggestion that women not self aware Subsume yourself and give People have a sense of entitlement Sitting back is not good Know yourself Does things she doesnt like doing Gets on with it Gets on with it Puts up with stuff Detached Human Culture. Gets on with it Accepts status quo perceptions important Accepts that men and women evaluated differently Relationships important Knows reality of men and women differences Denies gender differences Denial of reality Only had one male boss Relationships important Not about male and female Denies gender divide

View of women Organisation's values View of women Culture Authenticity Culture Authenticity Authenticity View of women Tenacity Emotion Experience of being female Unsuccessful women How she operates View of others Progression Personality/Trait Tenacity Tenacity Tenacity Culture Authenticity Culture Tenacity Culture Reality Men and women Personality/Trait Self awareness Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Adapting Ability to express Observations of culture Personality/Trait Accepts Evaluation Accepts Desired Observation of culture Desired Desired

Personality/Trait How it works

2 2 2

38 40 44

27 27 27

293 294 295

Relationships Men and women Men and women

Important Experience of being female Experience of being female Denied

2 2 2 2 2

1 4 8 12 12

28 28 28 28 28

296 297 298 299 300

Culture Experience of manager Relationships Men and women Men and women

Important Experience of being female Experience of being female

289

2 2

20 22

28 28

301 302

2 2

25 28

28 28

303 304

30

28

305

2 2 2 2 2 2 2

31 33 33 37 39 39 39

28 28 28 28 28 28 28

306 307 308 309 310 311 312

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1 2 3 4 5 5 12 22 31 34

29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29

313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322

Networking important not diversity Diversity in terms of groups of like-minded people Networks as tackling diversity Adding value is attempted through networks Diversity about relationships with people who are the same in networks Purpose not to influence policy Keep status quo HR doesnt link with policy and culture How diversity works Status quo safe Not political Navet around how politics is linked to culture Denial of reality Diversity is not policy Espoused systems Flexible working Acknowledgement of legal position Promotes current organisation Doesnt want positive discrimination Thinks about gender Conscious of what she wears Fitting in with macho culture by denying femininity Be more masculine Women voices are annoying Keep the men happy Keeping it down Controls behaviour Emotional by voice Fitting in Denies femaleness Likes femaleness hard for women at top Tough culture at top

Networking Diversity

How it works
Ideal

Networking Networking

How it works
How it works

Diversity

Ideal

Networking Culture Role of HR dept Diversity Culture Culture Culture

Culture

Performance appraisal Operation of it Accepts Diversity Naive about culture

Culture Diversity Culture Work and family Diversity Espouses Men and women Experience of being female Experience of being female Authenticity

Denied Her view Espoused practice Compliance

Awareness of gender Awareness of herself Denied

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

36 1 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 21 26

29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333

Authenticity View of women Status quo supported Status quo supported Emotion Culture Authenticity Experience of being female Perception at top Culture

Gender Evaluation

How it works Experience of being female Denied Positive

Perception of top

290

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

29 31 36 37 39 39 39 12 16 17 25 32 33 39 40 1 9 12 17 22 23 29 30 33 34 35 37 39 40 4 11 16 19

30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33

334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366

Relationships not mentioned Family difficult Political Playing the game gets you to the top Accepts status quo Accepts culture Emotional labour Kept anger under control Controlled Allowed to show emotional sometimes Culture is emotional Men showed emotional over trivial matters Entitlement Men showed emotional over trivial matters Accepts men are emotional Anger needs to be controlled Women seen as hysterical Passion Culture not volatile Emotional controlled environment Little emotion here Keep emotion out Anger Getting on with it is best Weak emotion not good Emotion as female trait Males dont show weaker emotion Emotion is controlled Not much emotion Enjoys minority status Gets on with it Women have to be better Myth of men and women and how the operate Recognises the male and female stereotypes Women have to better

Relationships Work and family Culture Progression Culture Culture Emotion Emotion at work Emotion Culture Emotion Personality/Trait Networking Men and women Emotion at work View of women Emotion Culture Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion at work Denial Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion Experience of being female Tenacity Women and performance Men Emotion controlled Personality/Trait Nature of Observation of culture Culture Unemotional workplace controlled Nature of Futility Nature of Men and women Men's emotions controlled Unemotional workplace Positive Personality/Trait View of women Challenges Observation of culture Strategy Accepts Adapted controlled controlled controlled Observation of culture Men's emotions

2 2

20 30

33 33

367 368

Men and women Women and performance

Experience of being female View of women

291

46

46

369

3 3

33 34

2 2

1 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3

36 1 3 12 15 18 25

2 3 3 3 3 3 3

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3 3 3 3 3 3

27 5 26 26 29 31

3 4 4 4 4 4

10 11 12 13 14 15

Doesnt have issues with PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL process Lots of females past experience males and females treated the same Training. Job rotation helped Left once qualified Knew when to look to enhance development Management consultant Overseas assignment Was able to take opportunity when phoned Subjective success Motivation-doing something new Fan of p.a. process Why she likes p.a. Solo status Honesty in expressing own development needs not benefitted Traits/personality High standards for self Honesty in development not good Intuition around p.a. process Has a feeling-espoused v actual practice Sort of like impression management, she notices in others as a strategy High rating did not lead to progression Espoused v actual practice What is real purpose of p.a. Con experience of p.a. process Environment is macho Partners in MC males MC partners Wives at home looking after the house Culture she didnt like and influenced decision not to progress

Performance Appraisal

Experience of pa

Profession Men and women

Experience of being female-past

Training Progression Development Previous role Development Progression

Example of progress Proactive

Nature of Promotion how it works Defined

Success Motivation Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Experience of being female Feedback.

Her view of pa Her view of pa

Her behaviour

3 3 3 3 3 3

32 33 1 3 4 6

4 4 5 5 5 5

16 17 18 19 20 21

Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Development Performance Appraisal Culture Perceptions of others

Self aware Her behaviour in past appraisal meeting Her view of pa Performance appraisal

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

13 15 15 16 18 20 22 22 24

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Performance Appraisal Culture Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Culture men and women Culture-other Culture Men and women Culture

Progression Espoused practice Experience of pa Experience of pa Men and women

Other organisation Her view

292

3 3 3 3 3

25 26 29 31 32

5 5 5 5 5

31 32 33 34 35

33

36

3 3

33 34

5 5

37 38

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

9 14 15 20 22 26 29 3 11

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

22

49

Macho culture isnt really me Culture as macho Current role treated as an equal Contradiction - not done as well as liked Feels that being honest has been detrimental to progress Feelings re p.a. process that managers give higher rating to difficult people Lack of certainty of real purpose of p.a. process Suspicion about p.a. espoused purpose v actual Espoused competencies Actual practice Sales as a competency only thing valued Espoused practice Making the deal Espoused practice Sales mattered Personality important Espoused v actual values Contradiction in espoused values made her move on Confusion about honesty as she thought thats what was needed to progress Honesty has hampered progress No ambition to be CEO Happy if did get to higher level Looks for challenge rather than the level of job Consultancy environment was adverse macho culture Lack of fit in macho culture in MC Has always felt equal herself UK culture different England and past experience

Culture Culture

Authenticity Observation of culture

Progression Feedback

Progression not as quick as like Progression

Performance Appraisal

Experience of pa

Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal

Experience of pa Espoused practice

Competencies Practices Competencies valued Culture Espoused practice Culture Competencies valued Personality/Trait Culture Progression Espoused practice Espoused practice Progression Espoused practice Culture

Feedback

Progression

3 3 3 3

22 2 5 6

7 8 8 8

50 51 52 53

Progression Aspiration Aspiration Motivation

Progression hampered-self Not as bigger Tentative

21

54

Culture

Previous organisation

3 3 3 3

24 30 30 3

8 8 8 9

55 56 57 58

Culture-past Men and women UK culture UK culture Experience of being female

293

59

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

13 20 1 13 16 26 28 4

9 9 10 10 10 10 10 11

60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

3 3

5 14

11 11

68 69

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

18 21 24 26 31 3 12 20 23 25 26 28 35 3 4 8 16 18 23 25 1 12

11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14

70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91

Younger profession was reason more females and different than UK Early good experience of feeling equal Feels her personality is solo rather than gender Sector makes a difference Peer made decision not to work full time Peer did not go on maternity leave Younger children more difficult Older children make a difference to career Drive and priorities how women resolve internal conflict Internal conflict for women with children Some women at high level dont have children No children No children affects her responsibilities Current job males committed to families Swiss culture influences the men Swiss culture different Swiss defined Balance Current culture not macho Previous culture not so macho Human Polite Current culture human Culture and developing Current environment Current culture professional Likes change Formal training content technical Internal training Strategy course Training automatic for people at certain levels 360 degree appraisal Formal training as part of job

Personality/Trait Culture Experience of being female Experience of being female Children Work and family Experience of being female Work and family Work and family Other How others work How others work

Older children easier How others work

Challenges

Women Experience of being female Work and family UK culture UK culture UK culture Work and family Culture Culture-other Respect Men and women Culture Culture Culture Culture Motivation Training Training Training Training Development Training

Work and family Men Compared Compared Compared Observation of culture

Observation of culture Development

How it is Internal Example of course How it works Nature of How it works

294

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

13 14 16 18 20 22 1 3 6 10 30 6 6 23 28 1 7 8 18

14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110

3 3 3 3 3 3

28 7 15 19 19 24

17 18 18 18 18 18

111 112 113 114 115 116

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 6 10 13 13 19 28 29 31

19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19

117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125

Technical CPD Internal training automatic No training to address development issues Experience of p.a. development No mentoring or coaching Networking seen as meeting people Informal networking Purpose of network Purpose of network Focus is on the job Putting up with Positive Putting up with Lucky Women became ruthless Success women themes Personality Opportunists successful women theme Learning successful women common theme Focus on job Getting balance right women/work Partner support important Women with children have burden Does not think she treats men and women differently Diversity-her view Own merits Not positive discrimination Idealistic about meritocracy Doesnt know about the reality Not aware of diversity efforts Gender not an issue Men dont like reporting to her Treats people as individual

Training Development Training Training Performance Appraisal

Example of content Nature of Internal Development Experience of development from pa Coaching and mentoring How it works Informal Purpose Purpose Adapting Adapting External attribution Authenticity Women themes

Development
Networking Networking Networking Networking How she operates Culture Personality/Trait Culture Success Personality/Trait Success Personality/Trait Successful women

Learning How she operates Men and women Progression View of women Men and women

Her view Partner important to progression Work and family how she operates

Diversity Diversity Diversity Espoused culture

Her view Idealistic about meritocracy Her view Status quo

Diversity Experience of being female Men and women Authenticity Men and women Experience of being female

295

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

33 1 1 10 11 15 20 21 22 23 24 28 29 30 31 33 35 7 8 14 16 17

19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 21

126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

18 33 1 8 11 19 27 27 28 12 16 21 5 26 28 29

21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 1 1 1 2 2 2 2

148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Focus on work Person as individual Current job not an issue Not aware of lack of gender at top Thinks being at the top bit commitment needed Men more able to make commitment Emotion Men-angry Emotion Crying is hidden Would like to get angry Anger as positive emotion Upset as negative Positive view of anger in control Upset is a problem Underestimates effect Anger Men-angry Men dont understand emotions Anger-accepted Upset not accepted Women viewed negatively if they get angry control over emotion of women Solo woman Emotions of women controlled Focus on job Women had to be men in MC Job focus as route to success Emotion Evaluation Stricter standard for women From outside UK Function Progression as natural American bank Previous bank p.a. formal 360 PA did not make an impression Bonus given regardless of performance

How she operates Authenticity

Diversity Perception of top Culture Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion at work Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion Emotion at work Emotion Emotion Emotion at work Emotion View of women

Not an issue

Men and women How it works Men's emotions How it works controlled Desired Nature of controlled How it works Consequence of Her view Nature of Men's emotions controlled Men's emotions controlled Evaluation

Emotion at work Experience of being female Emotion How she operates Authenticity Progression Emotion Men and women Evaluation Profile info Profile info Progression Culture Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal

controlled

Men and women

Other culture How it works-self How it works Evaluation Experience

Observation of culture Previous job Experience of pa Experience of bonus not linked to pa

296

4 4

6 10

3 3

8 9

4 4 4 4 4

13 26 2 3 7

3 3 4 4 4

10 11 12 13 14

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

9 10 13 14 23 23 24 26 12 13 21 24 26 27 29 30 2 12 13 16 18 19 26 3 7 9 12 22 23 26 27 1

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

How its changed Current bank pa process scale used good PA ridiculous questions Process confusing PA process Espoused Performed highly so self assessment high award Espoused v actual PA process confusing HR role Purpose is a mystery Suspicion about process Purpose Espoused Actual purpose is a guess Relationships and men Macho culture. Culture of investment banking Women get supported Women paid less There are still issues Emotion-women react Men argue the case Emotion and effect on pa PA as a business process HR role mystery PA purpose-unsure PA - doesnt look forward to it Informal chat better Relationship My development Women network Purpose of network Promotion can happen by asking for it Assumption made re promotion Promotion a mystery Asked for last promotion Progression is self directed Promotion a mystery

Culture-past Performance Appraisal

How it works

Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Culture Performance Appraisal

Her view of pa Her view of pa How it works Observation of culture Experience of pa

Culture Performance Appraisal Role of HR dept Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Culture Performance Appraisal Relationships Culture Culture Experience of being female View of women Experience of being female Emotion Men and women Emotion Performance Appraisal Role of HR dept Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Relationships Development Networking Networking Progression Progression Progression Progression Progression Progression

Espoused practice Experience of pa Performance appraisal Experience of pa Experience of pa How it works Observation of culture Experience of pa Men and women macho banking Espoused practice Progression Awareness of gender issues Men and women How men operate Performance Appraisal How it works

How it works Experience of pa Experience of pa

Internal Purpose Promotion how it works-self Promotion how it works-self Promotion Promotion how it works Promotion how it works Promotion

297

4 4

9 13

8 8

47 48

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

14 28 9 17 22 1 3 4 5 6 9 13 19 22 32 1

8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64

4 4

3 3

11 11

65 66

Women's mistakes Likens work to home relationship between m and w Strategy of asking works Women communication Culture from book Culture as harsh Culture outside organisation How I used to be Has hardened up to culture Putting up with Procedures have helped How its changed You learn to put up with Coped with culture Position helps Harden up Situation changed dramatically Wanted to show she could cope with children Hid children effect? Acting as if no children

View of women Men and women

Work and home similar gender divide How it works-self Communication harsh Observation of culture Change Coping with culture Adapting Diversity

Progression View of women Culture Culture Culture Personality/Trait

Culture
Culture Work and family Culture-past Culture Culture Personality/Trait

Adapted Coping with culture Coping with culture

Culture
Context Experience of being female Culture Work and family

Work and family

11

67

Mistrust of women who 'pull' things Supportive partner Thinks it's changing Example of colleague Balance difficult Children a life choice Grateful to have job Doesnt want to sound ungrateful Current bank is good Culture currently American bank worse Compared European bank and American Training not good Training is compulsory some Definition of development Managers dont need to get involved in network

Work and family

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

7 11 20 28 31 1 1 15 21 23 26 3 5 19 20

11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13

68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

Progression Culture Work and family Work and family Experience of being female

Work and family Perception of how other women handle it Perception of how other women handle it Partner important to progression Future

Choices need to be made Positive

Culture Culture Culture Culture Training Training Development Development

Observation of culture Observation of culture Observation of culture Observation of culture Value How it works Nature of

298

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1 7 16 17 22 31 9 19 22 27 32 1 19 10 19 26 26 15 25 27 29 5 6 20 27 1

14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19 20

83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Career development happens informally Promotions are informal Mentoring Informal set up of mentoring Mentoring-how it works Support is important to success Guilty Personality important Example of someone true to values Controlled-admirable Strong personality helps you Standing out is good Example of someone who wont get to the top Graduates different Type of woman bankers marry Myth of the city Exclusive and elite Emotion is judged Emotional with good reason Emotion recorded in pa HR role HR role in pa Cant show emotion even if stressed Women are emotion and it's a disadvantage Men and women do things differently Helping someone backfired caused emotion Helping not always good Emotional as a result of helping Competition of women in banking Competition with men Women as competition

Development Progression Mentoring

Informal Promotion how it works How it works Coaching and mentoring How it works Factor Experience of being female Progression

Development
Mentoring Success Work and family Personality/Trait Authenticity Emotion at work Personality/Trait Experience of being female Personality/Trait Experience of being female

controlled Progression Positive Perception of others

Culture Culture Emotion Emotion Emotion Role of HR dept Role of HR dept Emotion at work Emotion Men and women Emotion

Observation of culture Observation of culture Evaluation Justified emotion Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal Performance appraisal controlled Controlled Emotion Personality/trait

4 4 4 4 4

2 3 7 9 10

20 20 20 20 20

109 110 111 112 113

Personality/Trait Emotion Experience of being female Experience of being female Experience of being female

Consequence How it works Competition Competition Competition

299

4 4 4

17 20 23

20 20 20

114 115 116

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

2 6 17 23 25 26 6 7 16 32 6 8 10 13 30 16 19 1 19 20 22 25 2 4 9 15 18 26 29 9

21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27

117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146

Espousing diversity efforts Diversity as networks Task related to gay people to raise awareness Network resulted in one woman coming out Coming out affected her performance Women network is inclusive PA has diversity question PA no reward Espoused Women have different needs Doesnt want equality Men and women different Sees PC as too gender neutral Lost femininity because of PC thing Misguided idea of diversity Women strength Dont need to become men Top women have strong personalities Recognition in diversity useful Cynicism around diversity and purpose Men dont emotionally attached Male emotion not seen as emotional Angry not emotional Emotion and taking it personally Feeling not resolvedwoman thing Was more emotional when younger Has changed Women keeping inside Long hours and emotion No link between emotion and career Attention as only woman Nave about women Diversity implications

Diversity Diversity

How it works How it works

Networking Network View of women Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Culture Men and women Men and women Men and women Impact on female Diversity Diversity View of women Authenticity Personality/Trait Diversity Diversity Emotion Emotion Emotion at work Emotion Emotion Emotion Personality/Trait Emotion Emotion Emotion Experience of being female Diversity Diversity

How it worked Effect of Networking How it works How it works Espoused practice View of women Her view Differences between men and women

Culture Her view

Gender Top women Her view Her view Men and women Men's emotions Men's emotions Men and women Women and emotion

Emotion Controlled

How it works Solo status Doesnt understand Her view

300

4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

11 27 1 11 18 29 31 36 6 15 23 23 26 28 33 34 36 4 18 19 21 22 23 26 31 33 35 36 3 6 13 19 34 1 3 5 7 10 16 21 31 35 37 2 3 6 10 13 15 17

27 27 28 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

147 148 149 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47

Helping doesnt understand diversity Sudden decision Assessment for job Travel. Training. What she likes Guidance What she likes Hindsight re network Network. Value of network What she did Environment in past Motivation to work Realisation What she likes Enjoyed Challenge Travel. People important Motivation Advice Environment in past Motivation Change Change Project Work situation Motivation. Put up with a situation Personality. Reason for leaving Personality Network. Relationship Motivation Relationships and moving Relationship What she did Motivation Dislikes Change-beginning of process Move Course-external Realisation Dilemma Difficulty Personality

Personality/Trait Diversity Decision making Progression Training Motivation Her view Career Her view of success

Development
Motivation Networking Networking Networking Experience-past Culture-past Motivation

Coaching and mentoring How it worked Purpose

Culture
Motivation Motivation Progression Relationships Motivation Progression Culture-past Motivation

Actual practice

Her view of success Important External

Previous role Motivation Culture Personality/Trait Progression Personality/Trait Networking Relationships Motivation Relationships Relationships Experience-past Motivation

Adapting

Progression

Progression Training

Culture

Move External Actual practice

Tenacity

Personality/Trait

301

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

18 19 20 23 24 26 29 9 25 30 33 1 2 4 5 7 8 11 13 36 3 6 8 10 16 22 28 31 37 7 10 11 14 16 22 24 25 28 33 34 38 1 2 4

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91

Gets on with it Putting up with Dilemma Move Reflection about job Relationship Job role Reason given for not taking her on Current boss Current situation Motivation. Mentor. Mentor role How mentoring works Likes Mentor role Next move Relationship and moving Relationships. Impact of appraisal Culture. Function Description of function Function and relationship with people Development in a function Performance meeting How 1-1s work 1-1 purpose P.A. process How P.A. process is defined Purpose of PM P.A. problem Promotions and how they work Reward high P.A. process Competency Manager quality Competencies Promotion. Managers. Networks-definition Networking-how she finds it Advice form her manager Dictates to her

Tenacity Culture Progression Decision making Relationships Past role Progression Management Motivation Mentoring Mentoring

Personality/Trait Adapting Move Career

External

Development
Motivation Mentoring Progression Relationships Relationships Performance Appraisal Culture Profile info Function Men and women Development Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Management Performance Appraisal Progression Reward Performance Appraisal Competencies Experience of manager Competencies Progression Experience of manager Networking Networking Progression

How it works How it works Coaching and mentoring How it works Strategy Progression

Experience of pa

Nature of How it works How it works Development How it works How it works How it works Experience of pa Promotion how it works Performance Appraisal How it works

Promotion Purpose Her experience External

302

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

5 8 10 14 16 17 24 26 28 31 33 37 1 7

11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

8 9 11 12 13 17 20 24 27 31 32 32 33 34 37 2 5 7 20

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13

106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124

Decision out of her hands? How promotion works Realisation-helped by manager Consequence was soon P.A. process P.A. process-what she thinks P.A. process-what she thinks Competencies and link to P.A. P.A. and how it motivates P.A. as helpful for manager P.A. processdocuments Move-took initiative with Manager attitude to 11s-male Initiated development discussion-manager not interested Reaction to manager Assumption of PM process Consequences of bad PM P.A. process and consequence Managers' PM style Promotion decision-self Experience of PM Feedback like interview Experience of PM Have to ask Diversity ignored Take responsibility for yourself Personality important Manager approach/style P.A. process experience of Experience of P.A. process Process compared to different dept P.A. process how she approaches it Salary is secret

Progression Progression Progression Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Progress Performance Appraisal Development

Actual practice External How it works How it works How it works How it works How it works How it works How it works How it works Self directed Men and women Proactive

Men and women Performance Management Performance Management Performance Appraisal Performance appraisal Progression Performance Management Feedback Performance Management Experience of manager Diversity Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Competency Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Organisation Performance Appraisal Salary

Experience of pa How it works How it works Experience of pa Promotion-self Experience of pa

Experience of pa

How it works

Progression

Experience of pa Experience of pa

How it works for her

303

22

13

125

5 5 5 5

35 5 9 16

13 14 14 14

126 127 128 129

5 5 5 5 5

19 29 35 3 5

14 14 14 15 15

130 131 132 133 134

15

135

5 5

11 13

15 15

136 137

31

15

138

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

5 30 32 35 4 8 13 16 17 20 23 26 26 28 36 1 17 20 23 25 35

16 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 18

139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160

Example of male colleague-he has different need for feedback Compares her need with a male Male colleague experience of P.A. Self promotes Justified the P.A. process as it's structured Denial of reality of M and F Achieved goals Promotion Not hampered in progression Male colleague expectation of promotion Assumed when younger male would get promoted Denial of reality Networks helps her compared to male colleague Overseas assignment got pulled due to budget Emotion at work Realised what she wants People focus Realisation. Feedback. Self directed Realisation. Ideal role Development. Traders Ideal role Motivation Traders Specialised roles

Feedback

Men and women

Feedback Performance Appraisal Personality/Trait Performance Appraisal

Men and women Experience of another with pa Espoused practice

Men and women Personality/Trait Progression Progression Performance Appraisal

Experience of being female Progression Promotion Progression not hampered Men and women

Progression

Perception of others

Culture Networking

Denied Men and women

Development

Thwarted

Emotion Progression Realisation

How it works Decision making

Culture
Feedback. Personality/Trait

Actual practice Nature of Actual practice Ideal role Nature of Function Ideal role

Culture
Aspiration Development Organisational roles Aspiration Motivation Organisational roles Organisational roles

Function

Work unpredictableaffects development Change Likes Uncertainty Uncertainty and effects

Development

Nature of

Motivation Current environment Current environment

Development

304

5 5 5 5 5

12 12 18 19 24

19 19 19 19 19

161 162 163 164 165

20

166

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

2 6 7 8 9 10 13 19 24

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175

5 5

32 37

20 20

176 177

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

37 1 10 10 16 17 20 31 31 33 34 36 2 4 4 11 12 12 22 1

20 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23

178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197

Espoused practice Family issues recognised How maternity works Espoused practice Experience of a colleague having babyno support for return Improvement needed around women and maternity Working balance Women and children How flexible working operates Women and children Espoused practice Flexible working Limit of flexible working Networks Flexible working not just about women and children Her view of women and commitment Denial and contradiction of practice Espoused practice Networks help Not all departments are macho Culture of different departments People misperceive banking Culture of different departments Traders Put up with it Has adapted within culture Sector character Male traits Advice to put up with it Realisation that culture not good Puts up with culture How she copes with culture Traders Changed behaviour to cope with trader Trader has adapted Industry wont change Contradiction

Culture Work and family Work and family Culture Experience of being female Work and family

Espoused practice Positive about her organisation Espoused practice Espoused practice Work and family

Experience of being female

Work and family Women and children Work and family Women and children Culture Work and family Work and family Networking Work and family

Work and family Espoused Work and family Espoused practice Limits Her view of flexible working Her view Denied

Men and women Culture

Culture Networking Culture Culture Culture Culture Organisational roles Culture

Espoused practice Her experience Observation of culture Observation of culture Observation of culture Observation of culture Function Adapting Coping with culture Other How men operate External realisation Adapting Coping with culture Function Adapted by changing Function

Culture
Culture Men and women Culture Culture Culture

Culture
Organisational roles Experience of organisation Organisational roles Culture.

305

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

8 11 12 23 25 32 37 1 4 5 7 8 9 13 20 24 25 29 31 33 17 20 22 31 34 36 36 1 6 8 11 23 25 29 4 11 17 28 33 5 8 9 13 18 31 32 36

23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244

Asking for stuff Culture. Networks defined Culture. Effect of organisation on person Like a family Motivation Espoused practice Trading P.A. how it works P.A. process Training-content Keep away from what you dont like Training Training and P.A. PM Training Training-how it works Training Espoused practice Training leads to P.A. how it works Training-effectiveness Training-content Training-impact Progression-how it works Networks Relationships Progression. Change Training-progression Training-information Advised a graduate on training P.A. how it works Training External networks Internal networks External networks Different person at work External networks Success Women's intuition Scared to admit uses intuition not logic Disappointment Coping with disappointment Advice given to her Strength Luck

Progression Culture Networking Culture Culture Culture Motivation Culture Organisational roles Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Training

How it works-self Observation of culture Purpose Observation of culture

Observation of culture Espoused practice Function How it works How it works Example of content

Training Training Performance Management Training Training Culture Training Performance Appraisal Training Training Training Progression Networking Relationships Progression Training Training Training Performance Appraisal Training Networking Networking Networking Personality/Trait Networking Success View of women Experience of being female Personality/Trait Progression Personality/Trait Success

Link to PA

How it works Espoused practice Value How it works Value Example of content Value Promotion how it works

Link to progression How it works Her involvement How it works External networks Internal External networks

External networks What is it Conceals her way of being

External External attribution

306

5 5 5 5 5 5

2 13 20 20 22 26

29 29 29 29 29 29

245 246 247 248 249 250

What she's like What she's like Slowing down? Driven-like to reduce Success reputation Success as not embedded into identity? Modest about success Personality Example of other successful women Her view of successful women Luck which turned to success External locus Her view of other women Her view Illness made friend view success differently Illness as catalyst for change External locus of control View of other womenwhat they do View of other womenexternal View of other womeninternal Reflection View of other womenrelationships important Realisation. False modesty

Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Aspiration Personality/Trait Success Success

Changed

What it is Identity

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

30 30 2 12 19 21 23 27 28 28 28 1 8 8 10 11 14 16 18 19 28 28 31

29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31 31

251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273

Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Success Personality/Trait Men and women Admires different women How women decide How women decide Personality/Trait Perception of women Perception of women Perception of women Decision making Perception of women

Success Perception of others Progression External attribution External locus of control Her view

External locus of control

Career

Culture

Actual practice

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

2 4 10 10 13 18 26 28

32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32

274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281

Lack of success down to people skills Relationships Her view of consequence of relationship building Network Success Rude=male Being nice is important Unsuccessful woman Relationships Friends are successful Lack of success down to self doubt

Relationships Relationships Relationships

Her view of relationships

Networking Success Male traits Women's values Relationships Personality/Trait

What it is Male traits

Success

307

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

30 35 24 15 26 32 33 33 37 7 7 29

32 32 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37

282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302

Internal as important lack of success-down to lack of hard work Men and women not evaluated differently Diversity Diversity Contradiction about diversity Espoused practice Diversity Diversity defined as encouraging difference Personality as diversity Diversity Aspiration has changed

Networking Personality/Trait Men and women Diversity Diversity Diversity Culture Diversity Diversity Diversity Diversity Aspiration

Internal Success Evaluation How it works How it works Culture Espoused practice How it works Her view Her view How it works Changed

6 12 18 23 27 9 10 16

5 5

19 26

37 37

303 304

31

37

305

5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

14 16 22 4 21 12 19 25 30 32 35 3 6

38 38 38 39 39 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

306 307 308 309 310 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Woman with baby focused Can combine work and family Would like to see more women Emotion Work personality Emotion as loss of control Shameful of showing emotion Worried about how judged showing emotion Emotion and men Men as controlling workplace in terms of emotion Emotion as the most noticeable thing about men and women Culture different department Function Minority an advantage Networks Network-description Training Change of culture Old culture Children Children in old culture How its changed How it was Children and effects

Women and children Work and family Women Emotion Personality/Trait Emotion Emotion Evaluation

Work and family Positive about her organisation

How it works controlled controlled Emotion

Emotion Emotion

Men controlled

Emotion

Men and women

Culture Profile info Experience of being female Networking Networking Training Culture Culture-past Work and family Work and family Culture-past Culture-past Work and family

Observation of culture

Positive

How it works

Past culture

308

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

20 23 29 33 35 2 15 18 33 33 35 36 13 16 18 21 25 31 8 11 16 19 23 27 32 2 12 14 15

2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Impression management Missed work Carried on with children Work-self esteem Missed money Work with children Networked to stay in the loop Lacked courage to take role after being away Kept up with things Reinvented herself Known current boss for years Connection No P.A. 13 years Feelings on P.A. PA system has merit if it worked properly How PA works Doubts process of PA PA process-how it works One system-different cultures PA process-how it works Feeling on PA process Experience of PA process Espoused v actual PA not effective at managing people Experience of PA process PA not used effectively Organisational context Discrimination acknowledged Denial-knows not given opps but denies discrimination Why women not given opps Grateful? Women not managed up Lack of opps in other banks Women not given opps Buzz words Lack of process to develop women Success

Progression Motivation Work and family Personality/Trait Motivation Work and family Networking Personality/Trait How she's changed Personal change Relationships Relationships Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Culture Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Culture Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Organisation Experience of being female Culture

Her view of success Women at work How she handled it

How it worked Confidence-lack of

Example Her view of relationships Experience of pa Experience of pa Ideal How it works Experience How it works Observation of culture How it works Experience of pa Experience of pa Espoused practice How it works Experience of pa How it works Awareness of gender Denied

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

18 18 20 24 27 31 35 1

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7

38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45

Experience of being female Experience of being female View of women Experience of being female View of women Diversity Success

Her view Positive Progression Other banks Progression Gender What it is

309

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

8 12 13 14 21 23 24 27 29 30 3 5 10 16 18 20 22 24 28 1 4 9 20 22 27 32 33 35

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73

Espoused v actual Mother as salient factor Stereotyped because of children Not seen as a leader because of children Wants to do more Wants recognition that she can do more Appraisal not linked Grateful? Wants to do more Luck T&D and link with PA T&D how it works T&D quality Process of promotion Talent managementactual v espoused Hopeful of some T&D how it happens T&D content PA and T&D no link Poor rating means you're out No improvement for low performers Leadership Senior women profile Above is stereotyped Children-effects of Denial. Few senior women Senior women with children behave as if they dont Childcare subcontracted Senior women Flexible working Networks-how they work Networks-informal Purpose of network Networks-content Network development opportunity Network-believes in it Network purpose Network-no power base Network-example

Culture Experience of being Experience of being female Experience of being female Aspiration Experience of being female Performance Appraisal Experience of being female Aspiration Success Performance Appraisal T&D T&D Progression Actual practice Progression to top T&D Training Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Competency Experience of being female Evaluation Work and family Culture Workforce Work and family

Espoused practice How it works Work and family How it works Has expanded Not receiving recognition How it works Positive Has expanded External attribution How it works

Actual Espoused nature of

Example of content How it works How it works How it works

Men and women Denied

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

1 2 2 9 9 15 20 26 28 29 33 34

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85

Work and family Women Work and family Networking Networking Networking Networking Networking Networking Networking Networking Networking

External support

How it works Informal Purpose How it works How it works

Purpose How it works How it works

310

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

36 1 4 7 8 8 9 12 13 16 20 20 25 27 31 33 1 2 4 4 5 6 7 14 15 18 19 28 31 1 4 8 8 9 14 17

10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 13

86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121

Network-as navigating way round Network-external External-value is good for outside work Connecting-value of Networking Relationships External-value of External networkingmore useful later Relationships-important to achievement Helping others Value of connections Relationships Modest about success Success factors Success Personality Uses women traits to get what she wants Consequence of using women charm Advantage of being a woman Personality Minority an advantage Being a woman gets results How she operates Other successful women traits Other successful women personality Different traits needed for different sectors Politics Other women similar Entrepreneurs different Innovation not needed Creativity not needed Innovation not encouraged Innovation not needed in banking Innovation as culture of stereotyping? No senior women in management positions Women leave if they dont reach manager levels

Networking Networking Networking Relationships Networking Relationships Networking Networking Relationships Personality/Trait Relationships Relationships Personality/Trait Success Success Personality/Trait Experience of being female Experience of being female Experience of being female Personality/Trait Experience of being Experience of being female Experience of being female Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Culture Personality/Trait Competencies Culture. Competencies Culture Culture. Culture Diversity Experience of being female

How it works External networks External networks Her view of relationships

External networks External networks Performance

Her view of relationships Success Factors What it is Positive Positive Positive

Positive

Perception of others What personality is needed Observation of culture Perception of others Competencies Competencies Competencies Observation of culture How it works Gender and progression

311

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

21 23 26 29 33 34 1 15 20 29 34 35 1 1 7 9 12 14 17 33 2 5 5 18 26 26 31 7 9

13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 17

122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

Executives more men Not all men prosper Top alien environment What its like at the top On the shelf means lower earnings

Men and women Men and women Perception of top Perception of top Success (objective)

How the organisation works How men operate

Salary

Relationships Example of men and women evaluation Actual culture Mans world Women never equal Risks not taken on women Women dangerous View that diversity can make a difference Lack of support of diversity Not about culture change Diversity Diversity needs support from top Diversity-no support from top Caring needs to be linked to business case Diversity has been missold Women not present in most boards Leaking pipelines of women Women's progress Women not looked after Diversity doesnt work Lack of women at board level is devastating for women Tokenistic to have one woman How it should work from the bottom up Women's choice defined Acceptance and reality Women have to have control

Relationships Evaluation Culture Culture View of women Experience of being female View of women Diversity Diversity Culture Diversity Diversity Diversity Culture Diversity View of women Diversity Personality/Trait View of women Diversity Diversity

Men and women Enacted Observation of culture Equality Gender and progression Ideal Culture

How it works Ideal How it works Ideal Her view Progression Experience of being female Progression Her view Culture

6 6 6 6 6 6

13 14 28 29 1

17 17 17 17 17 18

152 153 154 155 156 157

Experience of being female Culture View of women Culture Experience of being female

Her view Idealism Constrained Adapting View of women

312

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

5 7 11 15 17 20 21 23 27 27 36 1 6 12 19

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 19

158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172

Women prevented from achieving. Men should behave by not shouting Men scared of women how men talk to women Women more emotional Equates emotion to passion She got emotional Men scared of women's emotions

View of women Men and women Men and women Men and women View of women Emotion

Progression How men operate Experience of being female How men operate Emotion Nature of

Emotion Men and women

Her experience Emotion

6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

21 29 10 37 42 11 14 25 26 34 37 41 1

19 19 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3

173 174 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Men and women judged differently in emotional terms Women and emotion Current function Overseas assignment early on Overseas assignment early Small company was fun Small company she missed the big scale Network Current function was good move P.A. influence to do something P.A. influence negative Manager was threatened Development involved self-awareness to understand She found out thinking style important in relationships People make assumptions and this causes problem People telling her what to do Experience of manager Progression-due to manager

Emotion

Men and women

Emotion Function Development Development Past experience Past experience Networking Progression Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Experience of manager Development

How it works

Nature of Nature of Motivation Motivation

Move How it works How it works

Nature of

12

Relationships

Benefit

13

Relationships

Her view of relationships

7 7 7

10 13 17

3 3 3

14 15 16

Experience of manager Management Progression

Example of promotion

313

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

18 23 31 45 47 1 2 7 13 17 27 36 39 43 43 46 47 4

3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

7 7 7

16 18 22

5 5 5

35 36 37

23

38

29

39

7 7 7 7 7 7

30 32 34 36 37 37

5 5 5 5 5 5

40 41 42 43 44 45

7 7 7

41 41 45

5 5 5

46 47 48

Moves have been self directed Move. How she thought about move P.A. useful P.A. two kinds Measuring performance not good Focus important Different experience but same result Poor experience of PA Poor experience of PA Bad experience of manager Appraisal purpose Opinion of appraisal Espoused and actual purpose of p.a. P.A. process changed but of concern Mistrust of p.a. process Feeling about p.a. process Different purpose of p.a. depending on circumstances at time Feeling about p.a. process Female style Opinion about what happens in a p.a. meeting Nave about what happens in p.a. when evidence differs Contradiction re above relating to men and women Outcome and style Investment banking macho style Macho style inherent in p.a. feedback Experience of global reviews Different culture and their experience Judging different cultures an issue for global reviews P.a. process is on style not outcome

Progress Progress Progression Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal How she operates

Self directed

Decision making How it works How it works How it works

Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Management Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal

Experience of pa Experience of pa

How it works How it works How it works How it works How it works How it works How it works

Performance Appraisal Diversity Performance Appraisal

How it works Gender How it works

Performance appraisal

Experience of pa

Men and women

Culture

Performance Appraisal Culture Feedback. Performance Appraisal Culture Global culture

Ideal purpose Observation of culture Performance appraisal Diversity Observation of culture

Performance Appraisal

How it works

314

49

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

10 11 14 15 18 20 27 30 34 38 5 6 7 12 19 21 26 37 37 38 45 1 2 5 6 16 18 19 24 28 31 32 32

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

Progression hampered by past lack of confidence Wants to be authentic She was affected by trying to be macho Husband as support with progression Self development as support for progression Once awareness raised used to advantage Self awareness Manager experience Development-self Self awareness Realisation about self Age Hard to change Early guidance would have helped Progress-self and difficult Lack of support at top Difficulty at top Would like mentoring Sees bigger role as possible Using network to help progress Promotion down to manager Putting herself in position for another role Putting herself in position for another role Using network to help progress Networking and consequences Women and competition Being different an advantage Energy in not fighting difference Consequence of not fighting the difference Type of person she is Humanistic Being different unnerves people Challenging the culture but difficult Doing things differently changes

Progression

Progression hampered-self Desired Gender Progression Progression Proactive

Authenticity Authenticity Experience of being female Development Development Personality/Trait Experience of manager Development Personality/Trait Self awareness Age Personality/Trait Development Progression Diversity at top Culture Mentoring Aspiration Networking Progression Progression Progression Networking Networking Experience of being female Experience of being female Authenticity Culture Personality/Trait Authenticity

Proactive Personality/Trait

How it's changed Progression self directed How it works culture at the top Desired Tentative Progression How it works-external How it works-self How it works-self Progression How it works Competition Advantage Culture Consequence of accepting

Counter cultural

Culture
Counter cultural

Culture

315

7 7 7 7 7

37 39 45 48 9

8 8 8 8 9

83 84 85 86 87

7 7

11 17

9 9

88 89

21

90

23

91

7 7 7 7 7 7 7

25 28 31 43 44 2 6

9 9 9 9 9 10 10

92 93 94 95 96 97 98

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

19 22 26 31 35 37 4 6

10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11

99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106

7 7 7 7

8 11 13 15

11 11 11 11

107 108 109 110

Learnt to use difference to advantage Asserted herself eventually Assertiveness doesnt always work Assertiveness doesnt always work Women seen as godlike who have children Women with children on pedestal Women with no children not taken account of in flexibility Flexibility doesnt apply to women without children Feelings around women who have children Feels disadvantaged for not having children Assumed to want children Assumed to want children Children salient factor in organisation Feels irritated re women with children Senior women have childcare Life circumstances not just having children important Training varies Training quota system Little development of senior people Training like a machine Personality-success Tenacity-success Successful Women in other sectors adopt a masculine stylesuccess Women not allowed to be themselves Yearning to be authentic Women personality Women who work for themselves more authentic

Learning Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Personality/Trait View of women

Experience of being female What doesn't work What doesn't work What doesn't work Work and family

View of women View of women

Work and family Work and family

Work and family

Work and family

Work and family Experience of being female Experience of being female Work and family Her view of women Work and family Work and family External support Experience of being female How it works How it works Nature of How it works Progression What it is Success Assumptions made Assumptions made

Training Training Development Training Personality/Trait Personality/Trait Success Authenticity

View of women Authenticity View of women View of women

Authenticity Desired

Authenticity

316

7 7 7

19 19 27

11 11 11

111 112 113

Admires women who can be themselves Admires women who dont look to others to make things happen Women's personality and making things happen Women in corporate world pushes women to be masculine Rules of the game Women being inauthentic to get to the top Being authentic has been a battle Not making it-women had a realisation Success Measure of success Achieving to gain things Recognition that capable women drop out of the game Some women's view of success is different Women learn to do something different Having children changes priorities Success criteria Men and women same criteria differently applied Organisation not unfairdenial Diversity-her view Diversity takes a long time Gender is problematic Cant change that women have children Women take time out People are judged Recognises the bias Racial diversity addressed Military style of control Diversity at top Hiring in people's own image

Authenticity

Admired in others

38

11

114

Personality/Trait

Progression

41

11

115

Authenticity

Gender

7 7

44 3

11 12

116 117

Culture Authenticity

Politics Prevented

7 7 7 7 7 7

6 14 18 20 23 24

12 12 12 12 12 12

118 119 120 121 122 123

Authenticity Progression Success Success Success Progression

Prevented Perception of others

What it is Objective Perception of others

7 7 7 7 7

27 29 37 40 6

12 12 12 12 13

124 125 126 127 128

Success Experience of being female Experience of being female Success Men and women

Defined How women operate Work and family What it is Evaluation

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

14 20 27 30 31 35 39 44 1 3 9 18 23

13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14

129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141

Espoused culture Diversity Diversity

Status quo Her view Ideal

Experience of being female Work and family View of women Evaluation Paradox Diversity Culture Diversity Culture

How it works

How it works How it works Men and women How it works Diversity

317

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

25 26 29 37 38 43 1 5 13 17 21

14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15

142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152

Acknowledges diversity is hard work Benefit of diversity efforts Can be disastrous if not managed well Promote inclusive men Denial Networking works on the outside Paradox-networking is how you get ahead Used to be emotional Took things personally Marriage and financial situation helped to change People cant handle tears Men find tears difficult Anger acceptable Recognises that both are emotions and losing control Anger accepted in industry Culture admired Angry women are termed emotional Women raising voice unacceptable Men accepted Only women an advantage Being only woman is lonely Other women competition Women dont talk openly Keeping status quo easier Gave her a chance Introduced new service She was given a chance Was trusted Learnt a lot Emphatic about lack of P.A. link No P.A. at one bank Development via assignments

Diversity Diversity Diversity Diversity Culture Networking Networking Emotion Emotion Success

Reality Her view Her view How it works Denied External networks How it works Changed Her experience Context

7 7 7 7

24 26 27 28

15 15 15 15

153 154 155 156

Emotion Emotion Emotion at work Emotion

controlled controlled Men's emotions controlled

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

33 35 37 43 48 48 6 7 12 19 29 26 12 14 15 18 1 3 5

15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 31 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3

157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Emotion at work Culture Emotion at work View of women Culture Experience of being female Experience of being female Experience of being female Experience of being female Status quo supported Experience of being female What she does Experience of being female Experience of being female Learning Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal Development

Men's emotions

Women and emotion Controlled Status Positive Negative Competition Other women

Men and women

Other women Positive

How it works How it works Nature of

318

8 8

7 8

3 3

10 11

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

9 9 9 15 2 7 18 12 15 16 23 24 2 3 5 11 14 18

3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Lack of feedback meant things were going well Sporadic P.A. in another role PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL involved a chat Espoused practice Bank believes in P.A. P.A. at top levels irrelevant Goals she has set No external influenceshe has set goals has been given challenges Greater good Hard working Still in line with organisation Driver Learning is a main driver Motivation Learns by being put in a deep end Guidance but took her own meaning Authentic Does not emulate male way of doing things Authentic Not had ideas of next move Does not fit the mould Distance has been an advantage Husband as support P.A. experience Conversation between men and women Women and men act differently Appraisee has the influence Thought about what she was doing Loyal Human Not ambitious in the traditional sense

Feedback.

Nature of

Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal

Experience of pa in another role. Experience of pa

Culture Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal

Espoused practice Espoused rhetoric about benefit of pa How it works at the top

Personality/Trait Progression Development Humanistic Progression

How it works-self Nature of Authentic Personality/trait

Learning Motivation Learning Personality/Trait Authenticity Authenticity

Motivation

How she learns Self directed

Enabled by not emulating masculine traits Career

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

20 22 1 4 13 3 12 14 18 1 9 10 12

6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9

30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

Authenticity Progression Personality/Trait

Experience of being female Performance Appraisal Men and women Men and women Performance Appraisal Decision making Personality/Trait Loyal Personality/Trait

Progression Experience of pa Difference between men and women Difference between men and women How it works Career

Progression Aspiration

319

8 8 8 8

17 24 6 11

9 9 10 10

43 44 45 46

8 8

14 22

10 10

47 48

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

22 8 10 13 17 21 4 13 10 11 16 20 25 1 14 17 4

10 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 15

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

Authentic People used macho style to get their way Uses intellect to win arguments ignores dominance by using different approach Learned from macho behaviour Desire to learn even from someone incompetent Learning Children Did not take maternity leave Has always had childcare Advises her juniors to invest in childcare Childcare as an investment Women without children different Having children Culture Culture How she operates Culture Culture Culture as profit but also caring culture Strategic Culture as caring Believes in development but had little herself How she developed Team development Team building Learning has been on the job Asks questions Has learned by asking questions Operating style Guidance. External networking Networking is important Networking. Why successful Success linked to giving people what they

Authenticity Authenticity How she operates Authenticity

Gender Influencing Progression

Diversity Learning

Experience of being female

Learning Work and family Work and family Work and family Children Work and family View of women Experience of being manager Culture Culture Experience of being female Culture Culture Culture How she operates Culture Development

Experience of being female External support Childcare

Work and family Work and family Observation of culture Observation of culture

Observation of culture Observation of culture Observation of culture

Observation of culture Nature of

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

6 8 8 15 22 24 1 8 1 2 3 10 15

15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 17 17

66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78

Development Development Development Learning Personality/Trait Learning How she operates

Progression Nature of Nature of Her experience of learning Progression

Development
Networking Networking Networking Success Success

Coaching and mentoring External networks Important

Relationships

320

need 8 8 8 8 8 8 23 1 4 8 10 22 17 18 18 18 18 18 79 80 81 82 83 84 Women she knows Describes herself as entrepreneurial Different skills in entrepreneurs Successful women in other sectors Other-centred Knows lots of successful women in smaller organisations Women who give up Women who give up who have had potential Need ability to see yourself doing something new Hard work Some women dont put in the hours Diversity makes some difference Only woman as inspiring Having role models helps Diversity provides opportunities for people to be role models Helps people to see someone like them Diversity benefits Diversity and awareness Observing other women help with self awareness Diversity training Diversity training alters people's awareness and sensitivity Doesnt think about gender Focus on doing the job Women need to feel they add value Lack of gender comes from the top One woman is not enough Emotion Reflective Emotion Emotion View of women Personality/Trait Competencies Success Personality/Trait Women in other organisations View of women View of women Progression Progression Progression Her view of success Other sector

8 8 8

5 10 12

19 19 19

85 86 87

8 8 8 8 8 8

17 19 1 16 18 20

19 19 20 20 20 20

88 89 90 91 92 93

Progression Women Diversity Experience of being female Progression Diversity

Personality/trait

How it works Other women Her view of success Her view

8 8 8 8

22 26 1 4

20 20 21 21

94 95 96 97

Progression Diversity Diversity Development

Experience of being female Her view Her view Nature of

8 8

13 17

21 21

98 99

Diversity Diversity

How it works Her view

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

1 3 12 15 16 22 23 1 5

22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

Gender How she operates View of women Diversity Diversity Emotion Decision making Emotion Emotion Consequence of lack of Her view How it works How it works How it works

321

8 8 8

12 12 19

23 23 23

109 110 111

22

23

112

25

23

113

8 8

2 4

24 24

114 115

24

116

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

12 15 15 22 24 1 3 7

24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25

117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124

Assumptions about men and women Evaluation of men and women Women viewed differently than men for doing same thing Reviews done on men and women to ensure fairness Women described negatively in relation to age Women viewed negatively Women viewed in terms of what they have lost Raised awareness of how she knows or thinks about how women are viewed Men angry Freedom? Women control their emotions Emotion and link to sector Banks are about customers So banks do trade emotion Female values Customers is about people who have emotions.

Men and women Men and women View of women

Assumptions about men and women Evaluation Men and women

Diversity

How it works

Experience of being female View of women View of women

How it works

Evaluation Evaluation

Men and women

Awareness raised

Emotion Men and women View of women Emotion Organisationl objective Emotion Diversity

Men's emotions Emotion Culture

Organisation purpose Her view

Organisationl objective

322

Appendix G CIPD Website, search for "bias".

Full search results

Handshakes could lead to 'religious bias' cases, employers told


Job interviewers should not necessarily expect all job interviewees to shake hands as it could cause offence. Insisting on a handshake could leave the...
Press release Published: 02 July 2003 Home

Recent cases - Labour Court decisions and recommendations


M ember resource A summary of selected recent Irish Labour Court decisions and recommendations compiled by CIPD staff.
News Updated: 06 May 2010 Home

Recent cases - Equality Tribunal (Ireland)


M ember resource A summary of recent Irish Equality Tribunal cases compiled by CIPD staff.
News Updated: 21 April 2010 Home

Employment law: key differences between Northern Ireland and Great Britain
M ember resource Provides an introductory review of the key differences in employment law between Northern Ireland and Great Britain. Includes a table comparing principal legislation and a list of relevant Northern Ireland codes of practice.
Members factsheet Updated: November 2009 Home

News from government - Department of the Taoiseach - Ireland


323

M ember resource A summary of the latest news from the Department of the Taoiseach, Brian Cowen.
News Updated: 30 April 2010 Home

Consistency in disciplinary procedures


I am involved in a debate at work with regards to consistency and lack of bias conducting investigative interviews and any subsequent disciplinary hearings. Is it best practice to use the same interviewer throughout, in order to strive for consistenc...
Online discussion Updated: 10 September 2006 Home

Managing Diversity
As an HR specialit, what kind of business case would u bring up to convince management about managing diversity?Most people look at diversity as having people from different background, sex, age and so on within an organisation as being diverse set u...
Online discussion Updated: 21 February 2006 Home

Sex discrimination, sexual orientation, gender reassignment and employment


Gives a brief overview of the law, suggests good employment practices and includes the CIPD viewpoint.
Factsheet Updated: October 2009 Home

Interview candidates A-Z or random listing


I read somewhere (?) that it is good practice to list interview candidates in random order rather than alphabetically by surname.The reason given was that candidates with surnames that fall at the latter end of the alphabet are usually interviewed la...
Online discussion Updated: 23 July 2007 Home

New momentum on equal pay presents challenge for UK organisations


Speaking at a Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) event yesterday, equal pay expert, David Shonfield said: 'Equal pay has become a...
Press release Published: 21 June 2002 Home

Equal pay overview


Introduces the legislation and gives recommendations on good practice. Includes the CIPD viewpoint.
Author: SORET Nick Factsheet Updated: January 2010 Home

No title
Online discussion Home

Performance Management and Appraisal


Packed with practical techniques and easy-to-use exercises, handouts and facilitators' notes, this toolkit provides an effective way to train your managers efficiently and effectively.
Author: Terry Gillen Toolkit Book published: February 2007 Home

Ex-Forces discrimination?
I am interested to know peoples' views on the recruitment of ex-forces personnel into civilian jobs. I am concerned that there might be an element of bias against such potential recruits in favour of candidates who have worked in a commercial and civ...
Online discussion Updated: 04 October 2006 Home

Bullying in the workplace


I have a situation where 3 employees are claiming that they are being bullied by 4 other employees.

324

Following an investigation into this claim the 4 employees also claimed they were being bullied by the 3 employees originally making the complaint. ...
Online discussion Updated: 27 October 2005 Home

Religious and political activities


I am putting together our employee handbook. We currently have a statement in it which says...Although we have no political or religious bias, we are not prepared to allow any political or religious activities on our premises.Is this breaching the re...
Online discussion Updated: 08 June 2005 Home

A framework for achievement


Details of the CIPD policy response to the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority consultation.
CIPD comments on government proposals Published: 01 March 2005 Home

Equal pay figures show there is still room for improvement


More needs to be done to explain to employers why carrying out equal pay audits makes good business sense, according to Dianah Worman, Diversity Adviser...
Press release Published: 08 February 2005 Home

Removing academic achievement from MCIPD listings


Today I was told that a policy decision was taken 'earlier this year' to remove all academic qualifications from member listings/records without disucssion with us. However, CIPD is keeping a note of all awards by the Queen, Justice of the Peace and...
Online discussion Updated: 01 June 2004 Home

Interview notes
I would be interested to know about best practice regarding interview notes. In my company there is currently no set format for interview notes and we are looking into setting up a standard form, which enables us to show that our selection processes ...
Online discussion Updated: 30 August 2004 Home

Full search results

Diversity: an overview
Looks at diversity, its development and how it differs from equal opportunities. Outlines the business case for diversity and suggests ways to manage it. Includes the CIPD viewpoint.
Author: CANNELL Mike Factsheet Updated: February 2010 Home

Coursework vs exams - time to change train?


An article in the current (26 July) People Management (p9) questions the value of coursework as a result of the internet - the latter allows students/learners the opportunity to download rafts of material without always acknowledging the source. To s...
Online discussion Updated: 02 August 2007 Home

Employee Representation
Hello I am about the start my management report for the final stage of the CIPD. I am looking at employee representation as I am currently employed in an area where unions are the sole form of consultation.Does anyone have any experience of methods ...
Online discussion Updated: 01 June 2005 Home

Performance management: an overview


Considers the performance management process, how it works and outlines the tools it uses. Includes the CIPD viewpoint.
Author: CANNELL Mike

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Factsheet Updated: February 2010 Home

Race, religion and employment


Gives an overview of the legal position, suggestions for good employment practices and the CIPD viewpoint.
Factsheet Updated: October 2009 Home

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Online discussion Home

Diversity
Details of CIPD research into the latest thinking and practice on diversity issues.
Research details Updated: September 2007 Home

Employee of the Month


Hi All, We are trying to implement an 'Employee of the Month' scheme. Our General Manager is insisting that we have a whole motivational drive and really campaign the process.Does anybody have any experience of this, specifically on what types and am...
Online discussion Updated: 30 August 2006 Home

Retracting the offer of a second interview


We offered three people second interviews for a post. Two were interviewed for a second time (and have since been told they were not successful) the third was unviable for a week at the time we made contact to arrange the second interview. In the m...
Online discussion Updated: 03 May 2006 Home

Changing contract back from custom practice to that on the contract


My employees are all on a contract that states they will work rotating shifts. However, for the last 2 years most have worked static shifts. I want to move them all back on to rotating shifts. Can someone advise on whether I need to give 2 weeks n...
Online discussion Updated: 09 September 2004 Home

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Tackling age discrimination


Hi everyone,Organisations that fail to tackle age discrimination will be at a disadvantage in the recruitment and retention of talented employees, and also from October 2006, liable to discriminatory claims on the basis of age. It would be interestin...
Online discussion Updated: 23 August 2004 Home

Too young at 35, too old at 40 - ageism in the British workplace


Ageism is so rife in the British workplace that people have only five years in their entire working life during which they are unlikely to be judged too...
Press release Published: 05 January 2004 Home

Pay progression
Summarises different types of pay progression arrangements, the extent to which they operate, and assesses trends. Includes the CIPD viewpoint.
Author: EGAN Janet Factsheet Updated: March 2010 Home

Selection interviewing
Considers the role of interviews in the selection process. Outlines the forms interviews can take, types

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of questions to ask and offers tips for good practice. Includes the CIPD viewpoint.
Factsheet Updated: February 2010 Home

Pay levels: market pricing


Explains 'market rate' in relation to pay. Discusses pay policy, what constitutes pay and sets out approaches to market pricing.
Author: PALMER Steve Factsheet Updated: February 2010 Home

References
Looks at how to manage the risks in giving and providing references, and the key legal points. Includes the CIPD viewpoint.
Factsheet Updated: January 2010 Home

Investors in People
A summary of Investors in People (IIP) covering the Standard, the assessment and recognition process, and the benefits. Includes the CIPD viewpoint. and our approach to organisational capability.
Factsheet Updated: December 2009 Home

Employing people with criminal records: risk assessment


Provides guidance on how to undertake a risk assessment when deciding whether or not to recruit someone with a criminal record.
Factsheet Updated: March 2009 Home

Selection Interviewing Skills


This DVD will equip anyone involved with selection interviewing to prepare for, conduct and assess interviews professionally and incisively.
Author: Terry Gillen DVD Published: 01 March 2009 Home

CIPD Ireland Law Conference Report - Job cuts leading to 'survivor guilt' in workplaces
Thousands of people at work are becoming psychological victims of soaring unemployment and widespread job the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) annual employment law conference in Dublin was told.
Press release Published: 24 February 2009

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Latest official unemployment figures fall just short of 2 million but quarterly leap in redundancies signals 3 million jobless on the way
Official labour market figures published earlier today by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) surprisingly show that UK unemployment didn t top the...
Press release Published: 11 February 2009 Home

Reward
Details of CIPD research into the latest thinking and practice on reward issues, including pensions and flexible benefits.
Research details Updated: February 2008 Home

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REFERENCES (STUDY 1 AND 2 )

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