You are on page 1of 74

Introduction to Electrical Machines

1
CHAPTER FOUR
DC MACHI NCES
4.1. I NTRODUCTI ON
The dc machines ar e ver sat il e and ext ensi vel y used i n i ndust ry. A wi de vari et y of
vol t - amper e or t orque- speed charact eri st i cs can be obt ained from various
connect ions of t he fi el d winding. Dc machi nes can work as gener at ors, mot ors &
brakes. I n t he gener at or mode t he machine i s dri ven by a pri me mover ( such as a
st eam t urbine or a di esel engi ne) wi t h t he mechani cal power convert ed i nt o
el ect ri cal power. I n t he mot or mode, t he machine dri ves a mechani cal load wi t h t he
el ect ri cal power suppli ed convert ed i nt o mechani cal power. I n t he brake mode, t he
machine decel erat es on account of t he power suppli ed or di ssi pat ed by i t and,
t herefore, produces a mechani cal braki ng act i on.
There i s al most no modern use of dc machines as gener at ors al t hough in t he earl i er
st ages of el ect ri cal power generat or and di st ri bution. D.C. generat ors wer e t he
pri nci pl e means of suppl ying el ect ri cal power t o i ndust ri al and domest i c consumers.
Present l y, all t he l and based el ect ri cal power net works are a. c syst ems of
gener at i on, t ransmi ssi on and di st ri buti on.
The al most uni versal use of ac syst ems i s on account of t hei r lower gener at i on and
t ransmi ssion cost s, hi gher effi ci ency ( l arge bul k of ac power can be t ransmi t t ed and
di st ri but ed over wi de ar eas and l ong di st ance at much hi gher vol t ages t hat ar e
i mpossi bl e in dc syst em) , great er reli abi li t y on account of i nt erconnect i on and
cont rol.
No doubt , appli cat i on li ke aerocr aft s, shi ps and road mount ed vehi cl es whi ch are
i sol at ed from l and based ac net works empl oy dc sources incl uding dc generat ors and
secondary bat t eri es for power suppl y but t he modern t rend i s to use ac generat ors
wi th t he dc suppl y bei ng obt ai ned by rect i fi cat i on wi th t he hel p of st at i c power
rect i fi ers. D.C. generat ors are st i ll bei ng used t o produce power i n smal l back- up
and st and- by gener at i ng pl ant s dri ven by wi ndmill and mount ai n st reams
( mi nihydro- el ect ri c pl ant s) t o provi de unint errupt ed power suppl y.
Apart from dc gener at ors, t he dc mot ors ar e finding increasi ng appli cat ions,
especi all y where l arge magni t ude and preci sel y cont rol led t orque i s requi red. Such
mot ors are used in rolli ng mil l s, in overhead cr anes and for t ract i on purpose l i ke i n
forklif t t rucks, el ect ri c vehi cl es, and el ect ri c t r ai ns. They ar e al so used i n port abl e
machine t ool s suppl i ed from bat t eri es, i n aut omoti ve vehi cl es as st art er mot ors,
bl ower mot ors and i n many cont rol appli cat ions as act uat ors and as speed and
posi ti on sensi ng devi ce ( t achogenerat ors for speed sensi ng and servomot ors for
posi ti oning and t raci ng) .
4.2. CONSTRUCTI ON OF DC MACHI NES
The dc machines used for indust ri al appli cat i ons have essent i al l y t hree maj or part s:
a) Fi el d syst em ( st at or) ; b) Armat ure ( Rot or) and c) commut at or
All t he component s of t he dc machi ne are illust rat ed i n cut - away vi ew of Fi gure 4. 1.
Introduction to Electrical Machines

Fi gure 4.1 cut - away vi ew of DC machines
1.shaft ; 2. end- bearings; 3. Commut at or; 4. brushes; 5. armat ure; 6. main-
pole; 7.mai n- pole fi eld windi ng; 8.frame; 9.end- shield; 10.vent i lat or;
11.basement ; 12.bearings
4.2. 1. Field Syst em
The fi eld syst em i s locat ed on t he st at i onary part of t he machine call ed st at or. The
fi el d syst em i s desi gnat ed f or produci ng magnet i c flux and, t her efore, provi des t he
necessar y exci t at i on f or operat ion of machi ne. Fi gure 4. 2 shows t hat t he mai n flux o
pat hs whi ch st art s f rom a Nort h pol e, crosses t he ai r gap and t hen t ravel s down t o
t he armat ure core. There, i t di vi des i nto t wo equal ( o/2) hal ves, each hal f ent er t he
nearby Sout h Pol e so as t o compl et e t he fl ux. Each fl ux line crosses t he ai r - gap
t wi ce. Some fl ux li nes may not ent er t he ar mat ure; t hi s f lux, call ed t he l eakage fl ux,
i s not shown in Fi gure 4.2.

Fi gure 4.1 Flux pat hs i n a 6- pol e dc machines
Introduction to Electrical Machines
3
The st at or of dc machi nes compri ses of
1. Mai n pol es: These pol es ar e desi gned t o produce t he mai n magnet i c flux
2. Fr ame: These provi de support for the machi ne. I n many machi nes t he
frame i s al so a part of t he magnet i c circui t .
3. I nt erpol es: These pol es are desi gned t o i mprove commut at i on condi tions
t o ensure sparkl es operat i on of machi ne.

Fi gure 4.3 Main- pol e
Main- pole
Pol es are made of sheet st eel l aminat ions of 1.0 t o 1.2mm t hi ckness ( nowadays t he
t hi ckness becomes 0.4- 0.5mm) . The pol e shoes support t he fi el d coi ls pl aced on t he
pol e body and al so spread t he t ot al flux over a great er area, t her eby r educe t he ai r
gap r el uct ance and gi vi ng t he desi red fl ux di st ributi on t o l i mi t sat urat ion in t he t eet h
of the armat ure. ) (
A
l

= 9 .The pol es are secured t o t he yoke by means of bol t s. I n


small machines t he pol e are built of st eel forgings, bol t ed di rect l y t o t he yoke. I n
case of machi nes havi ng compensat i ng windi ngs, t he pol e face i s sl ot t ed t o
accommodat e t he wi ndings.
Yoke ( Frame)
The st at or of a dc machi nes consi st s of a frame or yoke, and pol es whi ch support
t he fi el d windings. The Frame or Yoke in addi t ion t o bei ng a part of a magnet i c
ci rcui t serves as mechani cal support for enti re assembl y.
Earli er, cast i ron was used for t he const ruct i on of yoke but i t has been r epl aced by
cast st eel . Thi s i s because cast i ron has sat urat ion densi t y of 0.8 Wb/ m
2
whi l e
sat urat ion occurs i n cast st eel at densi t y of approxi mat el y 1.5 Wb/ m
2
. Thus, t he
cross sect i on of t he cast st eel frame or yoke i s half t hat of i ron cast and hence cast
st eel i s used i n case i t i s desi red t o reduce t he wei ght of machi ne. Fabri cat ed st eel
yokes ar e commonl y used, as t hey ar e economi cal and have consi st ent magnet i c &
mechani cal propert i es. For very small si zed machines i t may st i ll be advant ageous t o
use cost iron frames but for medi um and l arge si zes roll ed st eel i s used.
I nt erlopes
I n addi tion t o the mai n pol es, modern direct current machi nes are al so provi ded wi t h
int erl opes wi t h wi ndings on t hem in order t o i mprove commut at i on under loaded
condi ti ons. They are arranged mi dway bet ween t he mains pol es and are bol t ed t o
t he yol k. Lami nat ed i nt erlopes are used in machine wi t h sever commut at i on
probl ems. For smal l and medi um si ze machi nes t hey coul d be sol i d.
4.2.2 . Armat ure
The armat ure i s t he rot at i ng part ( rot or) of t he dc machine where t he process of
el ect romechani cal energy conver si on t akes pace. The armat ure i s a cyl indri cal body,
whi ch rot at es bet ween t he magnet i c pol es. An i somet ri c vi ew of a smal l si ze
armat ure st ruct ure i s shown in Fi gure 4.4 ( a) . The armat ure and t he fi el d syst em
ar e separ at ed from each ot her by an ai r gap. The ar mat ure consi st s of:
Introduction to Electrical Machines
4
1. Armat ure core wi th slot s and
2. Armat ure wi nding accommodat ed i n sl ot s
The purpose of t he ar mat ure i s t o rot at e t he conduct ors in t he uniform magnet i c
fi el d and t o induce an al t ernat i ng e. m.f i n i t s wi ndi ng. The armat ure core i s normal l y
made from hi gh permeabi li t y si li con- st eel l aminat i ons of 0.4 to 0.5mm t hi ckness,
whi ch are i nsul at ed from one anot her by varnish or cerami c i nsul ation. The use of
hi gh grade st eel i s t o keep hyst eresi s l oss low, whi ch i s due t o cycl i c change of
magnet i zat i on caused by rot at i on of t he core in t he magnet i c fi el d and t o reduce t he
eddy current i n t he core whi ch are i nduced by t he rot at i on of t he core i n t he
magnet i c fi el d.
I n order t o di ssi pat e t he heat produced by hyst er esi s and eddy current losses et c,
vent i l at i ng duct s are provi ded. By t he fanning act i on of t he armat ure, ai r i s drawn in
t hrough t hese duct s, t hus producing effi ci ent vent il at ion. I n t he armat ure core of
small di amet er s, ci rcul ar hol es ar e punched in t he cent er of t he l ami nat i ons for t he
shaft ( Fi gure 4.4( b)) .

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.4 ( a) I somet ri c vi ew of armat ure; ( b) armat ure l ami nat ion
4.2.3 . Commut at or
I t i s mount ed on t he rotor of a dc machi ne and i t performs wi t h hel p of brushes a
mechani cal rect i fi cat i on of power: from ac t o dc in case of generat ors and dc t o ac i n
case of mot ors. The ends of armat ure coil s are connect ed t o t he commut at or, whi ch
t oget her wi t h t he brushes rect i fi es t he al t ernat ing e.m.f i nduced i n t he armat ure
coil s and hel ps i n the coll ect i on of current . I t i s cyli ndri call y shaped and i s pl aced at
one end of t he armat ure. The const ruct i on of the commut at or i s qui t e compli cat ed
because i t invol ves t he combi nati on of copper, iron and insul at i ng mat eri al s. The
connect ion of armat ure conduct ors t o t he commut at or i s made wi t h t he hel p of
ri sers. The ri sers connect ing t he segment s t o t he armat ure coil s are made of copper
st ri ps for l arge machines. The out er end of t he ri ser i s shaped so as t o form cli p i nto
whi ch the armat ure conduct ors are sol dered. The commut at or bars are built of a
small wedge shaped segment s of hi gh conduct i vi t y hard drawn copper i nsul at ed
from each ot her by mi ce or mi cani t e of about 0.8mm t hi ckness. The commut at or
segment s are assembl ed over a st eel cyli nder. V- shaped grove i s provi ded at each
end of t he segment s t o prevent t hem from fl ying away under t he act i on of
cent ri fugal force. Threaded st eel rings are used t o ti ght en t he vari ous component s
t oget her ( see Fi gure 4. 5) . The commut at or assembl y i s force and press fi t t ed on t he
shaft . Sat i sfact ory perf ormance of dc machi nes i s dependent under good
mechani call y st abil it y of the commut at or under all condi tions of speed and
t emperat ure wi t hin t he operat i ng range. A mechani cal l y unst abl e commut at or
mani fest s i t sel f in a pool commut at ion performance and resul t s in unsat i sfact ory
bush li fe.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
5

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4. 5 ( a) cut -away vi ew of commut at or; ( b) commut at or segment
4.2.4 . Brushes and Brush Holder
Brushes are needed t o coll ect t he current from t he rot at i ng commut at or or t o l ead
t he current t o i t . Normall y brushes are made up of carbon and graphi t e, so t hat
whi l e in cont act wi t h t he commut at or, t he commut at or surface i s not spoil ed. The
brush i s accommodat ed i n t he brush hol der where a spri ng presses i t agai nst t he
commut at or wi t h pressure of 1.5 t o 2.0 Ncm
2
( see Fi gure 4.6) . A t wi st ed fl exi bl e
copper conduct or call ed pi gt ail securel y fi xed in t o t he brush i s used t o make t he
connect ion bet ween t he brush and i t s brush holder. Normall y brush holders used i n
dc machines ar e of box t ype. The numbers of brush hol ders usuall y equal t o t he
number of main pol es i n dc machines.

Fi gure 4.6 Brush and brush holder
4.3. PRI NCI PLE OPERATI ON OF DC GENERATOR
An el ect ri cal generat or i s a machi ne, whi ch convert s mechani cal energy i nt o
el ect ri cal energy. The energy conver si on i s based on princi pl e of dynami cal l y
induced emf, whenever a conduct or cut s magnet i c flux, dynami cal l y i nduced emf i s
produced i n i t ( Far adays l aw) . Thi s emf causes a current t o flow i f t he conduct or i s
closed. The basi c essent i al part s of an el ect ri cal gener at or are:
A magnet i c Fi el d and
A conduct or or conduct ors, whi ch can so move as t o cut t he
flux.
Fi gure 4.7 shows t he schemat i c di agram of a simpl e machi ne consi st s of a coil ABCD
rot at i ng in the magnet i c fi el d of a st rong permanent magnet or powerful
el ect romagnet . The magnet i c lines i n t he space bet ween N and S pol es ar e di rect ed
from t he Nort h Pol e N t o t he Sout h Pol e S as shown in Fi gure 4.7. The ends of t he
coil ABCD are connect ed t o t wo copper ri ngs R
1
and R
2
, fi xed on t he shaft . Two
brushes B
1
and B
2
connect ed t o t he ext ernal l oad ci rcui t make cont act wi t h t he
copper ri ngs R
1
and R
2
respect i vel y.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
6

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.7 ( a) and ( b) Schemat i c di agram of a simpl e dc generat or
Let t he coil be rot at ed i n an ACW, wi t h const ant surface speed v[ ms] in rel at ion t o
t he magnet i c fi el d . According t o Far adays l aws of el ect romagnet i c i nducti on, an
emf wil l be i nduced in t he rot at i ng coil and i s gi ven by
volts Blv e =
As l and v are const ant for part i cul ar case,
volts B t tan cons e =
Hence under t he gi ven condi tions, t he change in t he magni tude of i nduced e.m.f
wi th ti me depends upon t he magnet i c flux densi t y di st ri buti on under t he pol es. I t
may be assumed negl ect i ng harmoni cs i t i s a si ne wave di st ribution. The di rect ion of
t he i nduced emf in t hi s case can be det ermi ned by Fl emings ri ght hand rul e as
shown in Fi gure bel ow. Hence t he conduct or AB of t he coi l ABCD moves downward
and CD moves upward, t he di rect ion of t he induced emf in t he coil i s along DCBA as
shown in Fi gure 4.7( a) . The curr ent in t he ext ernal remai ns t he same hal f a
revol ution of t he coi l st art i ng from i t s vert i cal posi tion.

S S
N N
EMF
Flux
Motion

e e

v

Fi gure 4.8 Ri ght - hand rul e t o det er mi ne t he di rect i on of induced emf.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
7
Si mil arl y, in t he next hal f of t he revolution, t he di r ect i on of the induced emf i s
rever sed and hence t he current flows f rom brush B
2
t o B
1
as shown i n Fi gure
4.7( b) .The magni t ude of current in t he ext ernal ci rcui t al so vari es wi t h ti me as per
sine l aw; i .e. i t s magni t ude i s not const ant wi t h t i me.
I f t he machine has P pol es and t he armat ure rot at es at N r evol utions per mi nut e,
t hen t he frequency of t he induced emf in t he armat ure i s,
120
PN
f = , Hz
The above di scussi on cl earl y indi cat es t hat t he e.m.f i nduced i n t he armat ure of a dc
gener at or i s of al t ernat ing nat ure, al t ernat i ng wi t h frequency of f hert z dependi ng
upon the number of pol es i n t he machi ne and t he speed of t he armat ure.
However, t he out put vol t age or t he current of dc generat or must be uni di rect i onal
and t hat t oo of a const ant val ue. Thus t o compel t he above al t ernat i ng current t o
flow in one st i pul at ed di rect ion through t he ext ernal l oad ci rcui t , the dc machi ne i s
furni shed wi t h a speci al devi ce call ed t he commut at or.
Fi gure 4.9 shows t hat t he coil ABCD connect ed t o a ring commut at or spl i t in t wo
hal ves R
1
and R
2
wel l insul at ed from each ot her. The rings of t he commut at or are so
arr anged t hat duri ng hal f t he revolution of t he coil , each hal f ring remai n in cont act
wi th a part i cul ar brush. Fi gure 4.9( a) wil e during t he next hal f revol ution, when t he
current i s reversed, t he same hal f ring i s in cont act wi t h ot her brush as shown in
Fi gure 4.9 ( b) .

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.9 coil ABCD connect ed t o a ri ng commut at or
As a r esul t , current i n the ext ernal l oad ci rcui t remai ns in t he same di rect i on. The
nat ure of t he vari at i on of current i n t he ext ernal load current wi t h t he rot at ion of t he
coil , i .e. wi t h ti me, has been shown in Fi gure 4.10. Such uni direct i onal current or
emf whi ch fl uct uat es bet ween maxi mum and zero val ues i s qui t e i nconveni ent for
pract i cal purposes.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
8


Fi gure 4.10 Unidi rect ional current wave shape
To overcome t he above di ffi cul t y of t he nat ure of a move shape, consi der t wo coil s
whose pl anes ar e i nclined t o each ot her at an angl e of 90
0
and di vi ded t he
commut at or ri ng mount ed on t he same shaft i nt o four part s. The l eads of each coil
ar e connect ed t o t he t wo di amet ri cal l y opposi t e part s of t he ri ng. I n such case, t he
e. m.f or current wave shape due t o ei t her coil will be of t he same t ype but 90
0

out of
phase, i .e. when t he current i n one reaches maxi mum val ue, t he current i n t he other
coil has zero val ue as shown in Fi gure 4. 11. The resul t ant current i n the ext ernal
ci rcui t due t o t he rot at i on of t he t wo coi l s si mult aneousl y at t he same speed can be
obt ai ned by superi mposi ng t he t wo current waves. Hence, t he resul t ant current
wave shape i s l ess fl uct uat i ng. Si mil arl y, i f a l arge number of coil s are provi ded on
t he rot at i ng armat ure of t he machine wi t h doubl e t he number of commut at or
segment s, t he wave shape of t he r esul t ant current or t he emf wi ll pract i call y be
par al l el to t he t i me axi s and hence const ant wi th respect t o t i me.


Fi gure 4.11 Resul t ant current wave shape
4.4. TYPES OF DC GENERATORS
The fi el d windi ng and the armat ure winding can be int erconnect ed i n vari ous ways t o
provi de a wi de vari et y of performance char act eri st i cs. Thi s can be t aken as
out st anding advant ages of a dc machines. A dc machine can work as an
el ect romechani cal energy convert er onl y when it s fi el d wi nding i s exci t ed wi t h di rect
current , except for small dc machi nes empl oying permanent magnet s. Accordi ng t o
t he met hod of t hei r fi el d exci t at ion dc gener at ors ar e cl assi fi ed i nt o t he fol lowi ng
group:
a) separat el y exci t ed and
b) sel f exci t ed
DC machi nes may have one or more fi el d windings and t hei r met hod of exci t at i on,
det ermi nes t he performance char act eri sti cs of the dc machi ne.
4.4.1 . Separat ely Excited
I t s fi el d wi nding consi st s of sever al hundreds t urns of fi ne wi re and i s connect ed t o a
separ at e or ext ernal dc source i .e. fi el d wi ndi ng are energi zed from an independent
ext ernal sources of dc current . The vol t age of t he ext ernal dc source has no rel ati on
Introduction to Electrical Machines
9
wi th t he armat ure vol t age, i . e. t he fi el d wi nding energi zed from a separ at e suppl y,
can be desi gned for any conveni ent vol t age.
+
_
Shunt
Winding
_
+ V
dc
V
L
I
L
I
a
E
g
L
o
a
d

I mportant
relat ionships
i.
L a
I I =
ii .
a a L g
R I V E + =
iii.
a g dev
I E P =
iv.
L L del
I V P =

Fi gure 4.12 separat el y exci t ed dc machi nes
4.4.2 . Self Excit ation
When t he fi el d wi ndi ng i s exci t ed by i t s own armat ure, t he machines i s sai d t o be a
sel f exci t ed dc machi ne. I n t hese machines, t he fi el d pol es must have a r esi dual
magnet i sm, so t hat when t he armat ure rot at es, a r esi dual volt age appears across
t he brushes. Thi s resi dual vol t age shoul d est abl i sh a current in t he fi el d windi ng so
as t o rei nforce t he resi dual flux. According t he connect ion of t he fi el d winding wi t h
t he ar mat ure wi nding, a sel f- exci t ed dc machine can be sub- di vi ded as fol lows:
Series Excit at ion
The fi el d winding consi st s of a few t urns of t hi ck wi re and i s connect ed i n seri es wi t h
t he armat ure. I n ot her words, t he seri es fi eld current depends on t he armat ure
current and i n vi ew of thi s; a seri es fi el d may be call ed a cur rent operat ed field.

I mport ant relat ionships
i .
L se a
I I I = =
ii . ( )
se a a L g
R R I V E + + =
iii.
a g dev
I E P =
i v.
L L del
I V P =

Fi gure 4.13 Seri es exci t ed dc machine
Shunt Excit at ion
The fi el d winding consi st s of a l arge number of t urns of fine wire and i s connect ed in
par al l el (or in shunt ) wi t h t he armat ure. Theref ore t he vol t age across t he armat ure
t er minal s and t he shunt fi el d i s t he same and it i s for thi s reason t hat a shunt fi eld
may be call ed volt age operat ed field.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
10

I mport ant relat ionships
i .
L
sh
sh
sh
R
V
I =
i i.
L sh a
I I I + =
i ii.
a a L g
R I V E + =
i v.
a g dev
I E P =
v.
L L del
I V P =

Fi gure 4.14 Shunt exci t ed dc machine
Remember t hat seri es fi el d and shunt fi el d windings are charact eri zed by l ow and
hi gh resi st ance respect i vel y. I n some appli cat i on, a shunt exci t ed windi ng may be
repl aced by a separat el y exci t ed wi ndi ng.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
11
Compound Excit at ion
A compound exci t at i on invol ves bot h seri es-exi t ed wi ndi ng and the shunt -exci t ed
winding. From t he vi ew poi nt of connect i ons, a dc compound machi ne may have
short - shunt connect i on or a long shunt connect i on. I n short shunt connect i on of
Fi gure 4.15 ( a) t he shunt fi el d or vol t age exci t ed wi nding i s connect ed across t he
armat ure t ermi nal s. I n l ong- shunt connect i on, t he shunt fi el d i s connect ed across
t he seri es connect i on of t he armat ure and seri es wi nding or
t he machi ne or line t ermi nal s as shown i n Fi gure 4.15 ( b) .
However t here i s appr eci abl e di fference i n t he oper at ing char act eri st i cs of short -
shunt and long shunt . The choi ce bet ween t he t wo t ypes depends on mechani cal
consi derat i ons of connect i ons or rever si ng swi t ches.

( a)
I mport ant relat ionships
i.
L se
I I =
ii.
sh
se se L
sh
a a g
sh
R
R I V
R
R I E
I
+
=

=
iii .
L sh a
I I I + =
iv.
se L a a L g
R I R I V E + + =
v.
a g dev
I E P =
vi .
L L del
I V P =



( b)
I mport ant relationships
i .
se a
I I =
i i.
( )
sh
L
sh
se a a g
sh
R
V
R
R R I E
I =
+
=
i ii.
L sh a
I I I + =
i v. ( )
se a a L g
R R I V E + + =
v.
a g dev
I E P =
vi.
L L del
I V P =

Fi gure 4.15 DC compound machi ne connect i ons for a) short - shunt and b) long
shunt
I n a compound machi ne, t he magnet i c flux produced by t he shunt fi el d i s st ronger
t han t he seri es fi el d. When seri es fi el d ai ds t he shunt fi el d, so t hat t he resul t ant ai r
gap f lux per pol e i s i ncreases, t hen t he machi ne i s sai d t o be cumulat ively
compounded. I n Fi gure 4.16 ( a) t he di rect ion of arrows corresponds t o t he
di rect i on magnet i c flux produced by shunt and seri es fi el d wi ndings. As t he t wo
arrows are i n t he same di rect i on i n Fi gure 4.16 ( a) , t hi s Fi gure i s for a cumul at i vel y
compounded dc machi ne.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
12

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.16 compound exci t ed dc machine ( a) cumul at i ve and b) different i al
On t he ot her hand if seri es fi el d opposes t he shunt fi el d so t hat t he resul t ant ai r gap
flux per pol e i s decreased, t he machine i s call ed a differentially compounded dc
machine as shown in Fi gure 4.16( b).
I n Fi gure 4.15( a) , each pol e of compound machi ne i s shown t o possess shunt and
seri es fi el d windi ngs. Fi gure 4.17(a) ill ust rat ed how t hese wi ndi ngs are arranged on
one pol e of a dc machi ne. I n Fi gure 4.17 shunt fi el d coil i s pl aced near yoke and
seri es fi el d coil near t he pol e shoe j ust f or sake of cl ari t y.

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.17 Seri es and shunt fi el d windings on one pol e of dc compound machine
Act uall y physi cal arrangement of t hese coil s i s shown in Fi gure 4.17 (b) . I t i s seen
t hat first shunt fi el d coil i s wound around t he pol e body and over i t i s t hen wound
t he seri es fi el d coil. The reasons for pl aci ng t he seri es fi el d coil out side ar e:
i) conveni ence i n t he const ruct i on and
ii) for i t s bet t er cool ing
4.5. EMF EQUATI ON OF DC GENERATOR
Let o = fl ux per pol e i n Weber
Z = t ot al number of armat ure conduct ors
= Number of slot s Number of conduct ors per sl ot
P = Number of pol es
a = number of paral l el pat hs in armat ure
N= armat ure rot at i on in revol utions per minut e ( rpm)
E = emf induced i n any parall el pat h i n armat ure
Gener at ed emf, Eg= emf generat ed i n one of t he par all el pat h
Introduction to Electrical Machines
13
Aver age emf gener at ed / conduct or volt ,
dt
d
=
Now, flux cut / conduct or in one revolution, Wb , P d =
Number of revolution / second ond sec ,
60
N
=
Hence according to Far adays l aw of el ect romagnet i c induct ion
emf generat ed / conduct or volt ,
60
PN
dt
d
= =
For wave winding

Number of parall el pat h a = 2
Number of conduct ors (i n seri es) i n one pat h
2
Z
=
emf generat ed / pat h volt
60 2
ZPN
2
Z
60
PN

= =


For lap winding

Number of parall el pat h a = P
Number of conduct ors (i n seri es) i n one pat h
P
Z
=
emf generat ed / pat h volt
60
ZN
P
Z
60
PN
= =
I n general , t he Gener at ed emf
volt
a
P
60
ZN
E
g
|
.
|

\
|

o
=

Where, a = 2 for wave winding
a = P for l ap wi ndi ng
N K E
a g
o =
where,
a 60
ZP
K
a

= i s machi ne const ant .


Example 4.1 A dc shunt gener at or suppli es a load of 10 kW at 220 V t hrough
feeder s of resi st ance 0.1O. The resi st ance of armat ure and shunt fi el d windings i s
0.05 O and 100 O respect i vel y. Cal cul at e, ( i ) t erminal volt age, ( ii ) shunt fi el d current
and (i ii) generat ed emf.
Solut ion
i) Load suppli ed , P
del
= 10 kW
= 10 10
3
W
Vol t age at t he l oad t ermi nal s = 220 V
Thus load current ,

A
V
P
I
del
L
5 . 45
220
10 10
3
=

= =

Resi st ance of t he feeders = 0.1 O
Vol t age drop in t he feeder s = I
L
0.1
Introduction to Electrical Machines
14
= 45.5 0.1 = 4.55 V
Termi nal volt age across t he armat ure t ermi nal s, V
'
= 220 + 4.55
= 224.55 V
ii) Shunt fi el d current ,

A 25 . 2
100
55 . 224
R
V
I
sh
'
sh
=
= =

iii ) Gener at ed emf,

V 82 . 226
05 . 0 5 . 45 55 . 224
R I V E
a a
'
g
=
+ =
+ =

Example 4.2 A 4-pol e dc shunt generat or wi t h l ap-connect ed ar mat ure suppl i es a
load of 100 A at 200 V. The ar mat ure r esi st ance i s 0.1 O and t he shunt fi el d
resi st ance i s 80 O. Fi nd (i ) t ot al armat ure current , ( i i) current per armat ur e pat h,
and ( iii) emf generat ed. Assume a brush cont act drop of 2V.
Solut ion
i) Termi nal volt age across t he armat ure t ermi nal s, V = 200 V
Shunt fi el d resi st ance, R
sh
= 80 O
Shunt fi el d current ,

A 5 . 2
80
200
R
V
I
sh
sh
=
= =

Load current , I
L
= 100 A
Armat ure current , I
a
= I
L
+ I
sh

= 100 + 2.5
= 102.5 A
ii) Shunt generat or i s l ap- wound, as such t he number of parall el ci rcui t s in t he
armat ure wi ndi ng i s equal to t he number of pol es.
Thus number of parall el ci rcui t s a = 4
Tot al armat ure current , I
a
= 102.5 A
Thus t he current per armat ure pat h,

A 625 . 25
4
5 . 102
=
=

iii ) Emf generat ed,

V 25 . 212
2 05 . 0 5 . 102 200
V R I V E
bd a a g
=
+ + =
+ + =

Introduction to Electrical Machines
15
Example 4.3 A short shunt compound generat or suppl i es 200 A at 100 V. The
resi st ance of armat ure, seri es fi el d and shunt fiel d i s respect i vel y, 0.04, 0.03 and 60
O. Fi nd t he emf gener at ed.
Solut ion
Termi nal volt age across t he l oad, V
L
= 100 V
Load current , I
L
= 200 A
Resi st ance of seri es fi el d winding R
se
= 0.03 O
Vol t age drop in seri es fi el d wi nding = I
L
R
se

= 200 0.03
= 6 V
Termi nal volt age across t he armat ure, V = V
L
+ I
L
R
se

= 100 + 6
= 106 V
Shunt fi el d current ,

A 77 . 1
60
106
R
V
I
sh
sh
=
= =

Armat ure current , I
a
= I
L
+ I
sh

= 200 + 1.77
= 201.77 A
Gener at ed emf,

V 07 . 114
04 . 0 77 . 201 6 100
R I R I V E
a a se L L g
=
+ + =
+ + =

Example 4.4 The armat ure of a four pol e, wave wound shunt generat or has
120 slot s wi t h 4 conduct ors per slot . The fl ux per pol e i s 0.05 Wb. The ar mat ure
resi st ance i s 0.05 O and t he shunt fi el d resi st ance 50 O. Find the speed of t he
machine when suppl ying 450 A at a t ermi nal volt age of 250 V.
Solut ion
Termi nal volt age, V
L
= 250 V
Load current , I
L
= 450 A
Shunt fi el d resi st ance, R
sh
= 50 O
Shunt fi el d current ,

A 0 . 5
50
250
R
V
I
sh
L
sh
=
= =
I
Armat ure current , I
a
= I
L
+ I
sh

= 450 + 5
= 455 A
Armat ure resi st ance, R
a
= 0. 05 O
Gener at ed emf,
Introduction to Electrical Machines
16

V 75 . 272
05 . 0 455 250
R I V E
a a L g
=
+ =
+ =

Gener at ed emf,
V
a 60
NZ P
E
g

o
=
Number of pol es, P = = 4; Fl ux per pol e, o = 0. 05 Wb; Number of slot s on armat ure
= 120; Conduct ors per sl ot = 4
Thus t ot al number of conduct ors on armat ure = 120 4 = 480
As t he armat ure i s wave wound, number of parall el pat hs, a= 2
Substi t ut ing t hese i n t he above equat i on,

2 60
480 N 05 . 0 4
75 . 272


=
Speed of rot at i on,

rpm 341
480 05 . 0 4
2 60 75 . 272
N
=


=

Example 4.5 A long-shunt compound generat or suppl i es a load at 110 V
t hrough a pai r of feeders of t ot al resi st ance 0.04 O. The load consi st s of fi ve mot ors,
each t aki ng 30 A and a l ighti ng load of 150 bul bs each of 60 W. The armat ure
resi st ance i s 0. 03 O, seri es fi el d resi st ance 0.04 O and shunt fi el d resi st ance, 55 O.
Fi nd, (i ) load current , (ii) t erminal vol t age, and (i ii) emf generat ed.
Solut ion
i ) Current drawn by each mot or = 30 A
Thus current drawn by fi ve mot ors = 30 5
= 150 A
Tot al lighti ng load = 150 60
= 9000 W
Current t aken by t he lighting l oad = A 82
110
9000
=
Hence, t ot al load current = 150 + 82
= 232 A
i i) Vol t age at t he t ermi nal s of t he load = 110 V
Tot al resi st ance of t he f eeders = 0.04 O
Current t hrough t he feeders = 232 A
Vol t age drop in feeder s = 232 0.04
= 9.28 V
Termi nal volt age across t he gener at or t ermi nal s,
V = V
L
+ drop in f eeders
= 110 + 9.28
= 119.28 V
Introduction to Electrical Machines
17
i ii) Resi st ance of shunt fi eld, R
sh
= 55 O
Current in shunt fi eld winding,
A 2 . 2
55
28 . 119
R
V
I
sh
sh
= = =
Current i n the armat ure winding, I
a
= I
L
+ I
sh

= 232 + 2.2 = 234.2 A
Current i n the seri es fi el d winding, I
se
= I
a
= 234.2 A
Tot al resi st ance of armat ure and seri es fi el d wi ndi ng = R
a
+ R
se

= 0. 03 + 0.04 = 0.07 O
Gener at ed emf ,

( )
A 67 . 135
07 . 0 2 . 234 28 . 119
R R I V E
se a a g
=
+ =
+ + =

4.6. ARMATURE REACTI ON
By armat ure react i on i s meant t he effect of magnet i c fi el d. Set up by armat ure
current on t he di st ri bution of flux under mai n pol es. I n other words armat ure
react ion i s meant t he effect of armat ure ampere- t urns upon t he val ue and t he
di st ri buti on of t he magnet i c flux ent eri ng and l eavi ng t he armat ure core. The
armat ure magnet i c fi el d has t wo effect s:
1. I t demagnet i zes or weakens t he main flux &
2. I t cross magnet i zes or di st ort s i t
Let us il lust rat e ( demonst r at e) t hese t wo effect s of armat ure react ion for 2- pol e d.c
gener at or. For bet t er underst andi ng l et us see t hree cases.
Case- I : Fi gure 4.18 shows t he di st ri buti on of magnet i c flux when there i s no current
( I
a
= 0) i n t he armat ure conduct ors,. For t hi s case
a) The di st ri buti on magnet i c fl ux symmet ri cal wi th respect t o t he pol ar axi s.
b) The magnet i c neut ral axi s or pl ace ( M.N.A. ) coi nci des wi t h geomet ri cal
neut ral axi s or pl ane ( G.N.A)
M.N.A may be defined as t he axis along whi ch no-emf i s produced in t he armat ure
conduct ors because t hey move par al lel t o t he lines of flux
or M.N. A. i s t he axi s whi ch i s perpendi cul ar t o t he fl ux passi ng t hrough t he
armat ure.
I n t hi s case, brushes are al ways pl aced al ong M.N.A and t he mmf ( F
m
) produci ng t he
main flux i s di rect ed perpendi cul ar t o M.N.A.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
18

Fi gure 4. 18 Magnet i c flux di st ri but i on due t o the mai n fi el d pol es onl y
Case- I I : Fi gure 4.19, shows t he fi el d (or fl ux) set up by t he armat ure
conduct ors al one, when current carryi ng t he fi el d coil s bei ng unexci t ed ( I
f
= 0).
The di rect i on of t he armat ure current i s t he same as i t woul d be when t he
gener at or i s l oaded & det ermi ned by Fl emings Ri ght -hand rul e. Under t hi s case,
t he magnet i c fi el ds, whi ch are set up by armat ure conduct or are symmet ri cal t o
G. N.A. and t he mmf of t he armat ure conduct or ( dependi ng on t he st rengt h of I
a
)
i s shown separ at el y bot h in magni t ude and direct i on by t he Vect or OF
a
whi ch i s
par all el to G.N.A
.
Field Flux due to
field current only
Polar-axis
o
F
a
Generator
rotation

Fi gure 4.19 Magnet i c flux di st ri buti on due t o the armat ure exci t at i on onl y
I n t he above t wo cases, we consi dered t he mai n mmf and armat ure mmf separ at el y,
as i f t hey exi st ed independent l y, whi ch i s not t he case i n pract i ce under act ual l oad
condi ti ons. The t wo cases exi st si mul t aneousl y in generat or as wi ll be shown i n case
I I I .
Case- I I I : Fi gure 4.21 shows t he combi nat ion of case I & I I . I n t hi s case t he mai n
flux t hrough t he armat ure i s no longer uniform and symmet ri cal about t he pol e- axi s,
rat her i t has been di st ort ed. The fl ux i s seen t o be crowded at t he t r aili ng pol e ti ps
but weakened or t hinned out at t he l eadi ng pole t i ps ( t he pol e ti p whi ch i s fi rst met
during rot at i on by armat ure conduct ors are known as t he l eadi ng pol e ti p and t he
ot her as t r ailing pol e ti p) . I n Fi gure 4.20 i s shown t he resul t ant mmf OF
R
whi ch i s
found by vect orall y combi ning OF
m
and OF
a
.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
19
u
u

Fi gure 4.20 combined magnet i c flux di st ri bution due t o armat ure and fi el d
The new posi ti on of M.N. A whi ch i s al ways per pendi cul ar to t he resul t ant mmf
vect or OF
R
i s shown in Fi gure 4.20. Due t o t he shi ft of M.N.A, say t hrough an
angl e u, brushes are al so shift ed so as t o l i e along t he new posi tions of M.N.A.
Due t o t hi s brush shi ft ( or forward, l eads) , t he ar mat ure conduct ors and hence
t he ar mat ure current i s redi st ri but ed, i .e. some armat ure conduct ors, whi ch were
earl i er under t he influence of N- pol e, come under t he influence of S- pol e and
vi ce- versa. Let us see t hi s condi tion wit h hel p of Fi gure 4.21.
Now t he armat ure mmf i s now represent ed by vect or F
a
t hat i s no vert i cal but i s
i nclined by angl e u t o t he l eft ( Fi gure 4.21). Thi s vect or can be r esol ved int o t wo
rect angul ar component s, F
d
par all el t o pol ar axi s and F
c
perpendi cul ar t o t hi s
axi s, we fi nd t hat
1. Component F
c
i s at ri ght angl e t o t he vect or OF
m
(Fi gure 4.18)
represent i ng the mai n mmf i t produces di st ortion in t he mai n fi el d and i s
hence call ed t he cross- magnet i zi ng or di st ort i ng component of t he
armat ure React i on.
2. Component F
d
i s in direct opposi tion t o OF
m
, whi ch represent s t he mai n
mmf. I t exert s a demagnet i zing influence on t he main pol e fl ux. Hence, i t
i s call ed t he demagnet i zi ng or weakening component of t he armat ure
react ion.
From t he above di scussi on we can conclude t hat :
1. The flux across t he ai r gap i s no longer uni form, but weakens under t he
l eading pol e ti ps and st rengt hened under t he t rail ing pol e t i ps. ( The pol e tip
whi ch i s fi rst met duri ng rot at i on by ar mat ure conduct ors i s known as t he
l eading pol e ti p and t he other as t rail ing pol e t i p) .Due t o t hi s t he resul t ant
mmf gi ven ri se t o decreases f lux. So t hat emf i n t he armat ure under l oaded
condi ti ons i s somewhat l ess t han t hat of under no-load condi tions.
2. The brushes should be shi ft ed i n t he di rect i on of rot at i on t o avoi d a heavy
short - circui t current and sparki ng at brushes.
3. The fi el d di st ortion cause, an increase i n t he i ron losses as compar ed i t s no-
load val ue because of increases peak val ue of flux densi t y in t he t oot h.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
20


Fi gure 4.21 t he demagnet i zing and cross- magnet i zi ng component s of
armat ure mmf
4.7. COMMUTATI ON
The armat ure conduct ors carry current in one di rect i on when t hey ar e under t he
influence of N- pol e and in opposi t e direct i on when t hey ar e under S- pol e. So when
t he conduct ors come under t he influence of t he S-pol e from the i nfl uence of N- pol e,
t he di rect ion of flow of current in t hem i s reversed. Thi s reversal of current in a coil
will t ake pl ace when t he t wo commut at or segment s t o whi ch t he coil i s connect ed
ar e bei ng short ci rcui t ed by brush. The process of reversal of current i n a coi l i s
t er med as commut at i on. The period during which t he coi l remai ns short - ci rcui t ed i s
call ed commut at i on peri od, T
c
. Thi s commut at i on period i s very smal l of t he order of
0.001 to 0.003s.
I f t he current reversal i .e. t he changes from+ I t o ZERO and t hen to I i s compl et ed
by t he end of short ci rcui t or commut at ion peri od, t he commut at i on i s I deal . I f
current reversal i s not compl et ed by t hat t i me, t hen spar king i s produced bet ween
t he brush and t he commut at or, whi ch resul t s i n progressi ve damage t o bot h.
Let us di scuss t he process of commut at i on in more det ai l wi th hel p of Fi gure 4.22
where ri ng wi nding has been used for si mpli ci t y.

(a)
a b c
Motion
2I
I I
A
B C

( b)
Introduction to Electrical Machines
21


( c)
Fi gure 4.22 commut at i on process
I n Fi gure 4.22 ( a) Coi l B carri es current in cl ock wi se di rect i on but i t i s about t o be
short circui t ed, because brush i s about t o come i n touch wi th commut at or segment
a .
Fi gure 4.22 ( b) shows t he coi l B in t he mi ddl e of i t s short - ci rcui t ed period and i t i s
observed t hat current can reach t he brush wi t h out passi ng through coil B, so coil B
has no current .
Fi gure 4. 22( c) depi ct s t he moment when coil B i s al most at t he end of commut at i on
or short - ci rcui t period and the current in t he coi l has t o be rever sed.
Duri ng t he period of short ci rcui t , period of commut at i on, t he current in t he short -
ci rcui t ed coi l should be rever sed t o ful l value. Rapi d rever sal of current i n t he short
ci rcui t ed coil does not at t ai n i t s full value in t he rever se di rect i on by t he end of short
ci rcui t . The failure of current i n t he short -ci rcui t ed coil t o reach t he full value in
rever se di rect i on by t he end of short ci rcui t i s t he basi c cause of sparki ng at t he
commut at or ( as shown in Fi gure c current j ump from comment at or segment b t o
brush in t he form of an arc) . The reason for sparki ng at brushes of dc machi ne i s
due t o react ance vol t age ( sel f-induct ed emf) , whi ch set s-up by r api d reversal of
current i n t he armat ure coil and t end t o del ay t he current rever sal i n t he coil .
Because coil B has some i nduct ance L, t he change of current I in a time t induce
a vol t age ( )
t
I
L
A
A
i n t he coil . Accordi ng Lenzs l aw, t he di rect i on of t hi s vol t age i s
opposi t e t o t he change I that is causing it. As a result, the current in the coil does
not compl et el y rever se by t he t i me t he brushes move from segment b t o a.

Fi gure 4.23 Commut at i on in Coi l B
4.7.1 . Met hods of improving commut at ion
There have been adapt ed t wo pract i cal ways of i mprovi ng commut at ion i.e. of
maki ng current reversal s i n t he short - ci rcui t ed coi l as sparkl es as possi bl e. The t wo
met hods are:
Introduction to Electrical Machines
22
(i ) resi st ance commut at ion and
(ii ) emf commut at i on.
Thi s met hod i s achi eved by
i By repl aci ng l ow- resi st ance copper brush by compar at i vel y hi gh resi st ance
carbon brush ( approxi mat el y 12 ti mes t hat of copper) . However , i t should be
cl earl y underst ood t hat t he mai n causes of t he sparki ng commut at i on i s t he
sel f induced emf , so brushes al one do not gi ve a sparkl es commut at i on,
t hough t hey do hel p in obt aining i t .
i i By t he hel p of int er pol es, neut rali ze t he sel f- react ance vol t age by produci ng
rever sing emf. I n t hi s met hod, arrangement i s made t o neut rali ze t he
react ance vol t age by produci ng a r ever si ng emf in t he short - circui t ed coil
under commut at i on. Thi s rever si ng emf, as t he name shows, i s an emf in
opposi tion t o t he react ance vol t age and i f i t s val ue i s made up equal t o t he
l at t er, i t will compl et el y wi pe i t off, t hereby produci ng qui ck rever sal of
current i n short - ci rcui t ed coil whi ch wi ll resul t in spar kl es commut at i on.
4.7.2 . I nt erpoles or Compoles
These ar e smal l pol es fi xed t o t he yoke and spaced in bet ween t he mai n pol es. They
ar e wound wi th comparat i vel y few heavy gauge copper wi re t urns and are connect ed
in seri es wi t h t he armat ure so t hat t hey carry f ull armat ure current . Thei r pol ari t y, in
t he case of a gener at or, i s t he same as t hat of t he mai n pol e ahead i n t he di rect i on
of rot at i on as ill ust rat ed i n Fi gure 4.24 ( a) . For a mot or, t he pol ari t y of t he int erpol e
must be t he same as t hat of t he mai n pol e behind i t i n t he di rect i on of rot at i on as
shown in Fi gure 4. 24 ( b) .

N
N
S
S
S
S
N
N
Interpoles
Main-Poles

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.24 pol ari t y of I nt erpol es (a) in generat or mode; (b) in motor mode
The functi on of int erpol e i s t wo fol d:
i ) As t hei r pol ari t y i s t he same as t hat of t he main pol e ahead, t he i nduced an
emf i n the coil (under commut at i on) whi ch hel ps t he r ever sal of current . The
emf i nduced by t he compol es i s known as commut at i ng or rever si ng emf. The
commut at i on emf neut rali zes t he react ance emf t her eby maki ng
commut at i on spar kl es. As i nt erpol es carry armat ure current , t hei r
commut at i ng emf i s proporti onal t o t he armat ure current . Thi s ensures
aut omat i c neut ral i zat i on of t he react ance vol t age, whi ch i s al so due t o
armat ure current .
i i) Anot her funct ion of t he i nt erpol es i s t o neut ralize t he cross- magnet i ze eff ect
of armat ure r eact i on. Hence, brushes ar e not t o be shi ft ed from t he original
Introduction to Electrical Machines
23
posi ti on. Neut rali zat i on of cross- magnet i zat i on i s aut omat i c and f or al l loads
because bot h are produced by t he same armat ure current .
4.7.3 . Compensat ing winding
The effect of cross- magnet i zat i on can be neut rali zed means of compensat i ng
winding. These are conduct ors embedded i n pole f aces, connect ed i n seri es wi t h t he
armat ure wi ndings and carryi ng current in an opposi t e di rect i on t o t hat flowing in
t he ar mat ure conduct ors under t he pol e face. Once cross-magnet i zat i on has been
neut rali zed, t he M.N.A does not shi f t wi t h t he load and r emai ns coi nci dent wi t h t he
G.N.A. at all loads.

Fi gure 4.25 compensat i ng windings
4.8. CHARACTERI STI CS OF DC GENERATORS
The behavi or of vari ous t ypes of dc generat ors can be st udi es by t hei r char act eri sti c.
The t hree most i mport ant char act eri sti c curves of a dc generat or are:
1. Magnet izat ion charact er ist ic or open- circuit charact eri st ic
( O.C.C. ) - shows t he rel at ionship bet ween t he fi el d current I
f
and t he
gener at ed emf Eg at no load and at const ant given speed.
2. Ext ernal charact erist ic- shows t he rel at i onship bet ween t he t erminal
vol t age V across t he l oad and t he current I
L
flowing in t he ext ernal l oad
ci rcui t .
3. I nt ernal charact erist ic shows t he r el at ionshi p bet ween t he emf
gener at ed E ( aft er allowing for demagnet i zi ng effect of armat ure react i on)
at l oad and t he armat ure current I
a
.

Magnetization charact erist ic ( O.C.C. )
The emf generat ed i n t he armat ure wi ndi ng of a dc machine under no load condi ti on
i s gi ven by
a 60
NZ P
E
g
o
=
P, Z and a are const ant s for a part i cul ar generat or, hence at const ant gi ven speed.

o o
g
E

The generat ed emf i s di rect l y proporti onal t o t he flux per pol e ( speed bei ng
const ant ) , whi ch in t urns depends upon t he fi el d current I
f

The char act eri st i c curve pl ot t ed bet ween gener at ed emf E
g
and t he fi el d current I
f
at
const ant speed of rot at i on i s cal l ed t he magnet i zat i on curve or O.C.C. of t he dc
gener at or. The magnet i zat i on charact eri sti cs of a separ at el y exci t ed generat or or
shunt generat or can be obt ained as expl ai ned bel ow.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
24

Fi gure 4.26 Circui t di agram for det ermi nat ion of magnet i zat i on charact eri st i cs
Fi gure 4.26 shows t he connect i ons of t he generat or and t he fi el d for det ermi nat i on
of O.O.C. A pot ent iomet er arrangement has been made t o suppl y t he fi el d windi ng
so t hat t he fi el d current can be vari ed over a wi de range by movi ng t he cont act K.
Ammet er indi cat e t he fi el d current and vol t met er i ndi cat e t he gener at ed emf. The
fi el d current i s increased i n st eps from zero t o maxi mum and t he correspondi ng
value of I
f
and E
g
ar e not ed down at each st ep. On pl ot t i ng t hese resul t s, a curve of
t he form shown in Fi gure 4.27 i s obt ai ned.

Fi gure 4.27 Magnet i zat ion curve or O.C.C.
On anal yzi ng t he curve in Fi gure 4.27, i t i s obser ved t hat a smal l emf OA i s
gener at ed by t he gener at or, even when t he fi eld current i s zero. The r eason for t hi s
gener at ed emf i s t he resi dual magnet i sm in the pol es. Thi s emf whi ch i s due t o
resi dual magnet i sm i s normall y 1 t o 5% of t he normal vol t age of t he gener at or. The
magnet i zat i on curve of a shunt generat or and a seri es gener at or can al so be
obt ai ned i n a si mil ar manner. However, a shunt generat or diff ers compar ed t o
separ at el y exci t ed one, i n t he manner t hat t he fi el d current in shunt generat or i s
due t o t he gener at ed emf onl y, where as t he fi el d current i s i ndependent of t he
gener at ed emf in case of separat el y.
Thi s magnet i zat ion curve i s of grat e i mport ance because i t r epresent s t he sat urat i on
l evel in t he magnet i c syst em of t he dc machi ne for vari ous val ue of t he exci t at i on
mmf ( current ) .
4.9. VOLTAGE BUI LD- UP PROCESS I N SHUNT GENERATOR
I n t he shunt or self- exci t ed generat or t he fi el d i s connect ed across t he armat ure so
t hat t he armat ure vol t age can suppl y t he fi el d current . Under cert ai n condi tions, t o
be di scussed here, t hi s generat or wi ll build up a desi red t ermi nal vol t age. I f t he
machine i s t o operat e as a sel f- exci t ed generat or, some r esi dual magnet i sm must
exi st i n t he magnet i c ci rcui t of t he gener at or. Figure 4. 28 shows t he magnet i zat i on
curve of t he dc machi ne. Al so shown in thi s Figure 4.28 i s t he fi el d resi st ance line,
whi ch i s a pl ot of R
f
I
f
versus I
f
.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
25

Fi gure 4.28 vol t age bui l d- up process i n sel f exci t ed dg generat or
A si mpl i sti c expl anat i on of t he vol t age buil d- up process in t he sel f- exci t ed dc
gener at or i s as follows:
Assume t hat t he f i el d circui t i s ini ti all y di sconnect ed from t he ar mat ure ci rcui t and
t he armat ure i s dri ven at a cer t ai n speed. A small vol t age, E
ar
wi ll appear across t he
armat ure t er mi nal s because of t he resi dual magnet i sm in t he machine. I f t he swi t ch
SW i s now cl osed (Fi gure 4.29) and t he fi el d ci rcui t i s connect ed t o t he armat ure
ci rcui t , a current wi ll flow in t he fi el d winding. I f t he mmf of t hi s fi el d current ai ds
t he resi dual magnet i sm , event ual l y a current I
f 1
will flow in t he fi el d ci rcui t .

Fi gure 4.29 schemat i c di agram of a shunt or selfexci t ed dc gener at or
The buil dup of t hi s current wil l depend on t he t ime const ant of t he fi el d ci rcui t . Wi t h
I
f1
following in the fi el d ci rcui t , t he generat ed vol t age i s E
a1
( from t he magnet i zat i on
curve) but t he t er mi nal volt age i s V
t
= I
f l
R
F
< E
al
. The increased armat ure vol t age
E
al
will event ual l y i ncrease t he fi el d current t o t he val ue I
f 2
, whi ch i n t urn will bui ld
up t he armat ure vol t age t o E
a2
. Thi s process of vol t age buil dup continues. I f t he
vol t age drop across R
a
i s negl ect ed ( i .e. R
a
< < R
f
) , t he vol t age builds up t o the val ue
gi ven by t he crossi ng point P of t he magnet i zat i on curve and t he fi el d resi st ance
line. At t hi s point E
a
= I
f
R
f
= V
t
( assume R
a
i s negl ect ed) , and no excess vol t age i s
avai l abl e t o furt her i ncreases t he fi el d current . I n t he act ual case, t he changes in I
f

and E
a
t ake pl ace si mul t aneousl y and t he vol t age bui ldup follows approxi mat el y t he
magnet i zat i on curve, i nst ead of cli mbing t he fli ght of st ai rs.
Fi gure 4.30 shows t he vol t age buildup in t he sel f- exci t ed dc gener at or for various
fi el d ci rcui t resi st ances. At some resi st ance val ue R
f3
, t he resi st ance line i s al most
coi nci dent wi t h t he linear port ion of t he magnet i zat i on curve. Thi s coinci dence
condi ti on resul t s i n an unst abl e vol t age si t uat i on. Thi s resi st ance i s known as t he
crit ical field circuit resist ance. I f t he resi st ance i s great er t han t hi s value, such
as R
f4
, buildup ( V
t 4
) will be i nsi gnifi cant on the ot her hand, if t he resi st ance i s
small er t han t hi s val ue, such as R
f 1
or R
f 2
, t he gener at or will build up hi gher vol t ages
( V
t 1
, V
t 2
) .
Introduction to Electrical Machines
26
To sum up, four condi tions are t o be sat i sfi ed for vol t age bui ldup i n a sel f- exci t ed dc
gener at or.
1. Resi dual magnet i sm must be present in t he magnet i c syst em.
2. Fi el d winding mmf should ai d the resi dual magnet i sm.
3. Fi el d ci rcui t resi st ance should be l ess t han t he cr i ti cal fi el d ci rcui t resi st ance.
4. The speed at whi ch t he armat ure i s rot at i ng shoul d be great er t han t he cri ti cal
speed.

Fi gure 4.30 eff ect of fi el d resi st ances on vol t age bui ld-up process
4.10. EXTERNAL CHARACTERI STI CS
The ext ernal charact eri st i cs of a dc generat or express t he rel at i onship bet ween t he
t er minal vol t age and t he load current at a const ant speed and wi t h the fi el d current
keepi ng t he same as under t he no l oad condi ti on. The shape of t hi s curve depends
upon:
i The armat ure react ion
i i vol t age drop i n t he armat ure winding, seri es , i nt er pol e and
compensat i ng windings
i ii vol t age drop at t he brush cont act ( 0.8- 1,0- V per brush ) and
i v The drop i n t erminal vol t age due t o (i ) and (ii ) resul t s i n a decreased
fi el d current whi ch furt her reduces t he induced emf.
4.10 .1. Separat ely Excit ed Generator
I n separat el y exci t ed generat ors, t he f i el d current i s i ndependent of t he l oad
current , so t hat i f t here were no armat ure r eact i on and no vol t age drop i n various
windings t he t ermi nal vol t age wil l be equal t o t he gener at ed emf and woul d be
const ant for various val ues of load current as i ndi cat ed by curve I in Fi gure 4.31.

Fi gure 4.31 ext ernal charact eri st i cs of separ at ely exci t ed generat or
Introduction to Electrical Machines
27
As t he gener at or i s separ at el y exci t ed, t he armat ure current i s equal t o load current .
However, t he armat ure r eact i on wi ll cause a decrease i n the vol t age, whi ch depends
upon t he l oad current . As such consi dering t he effect of armat ure act i on onl y, t he
curve of t ermi nal vol t age V
s
armat ure current will be sl i ghtl y droopi ng as shown by
curve I I i n Fi gure 4.31. Curve I I of t he generat or, whi ch t akes int o account t he
ef fect of armat ure react ion, gi ves t o a di fferent scal e t he emf i nduced i n t he
armat ure and t hus, i t i s normall y call ed t he internal charact erist ics of t he
gener at or. The curve of t erminal vol t age V
s
load current or armat ure current i s
obt ai ned by subt ract ing t he hol mi c drop i n t he armat ure wi ndi ng wi th respect t o t he
armat ure current i s represent ed by t he st r ai ght line passing t hrough t he ori gin as
shown Fi gure 4.31. When t he ordinat es of st r ai ght l ine represent i ng the vol t age drop
in t he armat ure winding ( I
a
R
a
) ar e deduct ed f rom t hose of curve I I , a cure I I I i s
obt ai ned, whi ch gi ven t he ext ernal charact eri st i c of the gener at or i .e. curve I I I =
curve I I - I
a
R
a
.

Ext ernal charact eri st i cs cl earl y indi cat e t hat t he t erminal vol t age fal l s
as l oad on the gener at or i ncrease.
4.10 .2. Shunt - Wound Generat or
I n t hi s t ype of generat or, t he fi el d winding i s connot ed across t he armat ure windi ng.
The gener at or wil l t herefore build up i t s own magnet i sm. The vol t age across t he
shunt fi el d winding i s equal t o t he t er minal vol t age of t he gener at or as di scussed
above, t he t ermi nal vol t age of t he generat or will fall down due t o t he armat ure
react ion and t he ohmi c drop i n t he armat ure windi ng, as t he l oad on t he generat or
increases. Thus t he vol t age across t he f i el d wil l not remai n const ant as t he l oad on
t he shunt generat or i ncreases. The vol t age acr oss t he fi el d wi ndi ng decreases wi t h
an i ncrease in t he load current , whi ch causes a decr ease in t he exci ti ng current . The
t er minal vol t age f urt her f al l s down incase of a shunt generat or because of decr eases
in exci t at i on current as expl ained earl i er wi th i ncreasi ng load current . Hence t he
t ot al decr eases i n t he volt age in case of shunt gener at ors i s mush great er t han in
separ at ely excit ed generat ors.
For obt ai ning t he rel at ion bet ween t he t erminal vol t age and l oad current , t he
gener at or i s connect ed as shown in Figure 4.32 ( a) . Fi gure 4.32 ( b) shows t he
ext ernal charact eri st i cs, of a part i cul ar generat or, when i t i s run as a separat el y
exci t ed gener at or ( curve I V) and when run as a shunt generat or ( Curve I I I ).
Comparing t hese t wo curves for t he same gener at or, i t i s observed t hat wi t h sel f -
exci t at i on the ext ernal char act eri sti c i s lower t han t hat obt ai ned wi th separat e
exci t at i on.

( a)

( b)
Fi gure 4.32 ext ernal charact eri st i cs of shunt wound generat or
The basi c reason for t he di f ference i n t he t wo curves i s t hat , i n t he former case t he
shunt fi el d current decr eases wi t h decreasi ng t ermi nal vol t age, whil e in t he case of
Introduction to Electrical Machines
28
separ at e exci t at i on t he fi el d current remai ns const ant . I f t he l oad on t he shunt
gener at or i s graduall y increased by decr easi ng t he resi st ance i n t he ext ernal ci rcui t ,
i t s t ermi nal vol t age t ends t o f all by a process of exact l y a reverse nat ure t o t hat of
building up. Up t o t he normal l oad current , st eady condi ti ons are obt ai ned wi t hout a
serious fall in t he t ermi nal vol t age as shown by t he t hi ck l ine of curve I I I . When t he
load on t he shunt generat or i ncrease beyond it s full load val ue, t he drop in t erminal
vol t age becomes more appr eci abl e as shown by t he dot t ed l ine of curve I I I of Fi gure
4.32(b) .
Up t o t he poi nt D on curve I I I , t he l oad current increases upon decreasi ng t he
ext ernal resi st ance i n the l oad ci rcui t , where t he t ermi nal vol t age has f all en t o an
appr eci abl y l ow val ue. The current correspondi ng t o t hi s conditi on i s general l y
t er med as cri ti cal current I
c
. A furt her decrease in t he ext ernal load resi st ance
beyond t he point D, does not i ncrease t he current in t he load ci rcui t , but on t he
ot her hand decreases i t , because t he l oad resi st ance shunt s t he f i el d windi ng t o such
an ext ent t he t er mi nal vol t age decreases more r api dl y t han t he load resi st ance.
Hence t he ext ernal charact eri st i c t urns back and t he t ermi nal vol t age i s zero when
t he armat ure i s act uall y short - ci rcui t ed. The armat ure current at t hi s inst ant i s
shown by a val e OE t hat i s purel y due t o resi dual magnet i sm of t he gener at or. To
obt ai n t he int ernal charact eri st i cs of t he dc shunt gener at or, t he sum of t he vol t age
drop in t he ar mat ure winding incl uding t he brush cont act drop i s added t o t he
ext ernal charact eri st i c, t hus obt aining curve I I represent i ng t hi s charact eri sti c.
Fi gure 4.32 al so shows t he no load vol t age E
o
of t he generat or represent ed by t he
dot t ed li ne I . The vol t age drop bet ween curve I I and l ine I i s due t o r educt i on i n fl ux
caused by t he combi ned act i on of armat ure react i on and t he fal l caused by t he
combined act i on of armat ure react i on and t he fall i n t he shunt fi el d current .
4.10 .3. Series Wound Generat or
I n seri es- wound generat ors, t he fi el d wi ndi ng i s connect ed i n seri es wi t h t he
armat ure wi ndi ng. Thus, t he current in t he fi eld wi ndi ng i s t he same as t he current
in t he ar mat ure winding. I f t he generat or i s driven at t he const ant r at ed speed, and
t he armat ure current i s vari ed by varyi ng t he ext ernal resi st ance i n t he l oad ci rcui t ,
a curve I I I of Fi gure 4.33 i s obt ai ned by plot ti ng t he t er minal volt age ver ses t he load
current or armat ure current .
I
II
III
M
a
g
n
e
t
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

C
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

C
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
E
x
t
e
r
n
a
l

C
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s
V
L

Fi gure 4.33 ext ernal charact eri st i cs of seri es wound generat or
The int ernal or t ot al char act eri st i c of t he same gener at or i s represent ed by curve I I
in Fi gure 4.33 whi ch can be obt ai ned by adding t he t erminal vol t age ( curve I I I ).
Curve I , i n Fi gure 4.33, shows t he magnet i zat i on charact eri st i cs of t he same
gener at or. The vol t age drop bet ween t he curves I and I I i s caused by ar mat ure
react ion.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
29
4.10 .4. Compound Generat or
The shunt generat or al ready di scussed has a droopi ng ext ernal charact eri st i c, i .e.
t he t ermi nal vol t age fal l s wi th l oad, whereas seri es gener at ors have an ext ernal
charact eri st i c, i n whi ch the t er minal vol t age ri ses wi t h the l oad. Hence, a seri es fi el d
winding i n dc generat ors can compensat e for t he t endency of the shunt generat or t o
lose vol t age wi t h load, t hus mai nt aining pract i call y a const ant vol t age at all loads.
For t hi s reason, t he maj ori t y of dc generat ors i n servi ce have bot h shunt and seri es
windings. Such a dc gener at or havi ng bot h shunt and seri es wi ndi ngs i s call ed a
compound generat or.

Fi gure 4.34 t he ext ernal charact eri st i cs of dc compound generat or.
Curve I shows t he ext ernal charact eri st i c, i n whi ch t he seri es exci t at i on i s such t hat
t he t ermi nal vol t age on full load i s t he same as on no load and t he t ermi nal vol t age
remai ns pract i call y const ant from no load t o full l oad. A dc compound generat or
gi vi ng such an ext ernal charact eri st i c i s cal l ed level- compounded generat or. The
ext ernal charact eri st i c shown by curve I I i ndi cat es t hat t he t ermi nal volt age ri ses
wi th t he load. Such a compound generat or wi t h t hi s ext ernal charact eri st i c i s sai d t o
be over compounded gener at or. The compound generat or having an ext ernal
charact eri st i c of the nat ure represent ed by curve I I I i s cal l ed under compounded
gener at or.
I n all t he above t hree t ypes of compound generat ors, i .e. l evel - compounded , over-
compounded and under- compounded, t he seri es fi el d ai ds t he shunt fi eld and t hus
t hese compound generat ors can al so be call ed as cumulat ive compound
gener at or. Cumul at i ve compound generat or i s most wi del y used i n pract i ce. Thei r
ext ernal charact eri st i c can mat ch t o all cl asses of servi ce. These t ypes of gener at ors
used for el ect ri c rail ways, for suppl ying current of incandescent l amps, et c. I n case
t he seri es fi el d opposes t he shunt fi el d, t he ext ernal char act eri sti c of t he gener at or
will be hi ghl y drooping wi t h l arge demagnet i zi ng armat ure r eact i on as shown by
curve I V in Fi gure 4.34. Such a compound gener at or sai d to be different ial-
compound generat or. Di fferenti al compound generat ors find t hei r fi el d of
appl i cat i on i n arc wel di ng where a l arge vol t age drop i s desi rabl e, when t he current
increase.
Example 4.6 The open ci rcuit charact eri st i c of generat or dri ven at 500 rpw i s as
fol lows:
Fi el d current , I
sh

(A)
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6
Emf , E
g
(V) 40 66 86 101 112 121 128 133
The machine i s connect ed as shunt generat or and dri ven at 500 rpm. Find
Introduction to Electrical Machines
30
i ) open ci rcui t vol t age, when t he fi el d ci rcui t resi st ance i s 94 O,
i i) t he addi tional resi st ance r equi red in t he fi el d circui t t o reduce t he emf t o 110
V and
i ii) cri ti cal value of shunt fi eld resi st ance.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
31
Solut ion
Fi gure 4. 35 shows t he magnet i zat i on charact eri st i c drawn as per t he gi ven
dat a. Li ne OA has been drawn as t he fi el d resi st ance li ne, represent ing a r esi st ance
of 94 O. Any point on t he fi el d resi st ance li ne can be found out corresponding to a
part i cul ar val ue of fi el d current , for exampl e, when t he f i el d current i s 1.0 A, vol t age
across t he shunt fi eld will be
V
sh
= I
sh
R
sh
= 1.0 94 = 94 V,
t hus est abl i shing a point B on t he fi el d resi st ance l ine. The fi el d resi st ance l i ne i s
drawn j oining the point B wi t h t he ori gi n O.
i) The fi el d resi st ance l i ne OA cut s t he magnet i zat i on curve at t he point A. Hence
t he gener at or wi ll develop an emf corresponding t o t he operat i ng point A,
whi ch i s equal to OC or 126 V.
ii ) Correspondi ng t o t he vol t age of 110 V, a hori zont al line i s drawn, whi ch cut s
t he OCC at t he point D. Joi n t he poi nt D wi th t he poi nt O. The line OD
represent s t he fi el d resi st ance line t hat woul d gener at e a vol t age of 110 V.

Fi gure 4.35 Magnet i zat i on cur ve f or exampl e 4. 6
Hence t o gener at e a vol t age of 110 vol t s, t he t ot al resi st ance of t he shunt fi el d
ci rcui t shoul d be
O = = 7 . 116
6 . 0
70
R
F

Resi st ance of t he shunt fi el d windi ng, R
sh
i s 94 O. Thus addi tional resi st ance in t he
shunt fi eld ci rcui t i s
R
add
= 116.7 - 94 = 22.7 O
iii) Cri ti cal val ue of shunt fi eld resi st ance i s obt ai ned by drawi ng a t angent f rom
t he ori gin t o the i ni ti al portion of t he magnet i zat i on curve. Li ne DE represent s
t he cri ti cal resi st ance of t he shunt fi eld.
Thus cri ti cal resi st ance,

O =
=
200
2 . 0
40
R
cr

Example 4.7 The open ci rcui t charact eri st i c of a dc generat or at rpm i s as follows:
Introduction to Electrical Machines
32
Fi el d current , I
sh
( A) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3: 0 3.5
open ci rcui t vol t age, V
OCC
(V) 60 120 138 145 149 151 152
The machi ne i s connect ed as shunt gener at or and dri ven at 1000 rpm. The
resi st ance of shunt fi el d ci rcui t bei ng 60 O. Cal cul at e,
i ) t he open ci rcui t vol t age,
i i) t he cri ti cal val ue of t he fi el d resi st ance,
i ii) t he t er mi nal volt age when t he l oad has resi st ance of 4. 0 O, and
i v) t he load current when t he t ermi nal vol t age i s 100 V. Negl ect ar mat ure
react ion. The armat ure resi st ance i s 0.1O.
Solut ion
The open circui t charact eri st i c of t he dc shunt gener at or at 1000 rpm has been
pl ot t ed i n Fi gure above. The resi st ance of t he shunt fi eld ci rcui t i s 60 O and as such
fi el d resi st ance l ine OA has been drawn. Any poi nt on t hi s line gi ves a resi st ance
value of 60 O, for exampl e, corresponding to fiel d current of 2 A, t he vol t age i s 120
V ( point F) .
i ) The fi el d resi st ance l ine OA correspondi ng t o t he fi el d resi st ance of 60 O cut s
t he OCC at point A. Hence t he shunt generat or will generat e a vol t age
corresponding t o t he oper at i ng point A whi ch is equal t o OC or 149 V.Thus
open ci rcui t vol t age = 149 V.
i i) Tangent OE i s drawn t o t he OCC from t he origi n O t o find out t he cri ti cal
value of shunt fi eld resi st ance. The resi st ance represent ed by t hi s t angent
li ne OE i s O = 120
0 . 1
120
. Hence cri ti cal resi st ance of shunt fi eld = 120 O.
i ii) Let t he t ermi nal vol t age across t he l oad of 4 O resi st ance be V vol t s
Then t he load current , A
0 . 4
V
I
L
=
Shunt fi el d resi st ance = 60 O
Thus shunt fi el d current , A
60
V
I
sh
=
For shunt generat or, I
a
= I
L
+ I
sh

A V
15
4
60
V 16
60
V
4
V
=
= + =

Vol t age at no load, E
g
= V + I
a
R
a

Termi nal volt age,

V 0267 . 0 149
1 . 0 V
15
4
149
R I E V
a a g
=

|
.
|

\
|
=
=

Or ( ) 149 0267 . 0 1 V = +
Termi nal vol t age, V 1 . 145
0267 . 1
149
V = =
i v) Termi nal volt age, V = 100 V
Introduction to Electrical Machines
33
Vol t age at no l oad, E
g
= V + I
a
R
a

or I
a
R
a
= E
g
V = 149 100 = 49 V
Armat ure current , A 490
1 . 0
49
I
a
= =
Shunt fi el d current , A 67 . 1
60
100
60
V
I
sh
= = =
Hence l oad current , I
L
= 490 1.67 = 488.33 A
6
0

R
s
h
=

Fi gure 4.36 Open circui t charact eri sti c for exampl e 4.7
Example 4.8 The OCC of a dc generat or when dri ven at 750 rpm gave t he fol lowi ng
resul t s:
Fi el d current , I
sh
( A) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
Emf, E
g
( V) 50 84 105 120 131
i ) I f t he machine i s run as shunt generat or at 750 rpm, t o what vol t age wi ll it
exci t e wi t h shunt fi el d resi st ances equal t o ( a) 70 O ( b) 55 O ?
i i) What i s t he cri ti cal val ue of t he shunt fi el d resi st ance?
i ii) What i s t he cri ti cal speed when t he shunt fi el d resi st ance i s 70 0 ?
i v) Wi th t he shunt fi eld resi st ance equal t o 55 O, what reduct ion in speed must
be made t o make t he open ci rcui t vol t age equal t o 100 V?
Introduction to Electrical Machines
34
G
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

e
m
f
,

E
g
,

V

Fi gure 4.37 Open circui t charact eri sti c for exampl e 4.8
Solut ion
OCC of t he shunt generat or at 750 rpm has been plot t ed in Fi gure 4.37 as per t he
gi ven dat a. Li ne OA has been drawn t o represent fi el d resi st ance line correspondi ng
t o 55 O
|
|
.
|

\
|
A 0 . 2
V 110
. Anot her line OB has been drawn, whi ch represent s f i el d resi st ance
of 70 O
|
|
.
|

\
|
A 0 . 1
V 70
.
i .) ( a) When t he fi el d resi st ance i s equal t o 70 O, t he generat or wi ll generat e a
vol t age corresponding t o t he operat i ng point B, whi ch i s a common point on
70 O fi eld resi st ance li ne and t he OCC of t he gener at or. The open ci rcui t
vol t age i s equal t o OC or 105 V. Hence gener at or wil l exci t e t o t he vol t age of
105 V.
( b) When t he fi el d resi st ance i s 55 O, t he shunt generat or wil l exci t e t o a
vol t age gi ven by t he operat i ng point A, at whi ch t he 55 O fi el d resi st ance li ne
cut s t he OCC of t he gener at or. The corresponding volt age i s equal t o OD or
128 V. Thus t he generat or will exci t e t o t he vol tage of 128 V.
i i.) A t angent line OE i s drawn t o t he OCC of the generat or t o fi nd out t he cri ti cal
resi st ance of t he shunt fi eld. The resi st ance repr esent ed by OE i s t he
cri ti cal shunt fi el d resi st ance, whi ch i s equal t o O = 100
A 1
V 100
. Thus cri ti cal
value of shunt fi el d resi st ance = 100 O.
i ii.) The shunt fi el d resi st ance i n thi s case i s 70 O. Cri ti cal speed can be obt ai ned
by er ect i ng a perpendi cul ar from t he point F, so as t o cut t he 70 O fi eld
resi st ance l ine at G and cri ti cal shunt fi el d resi st ance line OE at poi nt H. Then,

750
speed critical
FH
FG
=
Or 750
FH
FG
speed critical =
Introduction to Electrical Machines
35
But
100
70
FH
FG
=
Thus
rpm 525
750
100
70
speed critical
=
=

i v.) Open circui t vol t age E
g
= 100 V
Shunt fi el d resi st ance = 55 O
Wi th shunt fi el d resi st ance equal t o 57 O, t he gener at or generat es a vol t age of 128
V at 750 rpm. To generat e 100 V wi th t he same fi el d resi st ance, t he oper at i ng point
has t o be M i nst ead of A, for whi ch t he speed of t he generat or has t o be reduced.
The speed i n such a case can be found out by dr awi ng a perpendi cul ar from t he
point M, so as t o meet t he OCC at poi nt N. Then,

750
speed desired
LN
LM
=
Hence,

rpm 652
115
100
750
LN
LM
750 speed desiredl
=
= =

Reduct i on in speed = 750 652 = 98 rpm
Example 4.9 A dc generat or has t he fol lowi ng open ci rcui t charact eri st i cs at 800
rpm:
Fi el d current , I
sh
( A) 0 1 2 3 4 5
Gener at ed emf , E
g
( V) 10 112 198 232 252 266
Fi nd t he no load t ermi nal vol t age when t he machi ne runs as a shunt generat or at
1000 rpm. The resi st ance of t he fi el d circui t i s 70O. What addi t i onal fi el d regul at or
resi st ance wi ll be requi red t o reduce t he vol t age t o 270 V?
Solut ion
The open ci rcui t charact eri st i c of t he dc generat or has been gi ven at 800 rpm.
However, t hi s generat or runs as a shunt t ype at 1000 rpm. As t he speed of t he
gener at or has i ncreased, t he emf generat ed corresponding t o t he same fi el d current
will increase and i s gi ven by
KN
a 60
NZ P
E
g
=

o
= for t he same fi el d current
Hence,
1
2
1 g
2 g
N
N
E
E
=
Or
800
1000
E
N
N
E E
1 g
1
2
1 g 2 g
= =
Based on t hi s, the readings for t he OCC at 1000 rpm wi ll be:
Open Ci rcuit Charact eri st i cs at 1000 rpm
I
f
(A) 0 1 2 3 4 5
E
g
(V) 12.5 140 247. 5 290 315 332.5
Introduction to Electrical Machines
36
Fi gure 4.38 shows t he open ci rcui t charact eri st i cs of t he shunt generat or dri ven at
1000 rpm, whi ch has been plot t ed based on t he cal cul at ed val ues of generat ed emf
E
g2
. A fi eld resi st ance line OA represent ing resi st ance of 70 O
|
|
.
|

\
|
A 3
V 210
has been
drawn.

Fi gure 4.38 Magnet i zat ion curve f or exampl e 4.9
i .) The fi el d resi st ance l ine of 70 O cut s t he OCC at t he poi nt A. t he shunt
gener at or wil l generat e vol t age equal t o OC or 330 V. Hence no load
t er mi nal vol t age i s 330 V.
i i.) The no load t ermi nal vol t age i s 270 V. Corresponding t o 270 V, a hori zont al
li ne FD shown dot t ed i n Fi gure 4.38 has been drawn, whi ch cut s t he OCC at
D. Hence t o gener at e 270 V, t he oper at i ng point must be D. The poi nt D i s
j oined wi t h the ori gin, t hus gi vi ng t he resi st ance line OD corresponding t o
t he operat ing poi nt D.
The resi st ance repr esent ed by t he li ne OD
O = = 5 . 112
A 4 . 2
V 270

Shunt fi el d resi st ance, R
sh
= 70 O
Hence addi tional resi st ance requi red in t he fi el d ci rcui t i s
112.5 70 = 42.5O.
4.11. VOLTAGE REGULATI ON
The change i n out put vol t age of a gener at or from no-l oad t o ful l-load di vi ded by t he
ful l-load vol t age, i s call ed t he vol t age regul at ion.
% 100
V
V V
% V
FL
FL NL

= A
I t i s an i mport ant paramet er i n the performance of generat or by provi ding an
informat i on t hat how const ant t he out put vol t age i s wi t h load.
4.12. DC MOTORS
Introduction to Electrical Machines
37
Working pr inciple
The princi pl e upon whi ch a dc mot or works i s ver y si mpl e. I f a current carr yi ng
conduct or i s pl aced i n a magnet i c fi el d, mechani cal force i s experi enced on t he
conduct or, t he di rect i on of whi ch i s gi ven by Fl emi ng' s l eft hand rul e ( al so call ed
mot or rul e) and hence t he conduct or moves i n the di rect i on of force. The magni t ude
of t he mechani cal force experi enced n t he conduct or i s gi ven by
F = B I
c
l
c
, [ Newt ons]
Where B i s t he fi el d st rengt h i n Tesl as ( wb/ m
2
) , I
c
i s t he current fl owing t hrough t he
conduct or i n amperes and l
c
i s t he l engt h of conduct or in met ers. When t he mot or i s
connect ed t o t he dc Suppl y mai ns, a di rect current passes t hrough t he brushes and
commut at or t o t he armat ure wi nding. Whil e i t passes t hrough t he commut at or i t i s
convert ed in t o a.c. so t hat t he group of conduct ors under successi ve fi el d pol es
carri es current s i n t he opposi t e di rect ions, as shown in Fi gure 4.39. Al so t he
di rect i on of current in t he indi vi dual conduct or rever ses as t hey pass away f rom t he
influence of one pol e t o t hat of t he next .

Fi gure 4. 39 schemat i c di agram of 4- pol e dc motor
I n Fi gure 4.39, a 4- pol e d.c mot or i s shown when t he fil ed and armat ure ci rcui t s are
connect ed across dc suppl y mai ns. Let t he current in armat ure conduct ors be
out wards under t he N- pol es ( shown by dot s) and i nwards under S-pol es ( shown by
crosses). By appl yi ng Fl emi ngs l eft hand rul e Figure 4.40, t he di rect i on of force on
each conduct or can be det ermi ned, whi ch has been illust rat ed i n Fi gure 4.39. From
Fi gure 4.39 i t i s observed t hat each conduct or experi ences a force whi ch t ends t o
t he mot or armat ure i n cl ock- wi se di rect ion. These forces col l ect i vel y produce a
dri vi ng t orque.

Fi gure 4. 40 Left - hand rul e for det ermi nat ion of the di rect i on of force
4.13. COMPARI SON OF MOTOR AND GENERATOR ACTI ON
Introduction to Electrical Machines
38
As ment i oned above, dc mot or and t he dc generat or ar e t he same devi ces, at l east
t heoret i cal l y. The machi ne operat i ng as a generat or i s dri ven by some ext ernal
dri vi ng force and dc out put i s obt ained from it where as t he machi ne operat i ng as a
mot or i s supplied by el ect ri c current and mechani cal rot at ion i s produced.
Let us fi rst consi der t he gener at or operat i on. I n Fi gure 4. 41( a) dc machi ne dri ven, in
a clock- wi se di rect ion, by i t s pri me mover and suppl yi ng di rect current t o ext ernal
load ci rcui t i s shown. The machi ne i s worki ng as a gener at or and t he di rect i on of t he
gener at ed emf and current flowing t hrough t he armat ure conduct ors, as det er mined
by Fl emi ng' s right hand rul e, will be as shown i n t he Fi gure 4.41( a) .

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.41 ( a) Generat or act ion ; ( b) Mot or act ion
Since t he armat ure i s carryi ng current and rot at i ng in a magnet i c fi el d, El ect ro-
magnet i c forces wil l be gi ven by Fl emi ng' s l ef t hand rul e. These El ect ro magnet i c
forces act i ng on the armat ure conduct ors wi ll col l ect i vel y resul t in torque act i ng on
t he ar mat ure i n a count er- clockwi se di rect ion ( see T
back
in Fi gure 4.41( a) ) . Thi s
El ect ro- magnet i c t orque, t herefore, opposes t he out si de dri vi ng t orque, whi ch i s
causi ng t he rot at ion of t he machine and call ed t he backward t orque(T
back
) or
magnet i c drag on t he conduct ors. The pri me mover has t o work agai nst t hi s
magnet i c drag and t he work so done i s convert ed i n t o el ect ri cal energy. The l arger
t he out put current , more will be t he backward t orque and, t herefore, more
mechani cal energy wi ll be requi red t o be suppli ed t o t he generat or.
I n Fi gure 4.41( b) t he same machine oper at i ng as a mot or i s shown. Thi s operat i on
t akes pl ace when t he pri me mover i s uncoupl ed from t he machine and t he machi ne
i s connect ed t o t he dc suppl y mai ns. Wi th t he di rect ions of fi el d and armat ure
current shown i n t he Fi gure 4.41( b) t he t orque devel oped by El ect ro- magnet i c
act i ons will rot at e t he machi ne i n a cl ockwi se di rect ion ( as det er mined by Fl emi ng' s
l eft - hand rul e) . The fri ction of t he machi ne and t he mechani cal load t hat t he mot or
i s dri ving will exert a t orque i n count er- clockwi se di rect i on, opposing t he rot at i on of
t he mot or. Since t he ar mat ure conduct ors are r evol vi ng in t he magnet i c fi el d, emf i s
induced i n t he armat ure conduct ors. The di rect ion of emf so i nduced, as det ermi ned
by Fl eming' s ri ght hand rul e, i s in direct opposi t ion t o t he appli ed vol t age ( see E
b
i n
Fi gure 4.41( b) ) . That i s why t he i nduced emf in mot or oft en i s call ed t he count er
emf or back emf E
b
. The appli ed vol t age must be l arge enough t o overcome t hi s
back emf and t o send t he current t hrough t he resi st ance of t he ar mat ure. The
el ect ri c energy suppl i ed to overcome t hi s opposi ti on i s convert ed int o mechani cal
energy devel opment i n t he armat ure.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
39
Thus we see t hat an emf i s gener at ed i n bot h gener at or and mot or, t herefore, t her e
i s a gener at or act ion i n bot h mot or and gener at or operat ion. However, in generat or
operat i on t he generat ed emf produces t he ar mat ure current , wher e as, i n mot or
operat i on t he gener at ed emf opposes t he current di rect i on. We al so observe t hat
El ect ro- magnet i c t orque i s devel oped i n generat or as well as mot or i .e. t her e i s a
mot or act i on i n bot h generat or and mot or, operat i on. However, in mot or operat i on
t he El ect ro- magnet i c t orque devel oped causes t he armat ure rot at ion, where as i n a
gener at or operat i on t he El ect ro- magnet i c t orque produced opposes t he rot at ion.
4.14. TYPES OF DC MOTORS
All dc mot ors must r ecei ve t hei r exci t at i on f rom an ext ernal source; t herefore, t hey
ar e separ at el y exci t ed. Thei r fi el d and the armat ure windi ngs are connect ed,
however, i n one of the t hree di ff erent ways empl oyed for sel f- exci t ed dc gener at ors,
and so accordi ng t he fi el d arrangement t here ar e t hree t ypes of dc mot ors namel y;
i) Seri es wound ii) shunt wound and iii) compound wound.
4.13.1. Series wound mot or
A seri es mot or i s one i n whi ch t he fi el d winding i s connect ed i n seri es wi t h t he
armat ure so t hat t he whol e current drawn by t he mot or passes t hrough t he fi el d
winding as well as ar mat ure. Connect i on di agram i s shown in Fi gure 4. 42.



I mport ant relat ionships
i .
L
I
se
I
a
I = =
ii. ( )
se
R
a
R
a
I
L
V
b
E + =
iii .
L
I
L
V
drawn
P =
i v.
a
I
b
E
dev
P =
Fi gure 4.42 connect i on di agram of seri es- wound mot or
4.13.2. Shunt wound motor
A shunt wound mot or i s one i n whi ch t he fi el d windi ng i s connect ed i n paral l el wi th
armat ure as i llust rat ed in Fi gure 4.43. The current suppli ed t o t he mot or i s di vided
into t wo pat hs, one t hrough t he shunt fi el d winding and second t hrough t he
armat ure.

I mportant relat ionships
i .
sh
R
L
V
sh
I =
ii .
a
I
sh
I
L
I + =
iii.
a
R
a
I
L
V
b
E =
i v.
L
I
L
V
drawn
P =
v.
a
I
b
E
dev
P =

Fi gure 4.43 connect i on di agram of shunt - wound mot or
Introduction to Electrical Machines
40
4.13.3. Compound wound mot or
A compound wound mot or has bot h seri es and shunt windings whi ch can be
connect ed as short - shunt or l ong shunt wi t h armat ure wi nding as i llust rat ed in figure
4.44.

I mport ant relat ionships
i .
L
I
se
I =
i i.
sh
R
se
R
se
I
L
V
sh
R
a
R
a
I
b
E
sh
I

=
+
=
i ii.
a
I
sh
I
L
I + =
i v.
se
R
L
I
a
R
a
I
L
V
b
E =
v.
L
I
L
V
drawn
P =
vi.
a
I
b
E
dev
P =


( a) short - shunt compound motor

I mport ant relat ionships
i.
se a
I I =
ii.
( )
sh
R
L
V
sh
R
se
R
a
R
a
I
b
E
sh
I =
+ +
=
iii .
L
I
sh
I
L
I + =
iv. ( )
se
R
a
R
a
I
L
V
b
E + =
v.
L
I
L
V
drel
P =
vi .
a
I
b
E
dev
P =


( b) l ong - shunt compound motor
Fi gure 4.44 connect i on di agram of compound- wound mot or
4.15. DI RECTI ON OF ROTATI ON
I t i s cl ear t hat , from pri nci pl e operat ion of dc mot or, i f the armat ure current wer e
rever sed by reversi ng the armat ure t ermi nal l eads, but l eavi ng the fi el d pol ari t y t he
same, t orque would be devel oped i n a count er- cl ock wi se di rect i on. Li kewi se, i f t he
fi el d pol ari t y were r ever sed l eaving t he armat ure current as shown t orque would be
devel oped in a count er- cl ockwi se di rect i on. However i f both t he armat ure current
di rect i on and fi el d pol ari t y were reversed t orque woul d be devel oped i n a clock- wi se
di rect i on as before. Hence t he direct ion of rot at ion of a mot or can be r ever sed by
rever sing t he current t hrough eit her t he armat ure winding or the field coils. I f t he
current t hrough bot h is rever sed, t he mot or wi ll conti nue t o rot at e in t he same
di rect ion as bef ore.
4.16. SI GNI FI CANCE OF BACK EMF
As expl ained earli er, when t he mot or ar mat ure conti nues t o rot at e due t o mot or
act i on, t he armat ure conduct ors cut t he magnet i c flux and t herefore emf s are
induced in t hem. The di rect i on of t hi s induced emf known as back emf i s such t hat i s
opposes t he appl i ed vol t age. Si nce t he back emf i s induced due t o t he gener at or
act i on , t he magni t ude of i t i s, t herefore , gi ven by t he same expr essi on as t hat for
t he gener at ed emf in a generat or
Introduction to Electrical Machines
41
, volts
a
P
60
ZN
E
b

o
= 4.1
The symbol s having t hei r usual si gnifi cance

Fi gure 4.45 Equi val ent ci rcuit of a mot or Armat ure
The equi val ent ci rcui t of a mot or i s shown in Fi gure 4.45. The armat ure ci rcui t i s
equi val ent t o a source of emf E
b
i n seri es wi t h a resi st ance, R
a
put across a dc
suppl y mai ns of V vol t s. I t i s evi dent from Fi gure3 t hat t he appli ed vol t age V must
be l arge enough t o bal ance bot h t he vol t age drop in armat ure resi st ance and t he
back emf at all ti mes i .e.
V = E
b
+ I
a
R
a
4.2
Where V i s t he appli ed vol t age across t he ar mat ure, E
b
i s the induced emf in t he
armat ure by gener at or act ion; I
a
i s t he armat ure current and R
a
i s t he ar mat ure
resi st ance.
Equat ion ( 4.2) may be r ewri t t en as
a
b
a
R
E V
I

=
t o gi ve ar mat ure current i n t erms of
appl i ed vol t age V, i nduced emf E
b
and armat ure resi st ance, R
a
.
As obvi ous from Eqs.( 4.1) and ( 4.2) t he i nduced emf i n t he armat ure of a mot or, E
b
depends among ot her fact ors upon t he armat ure speed and armat ure current
depends upon the back emf E
b
for a const ant appli ed vol t age and ar mat ure
resi st ance. I f t he ar mat ure speed i s hi gh, back emf E
b
wil l be l arge and t her ef ore
armat ure current becomes small . I f t he speed t o t he armat ure i s low, t hen back emf
E
b
wi ll be l ess and armat ure current I
a
will be more resul ti ng in devel opment of l arge
t orque. Thus i t i s evi dent t hat back emf E
b
act s li ke a governor i .e. i t makes a mot or
sel f-regul at i ng so t hat i t draws as much current as j ust requi red.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
42
4.17. TORQUE EQUATI ON
The back emf of dc mot or i s gi ven by

a a b
R I V E = 4.3
Mul t i pl ying bot h si des of Eq. (4.3) by I
a
,

a
2
a a a b
R I VI I E = 4.4
I n Eq. (4.4) VI
a
= Tot al el ect ri cal power suppl ied t o t he Armat ure of t he dc mot or
( armat ure input ) and I
a
2
R
a
= power wast ed in the armat ure (armat ure copper l oss).
The di fference bet ween t he armat ure input and t he armat ure copper loss i s equal t o
t he mechani cal power devel oped by t he armat ur e of t he mot or.
Hence, mechani cal power devel oped = E
b
I
a
, wat t s 4.5
I f T
a
i s t he t orque in Newt on met er devel oped by t he armat ure of t he mot or, running
at N revolutions per mi nut e, t hen
Mechani cal power devel oped, watts
60
T . N 2
P
a
mech
t
= 4.6
Equat ing Eqs. ( 4.5) and (4.6)

N
I E
.
2
) 60 (
Ta , Torque
60
T N 2
Ia E
a b
a
b
t
=
t
=
4.7
However back emf ,

a . 60
NZ p
E
b
o
= 4.8
Substi t ut ing Equati on (4.8) int o equat ion (4. 7)
] . [ . 159 . 0
60
.
2
60
, m N
a
Z I P
N a
NZI P
T Torque
a a
a
u
=
u
=


For a part i cul ar dc mot or; P, Z & a are fi xed. Hence,
a a
I T o
Therefore, t he t orque devel oped by t he armat ure of dc mot or i s proportional t o t he
product of armat ure current and t he fl ux per pol e. For dc shunt mot or, the fl ux per
pol e i s pract i call y const ant , hence t he t orque devel oped i s di rect l y proporti on t o t he
armat ure current , i .e.

a a
I T ( for dc shunt mot or)
For dc seri es mot or, t he flux per pol e i s direct ly proporti onal t o I
a
hence t he t orque
devel oped i s direct l y proportion t o t he square of t he armat ure current , i .e.

2
a a
I T ( for a dc seri es mot or)
4.18. SPEED EQUATI ON
The back emf f or dc mot or i s gi ven by
volts
a 60
Z . N P
E
b
o
=
Introduction to Electrical Machines
43
Al so,
a a b
R I V E =
Combi ng t he above t wo equat i ons,

a a
R I V
a 60
Z . N P
=
o

Or
o
=
I
.
PZ
a . 60
). R I V ( N
a a

For a gi ven part i cul ar motor, P, Z and a are fi xed. Hence

( )
o
=
o

=
b a a
E
K
R I V
K N
Thus t he speed of dc mot or i s di rect l y proport ional t o the vol t age appl i ed t o t he
armat ure or t he back emf & i nversel y proporti onal t o t he fl ux per pol e. For dc shunt
mot or, t he fl ux per pol e i s approxi mat el y const ant and hence t he speed of dc shunt
mot or i s direct l y proporti onal t o t he back emf i .e.
b
E N . For dc seri es mot or, t he
flux per pol e i s direct l y proporti onal t o t he armat ure current and hence t he load on
t he mot or. Thus t he speed of dc seri es mot or i s inversel y proporti onal t o t he fl ux per
pol e or t he armat ure current i .e.
o

1
N . The speed of t he mot or increases wi t h t he
fall i n flux.
Example 4.10 The armat ure of a 6 pol e, 6 circui t dc shunt mot or t akes
300 A at t he speed of 400 revoluti ons per mi nut e. The flux per pol e i s 75 10
- 3
Wb.
The number of armat ure t urns i s 500. The t orque l ost in wi ndage, fri ct ion and i ron
losses can be assumed as 2.5 per cent . Cal culat e ( i ) the t orque devel oped by t he
armat ure, ( i i) shaft t orque and (ii i) shaft power in kW.
Solut ion
i) The t orque devel oped by t he armat ure of a dc mot or i s gi ven by
m . N
A
Z I P
159 . 0 T
a
a
o
=
Number of pol es of shunt mot or, P = 6
Armat ure wi ndi ng has 6 ci rcui t s, t hus, A = 6
Armat ure current , I
a
= 300 A
Number of armat ure t urns = 500
Thus t ot al conduct ors on t he armat ure, Z = 2 500 = 1000
Fl ux per pol e, o = 75 10
- 3
Wb
Substi t ut ing t hese val ues in t he above equat i on
Armat ure t orque, m . N 5 . 3577
6
1000 300 10 75 6
159 . 0 T
3
a
=

=


ii ) Torque lost i n windage, f ri ct i on and i ron losses
= 2.5% of T
a

= 0.0255 3577.5 = 89.44 N.m
Thus, shaft t orque, T
sh
= 3577.589.44 = 3488.06 N m
iii) Shaft power,
Introduction to Electrical Machines
44

kW 22 . 146
1000 60
06 . 3488 400 2
kW
1000 60
Z NT 2
T
sh
sh
=

t
=

t
=

Example 4.11 A 440 V dc mot or t akes an ar mat ure current of 60 A
when i t s speed i s 750 rpm. I f t he armat ure r esi st ance i s, 0.25O, cal cul at e t he t orque
produced.
Solut ion Back emf devel oped, E
b
= V I
a
R
a
= 440600.25 = 425 V
Torque produced, m . N 68 . 324
60 / 750 2
60 425
60 / N 2
I E
T
a b
a
=
t

=
t
=
Example 4.12 A 10 hp 230V shunt motor t akes an armat ure current of
6A from 230 V l ine at no l oad and runs at 1,200 rpm. The ar mat ure resi st ance i s
0.25O. Det er mine t he speed and el ect ro- magnet i c t orque when t he armat ure t akes
36 A wi th the same flux.
Solut ion No-load back emf, E
bo
= V I
ao
R
a
= 23060.25 = 228.5 V
No-load speed, N
0
= 1200 rpm.
When armat ure t akes 36 A
Back emf developed E
b1
= V I
a1
R
a
= 230360.25 = 221
Since N E
b
o

0
1
0
1
2
1
0 b
1 b
N
N
N
N
E
E
=
o
o
= fl ux i s same i . e. o
1
=

o
0

Or rpm 1161 1200
5 . 228
221
N
E
E
N
0
0 b
1 b
1
= = =
El ect ro- magnet i c t orque devel oped, m . N 44 . 65
60 / 1161 2
36 221
60 / N 2
I E
T
1
a b
a
=
t

=
t
=
Example 4.13 The armat ure of a 4- pol e dc shunt mot or has a l ap
winding accommodat ed i s 60 slot s, each cont aini ng 20 conduct ors. I f t he useful fl ux
per pol e be 23 mWb, cal cul at e t he t ot al t orque devel oped i n Newt on met er s when
t he ar mat ure current i s 50 A.
Solut ion
Fl ux per pol e, o = 23 mWb = 0.023 Wb
Tot al number of armat ure conduct ors, Z = 60 20 = 1200
Number of pol es, P= 4
Armat ure current , I
a
= 50 A
Since ar mat ure has l ap winding, Number of parall el pat hs, A= P= 4
Tot al t orque devel oped,

m . N 6 . 219 50 1200 023 . 0 159 . 0
A
I
ZP 159 . 0 T
a
a
= =
o =

4.19. DC MOTOR CHARACTERI STI CS
The 3 I mport ant charact eri st i c curves of dc motors are:
Introduction to Electrical Machines
45
1. Torque- Armat ure Cur rent Charact erist ic
Thi s charact eri st i c curve gi ves rel at i on bet ween mechani cal t orque T and
armat ure current I
a
. Thi s i s known as el ect ri cal charact eri st i c.
2. Speed- Armature Cur rent Charact er ist ic
Thi s charact eri st i c curve gi ves r el at ion bet ween speed N and ar mat ure
current I
a

3. Speed- Torque Charact erist ic
Thi s charact eri st i c curve gi ves rel at i on bet ween speed N and mechani cal t orque T.
Thi s i s al so known as mechani cal charact eri st i cs. Thi s curve can be deri ved f rom t he
above t wo curves.
4.18.1. Charact erist ics of Dc Ser ies Mot ors
a.) Magnet ic charact eristi c
I n case of dc seri es mot ors t he flux o vari es wi th t he vari at ion in l ine or armat ure
current as t he fi el d i s i n seri es wi t h t he armat ure. The fl ux o i ncrease f oll owing a
linear l aw wi t h the increase i n load current , becomes maxi mum at sat urat i on point
and fi nall y become const ant .
b.) Torque- Armat ure Cur rent Charact erist ics
From expression of mechani cal t orque T i t i s obvi ous t hat

a a
I T o

Up t o sat urat i on poi nt flux i s proporti onal t o fi eld current and hence t o t he armat ur e
current because I
a
= I
f
. Therefore on light l oad
2
a
I T and hence curve dr awn
bet ween T and I
a
up t o sat ur at i on poi nt i s a par abol a as i llust rat ed i n Fi gure 4. 46.
Aft er sat urat ion point flux o i s al most i ndependent of exci t at i on current and so
a
I T
. Hence t he char act eri st i cs curve becomes a st rai ght l ine as shown in Fi gure 4. 46.
From t he t orque- armat ure current curve i t i s evi dent t hat seri es mot or devel ops
l arge st art i ng t orque t o accel erat e t he heavy masses. Hence seri es mot ors are used
where l arge st art i ng t orque i s requi red such as i n hoi st s el ect ri c rail ways, t roll eys
and el ect ri c vehi cl es.
N
,

r
p
m
T
,

N
.
m
o W
b
,
o

Fi gure 4.46 Speed- current and Torque-current char act eri st i cs of DC
seri es mot ors
c. ) Speed- Current Charact erist ic
From expression of speed, i t i s obvious t hat
Introduction to Electrical Machines
46

o

=
o
o
a a b
R I V E
N
I f t he appli ed vol t age r emai ns const ant , speed i s i nversel y proporti onal t o flux per
pol e. So, if a curve i s drawn bet ween reci procal of flux and current I , t he speed
current charact eri st i c i s obt ai ned whi ch i s a rect angul ar hyperbol a i n shape as
represent ed i n Fi gure 4.46.
Since on no l oad t he speed i s dangerousl y hi gh, as obvi ous from speed- current
charact eri st i c curve, whi ch wil l resul t i n heavy cent ri fugal force whi ch i n t urn will
damage t he mot or. That is why, series mot ors are never st art ed on no load, which i s
expl ained below:
When t he mot or i s connect ed across t he suppl y mai ns wi thout load, i t draws a
current f rom t he suppl y mai ns flowi ng t hrough t he seri es fi el d and armat ure, t he
speed t ends t o i ncrease so t he back emf, may approach t he appli ed vol t age in
magni t ude. The increase i n back emf weakens t he armat ure current and hence t he
fi el d current . Thi s cause again increases i n speed so in back emf. Thus t he fi el d
cont i nues t o weaken and speed conti nues t o i ncrease dangerousl y unti l the armat ure
get s damaged.
Since on no-load t he seri es mot or at t ai ns dangerousl y high speed, whi ch cause
heavy cent ri fugal force resul t ing i n t he damage of t he machi ne, t herefore, seri es
mot or are not sui t abl e for t he servi ces:
i.) where t he l oad may be ent i rel y removed and
ii. ) for dri ving by means of bel t s because mi shap t o t he bel t would cause t he
mot or t o run on no-load
These mot or are sui t abl e for gear dri ve, because gear provi des some l oad on
account of fri ctional resi st ance of t he gear t eet h i n case of sudden rel ease of l oad.
d.) Speed- Torque Characterist ic
The speed- t orque char act eri st i c can be drawn wi th hel p of above t wo
charact eri st i cs, as shown in Fi gure 4.47, whi ch shows t hat as t he t orque i ncreases,
speed decr eases. Hence seri es mot ors ar e best sui t ed for the ser vi ces where t he
mot or i s di rect l y coupl ed t o load such as fans whose speed fal l s wi th t he increase in
t orque. I t should be not ed t hat seri es mot or i s a vari abl e speed mot or.

Fi gure 4.47 Speed- Torque char act eri st i cs of dc seri es mot or
4.18.2. Charact erist ics of Dc Shunt Mot ors
a.) Speed- Current Charact erist ic
I f appli ed vol t age V i s kept const ant , t he fi el d current wi ll remai n const ant hence
flux wil l have maxi mum val ue on no l oad but will decrease sli ght l y due t o ar mat ure
Introduction to Electrical Machines
47
react ion as t he l oad increase but for more purpose t he fl ux i s consi dered t o be
const ant negl ect i ng t he effect of armat ure react i on.
From expr essi on of speed N i s di rect l y proportional t o back emf E
b
or ( VI
a
R
a
) and
inversel y proportional t o t he fl ux o. Si nce flux i s consi dered t o be const ant as
ment i oned above, so wi t h t he i ncrease i n l oad current t he speed sl i ghtl y fal l s due t o
increase i n vol t age drop i n armat ure I
a
R
a
. Since vol t age drop in armat ure at full -
load i s very small as compar ed t o appli ed vol t age so drop i n speed from no-l oad t o
ful l-load i s ver y smal l and for all pract i cal purposes t he shunt mot or i s t aken as a
const ant speed mot or.
Since t here i s a sli ght vari at i on in speed of t he shunt mot or f rom no-l oad t o ful l-load
and t hi s slight vari at ion in can be made by i nsert ing resi st ance i n t he shunt fi el d and
so reducing the fl ux. Theref ore, shunt mot ors bei ng const ant speed mot ors are best
sui t ed for dri ving of line shaft s, machine l at hes, milling machines, conveyors, fans
and for all purposes wher e const ant speed i s requi red.
N
,

r
p
m
T
,

N
.
m

Fi gure 4.48 Speed- current and Torque- current char act eri st i cs of dc shunt mot or
b.) Torque- Current Charact er ist ic
From t he expr essi on for t he t orque of a dc mot or, t orque i s di rect l y proportional t o
t he product of flux and armat ure current . Since i n case of dc shunt mot ors t he fl ux
i s const ant t her ef ore t orque increase wi t h t he increase in load current fol lowi ng
linear l aw i . e. t orque- armat ure current charact eri st i cs i s a st r ai ght li ne passi ng
t hrough ori gi n ( ref er Fi gure 4.48) .
c.) Speed- Torque Characterist ic
Thi s charact eri st i c curve can be dr awn from t he above t wo char act eri st i cs and i s
shown in Fi gure 4. 49.

Fi gure 4. 49 Speed- Torque charact eri st i cs of dc shunt mot or
Introduction to Electrical Machines
48
4.18.3. Charact erist ics of Compound Would Mot or
a.) Cumulat ive compound wound mot or
As t he load i s increased, t he flux due t o seri es f i el d winding increase and causes t he
t orque great er t han i t woul d have wi t h shunt fi eld wi nding alone for a gi ven machi ne
and for gi ven current . The increase in fl ux due t o seri es fi el d winding on account of
increase in l oad cause t he speed t o fall more rapi dl y t han i t woul d have done in
shunt mot or. The cumul at i ve compound mot or devel ops a hi gh t orque wi t h increase
of l oad. I t al so has a def i ni t e speed of no load, so does not run away when t he load
i s removed ( refer Fi gure 4.50 and 4.51) . Cumul at i ve compound wound mot ors are
used in dri ving machi nes whi ch subj ect t o sudden appli cat i ons of heavy loads, such
as occur i n rol ling mill s, shear s or punches. This t ype of mot or i s used al so where a
l arge st art i ng t orque i s regard but seri es mot or cannot be used conveni entl y such as
in cranes and el evat or.
b.) Different ial compound wound mot or
Since t he flux decr ease wi t h t he i ncrease i n load, so t he speed r emai ns nearl y
const ant as t he l oad i s i ncreased and in some cases t he speed wi ll increase even.
The decrease i n flux wi t h t he increase i n l oad causes t he t orque t o be l ess t han t hat
of a shunt mot or. The charact eri st i cs ar e si mil ar t o t hose of a shunt mot or. Since t he
shunt mot or develops a good t orque and al most const ant speed, t her efore
di fferenti al compound motor i s sel dom used. The charact eri st i cs ar e shown i n Fi gure
4.50 and 4.51.

Fi gure 4.50 Speed- current and Torque-
current char act eri sti cs of dc shunt mot or

Fi gure 4.51 Speed- Torque
char act eri st i cs of dc shunt mot or
4.20. STARTI NG OF DC MOTOR
I f dc mot or i s di rect l y connect ed t o a dc power suppl y, t he st art i ng current will be
dangerousl y hi gh. From Fi gure 4.52 ( a) ,
a
a i
a
R
E V
I

=

The back emf ) N K ( E
a b
o = i s zero at st art . Therefore,
a
start a
R
V
I =
Introduction to Electrical Machines
49

( a)
+
_
E
b
R
a
I
a
I
sh
R
ae
V
t

( b)

( c)
Fi gure 4.52 dc mot or st art er
Since R
a
i s small , t he st art i ng current i s very l arge. The st art i ng current can be
limi t ed t o a saf e val ue by t he following met hods.
1. I nser t an ext ernal resi st ance, R
ae
( Fi gure 4.52 (b) , at st art .
2. Use a l ow dc t ermi nal vol t age ( V) at st art . Thi s , of course , r equires
a vari abl e- vol t age suppl y
Wi th an ext ernal resi st ance i n t he armat ure circui t , t he ar mat ure current as t he
mot or speeds up i s
ae a
b
a
R R
E V
I
+

=

The back emf E
b
i ncreases as t he speed increases. Therefore, t he ext ernal resi st ance
R
ae
can be gradual l y t aken out as t he mot or speeds up wi t hout t he current
exceedi ng a cert ai n limi t . Thi s i s done usi ng a st art er, shown in Fi gure 4.52( c) . At
st art , t he handl e i s moved t o posi tion 1. Al l the resi st ances, R
1
, R
2
, R
3
and R
4
appear
in seri es wi th t he armat ure and t hereby li mi t t he st art i ng current . As t he mot or
speeds up t he handl e i s moved t o posi ti ons 2, 3, 4, and fi nall y 5. At posi tion 5 all
t he resi st ances in t he st art er are t aken out of t he ar mat ure ci rcui t . The handl e will
be hel d in posi t i on 5 by t he el ect romagnet , whi ch i s exci t ed by t he fi el d current I
f
.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
50

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.53 vari at i on of st art i ng current and speed as st art i ng rheost at brought out
from armat ure ci rcui t
4.21. SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR
Speed cont rol means i nt enti onal change of t he dri ve speed t o a val ue requi red for
performi ng t he speci fi c work process. Thi s concept of speed cont rol or adj ust ment
should not be t aken t o incl ude t he nat ural change i n speed whi ch occurs due t o
change i n t he l oad on t he dri ve shaft . The desi red change i n speed i s accompli shed
by act ing accordi ngl y on t he deri ve mot or or on t he t r ansmi ssi on connect i ng i t t o t he
uni t i t serves t o dri ve. Thi s may be done manuall y by t he oper at or or by means
of some aut omat i c cont rol devi ce.
The nat ure speed cont rol requirement f or an i ndust ri al dri ve depends upon i t s t ype.
Some dri ves may requi re continuous vari at ion of speed for t he whol e of t he range
from zero t o full speed, or over a port i on of t hi s range ; whi l e t he ot hers may
requi re t wo or more fi xed speeds. Some machines may r equi re a creepi ng
speed for adj ust i ng or set t i ng up t he work. Such a speed i s of t he order of few
r.p.m. For most of t he dri ves, however, speed a cont rol of speed wi t hi n t he range of
20% may be sui t abl e.
On of t he aat t ract i ve f eat ures t he d. c. mot or offers over al l ot her t ypes i s t he
rel at i ve ease wi t h whi ch speed cont rol can be achi eved. The vari ous schemes
avai l abl e for speed cont rol can be deduced from t he expr essi on of speed f or a d.c.
mot or.
I t has been shown earli er t he speed of a mot or is gi ven by t he rel at ion
. s . p . r
R I V
K
P
a
Z
R I V
N
a a a a
o

=
|
.
|

\
|

=
Where R
a
= armat ure ci rcui t resi st ance
I t i s obvious t hat t he speed can be cont rol led by var yi ng
a) Fl ux/ pol e i .e. Flux cont rol
b) Resi st ance R
a
of t he armat ure ci rcui t i .e. Rheost at ic Cont rol and
c) Appli ed volt age V i .e. Volt age control
Introduction to Electrical Machines
51
4.21 .1. Speed cont rol of shunt mot ors
a) Variat ion of Flux or Flux cont rol Method
I t i s seen f rom above equat i on t hat ,
o

1
N . By decr easi ng t he fl ux, t he speed can
be i ncrease and vi ce ver sa. Hence, t he name fl ux or fi el d cont rol met hod. The flux of
dc mot or can be changed by changi ng I
sh
wi th hel p of a shunt fi eld rheost at . Si nce
I
sh
i s rel at i vel y small , shunt fi el d rheost at has t o carr y onl y a small current , whi ch
means I
2
R loss i s smal l . So t hi s met hod i s, t herefore, very effi ci ent .

Fi gure 4.54 speed cont rol of shunt mot or by varying fi eld flux
I n non-i nt erpol ar machi nes, t he speed can be increased by t hi s met hod in t he rat io
of 2: 1. Any further weakening of flux o adver sely aff ect s t he commut at ion and hence
put s a l i mi t t o the maxi mum speed obt ainabl e by t hi s met hod. I n machi nes fi t t ed
wi th int erpol es, a rat io of maxi mum t o mini mum speeds of 6: 1 i s fai rl y common.
b) Armature or Rheost atic Cont rol Met hod
Thi s met hod i s used when speeds bel ow t he no-load speed ar e requi red. As t he
suppl y vol t age i s normall y const ant , t he vol t age across t he ar mat ure i s vari ed by
insert ing a vari abl e rheost at or resi st ance ( call ed cont roll er resi st ance) i n seri es
wi th t he armat ure ci rcui t as shown i n Fi gure 4.55( a) .

( a) ( b)
Fi gure 4.55 speed cont rol of shunt mot or by var ying resi st ance in t he armat ure
ci rcui t
As cont roll er resi st ance i s i ncreased, pot ent i al difference across t he armat ure i s
decr eased, t her eby decr easi ng t he armat ure speed. For a l oad of const ant t orque,
speed i s approxi mat el y proporti onal t o t he Pot ent i al diff erence across t he
armat ure. From t he speed/ armat ure current charact eri st i cs, as shown in Fi gure
4. 55, i t i s seen t hat t he gr eat er t he resi st ance i n t he armat ure ci rcui t , great er i s
t he fall i n speed.
c) Armature- t erminal voltage cont rol
Uti li zes t he f act t hat t he change i n t he armat ure t er minal vol t age of a shunt mot or
i s accompani ed i n t he st eady st at e by a subst ant i al l y equal change in t he speed
Introduction to Electrical Machines
52
vol t age (E
b
) and, wi t h const ant mot or flux, a consequent proporti onal change in
mot or speed. One common scheme, call ed t he Ward- Leonard Syst em, requi red an
indi vidual mot or -generat or set t o suppl y power t o t he armat ure vol t age of t he
mot or whose speed i s t o be cont rolled. Frequent l y t he cont rol of generat or vol t age
i s combined wi t h mot or - fi eld cont rol , as i ndi cat ed by t he rheost at i n the fi el d of
mot or M i n Figure 4.56, i n order t o achi eve t he wi dest possi bl e speed range. Wi th
such dual cont rol , base speed can be defi ned as t he normal -armat ure vol t age full
fi el d speed of t he mot or. Speeds above base speed ar e obt ai ned by mot or fi el d
cont rol; speeds below base speed are obt ai ned by ar mat ure- vol t age cont rol . As
di scussed i n connect i on wi th fi el d- current cont rol , t he range above base speed i s
t hat of const ant power dri ve. The r ange bel ow base speed i s t hat of a const ant
t orque dri ve because, as i n armat ure- resi st ance cont rol , t he fl ux and t he allowabl e
armat ure current remai n approxi mat el y const ant .
supply - 3

Fi gure 4.56 ward- Leonard syst em

Fi gure 4.57 const ant - t orque and const ant - power operat i on
Example 4.14 A 200 V dc shunt mot or has an armat ure r esi st ance of
0.4 O and a fi el d resi st ance of 200 O. When t he mot or i s dri vi ng at 600 rpm a load,
t he t orque of whi ch i s const ant , t he ar mat ure t akes 20 A. I t i s desi red t o rai se t he
speed from 600 t o 900 rpm by inser t i ng a resi st ance in t he shunt fi eld ci rcui t .
Assumi ng the magnet i zat i on curve t o be a st r ai ght line, fi nd t he val ue of addi t ional
resi st ance i n t he fi eld ci rcui t .
Introduction to Electrical Machines
53
Solut ion
I ni t i al speed of t he mot or, N
1
= 600 rpm
Armat ure current , I
a1
= 20 A
Appli ed volt age, V = 200 V
Back emf devel oped by t he mot or at 600 rpm
E
b1
= V I
a1
R
a

= 200 200.4 = 192 V
Fi el d current under t hi s condi tion, A 0 . 1
200
200
I
1 sh
= =
Now l et t he t ot al resi st ance in shunt fi el d ci rcui t t o rai se t he speed t o 900 rpm be R
f

O.
Then t he fi eld current , A
R
200
I
f
1 sh
=
The magnet i zat i on curve i s t o be assumed as a st rai ght line, t hus fl ux i s di rect l y
proportional to fi el d current , i .e.
sh
I o
Or
f 1 sh
2 sh
1
2
R
200
I
I
= =
o
o

As per t he gi ven condi tions, t he t orque remai ns const ant during the change of
speed.
Thus T
1
= T
2
Torque o
a
I T

1 1 a
'
1
I K T o

2 2 a
'
2
I K T o
Or
2 2 a 1 1 a
I I o = o

f
f
2
1
1 a 2 a
R 1 . 0
200
R
20 I I = =
o
o
=
Where, I
a2
i s t he current dr awn by t he armat ure, when t he mot or i s dri ving t he load
at 900 rpm.
Back emf at 900 rpm, E
b2
= V I
a2
R
a

= 200 0.1 R
f
0.4
= 200 0.04 R
f

Back emf for a part i cul ar motor, N K E
b
o =
Thus
1 1 1 b
N K E o = (i )
And
2 2 2 b
N K E o = (i i)
Di vi di ng Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i ),

1
2
1
2
1 b
2 b
N
N
E
E

o
o
=

600
900
R
200
192
R 04 . 0 200
f
f
= =


Or, 0 57600 R 200 R 04 . 0
f
2
f
= +
Introduction to Electrical Machines
54

O =
+
=
8 . 306
08 . 0
9216 000 , 40 200
R
f

Addi ti onal resi st ance i n t he shunt fi el d ci rcui t = R
f
R
sh1

= 306.8 200 = 106.8 O
Example 4.15 A 250 V dc shunt mot or runs at i t s normal speed of 500
rpm when t he armat ure current i s 100 A. Find t he speed of t he mot or under t he
fol lowing cases: ( i ) a r esi st ance of 1.0 O i s connect ed i n seri es wi t h t he armat ure
ci rcui t , the shunt fi el d remai ning const ant , (ii ) t he shunt fi eld current i s reduced t o
60 per cent of i t s normal value by i nsert ing a resi st ance i n t he fi el d circui t .
The armat ure current i n bot h t he above cases i s 50 A. The resi st ance of t he
armat ure i s 0.25O and t hat of i nt erpol e wi ndi ng, 0.05O.
Solut ion
Tot al resi st ance of t he armat ure ci rcui t 0.25+ 0.05 = 0.3O
Normal speed, N
1
= 500 rpm
Appli ed volt age, V = 250 V
Armat ure current at normal speed, I
a1
= 100 A
Back emf at 500 rpm, E
b1
= 250 100

0.3
= 220 V
i ) Addi ti onal resi st ance i n t he armat ure ci rcui t = 1. 0 O
Tot al resi st ance i n t he armat ure ci rcui t = 0.3 + 1.0 = 1.3 O
Armat ure current under t hi s condi tion, I
a2
= 50 A
Back emf, E
b2
= 250 50

1.3
= 185 V
As t he fi el d current remai ns unchanged, o
1
= o
2

Back emf for a part i cul ar motor, N K E
b
o =
or
1 1 1 b
N K E o = (i )
And
2 2 2 b
N K E o = (i i)

1
2
1
2
1 b
2 b
N
N
E
E

o
o
=
Or
500
N
1
220
150
2
=
Speed, rpm 420
220
185
500 N
2
= =
i i) Tot al resi st ance i n t he armat ure ci rcui t = 0.3 O
Armat ure current , I
a3
= 50 A
Back emf under t hi s condi tion, E
b3
= 250 50

0.3
= 235 V
Shunt fi el d current under t hi s condi ti on, I
sh3
= 0.6 I
sh1

Assumi ng t he magnet i zat i on curve t o be li near,
sh
I o
Or 6 . 0
I
I
1 sh
3 sh
1
3
= =
o
o

Introduction to Electrical Machines
55
Now,
1
3
1
3
1 b
3 b
N
N
E
E

o
o
=
Or
500
N
6 . 0
220
235
3
=
Speed of t he mot or, rpm 890
6 . 0 220
235 500
N
3
=

=
Example 4.16 A 230 V shunt mot or dri ves a load at 900 rpm drawi ng a
current of 30A. The resi st ance of t he armat ure circui t i s 0.4O. The t orque of t he load
i s proport ional t o the speed. Cal cul at e t he r esi st ance t o be connect ed i n seri es wi th
t he ar mat ure t o reduce t he speed t o 600 rpm I gnore armat ure react i on.,
Solut ion
I n normal condi tions
Armat ure current , I
a
= 30 A negl ect ing fi el d
current
Armat ure ci rcui t resi st ance, R
a
= 0. 4O
Back emf, E
b1
= V I
a1
R
a

= 230 300.4O = 218 V
Speed, N
1
= 900 rpm
Let r esi st ance R be connect ed i n seri es wi t h t he armat ure ci rcui t t o reduce t he speed
t o N
2
= 600 rpm.
Since as per gi ven dat a l oad t orque, N T and al so
a
I T o

1
2
1 1 a
2 2 a
N
N
I
I
=
o
o

Assumi ng flux const ant
A 20
900
600
30
N
N
I I
1
2
1 a 2 a
= = =
Back emf, E
b2
= V I
a2
( R + R
a
)

= 230 20( R+ 0.4)
= 22220R
o N E
b
and fl ux o i s const ant

1
2
1 b
2 b
N
N
E
E
=
Or
900
600
218
R 20 220
=


Or R= 3.833 O
Example 4.17 A 220 V dc shunt mot or draws 4.5 A on no load and runs
at 1000 rpm. Resi st ance of t he armat ure wi nding and shunt fi el d winding i s 0.3 and
157 O respect i vel y. Cal cul at e t he speed, when l oaded and drawi ng a current of 30 A.
Assume t hat t he ar mat ure react i on weakens t he fi el d by 3 %.
Solut ion
Vol t age appli ed t o the mot or, V
L
= 220 V
Shunt fi el d resi st ance, R
sh
= 157 O
Introduction to Electrical Machines
56
Shunt fi el d current , A 4 . 1
157
220
I
sh
= =
Current drawn by t he mot or at no l oad = 4.5 A.
Thus armat ure current at no load, I
ao
= 4.5 1.4 = 3.1 A
Back emf at no load, E
bo
= V I
ao
R
a

= 220 3.1 0.3
= 219.07 V
Under l oaded condi tions, current drawn by t he Mot or = 30 A
Armat ure current under loaded condi ti ons, I
a
= 30 1.4 = 28.6 A
Back emf under loaded condi ti ons, E
b
= V I
a
R
a

= 220 28.6 0.3
= 211.42 V
Let t he flux under no load condi tion be o
0
, t hen under t he loaded condi ti on flux o =
0.97 o
0
, because of armat ure r eact ion.
The back emf for a de mot or i s gi ven by

N K
a 60
NZ P
E
b
o =
o
=

Thus
o o bo
N K E o = ( i)
Al so, ( )N 97 . 0 K E
o bo
o = ( ii )
Di vi di ng Eq. (ii) by Eq. (i ),

( )
bo
b
o
E
E
N
97 . 0 N
=
Speed under t he l oaded condi ti on,

rpm 995
97 . 0
1000
07 . 219
42 . 211
N
=
=

4.21 .2. Speed Control Of Dc Series Mot ors
Flux Cont rol Met hod
Vari at i on in t he flux of a Seri es mot or can be brought about i n any one of t he
fol lowing ways.
i) Field Divert or s
The seri es winding are shunt ed by a vari abl e resi st ance knows as fi eld di vert or
( Fi gure 4.54) . Any desi red amount of current can be passed t hrough t he di vert or by
adj ust i ng i t s resi st ance. Hence t he fl ux can be decr eased, consequent l y, t he speed
of t he mot or i ncreased.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
57

Fi gure 4.58 speed cont rol of seri es mot or by fi eld di vert or met hod
ii) Armat ure Divert or
A di vert or across t he armat ure can be used for gi ving speeds lower t hen t he normal
speed. For a gi ven const ant l oad t orque, i f I
a
i s reduced due t o ar mat ure di vert or, t hen
o must i ncrease ( T
a
o o I
a
) . Thi s resul t s an i ncrease in current t aken from t he suppl y
( whi ch increases t he f lux) and a f all in speed ( N 1/ o) . The vari at ions in speed can be
cont rol l ed by varyi ng t he di vert or resi st ance.

Fi gure 4.59 speed cont rol of seri es mot or by armat ure di vert or met hod
iii) Tapped Field Cont rol
Thi s met hod i s oft en used i n el ect ri c t ract i on (Show in Fi gure 3) .The number of seri es
fi el d t urns in t he ci rcui t can be changed at will as shown. Wi th full fi el d, t he mot or runs
at i t s mi ni mum speed, whi ch can be rai sed i n st eps by cut t i ng out some of t he seri es
t urns.

Fi gure 4.60 speed cont rol of seri es mot or by t apped fi el d cont rol met hod
Variable Resist ance in series wit h Mot or
By i ncreasi ng t he resi st ance i n seri es wi th armat ure, t he vol t age appli ed across t he
armat ure t er mi nal s can be decreased. Wi t h reduced vol t age across t he ar mat ure, t he
speed i s reduced. However, i t wil l be not ed t hat since ful l motor current passes t hrough
t hi s resi st ance, t here i s a consi derabl e loss of power in i t .
Introduction to Electrical Machines
58

Fi gure 4.61 speed cont rol of seri es mot or by var i abl e resi st ance met hod
Example 4.18 A 200 V dc seri es mot or runs at 500 r.p.m, when t aki ng a
current of 25 A. t he resi st ance of t he armat ure i s 0.5 O and t hat of fi el d i s 0.3O.
I f t he current r emai ns const ant , cal cul at e t he r esi st ance necessar y t o reduce
t he speed t o 250 rpm.
Solut ion
Mot or input current , I
1
= 25 A
Li ne vol t age, V= 200 V
Back emf, E
b1
= V I
1
( R
a
+ R
se
)

= 200 25( 0.5+ 0.3)
= 180 V
Speed, N
1
= 500 rpm
Let r esi st ance R be connect ed i n seri es wi t h t he armat ure ci rcui t t o reduce t he speed
t o N
2
= 250 rpm.
Mot or input current , I
2
= I
1
= 25 A ......
( gi ven)
E
b2
= V I
2
( R + R
a
+ R
se
)

= 200 25( R+ 0.5+ 0.3)
= 18025R
Since
o

b
E
N
Or
1 b
2 b
21
1
1 b
2 b
1
2
E
E
E
E
N
N
=
o
o
=
1 2
o = o as fi el d current remai ns
t he same
Or
180
R 25 180
500
250
=
Or R= 3.6 O

Example 4.19 A seri es mot or wi t h seri es fi el d and armat ure r esi st ance of 0.06
and 0.04 O respect i vel y i s connect ed across 220 V. The armat ure t akes 40 A and
speed i s 1000 rpm. Det ermi ne i t s speed when t he ar mat ure t akes 75 A and
exci t at i on i s increased by 10%.
Solut ion
Armat ure current , 1
a1
= 40 A
Bach emf, E
b1
= V I
1
( R
a
+ R
se
)
Introduction to Electrical Machines
59

= 220 40( 0.04+ 0.06)
= 216 V
Speed, N
1
= 1000 rpm
Fl ux o
1
= o ( say)
When armat ure current , I
2
= 75 A
Bach emf, E
b2
= V I
2
( R
a
+ R
se
)

= 220 75( 0.04+ 0.06)
= 212. 5 V
Fl ux o
2
= 1.1o
1
= 1.1o .. .... ( gi ven)
Since
o

b
E
N

rpm 894
1 . 1 216
5 . 212
1000
E
E
N N
21
1
1 b
2 b
1 2
=
o
o
=
=
o
o
=

Example 4.20 A seri es mot or runs at 500 r.p.m. when t aki ng a current of 60A
at 460 V. The resi st ance of t he armat ure ci rcui t i s 0.2 O and t hat of t he f i el d windi ng
i s 0.1 O. Cal cul at e t he speed when a 0.15 O di vert or i s connect ed i n paral l el wi th t he
fi el d wi nding. Assume t he t orque t o remai n unal t er ed and t he fl ux t o be proporti onal
t o t he fi el d current .
Solut ion
I n normal condi tions
Armat ure current , I
a1
= Seri es fi el d current , I
se
= Li ne current , I
L1
= 60 A
Speed, N
1
= 500 rpm
E
b1
= V I
a1
R
a
I
se1
R
se
)

= 220 60 0.2 600.1
= 442 V
Aft er connect i ng a di vert or of resi st ance of 0.15 Oa i n paral l el wi th t he fi el d windi ng
l et t he speed be N
2
and l ine current I
L2

Armat ure current , I
a2
= I
L2
Seri es fi el d current ,

2 L 2 L
div se
div
2 L 2 se
I
5
3
15 . 0 1 . 0
15 . 0
I
R R
R
I I
=
+
=
+
=

Since t orque remai ns unal t ered
T
2
= T
1

Or I
a2
o
2
= I
a1
o
1

Or I
a2
I
se2
= I
a1
I
se1
since
se
I o
Or 60 60 I
5
3
I
2 L 2 L
=
Or A 46 . 77
3
5 3600
I
2 L
=

=
Introduction to Electrical Machines
60
A 48 . 46 46 . 77
5
3
I
5
3
I
2 L 2 se
= = =
Back emf, E
b1
= V I
a2
R
a
I
se2
R
se
)

= 220 77.46 0.2 46.48 0.1
= 440. 06 V

rpm 386
60
48 . 46
442
06 . 440
500
I
I
E
E
N
E
E
N N Speed
2 se
1 se
1 b
2 b
1
21
1
1 b
2 b
1 2
=
=
= =
o
o
=

4.22. LOSSES I N DC MACHI NES
I NTRODUCTI ON
The dc machines ar e used ei t her for convert ing mechani cal energy int o el ect ri cal
energy, i .e. gener at ors or for convert ing el ect r i cal energy i nt o mechani cal energy,
i .e. mot ors. Thi s conversi on of energy from one form t o anot her obviousl y t akes
pl ace at an effi ci ency of l ess t han 100 percent . A part of t he energy consumed by
machine can not be ef fect i vel y utili zed i n the machine proper and i s di spersed i n t he
form of heat . Thi s part of t he energy i s gener al l y t ermed as lost energy or si mpl y
t he losses of t he machi ne. The losses i n general occur (i) i n el ect ri cal ci rcui t s
carryi ng a cert ai n current , (i i ) in magnet i c ci rcui t s subj ect ed t o al t ernat i ng
magnet i zat i on and (ii i) due t o mechani cal fri cti on. Hence t he l osses occurri ng in an
el ect ri cal machi ne consti t ut e a source of ineffi ci ency. I n addi t i on, t hese ar e
compl et el y convert ed i nto heat , r esul ti ng i n a ri se i n the t emper at ure of t he
machine. I f r el i abl e operat ion of an el ect ri cal machi ne i s desi red during i t s normal
servi ce li fe, t hen t he t emper at ure of t he various part s of t he machine shoul d not be
al lowed t o exceed beyond t he per mi ssi bl e limit , deci ded by t he t ype of insul at i ng
mat eri al used i n the machi ne. The t emperat ure ri se al so deci des t he capaci t y t o
whi ch the machine can be l oaded safel y.
The l osses occurri ng i n t he machi ne have al so to be pai d for and as such t he runni ng
cost of a l ess effi ci ent machi ne for t he same output i s more compared t o an effi ci ent
machine. Hence t he probl em of l osses i n t he machi ne i s cl osel y connect ed wi t h t he
probl ems of i t s servi ce li fe and other economic fact ors. The ini ti al cost of a more
ef fi ci ent machi ne i s cert ai nl y hi gher t han t hat of a machi ne wi t h poor effi ci ency.
However, t he hi gher i niti al cost i s compensat ed by t he savi ng in running energy
charges; moreover a more effi ci ent machi ne i s hi ghl y reli abl e , l ess subj ect t o
breakdowns whi ch i s part i cul ar i mport ant when continui t y of servi ce must be
maint ai ned. Bet t er el ect ri cal mat eri al s are bei ng devel oped and wi th t he use of
t hese el ect ri cal machines ar e undergoing a conti nuous i mprovement t owards
reduct i on in losses, so as t o produce more effi ci ent machines wi th t roubl e free and
cont i nuous servi ce even under more severe working.
4.22 .1. Classificat ion of Losses
Power l osses ori ginati ng in dc machines ( ei t her a mot or or a gener at or) can be
cl assi fi ed int o the following groups
1. Copper losses, caused by t he current fl ow and occur in (i ) armat ure
winding, (i i) seri es fi el d winding , (iii) commut at i ng pol e windi ng , (i v)
compensat i ng windi ng , ( v) shunt fi el d wi nding and ( vi ) loss due t o brush
cont act resi st ance.
2. I ron losses caused by var ying magnet i zat i on and occur i n ( armat ure core
and (i i ) armat ure t eet h , as hyst er esi s loss and eddy current l oss.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
61
3. Mechanical losses caused by t he rot at i on of t he machine and occur as ( i )
beari ng f ri ction (ii) brush fri ction and (i ii) ai r frict i on ( windage) . These l osses
are al so cal l ed fri ction and windage losses.
4. St ray load losses i nclude (i ) increase i n iron losses at load ( ii ) increases i n
copper losses due t o eddy current s i n armat ure conduct ors and (iii ) addi ti onal
losses caused by short ci rcui t current s i n t he coil s under commut at i on and
occur i n ( a) armat ure t eet h, ( b) armat ure core and ( c) armat ure winding.
For small er machi nes, st ray l osses ar e qui t e negl i gi bl e. For fai rl y l arge machi nes, i t
may be t aken arbi t rari l y as one percent of t he rat i ng of t he machine.
Of t hese groups of losses, copper l osses vary wit h t he l oad on t he machine, whereas
iron and mechani cal losses r emai n subst ant i ally const ant at all loads. St ray losses
ar e more or l ess negl i gi bl e in small and medi um machi nes. Hence t he t ot al losses
occurring i n a dc machi ne may al so be cl assi fi ed as
i) vari abl e losses and
ii) Const ant l osses.
I n case of shunt or compound dc machines, even t he shunt fi el d copper l osses can
be grouped wi t h t he const ant l osses because i t remai ns pract i cal l y const ant at all
loads. Thus for a shunt or compound dc machine, t he const ant and vari abl e l osses
incl ude:
- Const ant losses i ncludi ng (i) iron l osses, (i i) mechani cal losses and (iii )
shunt fi el d Cu losses.
- Vari abl e losses i ncluding (i ) copper l osses in armat ure winding (ii) copper
l osses i n seri es fi el d winding (ii i) copper l osses i n commut at i ng pol e
wi nding (i v) copper l osses i n compensat i ng wi ndi ng i f any and ( v) losses
due t o brush cont act resi st ance.
4.22 .2. Copper Losses
I n gener al copper l osses wi ll occur i n t hose part s of dc machi nes t hat carry el ect ri c
current . These l osses coul d be furt her subdi vided int o t hree groups.
1. Armat ure copper l oss
2. Fi el d copper l oss , and
3. Loss due t o brush cont act r esi st ance.
Armat ure copper loss
Let t he current flowing in t he armat ure wi nding be desi gnat ed I
a
amperes and i t s
resi st ance R
a
O.
Then armat ure copper losses =
a a
R I
2
wat t s.
Moreover, seri es fi el d winding, int erpol e wi nding and compensat i ng windings are
connect ed in seri es wi t h t he armat ure wi ndi ng. As such t he current flowing in t hese
winding i s al so equal t o the armat ure current , I
a
.
Thus, t he t ot al armat ure copper l osses
= ( )
c i se a a
R R R R I + + +
2

Where R
se
, R
i
and R
c
are t he r esi st ance of seri es fi el d wi nding, int erpol e wi nding and
compensat i ng wi nding respect i vel y.
The armat ure ci rcui t copper losses var y as t he square of t he ar mat ure current . As
such t hese l osses coul d be al so call ed vari abl e losses of t he machine t hi s loss i s
about 30 t o 40% of full-l oad l osses.
Field Copper loss
Introduction to Electrical Machines
62
I f I
sh
i s t he current flowi ng in the shunt fi el d wi ndi ng t hen , Copper losses i n t he
shunt fi el d windi ng = I
sh
2
R
sh
wher e R
sh
i s t he resi st ance of t he shunt fi el d windi ng
however t he resi st ance of t he shunt fi el d wi nding
sh
sh
I
V
R =

Where, V i s t he t ermi nal volt age of t he dc machine, i .e. vol t age across t he
armat ure t ermi nal s.
Hence, shunt fi el d copper losses = V x I
sh
, wat t s
Termi nal vol t age and I sh ar e pract i cal l y const ant as such t hi s l oss can be t aken i nt o
t he group of const ant losses i n t he dc machine.
Losses due to Brush cont act Resi st ance
I n dc machi nes, brushes makes a sl i di ng cont act wi t h t he commut at or and t he
conducti on of current i s t hrough mi nut e ar cs. The cont act vol t age drop for a
part i cul ar grade of brush i s more or l ess const ant , var ying f rom 1 t o 2 vol t s for
normal carbon brushes. The brush cont act loss i s equal t o the product of cont act
vol t age drop and t he armat ure current . St ri ct ly speaki ng, i t i s not a copper l oss;
however i t i s normall y included in t he cl assi fi cat ion of copper losses.
4.22 .3. I ron Losses
The reversal of magnet i zat i on of the armat ure core l eads t o i ron losses i n t he core
and t he t eet h of t he armat ure st ruct ure. I ron l osses can furt her be subdi vi ded i nto:
i) hyst er esi s l oss and ii) eddy current l oss
Hyst eresis loss
Hyst eresi s l oss i s mai nl y due t o t he reversal of magnet i zat i on i n t he armat ure core
and depends upon t he ar ea of t he hyst eresi s l oop of t he magnet i c mat eri al used for
armat ure core, t he volume of t he core and t he frequency of magnet i c fl ux reversal .
Area of t he hyst er esi s l oop agai n depends upon t he flux densi t y t o whi ch t he
mat eri al i s being worked.
Dr. Charl es St ei nmet z suggest ed an empi ri cal formul a based on a seri es of t est s for
cal cul at i ng t he hyst eresi s loss, whi ch expressed as follows,
( ) watts B Vf P
6 . 1
max h
c = .
where, c i s a const ant , known as St einmet zs coeff i ci ent or hyst eresi s coef fi ci ent for
a par t i cul ar mat eri al . I t s value for 4% sili con st eel and sheet st eel i s 275 and 500
respect i vel y. Hyst eresi s loss i s reduced by choosing a core mat eri al wi th l ow
hyst er esi s coeffi ci ent such as alloy st eel .
Eddy cur rent losses
As t he ar mat ure core rot at es rel at i ve t o t he magnet i c fi el d, i t cut s t he flux. Thus as
per t he l ows of el ect romagnet i c i nducti on, a small emf i s induced i n the armat ure
core body, whi ch ci rcul at es a l arge current i n t he armat ure core due t o i t s small
resi st ance. Such a ci rcul at ing current i s call ed eddy current and t he power losses
due t o t he flow of t hi s current ar e call ed eddy current losses. The r esi st ance can be
great l y i ncreased by l ami nat ing the armat ure core of t he dc machine, t hereby
reducing t he magni tude of eddy current t o an appr eci abl e val ue. The eddy current
losses depend upon t he following fact ors:
i) Thi ckness of l aminat i ons, t
ii) Fr equency of flux rever sal , f
iii ) Maxi mum val ue of flux densi t y, B
max

i v) Volume of armat ure core V and
v) Qualit y of i ron.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
63
Hence t he eddy current l osses occurri ng in the armat ure core and t eet h of the dc
machine are gi ven by
watts , V t f KB P
2 2 2
max c
=
4.22 .4. Mechanical Losses
Mechani cal losses are due t o t he rot at i on of t he armat ure and can be subdi vi ded i nto
t hree cat egori es.
1. bearing fri cti on
2. brush f ri ct i on and
3. ai r fri cti on ( winding)
There ar e al so t ermed as f ri ct ion and wi ndage losses.
The bearing fri cti on losses occurring in dc machine depend upon (i ) t he pressure on
beari ng, ( ii) Peri pheral speed of t he shaft at t he bearing and ( iii) coeffi ci ent of
fri cti on bet ween t he beari ng and t he shaft .
The brush fri cti on losses are qui t e appr eci able i n dc machines. These l osses ar e
dependent upon (i) t he brush pressure, ( ii ) t he peri pheral speed of t he commut at or
and ( iii) t he t ype of t he brush.
The windage l osses are mai nl y produced by t he rot at i on of armat ure. These losses
depend upon ( i) peri pheral speed of t he armat ure, ( ii ) armat ure di amet er, ( iii )
armat ure core l engt h and ( iv) const ruct i on of t he machine
These t hree component s added t oget her gi ve t he t ot al mechani cal losses occurri ng
in t he machine t hese ar e pract i call y const ant provi ded t he speed remai ns t he same
during t he loading of t he machine.
4.23. EFFI CI ENCY
The rat i o of out put of the machi ne t o i t s i nput i s gener al l y call ed t he effi ci ency of t he
machine.

input
output
Efficiency =
I nput t o the machine = out put + t ot al losses
Thus,
losses total Output
Output
efficiency
+
=
Tot al losses i n dc machine = const ant l osses + vari abl e losses
= W
c
+ W
v

Hence,
losses variable losses onstant c Output
Output
efficiency
+ +
=
Condit ion for maximum efficiency
Let t he dc machine works as a dc shunt generat or, wi t h a t ermi nal volt age V vol t s
and l oad current I
L
ampere.
Then t he power out put of the dc gener at or = V I
L
,
Vari abl e l oss of t he armat ure ci rcui t = I
2
a
R
a
( assumi ng t hat t he machi ne i s not
provi ded wi t h int erpol e and compensat i ng windings) .
Armat ure current , I
a
= I
L
+ I
Sh

Introduction to Electrical Machines
64
Shunt fi el d current i s qui t e smal l compared t o t he l oad current and I
a
can be
assumed equal t o I
L
. Wi t h t hi s assumpt i on,
Vari abl e losses,
a L v
R I W
2
=
Let t he const ant losses be = W
C

Then, t he ef fi ci ency of the gener at or,

a L C L
L
R I W I V
I V
2
+ +

= n
Or
( )
V
R I
VI
W
a L
L
c
+

+
= n
1
1

Effi ci ency wil l be maxi mum, when t he denominat or mini mum i .e.
0 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
a
L
L
C
L
R
V
I
VI
W
dI
d

or
0
2
= +
V
R
VI
W
a
L
c

or
2
L
c a
VI
W
V
R
=

or
c a L
W R I =
2

i .e. copper losses in armat ure ci rcui t = Const ant Losses.
Hence eff i ci ency of a dc machine will be maximum, when t he vari abl e losses ar e
equal t o the const ant l osses.
Load current corresponding t o maxi mum effi ci ency i s gi ven by

a
c
L
R
W
I =
Example 4.21 The armat ure of a 6 pol e, 6 circui t dc shunt mot or t akes
300 A at t he speed of 400 rpm. The fl ux per pol e i s 75 10
- 3
Wb. The number of
armat ure t urns i s 500. The t orque l ost in wi ndage, fri ction and i ron losses can be
assumed as 2.5 per cent . Cal cul at e
i) t he t orque devel oped by t he ar mat ure,
ii) shaft t orque and
iii ) shaft power in kW.
Solut ion
i) The t orque devel oped by t he armat ure of a dc mot or i s gi ven by
Nm
a
Z I P
159 . 0 T
a
a
o
= (i )
Number of pol es of shunt mot or, P= 6
Armat ure wi ndi ng has 6 ci rcui t s, t hus, a= 6
Armat ure current , I
a
= 300 A
Number of armat ure t urns = 500
Thus t ot al conduct ors on t he armat ure, Z = 2 500 = 1000
Fl ux per pol e, o = 75 10
- 3
Wb
Introduction to Electrical Machines
65
Substi t ut ing t hese val ues in Eq. (i) ,
Armat ure t orque,
Nm 5 . 3577
6
1000 300 10 75 6
159 . 0 T
3
a
=

=


ii) Torque lost i n windage, fri cti on and iron losses
= 2.5% of T
a

= 0.025 3577.5 = 89.44 N m
Thus, shaft t orque, T
sh
= 3577.5 89.44
= 3488.06 N m
iii ) Shaft power,

kW 22 . 146
1000 60
06 . 3488 400 2
kW
1000 60
NT 2
P
sh
sh
=

t
=

t
=

Example 4.22 2 A 200 V dc shunt motor t akes a t ot al current of 100 A
and runs at 750 rpm. The resi st ance of t he armat ure wi ndi ng and of shunt fi el d
winding i s 0.1 and 40 O respect i vel y. Fi nd out
i) t he t orque developed by t he ar mat ure, and
ii) t he copper l osses.
I f t he fri cti on and iron l osses amount t o 1500 W, al so cal cul at e
iii ) shaft power, i v) shaft t orque, and v) effi ci ency.
Solut ion
i) Vol t age appli ed across t he mot or, V
L
= 200 V
Resi st ance of t he shunt fi el d wi ndi ng, R
sh
= 40 O
Shunt fi el d current , A 0 . 5
40
200
R
V
I
sh
L
sh
= = =
Tot al current drawn by t he mot or, I
L
= 100 A.
Thus, armat ure current I
a
= I
L
I
sh
= 100 5 = 95 A
Armat ure resi st ance, R
a
= 0.1 O
Back emf, E
b
= V I
a
R
a

= 200 95 0.1
= 190.5 V
Mechani cal power devel oped, P
mec
= E
b
I
a
= 190.5 95 =
= 18097.5 W
Now, mechani cal power devel oped,
60
NT 2
I E
a
a b
t
=
Thus, t orque devel oped by t he armat ure,
Introduction to Electrical Machines
66

m N 3 . 230
750 2
5 . 18097
60
N 2
I E
60 T
a b
a
=
t
=
t
=

ii) The back emf for a dc mot or i s gi ven by,
E
b
= V I
a
R
a

Or E
b
I
a
= VI
a
I
a
2
R
a

Thus armat ure copper losses, I
a
2
R
a
= VI
a
E
b
I
a

= 200 95 18097.5
= 902.5 W
Fi el d copper losses = I
sh
2
R
sh

= 5
2
40 = 1000 W
Tot al copper l osses = 902.5 + 1000 = 1902.5 W
Copper losses coul d al so be det ermi ned as foll ows:
I nput t o the mot or = V
L
I
L
= 200 100 = 20,000 kW
Mechani cal power devel oped, E
b
I
a
= 18097.5 W
Tot al copper l osses = 20000 18097.5 = 1902.5 W
iii ) Fri cti on and I ron losses = 1500 W
Tot al copper l osses = 1902.5 W
Out put = 20 000 ( 1500+ 1902.5)
= 16 597.5 W
or shaft power ~ 16.6 kW
i v) Shaft power
kW
1000 60
NT 2
P
sh
sh

t
=
Shaft t orque,
m N 24 . 211
750 2
6 . 16 1000 60
T
sh
=
t

=

v) Effi ci ency,

% 99 . 82
20000
5 . 16597
P
P
input
output
=
= = n

Example 4.23 A 100 V seri es mot or t akes 45 A when running at 750
rpm. I t s armat ure resi st ance i s 0.22 O, whil e the seri es fi el d resi st ance i s 0.13 O.
I ron and fri ct ion losses amount t o 750 W. Fi nd (i ) shaft power, ( ii ) t ot al t orque and
(iii ) shaft t orque.
Solut ion
i ) Vol t age appli ed t o the seri es mot or, = 100 V
Tot al resi st ance of t he armat ure ci rcui t , = R
a
+ R
se

= 0.22 + 0.13 = 0.35O
Current i n the armat ure ci rcui t , I
a
= 45 A
Back emf, E
b
= 100 45 0.35
Introduction to Electrical Machines
67
= 84.25 V
Mechani cal power devel oped = E
b
I
a
= 84.25 45 =
= 3791.25 W
I ron and fri cti on losses = 750 W
Out put = 3791.25 750 = 3041.25 W
Thus shaft power = 3.041 kW
i i) Mechani cal power devel oped =
60
NT 2
I E
a
a b
t
=
Tot al t orque,

m N 25 . 48
750 2
25 . 3791
60 T
a
=
t
=
T
i ii) Out put = 3041.25 W
Out put
60
NT 2
sh
t
=
Or, shaft t orque,

m N 7 . 38
750 2
25 . 3041 60
T
sh
=
t

=

Example 4.24 A l ong- shunt compound mot or t akes a current of 24A
from 240 V mains. Det er mi ne t he effi ci ency if resi st ance of t he armat ure, seri es fi el d
and shunt fi el d are 0.1, 0.08 and 60 ohms respect i vel y and st r ay l osses are 500
wat t s.
Solut ion
I nput l ine current , I
L
= 24 A
Suppl y vol t age, V = 240 V
Tot al input power t o t he machine VI
L
= 24024 = 5760 W
Shunt fi el d current , A 4
60
240
R
V
I
sh
sh
= = =
Seri es fi el d current , I
se
= I
a
= I
L
I
sh

= 24 4 = 20 A
Tot al losses = St ray l osses + armat ure copper loss + seri es f i el d copper l oss +
shunt fi eld copper l oss
= P
s
+ I
a
2
R
a
+ I
se
2
R
se
+ V I
sh

= 500 + 20
2
0.1 + 20
2
0.08 + 2404 = 1532 W
Useful Out put = Tot al input Tot al losses = 5760 1532 = 4228 W
Effi ci ency ,
% 4 . 73
5760
4228
input Total
output Usefull
= = = n
Example 4.25 A 100 V dc seri es mot or has an armat ure resist ance of
0.2 O and seri es fi el d resi st ance of 0.25O. When i t s pul l ey exert s a t orque of 27.58
Introduction to Electrical Machines
68
N.m i t runs at a speed of 600 rpm, i ron and frict i on l osses at t hi s speed ar e 300 W.
Det ermi ne
( a) l ost t orque ( b) copper l osses and ( c) ef fi ci ency.
Solut ion
Torque exert ed, T = 27. 58 N.m
Speed, N= 600 r.p. m.
Mot or out put = W 1732
60
600 2 58 . 27
60
N 2
T =
t
=
t

St ray l osses, P
s
= 300 W
Let i nput current be of I amperes t o gi ve a t orque of 27.58 N.m.
Copper losses i n seri es fi el d and armat ure = I
2
( R
a
+ R
se
)
= I
2
( 0.2 + 0.25 ) = 0. 45 I
2

I nput t o mot or = Mot or out put + P
s
+ copper l osses
= 1732 + 300 + 0.45 I
2
= 2032 + 0.45 I
2

..( i)
Al so mot or i nput

= VI = 100 I
..( ii )
Comparing expressi ons (i) and (ii ) we get
0.45 I
2
+ 2032 = 100 I
or I = 22.5
( b) Copper l osses = I
2
( R
a
+ R
se
) = 22.5
2
0.45 = 227.8 W
( c) Ef fi ci ency of t he mot or, % 97 . 76 100
100 5 . 22
1732
100
Input
Output
=

= = n
( a) Torque l ost = m . N 4 . 8
60
600
2
8 . 227 300
60 / N 2
watts in Losses
=
t
+
=
t
=

Introduction to Electrical Machines
69
PROBLEMS
4. 1. The open- ci rcui t vol t age of a separat el y exci t ed dc generat or i s 350 V when
i t i s runni ng at 1800 rpm. I f t he exci t at i on i s hel d const ant , what i s t he
out put vol t age at 1200 rpm? At what speed woul d t he gener at or run t o
produce 300 V?
Ans. 233.3V; 1543 rpm.
4. 2. For t he gener at or of Probl em 4.2 draw no-l oad sat urat i on curves at 1200
and 800. Det ermi ne t he gener at ed vol t age at t he speeds for current s of 2.4
A and 5 A.
4. 3. A shunt generat or has t he no-load sat urat i on curve shown in Fi gure 4. 62.
Det ermi ne
a) The val ue of t he fi el d ci rcui t resi st ance i f t he generat ed vol t age i s 350
V.
b) The out put vol t age i f t he fi eld ci rcui t resi st ance is 60O.
c) The val ue of t he cri t i cal fi el d resi st ance for a speed of 2000 rpm.
Ans. (a) 58 O, ( b) 340 V , ( c) 75 O

Fi gure 4.62
4. 4. A shunt generat or wi t h a fi eld resi st ance of 60 O has t he no-l oad sat ur at i on
curve of Fi gure 4.63 at 2000 rpm. I f R
a
i s 0.16 O and t he brush drop i s 2 V,
pl ot a graph of out put vol t age ver sus load current as i t vari es from 0 to 40
A in st eps of 5 A. Assume t hat t he fi el d fl ux remai ns essent i all y const ant .
Field current, I
sh
, A
No load saturation
curve at 2000 rpm

Fi gure 4.63
4. 5. A 10-kW 250 V generat or has a shunt - fi eld resist ance of 125O, R
a
of 0.4O,
a st r ay load loss of 540 W, and a 2- V brush volt age drop. I f i t i s running at
i t s rat ed out put , cal cul at e:
a) The generat ed vol t age.
b) The effi ci ency. Ans. a) 268.8 V ; b) 84.5%
Introduction to Electrical Machines
70
4. 6. A separ at el y exci t ed dc gener at or i s dri ven at 1200 rpm and t he foll owi ng
dat a were recorded:
I
sh
( A) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0. 4 0.6 0.8 1. 0
E
g
(V) 5 26 50 76 98 131 153 170
a) Draw t he no-l oad curves at 1200 and l500 rpm.
b) The fi el d ci rcui t resi st ance i s 200 O. What i s t he open-ci rcui t vol t age
of t he machi ne i f i t i s connect ed as a shunt gener at or running at
1500 rpm.
c) What i s t he cri ti cal fi el d resi st ance at 1000 rpm.
4. 7. I n a 150- kW 600-V short -shunt compound generat or, 645. 6 V i s i nduced in
t he armat ure when t he gener at or del i vers rat ed load at 600 V. The shunt -
fi el d current i s 6 A. R
se
= 0.08O. Det er mine:
a) The armat ure resi st ance and shunt - fi eld resi st ance. ( Negl ect brush
vol t age drop.)
b) The vol t age regul at ion if the emf i nduced i n the armat ure on no load
i s 600 V. Ans.: a) 0.1O, 103.3O; b)
10.0%
4. 8. A separ at ed exci t ed generat or has a no-load vol t age of 125 V at a fi el d
current of 2.1 A when dri ven at a speed of 1600 rpm. Assumi ng t hat i t i s
operat i ng on t he st rai ght -li ne port ion of it s sat urat i on curve, cal cul at e:
a) The generat ed vol t age when t he fi el d current i s i ncreased t o 2.6 A.
b) The gener at ed vol t age when t he speed i s reduced t o 1450 rpm and
t he fi el d current i s increased t o 2.8 A.
4. 9. A 10-kW 220-V compound generat or (long- shunt connect ed) i s operat ed at
no load at t he proper armat ure vol t age and speed, from whi ch t he st r ay-
power loss i s det ermi ned t o be 705O. The shunt -fi el d resi st ance, R
sh
= 110O,
t he armat ure resi st ance R
a
= 0.265O and t he seri es- fi el d resi st ance, R
se
=
0.035O. Assume a 2- V brush drop and cal culat e t he ful l -load effi ci ency.
Ans. 83.9%
4. 10. A 250- kW 240- V 1200 rpm short - shunt compound generat or has a shunt -
fi el d resi st ance of 24O, an ar mat ure r esi st ance of 0.003O, a seri es- fi el d
resi st ance of 0.0013O, and a commut at i ng-fi el d resi st ance of 0.004O,
cal cul at e t he generat ed emf at full l oad.
4. 11. The t ermi nal vol t age of a 200- kW shunt generat or i s 600 V when i t deli vers
rat ed current . The resi st ance of t he shunt fi el d ci rcui t i s 250O, t he
armat ure resi st ance i s 0.32O, and t he brush resist ance i s 0.014O .
a) Det ermi ne t he emf i nduced at r at ed current .
b) The t ermi nal vol t age i s 620 V at hal f-rat ed current . Det ermi ne t he
emf i nduced. Ans. a) 712.1 V; b) 676.5
V
4. 12. The no-l oad sat urat i on curve of a dc shunt generat or when running at a
speed of 1000 rpm i s as i llust rat ed in Fi g. 4.64.
a) Det ermi ne t he cri ti cal fi el d resi st ance at ;
i . 1000 rpm
ii. 1500 rpm
b) I f t he resi st ance of t he fi el d coi ls i s 100O, find t he val ue of t he fi eld
rheost at t o set t he open- ci rcui t vol t age t o l25 V at a speed of 1000
rpm.
Introduction to Electrical Machines
71

Fi gure 4.64 No-l oad sat urat i on curve for probl em 4.12
4. 13. The dc gener at or has t he following OCC at 800 r.p.m
I
sh
( A) 0 1 2 3 4 5
E
g
(V) 10 112 198 232 252 266
a) Fi nd the no-l oad t ermi nal vol t age when t he machine runs as a shunt
gener at or at 1000 r.p.m. The resi st ance of fi el d ci rcui t i s 70- O.
b) What addi ti onal fi el d regul at or resi st ance will be r equi red t o reduce t he
vol t age t o 270-V? Ans. a)
330 V; b) 42.5 O
4. 14. The open- ci rcui t charact eri sti c of a de shunt generat or dri ven at 850 rpm i s
gi ven by,
I
sh
( A) 2 3 4 5 6
E
g
(V) 68 87 100. 5 109 112.5
The resi st ance of t he shunt fi el d wi nding i s 22.2 O. Fi nd the vol t age t o
whi ch the machine wi ll exci t e, when i t runs at 850rpm self- exci t ed.
Ans.108 V
4. 15. The rel at ion bet ween t he exci t at i on current and t he emf generat ed by
separ at el y- exci t ed gener at or running on open ci rcui t at 600 rpm i s gi ven
by,
I
sh
( A) 0 1.6 3.2 4.8 6.4 8.0
E
g
(V) 0 150 295 398 465 517
Fi nd t he vol t age t o whi ch t he dc machi ne wi ll exci t e as a shunt generat or on
open ci rcui t wi th shunt fi el d resi st ance of 60 O (i ) at 600 rpm, (ii) at 500
rpm and (i ii) cri ti cal speed of t he gener at or.
4. 16. The magnet i zat i on charact eri st i c of dc shunt generat or running at 850 rpm
i s gi ven by,
Fi el d current (A) 0 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4
Emf ( V) 0 28 57 76 90 100
Cal cul at e
Introduction to Electrical Machines
72
i. The emf t o whi ch t he machine will exci t e, when t he fi eld ci rcui t resi st ance i s
22 O,
ii. t he emf when an addi tional resi st ance of 8O i s incl uded in the fi el d ci rcui t ,
iii. t he val ue of fi el d resi st ance R
f
f or normal vol t age of 100V,
iv. Cri ti cal resi st ance of t he fi eld ci rcui t and
v. Cri ti cal speed wi t h fi el d resi st ance R
f
as cal cul at ed i n part (ii i) .
Ans.(i ) 110 V (ii) 81 V (m) 25O (i v) 37O ( v) 575 rpm
4. 17. The open circui t charact eri st i cs of dc gener at or dri ven at 1000 rpm i s gi ven
by, The magnet i zat i on charact eri st i c of 4 pol e, l ap wound dc shunt
gener at or wi th 400 armat ure conduct ors and runni ng at 750 rpm i s gi ven
by,
I
sh
,( A) 0 0.2 0.4 0. 6 0.8 1. 2 1. 6 2,0 2.4 3.0 4.4 5.6
Emf, E
g
( V)
10 44 84 120 150 186 206 220 230 240 260 274
The machi ne i s separat el y exci t ed from suppl y of 220 V. The resi st ance
of t he fi el d coil i s 40 O .
i. Cal cul at e t he range of rheost at (ohms and current car ryi ng capaci t y)
incl uded in t he fi el d ci rcui t to gi ve vol t age from 100 t o 250 V
ii. What i s t he val ue of t he resi st ance i n t he fi el d rheost at , when t he
t er minal vol t age i s 200 V?
iii. I f t he fi el d rheost at i s kept const ant at 50 O and exci t i ng vol t age i s 220
V, what i s t he induced emf for generat or speeds of 800, 1000 and 1200
rpm. Ans. (i ) 377 O, 3.7 A (i i) 94 O (iii) 184 V, 230 V,
276 V
4. 18. The open ci rcui t charact eri st i cs of a dc shunt generat or dri ven at 1000 rpm
i s as follows.
Fi el d current , I
sh

( A)
0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10
Emf, E
g
(V) 4 115 230 315 360 405 430 450
Based on t he above, cal cul at e
i. t he emf t o whi ch t he machi ne wil l exci t e wi t h shunt fi el d resi st ance of
50O,
ii. t he addi ti onal resi st ance i n t he fi el d ci rcui t t o reduce t he emf t o 392 V,
and
iii. Cri ti cal resi st ance of t he shunt fi eld ci rcui t at 600.
4. 19. A 4-pol e, 440 V dc shunt mot or t akes a full -l oad current of 40- A. t he
armat ure i s wave wound wi th 762 conduct ors. The flux per pol e i s 0.025
Wb. The armature resistance is 0.25 . Assume a brush contact drop of 2V,
cal cul at e t he ful l load speed.
Ans. 674 rpm
4. 20. A dc shunt machine connect ed t o 250 V mai ns has an armat ure resi st ance
of 0.12 and a field resistance 0f 100 . Find the ratio of the speed as a
gener at or t o i t s speed as a mot or, t he line current i n each case bei ng 80A.
4. 21. A 460 V seri es mot or runs at 500 r.p. m. t aki ng a current of 40 A. Cal cul at e
t he speed and per cent age change i n torque i f t he l oad i s reduced so t hat
t he mot or i s t aki ng 30 A. Tot al resi st ance of t he armat ure and fi el d ci rcuit i s
Introduction to Electrical Machines
73
0.8 O. Assume flux i s proportional t o t he fi el d current .
Ans. 679 rpm, 43. 75%
4. 22. A 200 V dc seri es mot or runs at 1000 r.p.m. and t akes 20 A. Combined
resi st ance of armat ure and fi el d i s 0.4 O. Calcul at e t he resi st ance t o be
insert ed i n seri es so as t o reduce t he speed t o 800 r.p.m., assumi ng torque
t o vary as square of t he speed and linear magnet i zat i on curve.
4. 23. A 250 V dc shunt mot or draws 5 A from t he line on no load and runs at
1000 rpm. The armat ure resi st ance and shunt fi el d resi st ance are 0.2 and
250 O respect i vel y. What wil l be t he speed of t he mot or, when i t i s loaded
and t akes current of 50 A. Armat ure react i on weakens t he fi el d by 3%.
Ans.994 rpm
4. 24. A 250 V dc shunt mot or has a shunt fi el d resi st ance of 250 O and an
armat ure resi st ance of 0. 25 O. For a gi ven l oad t orque and no addi ti onal
resi st ance i ncluded i n shunt fi el d ci rcui t , t he mot or runs at 1500 r.p.m.
drawi ng an armat ure current of 20 A. I f a resi st ance of 250 O i s i nsert ed i n
seri es wi t h t he fi el d, t he l oad t orque remai ning t he same, fi nd out t he new
speed and armat ure current . Assuming t he magnet i zat i on curve t o be
linear.
4. 25. A 4- pol e, 440 V dc shunt mot or t akes a full l oad Current of 40 A. The
armat ure i s wave wound wi th 762 conduct ors. The flux per pol e i s 0.025
Wb. Effect i ve armat ure resi st ance i s 0.25O. Assumi ng brush cont act drop of
2 V, cal cul at e t he ful l load speed.
Ans.674 rpm
4. 26. The armat ure of a 4- pol e dc shunt mot or has a l ap windi ng accommodat ed
in 50 slot s, each cont ai ning 24 conduct ors. I f t he useful flux per pol e i s 25
m Wb, cal cul at e t he t ot al t orque devel oped, when t he ar mat ure current i s
45 A.
4. 27. A 240 V dc shunt mot or has armat ure and shunt fi el d resi st ance of 0. 04
and 100 O respect i vel y.
i . Cal cul at e t he val ue of resi st ance t hat must be added t o t he f i el d ci rcuit
in order t o i ncrease i t s speed from 1200 to 7500 rpm, when t he suppl y
current i s 200 A.
i i. Wi th t he fi el d resi st ance as i n (i ), find t he speed of t he mot or, when t he
suppl y current i s 100 A. Ans.(i ) 25 O (ii )
1525 rpm
4. 28. A 230 V, 4- pol e, dc shunt mot or running at 750 rpm gi ves 7.46 kW wi t h an
armat ure current of 38 A and fi el d current of 1.0 A. The armat ure i s wave
wound and has 400 conduct ors. The resi st ance of armat ure wi nding i s 0.2
O and t he drop at each brush i s 1.0 V. Det er mine ( i ) useful torque, ( ii) t ot al
t orque, (i ii) useful flux per pol e, (i v) rot at i onal losses, and ( v) effi ci ency.
4. 29. A 440 V, 6- pol e dc shunt mot or has a wave connect ed armat ure wi ndi ng
wi th 1100 conduct ors. The useful flux per pol e i s 20 mWb. The armat ures
and fi el d resi st ances ar e 0.4 and 220 O respect i vel y. I gnoring t he ef fect of
armat ure r eact i on, find t he speed and t he t ot al devel oped t orque, when t he
current of 22 A i s t aken from t he mains. I f t he i ron, fri cti on and windage
losses amount t o 800 W, find t he useful t orque, shaft power and effi ci ency.
Ans. (i ) 393 rpm (i i) 209.9 N m
(i ii) 190.4 N m (i v) 7.83 kW ( v) 81 %
4. 30. A 200 V dc shunt mot or wi th an armat ure r esi st ance of 0.4 O i s exci t ed t o
gi ve const ant mai n fi el d. At full load, t he mot or runs at 600 rpm and t akes
an armat ure current of 25 A. I f a resi st ance of 0.8 O i s pl aced i n t he
armat ure ci rcui t , find t he speed at
( i) ful l load t orque and,
Introduction to Electrical Machines
74
( ii) doubl e full load t orque.
4. 31. A 220 V dc shunt mot or t akes a no load ar mat ure current of 10 A and runs
at 1500 rpm. At full load, armat ure current i s 100 A and t he mot or runs at
1470rpm. Resi st ance of t he armat ure ci rcui t i s 0.1O. Cal cul at e t he fol lowi ng
:
( i) back- emf at no load and at ful l load,
( ii) percent age reduct i on i n fl ux due t o armat ure react i on and
( iii ) rat i o of no load t o full-load t orque devel oped by t he armat ure.
Ans. (i ) 219 V, 210 V (ii) 2.14 % (iii )
0.102
4. 32. A 440 V dc shunt mot or t akes an ar mat ure current of 120 A at full l oad and
runs at 800 rpm. Fi nd t he speed of t he mot or, when t he t orque on t he
mot or i s reduced t o 60 per cent of i t s full load value and a resi st ance of
1.5O i s insert ed i n t he armat ure ci rcui t . Take t he effect i ve armat ure
resi st ance as 0.2O.
4. 33. A 250 V dc shunt mot or t akes 21 A and runs at 600 rpm whil e dri ving a
load, t he t orque of whi ch i s const ant . The resi st ance of t he armat ure
and t he fi el d are 0.5 and 250 O respect i vel y. I t i s desi red t o rai se t he speed
from 600 t o 800 rpm. What resi st ance must be incl uded i n t he shunt fi eld
ci rcui t ? Assume t he magnet i zat ion curve t o be st rai ght line.
Ans. 88 O
4. 34. A 220 V dc shunt mot or has an armat ur e resi st ance of 0. 25 O and a fi eld
resi st ance of 55O. The mot or whil e dri ving a const ant load t orque t akes 64
A and runs at 500 rpm. Find the speed when a resi st ance of 20 O i s
insert ed i n t he shunt fi el d ci rcui t . Assume t he fl ax t o be proportional to t he
fi el d current .
4. 35. A 10 hp, 500 V dc shun motor has an armat ure resi st ance of 0. 25 O and
fi el d resi st ance of 400O. I t s full load effi ci ency i s 85 %. I t i s desi red
t o reduce t he speed of mot or by 30 % by i ncl uding a resi st ance in t he
armat ure ci rcui t , keepi ng t he same fi el d and ar mat ure current s. Assumi ng
t hat all losses except copper losses vary di rect l y wi th t he speed, f ind t he
value of t he r esi st ance i nsert ed i n t he armat ure ci rcui t and al so t he
effi ci ency of t he mot or, when i t i s running at t he reduced speed.
Ans.9.12O, 59.6%