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# Calculus and Vectors Exam Study Sheet Continuity A function of f is continuous at x = a IF f(a) is defined lim f(x) exists [x->a]

lim f(x) [x->a] = f(a) A function that is not continuous has some type of break in its graph. This break is the result of a hole, jump, or vertical asymptote. ALL polynomial functions are continuous for all REAL numbers. A rational function h(x) = f(x) / g(x) is continuous at x = a if g(a) does not equal to 0. A rational function in simplified form has a discontinuity at the zeros of the denominator. When the one-sided limits are not equal to each other, then the limit at this point does not exist and the function is not continuous at this point. EXAMPLE f(x) = { x^2 3, if x greater or equal to -1 {x -1, if x > -1 a. Determine lim [x-> -1] f(x). b. Determine f(-1) c. Is f continuous at x = -1? a. lim [x-> -1] f(x) = -2 b. f(-1) = 2 c. f(x) is continuous at x = -1, since f(-1) = lim [x-> -1] f(x). Point of Inflection A point of inflection is a point on the graph of f(x) where the function changes from concave up to concave down., or vice versa. f(c) = 0 or is undefined if (c, f (c)) is a point of inflection on the graph of f(x). STEPS TO SOLVE Find derivative of function. Find second derivative of function. Set second derivative to zero. Determine the intervals. Test points using interval table. If a point is equal to zero, you have point of inflection.

TEST FOR CONCAVITY the graph of f(x) is concave up on interval if f(x) > 0 for all values of x in interval. The graph of f(x) is concave down on interval if f(x) < 0 for all values of x in interval. SECOND DERVATIVE TEST If f(c) > 0, then f(c) is a local min value If f(c) < 0, then f(c) is a local max. If f(c) = 0, then the test fails. Use first derivative test. Spanning Sets A set of {A} is said to span another set {B} if and only if every vector in set {B} can be expressed as a linear combination of the vectors in set {A}. EXAMPLE The vectors (1,0) and (0,1) span R2 as every vector in R2 can be expressed as a linear combination of (1,0) and (0,1). OP = (a,b) = a(1,0) +b(0,1) = ai + bj . i and j span R2. Critical Points, Local Maxima and Local Minima For a function f(x), a critical number is a number, c, in the domain of f(x) such that f (x) = 0 or f (x) is undefined. As a result (c, f(c)) is called a critical point and usually corresponds to local or absolute extrema. FIRST DERVATIVE TEST Let c be a critical number of a function f. When moving through x-values from left to right: If f (x) changes from negative to positive at c, then (c,f(c)) is a local min of f. If f (x) changes from positive to negative at c, then (c,f(c)) is a local min of f. If f (x) does not change signs at c, then (c,f(c)) is neither a local min or local max. Algorithm for Finding Local Max and Min values of a Function f. 1. Find critical numbers of the function (that is, determine where f (x) = 0 and where f (x) is undefined) for all x-values in the domain of f. 2. Use the first derivative to analyze whether f is increasing or decreasing on either side of each critical number.

3. Based upon your findings, conclude whether each critical number locates a local max or local min or neither of the function f.

Optimization Problems 1. Understand the problem and identify quantities that can vary. Determine a function in one variable that represents the quantity to be optimized. 2. Whenever possible, draw a diagram, labeling the given and required quantities. 3. Determine the domain of the function to be optimized, using the information given in the problem. 4. Use the algorithm for extreme values to find the absolute max or min value in the domain. 5. Use your result for step 4 to answer the original problem. Trig Derivatives For f(x) = e^x, f (x) = e^x For f(x) = e^g(x) = f (x) = e^g(x) X g(x) e is called Eulers number or the natural number, where e = 2.718. b^x f (x) = b^x X ln b f(x) = b^g(x) , f (x) = b^g(x) X ln b X g(x) lim [h->0] b^h 1 / h = ln b cos x f (x) = - sin x sin x f (x) = cos x sin f(x) cos f(x) X f (x) cos f(x) -sin f(x) X f (x) sec^2 f(x) sec^2 f(x) X f (x)