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Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems Using Adaptive Radial Basis Function Networks

Xiaobo Zhou, Member, IEEE, and Xiaodong Wang, Member, IEEE

AbstractWe propose a new scheme for pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation in orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in multipath fading channels, that does not require the knowledge of the channel statistics (e.g., Doppler or power spectrum). It is based on using the radial basis function (RBF) network to model the dynamics of the fading process. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional RBF networks are proposed to exploit the channel correlation in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain, respectively. The proposed RBF networks are essentially nonlinear interpolators of the pilot channels. Compared with the existing OFDM channel estimation methods based on linear filtering, the proposed new techniques offer both robustness to fading rate, and a better performance especially in relatively fast fading channels. Index TermsChannel estimation, frequency-selective fading, OFDM, radial basis function networks.

I. INTRODUCTION RTHOGONAL frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a potential technique for high-speed data transmission over indoor and outdoor wireless communication systems [8], [20]. Accurate channel estimation is the key to reliable coherent OFDM communications. For example, for OFDM systems with transmitter diversity using space-time codes, channel estimation [16], [17] can provide the necessary information required for the decoding of the space-time codes. Existing channel estimation methods are based on linear filtering techniques. There are primarily two types of channel estimators [16]: decision-directed estimator and pilot-symbol-aided estimator. The decision-directed channel estimators, which are simple in concept, have been used in OFDM systems for coherent detection [10], co-channel interference suppression [15] and transmitter diversity [16], [17]. Pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation with known channel statistics for single-carrier systems in fading channels has been analyzed in [2]. In [11], [12], the optimal two-dimensional Wiener channel estimator is derived, which also requires the channel statistics. In [16][18], one-dimensional and two-dimensional channel estimation methods are derived based on the minimum mean-square error criterion; and robust design

Manuscript received August 29, 2001; revised December 13, 2001, February 3, 2002 and April 5, 2002. This work was supported in part by the U.S. National Science Foundation Under Grants CCR-9875314, CCR-9980599 and DMS0073651. X. Zhou is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 USA (e-mail: zxb@ee.tamu.edu). X. Wang is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 USA (e-mail: wangx@ee.columbia.edu). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2002.800619

criteria are also developed there based on some maximum Doppler frequency. In [1], [23], [29], [30], linear filtering algorithms have been proposed for pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation in DS/CDMA systems. In particular, the weighted multi-slot averaging algorithm (WMSA) for channel estimation was proposed in [1], which has become a popular method for wideband CDMA systems. However it is not effective in relatively fast fading channels [30]. Radial basis function (RBF) networks have been widely used in neural networks, fuzzy methods [3], [13], [27], [28] and support vector machine [6]. The universal approximation property of the RBF network has been proved in [21]. RBF networks have also found applications in channel equalization [3][5]. In this paper, we develop one-dimensional and two-dimensional RBF networks for the estimation of the frequency-selective fading channels in OFDM systems. Pilot symbols are employed to train the networks adaptively. No knowledge of the channel statistics is needed. The RBF networks essentially act as nonlinear interpolators of the pilot channels. Simulations show that they outperform the existing channel estimators based on linear filtering, especially in relatively fast fading channels. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we present the pilot-symbol-aided OFDM systems and the channel statistics. In Section III, we introduce RBF networks. In Section IV, we develop the one-dimensional and the two-dimensional RBF networks for channel estimation in OFDM systems. Simulation results are given in Section V. Section VI contains the conclusion. II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION A. Pilot-Symbol-Aided OFDM Systems Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing is a multicarrier digital modulation technique whose popularity is rising [15][17], [19]. In OFDM systems, the entire channel is divided into many narrowband subcarriers, through which data are transmitted in parallel, thereby increasing the symbol duration and reducing the effect of intersymbol interference. Fig. 1 depicts the transmitter end of a pilot-symbol-aided symOFDM system. Assume the transmitted data rate is bols/second. Pilot symbols are periodically inserted into the transmitted data sequence. The modulator uses the quadrature phase- shift keying (QPSK) modulation. These symbols are sent to a serial-to-parallel converter that takes the serial data and outputs the data on lines in parallel. Thus the data rate on each symbols/second. The independent subcarrier output line is

ZHOU AND WANG: CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR OFDM SYSTEMS USING ADAPTIVE RBF NETWORKS

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symbols make up a single OFDM word at the -th time slot. The sub-channel symbols are then sent to an inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) block that performs a -point inverse Fourier transform as

The channel parameters for other s and s can be estimated using interpolation. Once the channel estimates are obtained, coherent detection on the transmitted data symbols can then be performed. Note that although (3) only applies for PSK constellations, for other modulation schemes, such as QAM, it is also straightforward to remove the modulation from the received signals. B. Channel Statistics Following [14], [19], [24], [25], the time-varying channel imcan be modeled as a tapped-delay line. pulse response With only the nonzero taps considered it can be expressed as (4) is the Kronecker delta function; denotes the where is the complex amplitude of number of nonzero taps; , where is an the th nonzero tap, whose delay is is the subcarrier spacing of the OFDM system. integer and For mobile channels, the time-variant tap coefficients can be modeled as wide-sense stationary random processes with uncorrelated scattering (WSSUS) and with band-limited Doppler power spectrum. Let be the total duration of one OFDM word plus its cyclic extension. For OFDM systems with proper cyclic extension and sample timing, with tolerable leakage, the channel frequency response at the th time slot and the th subcarrier can be expressed as (5) has the same normalized correlation function Assume for all . Denote , is the average power of the th path, then following where [15], the correlation function of the frequency response across different blocks and subcarriers is (6)

(1) where is the number of OFDM words in one time frame. The time-domain samoutput of the IFFT block consists of the . A cyclic prefix of length samples is then ples added to form a cyclically extended OFDM symbol. Suppose the . To avoid channel dispersion spans samples with the intersysmbol interference between the OFDM symbols, we and the cyclic prefix consists of the last samchoose samples of the ples of the IFFT output samples. The cyclically extended OFDM symbol are passed through a parallelto-serial converter, then transmitted in serial across the channel. are first serial-to-parThe received signals allel converted and the cyclic prefix is removed. After matched filtering and sampling, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is applied to the received discrete-time signal to obtain (2) is the frequency response at the -th subcarrier where of the -th time slot, which is explained in the next subsecand are respectively the received signal tion; and the transmitted QPSK symbol at the -th subcarrier during is the additive noise, which is circuthe -th time slot; larly symmetric complex Gaussian, and is independent for dif. ferent values of Fig. 2 depicts the OFDM receiver with pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation. If the transmitted symbols for some s and s are known at the receiver, the corresponding channel parameters can be estimated by (3)

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and the Gaussian function (14) In this paper, we use the Gaussian function since it is bounded and localized. Let be the set of all RBF network expansions of the form (12) using the basis fuction (13) or (14). It is shown in on the compact [21] that for any given continuous function and any , there exists such that set (15) This shows that the real RBF network can universally represent . any given continuous functions on In [3], the complex RBF network is obtained using an extension of the real RBF network. The complex RBF network opto produce a erates on a complex-valued input vector complex output according to (16) is the complex mean, is the where . Obviously, a complex complex weight, and RBF network with a -dimensional complex input and a scalar complex output can be viewed alternatively as a real RBF net-dimensional real input and two real scalar outwork with a puts. Extending the universal approximation property of the real RBF network, we can conclude that the complex RBF network . can approximate any continuous functions on In this paper, we will employ primarily two types of RBF networks for OFDM channel estimation. In particular, in one-dimensional channel estimation, we employ a real-input complexoutput RBF network, with the input representing the time index and the output representing the channel value corresponding to that time at a particular subcarrier. In two-dimensional channel estimation, on the other hand, we employ a complex-input complex-output RBF network with the input representing the timefrequency index and the output representing the channel value of the corresponding time and frequency. IV. RBF NETWORKS FOR CHANNEL ESTIMATION OFDM SYSTEMS A. One-Dimensional Channel Estimation In one-dimensional channel estimation, the channels at different subcarriers are estimated independently, by exploiting only the temporal correlation of the OFDM channels. Specifically, at a particular subcarrier, the time frame structure is shown pilot symbols, followed in Fig. 3. Each time frame contains data symbols. Hence the size of each time frame is by . The basic idea of the proposed channel estimation method is as follows. For a particular subcarrier, say the th subcarrier, suppose we are interested in estimating the channel values corresponding to the first time frame. Our method is to exploit the pilot symbols at adjacent frames, and to build an RBF network to represent the channel dynamics. Specifically, we consider a time frames. window of size

IN

with

(9)

, then Without loss of generality, assume . Equations (6), (7), and (8) show the correlations of the channel in the time-frequency domain, the time domain and the frequency domain, respectively. This motivates us to estimate the channel coefficients from the time-frequency domain, the time domain and the frequency domain using pilot symbols. , where is From Jakes model [14], the zeroth-order Bessel function of the first kind, whose Fourier transform (Doppler power spectrum) is given by if otherwise (10)

is the maximum Doppler frequency, which is related and by to the vehicle speed and the carrier frequency , with being the speed of light. Following the simulation of radio channel using harmonic decomposition techniques is given by (HDT) in [9], (11) is the total duration of the simulated fading process; with being the approximation error ( in our simulation); ; and s are uncorrelated complex Gaussian random variables with zero mean and . The variance are obtained using the fast Fourier discrete samples of transform (FFT) [9]. where III. RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION (RBF) NETWORKS The radial basis function (RBF) networks have drawn a great deal of attention because of its universal approximation ability in nonlinear problems [21], [26]. An RBF network with a -dimensional real vector input and a scalar real output implements according to a mapping (12) is the input vector; is a given basis function where to denotes the norm; are from are centers (means) connection weights; and are real positive paramof the RBF network, eters that determine the spread of the function (standard deviations). An RBF network is thus completely specified given the weights, centers, variances and the nonlinearity . Two are as follows: popular choices of the nonlinearity the thinplate-spline function (13)

ZHOU AND WANG: CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR OFDM SYSTEMS USING ADAPTIVE RBF NETWORKS

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First, we form the estimates of the channels corresponding to pilot symbols as follows: (17) Then define th frame, i.e., as the mean of the pilot channels for the

values corresponding to the data symbols in the first time frame and th subcarrier, i.e.,

(21) which are then used to detect the data symbols . Note that in (19) the weight in the RBF network is of the with being the mean of the pilot channels in form the -th frame. On the other hand, we may regard as the weight of , which indicates that (19) is a nonlinear are interpolator of the pilot channel values, because functions of the pilot channel values (through the training of the ) parameters B. Two-Dimensional Channel Estimation

(18) Next, we use an RBF network to represent the channels corresponding to both pilot symbols and data symbols as

where (19) is given by (14). where It is seen that the RBF in (19) is specified by a set of . These parameters parameters are estimated based on the pilot symbols in the time frames , using the LMS algorithm. In particular, define the error signals corresponding to the pilots as

(20) We then use the LMS algorithm to train the system parameters to . To that minimize the mean-square-error end, the one-dimensional RBF channel estimator for estimating the channel values corresponding to the th subcarrier and first time frame is summarized in Table I. Note that at the beginning of the training process, when no previous training results are available, the parameters are iniand tialized as for . The major computation involved in this algorithms is the computation of RBF values in (19). If the channel is stationary, we can train the RBFN only at the beginning, and upon convergence, we will use the estimated parameters in the receiver. are obtained via the Once the parameters and above training algorithm, by letting in (19), we can obtain the estimated channel

The one-dimensional channel estimation approach described above exploits only the channel correlation structure in the time domain. However, as shown in Section 2.2, the OFDM channel exhibits strong correlations in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Hence it is natural to exploit the time-frequency correlations to obtain more accurate channel estimates. In two-dimensional channel estimation, the channels at different subcarriers and time slots are estimated jointly, by exploiting the time and frequency correlations of the OFDM channels. Here we use a two-dimensional time-frequency block pattern as shown in Fig. 4: each time-frequency block contains pilot symbols, and data symbols, where and . Hence the size of each . time-frequency block is The basic idea of the proposed two-dimensional channel estimation method is as follows. Suppose we are to estimate the channel values corresponding to the first time frequency block, e.g., the center block in Fig. 4. Our method is to exploit the pilot symbols within this block and those in adjacent blocks, e.g., the pilot symbols in the nine blocks in Fig. 4, and to build a two-dimensional RBF network to represent the channel dynamics. blocks with the Specifically, we consider center block as the target block for channel estimation. First, we form the initial estimates of the channels corresponding to pilot symbols as follows:

(22)

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Then define as the mean of the -th block, i.e., for the

pilot channels

where

is given by

(23) Next, we use a two-dimensional RBF network to represent the channels corresponding to both pilot symbols and data symbols -th block as in the

(25) It is seen that the two-dimensional RBF in (24) is specified by . These a set of parameters parameters are estimated based on the pilot symbols in the timeusing the LMS algorithm. frequency blocks

(24)

ZHOU AND WANG: CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR OFDM SYSTEMS USING ADAPTIVE RBF NETWORKS

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obtain the estimated channel values corresponding to the data symbols in the 0-th time-frequency block, i.e.,

(26) We then use the LMS algorithm to train the system parameters . to minimize the mean-square error To that end, the complex RBF channel estimator for estimating -th time-frequency the channel values corresponding to the block is summarized in Table II. Note that at the beginning of the training process, when no previous training results are available, the parameters are initialized as and for and . are obOnce the parameters tained via the above training algorithm, by letting , and in (24), we can

or which are then used to detect the data symbols in the first timefrequency block. V. SIMULATION RESULTS A. Simulation Setup In the simulations, we consider a six-ray multipath fading channel in Standard ITU R M.1225-Vehicle test environment [31]. The parameters are as follows: the relative delays are 0, 300, 8900, 12900, 17 100 and 20 000 (ns); the average powers and (dB). The power are spectrum of the fading processes follows the classical U-shape spectrum [22]. The Rayleigh fading process is simulated by using the harmonic decomposition method [9]. To construct the OFDM signal, assume the entire channel bandwidth, 800 kHz, is divided into 128 subcarriers. The four

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subcarriers on each end are used as guard subcarriers, and the rest 120 subcarriers are used to transmit data. To make the subcarriers orthogonal to each other, the symbol duration is chosen to be 160 s. An additional 40 s guard interval is used to provide protection from intersymbol interference caused by the channel multipath delay spread. These result in a total block s and a subcarrier symbol rate length k baud. QPSK modulation with coherent demodulation is used. A uncoded system is considered in our simulations. The symbol error rate (SER) [10] is employed as the performance index. In one-dimensional channel estimation, the pilot symbols are with the frame inserted at a 10% rate structure in each subcarrier shown in Fig. 3; In two-dimensional

channel estimation, the percentage of the pilot symbols is also 10% with the time-frequency block structure shown in Fig. 4. B. Existing OFDM Channel Estimation Methods We will compare the performance of the proposed RBF-network-based one-dimensional and two-dimensional channel estimation techniques with that of some recently proposed OFDM channel estimators. Specifically, we consider the decision-directed channel predictor in [15], the robust channel interpolator in [16], [18], and the weighted multi-slot averaging algorithm (WMSA) in [1]. We next briefly summarize these three methods.

ZHOU AND WANG: CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR OFDM SYSTEMS USING ADAPTIVE RBF NETWORKS

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For a particular th subcarrier, suppose we are interested in estimating the channel values corresponding to the zeroth time frame in Fig. 3. -th Decision-directed channel predictor: It employs an order predictor to estimate the channel in a decision-directed mode, i.e.,

and if (32)

(27) are obtained by where the filter coefficients solving the Wiener equation or from the robust design as in [15][17], and are given by (28) is the normalized Doppler frequency. The where channel estimates corresponding to the pilot symbols, , are set as given by (17). Robust channel interpolator: we consider a window of size time frames and model the channel by the following linear interpolator:

. The corresponding and filter structure for channel estimation is shown in Fig. 5. We note that the decision-directed channel estimator and the robust channel estimator [15][17] only use the past OFDM symbols for channel estimation, while the one-dimensional RBF and the two-dimensional RBF, as well as the WMSA method and the robust interpolator introduced here use both the past and the future OFDM symbols. C. Results We first consider the uncoded performance of different channel estimation methods. Fig. 6 shows the SER performance of the five channel estimation methods in a multipath . It is seen that the one-difading channel with mensional RBF network, the two-dimensional RBF network and the robust channel interpolator have almost the same performance, and they all outperform the WMSA and the decision-directed channel predictor. The robust channel interpolator and the two-dimensional RBF network has slightly better performance than the one-dimensional RBF network when dB and they have slightly worse performance when dB. The decision-directed channel predictor has the worst performance. Fig. 7 shows the SER performance of the five channel estima. It is seen that in tion methods in a channel with this case the two-dimensional RBF network has the best performance among all methods. The one-dimensional RBF network performs better than the robust channel interpolator, and both of them outperform the WMSA and the decision-directed predictor. The WMSA can not cope with such a fast fading channel and is virtually useless in this case. Fig. 8 shows the SER performance of the five channel esti, mation methods as a function of the normalized Doppler with fixed dB. It is seen that the robust channel interpolator does have a robust performance when the fading rate ranges from 0.001 to 0.006, and it is slightly better than the one-dimensional RBF network and two-dimensional RBF network. On the other hand, in fast fading channels (i.e.,

(29) where is given by (18); the interpolator coefficients, , are be obtained from the robust design in [16], [18], and are given by

(30) WMSA: The channel is also modeled by the linear interand given polator of the form (29), with by

if

(31)

56

Fig. 6.

=N

with f

= 0 003.

:

Fig. 7.

=N

with f

= 0:008.

Finally, we show the average MSE versus the number of iteration for both the one-dimensional and the two-di-

ZHOU AND WANG: CHANNEL ESTIMATION FOR OFDM SYSTEMS USING ADAPTIVE RBF NETWORKS

57

Fig. 8.

with E

=N

= 12 dB.

= 0:008).

mensional RBF networks. From Fig. 9, it is seen that the convergence is very fast. Actually, the average MSE of both

methods reaches dB only after two iterations, and then it drops slowly as a function of the number of iterations. In

58

our simulations, the average number of iterations is 8, and the max number is 12. In summary, we find that the one-dimensional RBF network and the two-dimensional RBF network proposed in this paper are especially effective in fast fading channels. The robust channel interpolator has a robust performance at moderate fading rate. Both the WMSA and the decision-directed predictor are not effective compared with the one-dimensional and two-dimensional RBF networks proposed here. Note that in [7] the channel is estimated using the linear MMSE estimator based on pilot signals and the autocorrelation function of the channel. That method performs well at the fading rate as high as . The RBF networks developed in this paper cannot work at such high fading rate due to two reasons: one is that the estimates of the channels at pilot positions are corrupted by the interchannel interference (ICI); and the other reason is that ICIs at different subcarriers and pilot positions are not independent Gaussian since the pilot patterns are deterministic in general. Nevertheless, the proposed RBF channel estimators can per), form well in relatively fast fading channels (i.e., without knowing the channel statistics. VI. CONCLUSION We have developed new channel estimation techniques for OFDM communication system with multipath fading. These methods are based on using the radial basis function (RBF) network to model the dynamics of the fading process. In onedimensional channel estimation, only the time-correlation of the fading channel is exploited, whereas in two-dimensional channel estimation, both the time and the frequency correlations of the fading channels are exploited. The proposed RBF networks are essentially nonlinear interpolators of the pilot channels. Compared with the existing OFDM channel estimation methods based on linear filtering, the proposed methods offer both robustness to different fading rate, and a better performance especially in relatively fast fading channels. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their careful reading of our manuscript and their constructive comments. REFERENCES

[1] S. Abeta, M. Sawahashi, and F. Adachi, Performance comparison between time-multiplexed pilot channel and parallel pilot channel for coherent Rake combining in DS-CDMA mobile radio, IEICE Trans. Commun., vol. E81-B, no. 7, pp. 14171425, July 1998. [2] J. K. Cavers, An analysis of pilot assisted modulation for Rayleigh fading channels, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 40, pp. 689693, Nov. 1991. [3] I. Cha and S. A. Kassam, Channel equalization using adaptive complex radial basis function nextworks, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 13, pp. 122131, Jan. 1995. [4] S. Chen, S. McLaughlin, and B. Mulgrew, Orthogonal least squares learning function networks, part I: Network architecture and learning algorithms, J. Signal Processing, vol. 35, pp. 1931, Jan. 1994. [5] , Complex-valued radial basis function networks, part II: Application to digital communications channel equalization, J. Signal Processing, vol. 35, pp. 175188, Feb. 1994.

[6] S. Chen, A. K. Samingan, and L. Hanzo, Support vector machine multiuser receiver for DS-CDMA signals in multipath channels, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol. 12, pp. 604611, May 2001. [7] Y. S. Choi, P. J. Voltz, and F. A. Cassara, On channel estimation and detection for multicarrier signals in fast and frequency selective Rayleigh fading channel, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 49, pp. 13751387, Aug. 2001. [8] L. J. Cimini, Analysis and simulation of digital mobile channel using orthogonal frequency multiplex, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 33, pp. 665675, July 1985. [9] P. Crespo and J. Jimenez, Computer simulation of radio channel using harmonic decomposition techniques, IEEE Trans. Vech. Technol., vol. 44, pp. 414419, Aug. 1995. [10] O. Edfors, M. Sandell, J.-J. Van, S. K. Wilson, and P. O. Borjesson, OFDM channel estimation by singular value decomposition, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 46, pp. 902915, July 1998. [11] P. Hoeher, S. Kaiser, and P. Robertson, Two-dimensional pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation by Wiener filtering, Proc. IEEE Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, pp. 18451848, 1997. , Two-dimensional pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation, Proc. [12] IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory. [13] K. Y. Lee, Complex Fuzzy adaptive filter with LMS algorithm, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 44, pp. 424427, 1996. [14] W. C. Y. Lee, Mobile Communications Engineering: Theory and Applications. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998. [15] Y. Li, L. J. Cimini, and N. R. Sollenberger, Robust channel estimation for OFDM systems with rapid dispersive fading channels, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 46, pp. 902915, July 1998. [16] Y. Li and N. Sollenberger, Adaptive antenna arrays for OFDM systems with co-channel interference, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, pp. 217229, Feb. 1999. [17] Y. Li, N. Seshadri, and S. Ariyavisitakul, Channel estimation for transmitter diversity in OFDM systems with mobile wireless channels, IEEE J. Select. Areas Commun., vol. 17, pp. 461471, Mar. 1999. [18] Y. Li, Pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation for OFDM in wireless systems, IEEE Trans. Vech. Technol., vol. 49, pp. 12071215, July 2000. [19] B. Lu, X. Wang, and K. R. Narayanan, LDPC-based space-time coded OFDM systems over correlated fading channels: Performance analysis and receiver design, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 7488, Jan. 2002. [20] V. Mignone and A. Morello, CD3-OFDM: A novel demodulation schemes for fixed and mobile receivers, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 44, pp. 11441151, Sept. 1996. [21] J. Park and I. W. Sandberg, Universal approximation using radial-basis function networks, Neural Computations, vol. 3, pp. 246257, 1991. [22] J. R. Proakis, Digital Communication. New York: McGraw Hill, 1989. [23] M. Sawahashi, K. Higuchi, S. Tanaka, and F. Adachi, Enhanced wireless access technologies and experiments for W-CDMA communications, IEEE Personal Commun., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 616, Dec. 2000. [24] A. M. Sayeed and B. Aazhang, Joint multipath-doppler diversity in mobile wireless communication, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 47, pp. 123132, Jan. 1999. [25] B. Sklar, Rayleigh fading channels in mobile digitial communication systemsPart I: Characterization, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 37, pp. 103109, July 1997. [26] L.-X. Wang and J. M. Mendel, Fuzzy basis functions, universal approximation, and orthogonal least learning, IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 807814, Sept. 1992. [27] , Fuzzy adaptive filters with application to nonlinear channel equalization, IEEE Trans. Fuzzy Syst., vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 161170, Aug. 1993. [28] L. A. Zadeh, Fuzzy sets, Inform. Contr., vol. 8, pp. 338353, Aug. 1965. [29] L. Zhou, X. Zhou, and X. Zhang, A new channel estimation method based on Fuzzy system, J. Electron., vol. 36, pp. 345352, Oct. 2000. [30] X. Zhou, Y. Zhao, and X. Zhuang, Kalman filter channel tracking algorithm based on AR model in WCDMA systems, in Proc. WCCC-ICSP 5th International Conference on Signal Processing, vol. 3, 2000, pp. 17591762. [31] Standard ITU R M.1225Vehicle Test Environment [Online]. Available: http://www.itu.int/rec

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Xiaobo Zhou (M02) received the B.S. degree in mathematics from Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China, in 1988 and the M.S. and the Ph.D degrees in mathematics from Peking University, Beijing, China, in 1995 and 1998, respectively. From 1992 to 1998, he was a Research Assistant and Teaching Assistant with the Department of Mathematics at Peking University, Beijing. From 1998 to 1999, he was a Postdoctoral Fellow with the Department of Automation at Tsinghua University, Beijing. From January 1999 to February 2000, he was a Senior Technical Manager with the 3G Wireless Department at Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., Beijing. From February 2000 to December 2000, he was a Postdoctoral Fellow with the Department of Computer Science at University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO. Since January 2001, he has been a Postdoctoral Fellow with the Department of Electrical Engineering at Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. He has worked in a number of areas including wavelet analysis, statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, remote sensing, wireless communications, and bioinformatics. His current research interests include channel estimation, multiuser detection, and inference of gene regulatory networks.

Xiaodong Wang (S98M98) received the B.S. degree in electrical engineering and applied mathematics (with the highest honor) from Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, in 1992, the M.S. degree in electrical and computer engineering from Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, in 1995, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, in 1998. From July 1998 to December 2001, he was an Assistant Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station. In January 2002, he joined the Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY, as an Assistant Professor. His research interests fall in the general areas of computing, signal processing, and communications. He has worked in the areas of digital communications, digital signal processing, parallel and distributed computing, nanoelectronics, and quantum computing and has published extensively in these areas. His current research interests include multiuser communications theory and advanced signal processing for wireless communications. He worked at the AT&T LabsResearch, Red Bank, NJ, during summer 1997. Dr. Wang received the 1999 NSF CAREER Award and the 2001 IEEE Communications Society and Information Theory Society Joint Paper Award. He currently serves as an Associate Editor for the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING, and the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS.

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