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Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

REVIEW OF NATIONAL RESEARCH, DATA AND PROJECTS ON CLIMATE CHANGE: DIMENSIONS, IMPACTS, MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION POLICIES IN ALBANIA

Prepared by Haki KOLA Enkeleda Pjetri Tirane 2010

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

Table of Contents
Background information ............................................................................................................................... 3 Country context: ....................................................................................................................................... 4 UNFCCC & Kyoto Protocol..................................................................................................................... 4 Joined the Kyoto Protocol 16 December, 2004 .................................................................................... 4 Legal framework in support of implementation of KP/CDM in Albania ............................................... 4 Current Institutional Framework for CDM: the DNA ............................................................................ 4 Assistance on institutional capacity building ........................................................................................ 5 1. NATIONAL PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS AND SUMMARY OF NATIONAL PUBLICATIONS (REPORTS, STUDIES, PROJECT INFORMATION) ON CLIMATE CHANGE DIMENSIONS, IMPACTS. ................................... 6 1.1 PROJECTS and PROGRAMMES ............................................................................................................ 7 1.2 Project design document form for afforestation and reforestation project activities (cdm-ar-pdd). 8 1.2.1 Forests situation.................................................................... Hata! Yer iareti tanmlanmam.3 1.2.2 Project objective and Overview.9 1.2.5 The role of the Communal Forest and Pasture User Associations (CFPUAs) ............................... 9 1.3 Climate change impacts and dimensions.......................................................................................... 10 1.3.1 Climate Change effects in Albania ............................................................................................. 10 2. STATUS AND WORK BY NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS ON RESEARCH FOR ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE CHANGE11 2.1 Documents ........................................................................................................................................ 11 2.2 Websites: .......................................................................................................................................... 13 3. SUMMARY LIST OF PROPOSALS TO IDENTIFY POSSIBILITIES FOR COLLABORATION BY FAO WITH NATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND SPECIALISTS...............................................................................................13 3.1 Gaps, Problems identified Institutional & legal: ............................................................................... 13 3.2 Technical & capacity related ............................................................................................................. 14 3.3 Albanias strategy in the carbon market ........................................................................................... 14 3.4 Issues for consideration .................................................................................................................... 14 3.5 Next steps to be followed: ................................................................................................................ 14 3.6 A proposed modified approach in following up ............................................................................... 16 3.7 Insufficient scientific data on PES need to be resolved by close cooperation with FAO .................. 16 4. SOURCE OF INFORMATION (Literature).................................................................................................. 17

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

Abbreviations CDM Clean Development Mechanism CFPUA Communal Forest and Pasture User Association COP Conference of Parties DNA Designated National Authority FNC First National Communication GEF Global Environment Facility GHG Greenhouse Gas IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LUCF Land Use Change and Forestry MDGs Millennium Development Goals NAP National Action Plan NCSP National Communication Support Programme NES National Energy Strategy NGOs Non-governmental Organisations NRDP Natural Resource Decvelopment SNC Second National Communication TNA Technology Needs Assessment UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

Background information:

Albania is playing a leading part in international efforts to stop global warming and limit damaging climate change, which particularly threatens developing countries and the poor and vulnerable. Albanian Prime Minister strongly support the view that international agreement on a new post-Kyoto treaty on climate change at the United Nations conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 is vital.

Country context:
UNFCCC & Kyoto Protocol

Joined the UNFCCC in 1995 / Status under the UNFCCC Non-Annex 1 Party to the UNFCCC No emission reduction targets
Joined the Kyoto Protocol 16 December, 2004 Legal framework in support of implementation of KP/CDM in Albania

Law No. 9334 dated 16.12.2004 on: Ratification of Kyoto Protocol from the Republic of Albania Law on Amendments to the Law No. 9385, dated 4.5.2005 On Forests and Forest service. The MoEFWA is responsible National Entity for implementation of the KP in the Republic of Albania .Forest definition for the purposes of the KP/CDM projects Law No. 9890, dated 19.03.2008. Amendments to the Law No 8934, dated 5.9.2002 on the Environment Protection. Gives the responsibility to the Minister of Environment of Albania to issue rules and procedures for hosting the CDM projects in Albania Memoranda of Understanding / Agreements Gov. of Italy ; Gov. of Denmark ; Other CDM related agreements: WB Bio-carbon fund; Austrian Technical Cooperation
Current Institutional Framework for CDM: the DNA Designated National Authority The Government of Albania has designated as National Authority the Climate Change Unit of the Ministry of Environment. The basic functions of the DNA is to (a) decide sustainable development criteria; (b) confirm voluntary participation of the project participants, and (c) confirm Sustainable Development contribution of the project and issue Letter of approval for the purposes of validation and registration under the CDM

DNA responsibility relies upon the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration; Responsible for UNFCCC and KP DNA was formally nominated through a Resolution of the Minister of Environment to UNFCCC Secretariat in June 2005, upon the ratification of the KP from Albania . Climate Change Program/Unit is assigned to provide substantive support to the DNA. The scope of its responsibilities is:

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

- Provide substantive support to the Ministry for the implementation of the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, including DNA. - Focal point for UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol Responsible for management and implementation of climate change projects: (National Communication; Mitigation. Adaptation projects) - Mobilize resources (new projects for implementation of the UNFCCC and KP) - A package of rules and procedures for CDM project approval and other support framework is drafted and will be formalized soon.
Assistance on institutional capacity building

WB Bio Carbon Fund Assisted Natural Regeneration Project (on-going) Facilitation of the KP ratification and DNA set up. Facilitation of the process for forest definition for the purpose of CDM projects Baseline setting and monitoring methodology of A/R LULUCF ERPA negotiation Italian Government Capacity building activities (on-going): Legal and Institutional support CDM potential, PIN development, feasibility studies. Austrian Development Assistance Building Albania s capacity to access Carbon Finance (on-going) Legal and institutional framework set up for the DNA Standard baseline studies (energy, forests) Increase awareness on advantages of the carbon finance CDM strategy UNDP MDG Carbon Facility Identification of CDM projects with high sustainable development impact (ongoing) Current situation with CDM CDM potential identified: - Approx: 2,500 k ton CO2 eqv/year An A/R CDM project: - A new methodology approved: AR-AM003: Albania s assisted natural - Regeneration of forests (The PDD developed. Pre-validation, validation performed. ERPA signed, project registered at CDM). - 7 PINs for SHPPs developed. 2 PDDs developed through Austrian assistance. - A portfolio of 11 CDM projects are identified under the MoU with Italy and a tendering procedure is finalized for selection companies to carry out feasibility studies. - Working on sectorial baselines: Power sector ( Final draft and Forests sector ( Feasibility study in process) Reduce transaction cost; better estimate EF, prepare faster the PDDs,

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

1. National publications and reports and summary of national publications (reports, studies, project information) on climate change dimensions, impacts.
This annual report summarizes the governments prog ress on activities to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to climate change impacts during the past years. This report provides an overview of climate change policies and programs across the Albania . Some of these programs have already been implemented, while others are being developed in consultation with stakeholders and/or leading experts. To address the climate change related issues, the Government of Albania has formed a partnership with the United Nations Development Programme, and supported by the Global Environment Facility, the Austrian Technical Cooperation and other donors is implementing a series of projects in the area of climate change mitigation (energy efficiency, renewable, carbon financing) and adaptation (adaptation policies in the Drini-Mati river deltas, carbon neutral territories). Swiss and Italian Governments are supporting the creation of a functioning market for solar water heating. Ministry of Environment, Forestry and Water Administration and the United Nations Development Programme in November 2009, released two national reports: The Second National Communication of Albania to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Albanian Policy Paper for Carbon Finance. The reports represent the culmination of the work of a team of experts over a three-year period. Albania s Second National Communication to the UNFCCC presents an assessment of Albania s present situation with regard to climate change. It also provides scientific information and evidence as valuable input for policymakers in long-term development planning for relevant sectors. The report shows that greenhouse gas emissions in Albania in 2000 totaled 7619.90 Gg. The main contributing sectors were Energy (44.00%), followed by Agriculture (27.12%) and Land Use Change and Forestry (21.60%). The share of the land use change and forestry is significantly being reduced, while the shares of energy and waste are rising. Among energy subsectors, transport is the fastest growing sector. Greenhouse gas emissions per capita in Albania were 2.47 tones CO2 equivalent, which is 4-5 times lower than the average of industrialized countries. This is due to generally low energy consumption, more than 90 % of electricity being produced by hydro power plants and most energy being consumed as electricity. Two development scenarios have been built for the above mentioned sectors: the Baseline, which considers the development of the sectors without mitigation efforts and the Abatement, which considers the implementation of a set of prioritized measures, aiming to reach a reduction of GHG emissions of 48% by the year 2025. The report highlights that adaptation measures are needed together with legislative, regulatory, and institutional frameworks to prevent negative effects of climate change and also to identify new methods and technologies. Climate change is expected to bring significant effects in all

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

sectors analyzed with energy being the most sensitive one. Rising temperatures, changes of the amount of precipitation, and variation in humidity, wind patterns, and the number of sunny days per year could affect both consumption and production of energy. The two reports have been produced in the framework of UNDP Albania Climate Change programme supported by the Global Environment Facility and Austrian Development Agency and implemented by UNDP Albania.

1.1 PROJECTS and PROGRAMMES


Together, the Government of Albania, and UNDP have committed to support the use of renewable energy sources, protect biodiversity, and streamline commitments to international environmental conventions - specifically those related to Biodiversity, Climate Change and Land Degradation. UNDP supports the Climate Change Unit within the Ministry of Environment [Forestry and Water Administration]. The Climate Change programme works with the Ministry through producing required reports to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol. The reports enable the Government to sell its lack of carbon emissions, or carbon credits, to industrialized countries that produce excess carbon emissions, a form of activity referred to as the Clean Development Mechanism. This particular type of foreign investment, called Carbon Finance, also allows Albania to continue reducing its own carbon emissions for further credits to sell on the international market. UNDP promotes Solar Water Heating in the marketplace, with a project that foresees the installation of 70,000 m2 of solar panels in Albania, with a cumulative green house gas reduction potential of 1.5 million tons over the next 20 years. UNDP through the Climate Change Programme and GEF, are addressing the first ever attempts in Albania at climate change adaptation with a project aimed at protecting vulnerable ecosystems and local livelihoods by identifying and mainstreaming adaptation response measures into development programming in the Drini-Mati River Deltas. By implementing the Stockholm Convention, Albania is also taking measures to eliminate or reduce the release of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) into the environment, and manage contaminated sites. The Governments of Albania, FYR of Macedonia, and Greece are working together to protect globally significant biodiversity in the Prespa Lakes Basin. The three countries are integrating and coordinating ecological, economic and social goals to reduce pollution in the lakes, and are introducing environmental management practices. In addition to the technical and financial support given to Government counterparts, UNDP provides support to a number of non-governmental and community-based organizations working on specific environmental concerns.
Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

UNDP is also supporting eco-tourism as a way to protect the environment and cultural assets while providing economic and job growth opportunities for primarily rural communities. Current UNDP projects in the area of Energy and Environment In Albania Nr Project name Service Line Updated Building Capacity to Access Carbon Finance in 3.1 Frameworks and strategies 2009-021 Albania (June 2007 - December 2009) for sustainable development 23 Enabling Albania to prepare its Second National Communication in Response to its 3.1 Frameworks and strategies 2009-022 Commitments to the UNFCCC for sustainable development 23 (March 2005 - December 2009) 3 GEF Small (open-ended) Grants Programme 3.5 Conservation and 2009-09sustainable use of biodiversity 16

3.6 National/sectoral policy Identification and prioritization of and planning to control 2009-034 environmental hotspots in Albania emissions of ozone-depleting 06 (January 2008 - July 2010) substances and persistent organic pollutants Identification of adaptation response measures 3.5 Conservation and 2009-105 in the Drini - Mati River Deltas sustainable use of biodiversity 20 (May 2008 - May 2012) Integrated Ecosystem Management in the Prespa Lakes Basin of Albania, FYR- 3.5 Conservation and 2008-076 Macedonia and Greece sustainable use of biodiversity 22 (September 2006 - December 2011) Strengthening capacities in the Western Balkans countries to address environmental problems 7 through remediation of high priority hot spots Albanian Component (October 2007 March 2010) 3.6 National/sectoral policy and planning to control 2009-02emissions of ozone-depleting 02 substances and persistent organic pollutants

1.2 PROJECT DESIGN DOCUMENT FORM FOR AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION PROJECT ACTIVITIES (CDM-AR-PDD)
1.2.1 Forest situation

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

Albanias forests cover 36% of the total land area; Pastures cover 14% of the total;The primary responsibility for forests and pastures management belongs tothe Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration; The forest ownership right have been delegated to communes (local level) according to case by case decrees of CM during 2008 Amendment to the Law No. 9385, dated 4.5.2005 on Forests and Forest service A National Strategy on Forests Management (2001) and Biodiversity Strategy (1999) address the sustainable management of forests; Degradation has been identified as a major issue for the country, mainly due to uncontrolled grazing; Illegal cutting, mainly for energy needs in rural areas is another phenomena; Two projects starting from 1996 have supported the transfer of forest to the communities and sustainable forest management: (i) Albania Forestry Project (AFP) 1996-2004, supported the transfer of user rights and management of forest and pasture from the state to local communities. It was followed up by Natural Resource Development Project (NRDP) 2005-2011, witrh the main objective to support to expand community-based management of the natural resource of the country As part of this project, Bio Carbon Fund of the World Bank agreed with the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration to pilot the first CDM project for Albania
1.2.2 Project objective

To increase carbon sequestration through afforestation and reforestation of highly degraded land, which will also lead to enhanced sources of livelihood and incomes in poor rural areas, reduced soil degradation, improved water quality and conservation of biodiversity
1.2.4 Project overview

The first CDM project for Albania Project area: Afforestation of 6272.36 ha of degraded land; CO2 emission reduction of ~ 280,000 tCO2 (in the period 2002-2017) to be transferred to WB as ER; Project methodology: new, approved by CDM EB as AR-AM003 Crediting period: 20 years with possibility of renewal twice Natural Resources Development Project (NRDP) project funded by a credit from International Development Association will support the Carbon Sequestration project in its first years. ERPA negotiated and agreed between WB and MoEFWA on July 2006/ Price agreed and ERPA signed in 2007/ Project participants: MoEFWA, Bio Carbon Fund of WB. Letter of Approval not issued yet. Validation process was realized in 2009/ Registration of the project on January 2, 2010.
1.2.5 The role of the Communal Forest and Pasture User Associations (CFPUAs)

The Carbon Sequestration project is based on Forest and Pasture User Associations (FPUAs). An FPUA will make an agreement with a commune to use a part of the communal forest land under
Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

the management of the commune for the purposes of the project FPUAs will be responsible for the planting and tending of the trees. FPUAs will be the recipients of the payments for sequestered carbon received from the World Bank. Where and how will the money be transferred? The state owns the tradable rights in sequestered carbon because it owns the sequestered carbon as a component of a tree. The state would contract to sell those rights carbon credits to the World Bank through the ERPA; The World Bank would pay the price for the carbon credits into the bank account which will be directly under control and management of the FPUAs involved in the project; How the local villages can benefit from the carbon payments. The carbon payments will be transferred from the Carbon Association to each commune in the FPUA account; the amount of carbon payments will depend on the amount of ha of each commune; The FPUA should produce a management plan for the expenditure of the carbon payments on environmental and social improvement; (reinvestment fund) within the villages involved in the project proportionally to the land made available to the project in each village; The activities implemented in each village shall employ preferably local labor, thus persons in the villages most closely involved in the project shall be the first to be offered employment in and about the project and the project forest, including work on environmental and social improvements; The FUA should maintain proper accounts of any expenditure of Project payments and will permit the Commune, the DFS and officers of the CFCUA to check on and audit those accounts.

1.3 Climate change impacts and dimensions


1.3.1 Climate Change effects in Albania

Climate change effects have started to be felt since the late 1990s in Albania, more precisely in 1997, when the winter came with very little or no snow at all. It used to snow a lot on the Albanian highlands, but in 1997 it snowed just once and very little, and the whole March and April were hot, and with very little rain. Since 1997, winters in Albania have become shorter and milder, whereas summers have become longer and hotter, sometimes with temperatures above 0 Celsius. Droughts in summer and sometimes even in fall, and then sudden floods, became a frequent phenomenon. The Government of Albania declared a state of emergency on 7 January 2010, following heavy rainfall during November and December 2009 which caused water levels in the lakes and on the Drini River to rise, flooding the Shkodra and Lezha regions. About 10,270 hectares of farmland have been flooded and nearly 10,000 livestock are at risk. Due to serious damages to the water supply system, many in the flooded communities do not have access to drinking water. Agricultural and transportation infrastructure has been damaged making the area around Shkodra accessible only by small boats. The coasts have started to erode almost in the entire Adriatic coastline in Albania due to sea level increasein some places the sea has advanced more than 50m inland, destroying the coastal forests and vegetation, and increasing the salinity in the lagoons and fields near the seacoast. The
Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

increase of the sea level, has wreaked havoc on the beautiful Mediterranean Pine forests that cover the Adriatic coast in Albania . Most of the trees that are found on the frontline, are dying from increasing salinity. In other places, especially in villages near the coast, the salinity in the soil and in the water wells has increased significantly, damaging the small rural economies along the coast. The climate change effects have increased the number and the intensity of fires in Albania . During 2006-2007 there were 352 fires that burned throughout Albanian parks and forests, burning entire ecosystems and pastures. In some areas you could drive for tens of kilometers without seeing a single tree unburnedthe fires devastated entire forests sometimes. As the village communities living on the mountains suffered because of the loss of forests, and pastures, it is not known the damage on ecosystems and biota in the burned areas. The fires can be attributed to a higher temperature in summer, prolonged droughts and earlier melting of snow in the mountain caps. In Kuks, in the northeastern part of Albania, mount Gjallica (2468m above the sea level) used to a have snow-covered peak from September until the end of June in the past. Now snow can barely be found in April or beginning of May on Gjallica peak. The climate change has brought mild winters, which have favored the growth of tropical plants even in Albania, and made it possible for mosquitoes to appear in altitudes above 400-500 m above the sea level (mosquitoes were present only in lower altitudes before the 1990s). Seasons have shifted a lot tootrees used to lose their leaves by October and flower in March, but now they lose leaves late in November and flower sometimes even by the end January. WEBSITE: http://www.ccalb.org/ http://www.ccalb.org/Progress%20Annual%20Report%202006_Climate%20Change%20Progra mme_Albania.pdf http://www.ccalb.org/public%20awareness/pa_publications.htm http://www.moe.gov.al/ http://sgp.undp.org/ http://www.ccalb.org/activities/activities_TNA.htm http://archive.rec.org/REC/Programs/ClimateChange/Docs/country-assessment-reportalbania.pdf http://www.wbc-inco.net/attach/Report_Albania.pdf

2. Status and work by national research institutions on research for assessment of climate change
2.1 Documents
Technology Needs Assessment (Top-up Phase) (March 2002 - March 2004),Assoc. Prof., Dr. Eglantina Demiraj Bruci, Capacity building on Estimation of Climate Change Impact Head, Climatological Division, Hydrometeorological Institute April 2002

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

Analysis of biomass residues potential for electrical energy generation in Albania Sh. Karaj,A,, T. Rehla, H. Leisa and J. Mllera 2009. linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1364032109001580 Acceleration of the cost competitive biomass use energy purpose in the western Balkan countries 2007. www.eec.org.al/newsletter%2038.pdf Potential of biomass energy in Albania Elvin Toromani Faculty of Forest Sciencies Albania www.ics.trieste.it/media/160435/07_toromani.pdf Analysis and study of the feasibility of a biomass chain in Albania www.biomalba.net/.../Workshop%2016-20%20december%202008.pdf Biomass Composting and Agronomic and Environmental Effect Evaluation# J. Int. Environmental Application & Science, Vol. 4 (3): 339-343 (2009) Kopali Albert, Mankolli Hysen, Abazi Uran, Shumeli Arjan Department of Agro-environment and Ecology, Agricultural University of Tirana, Kamez, Tirana, Albania www.jieas.com/volumes/vol091-3/abs09-v4-i3-17.pdf

Analysis Of Renewable Energy And Its Impact On Rural Development Of Albania November 2009. Authors Roland Cela, Aheron Himzo Www.Euroqualityfiles.Net/.../Agripolicy%20WP2%20D2%20Albania%20Final.Pdf Country Assessment Report on Climate Change October 2005. archive.rec.org/REC/.../Climate Change/.../country-assessment-report-albania.pdf

Tecnology Needs Assessment (Top Up Phase (March 2002-March 2004) Albania Climate Change Unit. www.ccalb.org/activities/activities_TNA.htm Climate Vulnerability Assessments An Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk, and Adaptation in Albanias Energy Sector. Energy Sector Management Assistance Program, The World Bank www.esmap.org/.../121200934336_FINAL_CESVAP_Albania_Climate_Vulnerabili ty_Assmnt-English.pdf Climate Change And Sea Level Rise Vulnerability And Adaptation Assessment www.coastalmanagement.com/.../vulnerability-a-adaptation.html Environmental Effects Of Energy Use In Albania And Public Awareness, Education And Training On Climate Change Prof.Dr. Bashkim Spahiu, MSc Yllka SPAHIU Institute of Hydrotechnical Research and Design Tirana, ALBANIA
www.balwois.com/balwois/administration/full_paper/ffp-824.pdf

Albania Environment and Climate Change Analysis March 7, 2008


www.hgu.gu.se/Files/.../Environmental%20policy%20brief%20Albania.pdf

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

Relation Between River Dynamics And Coastal Changes In Albania: An Assessment Integrating Satellite Imagery With Historical Data. P. Ciavola International Journal Of Remote Sensing, Volume http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=t713722504~tab=issueslist~branc hes=20 - v2020, Issue 3 February 1999 , pages 561 584 www.informaworld.com/index/YVL726B0QA15DX47.pdf

Clean Development Mechanism, Project Design Document Form For Afforestation And Reforestation,Project Activities (Cdm-Ar-Pdd), Project Design Document Form, For Afforestation And Reforestation Project Activities (Cdm-Ar-Pdd) - Version 01 EXPERTENKONFERENZ, Albanien: Wettbewerbsfhige Regionen durch Energieeffi zienz und Ressourcenschutz 21. 22. November 2008 www.suedosteuropa-gesellschaft.com/.../tagung_landnutzung_albanien.pdf Validation Of The CDM-Project: Assisted Natural Regeneration Of Degraded Lands In Albania report No. 1252921,02 October 2009,Tv Sd Industrie Service Gmbh,Carbon Management Service,Westendstr. 199 - 80686 Munich Germany

2.2 Websites:
http://www.ccalb.org/ http://www.ccalb.org/Progress%20Annual%20Report%202006_Climate%20Change%20Progra mme_Albania.pdf http://www.ccalb.org/public%20awareness/pa_publications.htm http://www.moe.gov.al/ http://sgp.undp.org/ http://www.ccalb.org/activities/activities_TNA.htm http://archive.rec.org/REC/Programs/ClimateChange/Docs/country-assessment-reportalbania.pdf http://www.wbc-inco.net/attach/Report_Albania.pdf http://www.esmap.org/filez/pubs/121200934336_FINAL_CESVAP_Albania_Climate_Vulnerab ility_Assmnt-English.pdf www.undg.org/toolkit/tool.cfm?id=245

3. Summary list of proposals to identify possibilities for collaboration by FAO with national institutions and specialists.
3.1 Gaps, Problems identified Institutional & legal:
Lack of strong national institutional framework for CDM; Lack of formalized national rules and procedures for the CDM process in Albania ;

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

Structure of the CDM approval process Sustainable development criteria: sector specific Financial resources for DNA staff

3.2 Technical & capacity related


Lack of national capacities to write PINs and PDDs Limited knowledge on advantages of carbon finance to economics of the investment (IRR); Lack of data for estimation of baseline emissions; Lack of some methodologies (e.g. no approved CDM methodology for projects in district heating; transportation); Low baseline GHG emission for energy sector due to lack of access and high reliance on hydro sources (95%); Attempts to get involved into the carbon finance have started relatively late compared to other countries by limiting therefore the interest of the investors; Limited internal resources to support the PDD, even PIN preparation;

3.3 Albanias strategy in the carbon market


While entering relatively late into the CDM market, Albania still has opportunity to undertake project based transactions, if: Work to properly establishing an effective domestic framework to support CDM projects and; Work aggressively in parallel to develop a carbon project portfolio. Given the uncertainties of the market structure beyond 2012, make priorities on project development based on an assessment of the risks and benefits of engaging in the market today.

3.4 Issues for consideration


It is important to position Albania as a good CDM project developer with effective institutional arrangements for approval; Simple national structure and simple approval procedures are important and least cost options to promote CDM; Although carbon market is an emerging market with lots of uncertainties, those who take the risk get access of the opportunities offered through financial mechanisms (CDM); Role of the private sector is crucial to the CDM process so its involvement since to the inception phase is critical. The usefulness of including the PIN within national approval procedure: Noobjection letter issuance. Development CDM projects for sectors that have approved methodologies.

3.5 Next steps to be followed:


Albania transferred more than 60% of forest areas in the property of 300 communes that have forest areas in the their territory. World Bank, GEF and Sida have supported the preparation and

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

implementation of management plans for about 240 communes. This is leading in the improvement of ex degraded forest areas close to the villages. The improved management of forests and pastures provide environmental benefits at regional, national and international levels, thus suggesting that the users of the land should be paid also for such services, which requires further investments to provide knowledge on the environmental costs and effects. The aim would be to secure sustainable and worthwhile income to the forest and pasture users. Extend the area of project on Assisted Natural Regeneration of Degraded Lands in Albania in the frame of approved
methodology on AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION PROJECT Land degradation has been identified as a major issue for Albania . Currently, highly degraded land is subject to uncontrolled grazing which prevents the development of a protective vegetation cover. These terrains are eroding quickly, and the landscape looks devastated. It is essential that a vegetative cover is established soon, to halt erosion

There are more than 150 000 ha of abandoned agricultural land, as well as degraded shrub and grazing land that can be improved through assisted natural regeneration. Albania has a long experience working with local communities. Natural regeneration can be assisted in cooperation between the project (hosted by the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration of the Government of Albania), the communes and the forest user associations of the communes. Natural regeneration will be enabled by excluding grazing from the project area; bare lands will be afforested through complementary planting. The baseline scenario is continuous degradation and erosion through unsustainable grazing
Regarding control over the project area, there are frame agreements, and based in existing under implementation project would be signed between Ministry of Environment, Forests and Water Administration of the Government of Albania (PP) and the participating Communes (IRL 13). Further, contracts will be signed between the communes and the Forest Users Associations (FUA) (IRL 30), who are representing the actual users of the project area. FUA will participate in project identification especially the areas and in this contract the FUA will agree to include defined areas in the project. These contracts govern the land use and the transfer and sale of the carbon credits generated by the project. Further contracts can be signed with persons from the communes to protect a specific parcel of the project area from grazing (IRL 31). The relevant documentation was reviewed and found in compliance with legal system of the host country. Thus, control over the project area by the PP is considered to be fully established.

The output of the project is: long-term managed reforestations, contributing to soil conservation and improvement of water quality, generation of income in rural communities, production of wood and other non-timber forest products (nuts, fruits, medicinal products). Relevant alternatives (baseline scenario) identified in the context of the additionally test apart of the project activity without the CDM component are: (i) reintroduction of degraded lands into the agricultural production cycle, (ii) Continuation of the existing and historical land use leading to further degradation and (iii) implementation of project as an assisted natural regeneration without being registered as an A/R CDM project activity.

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

3.6 A proposed modified approach in following up

As it was mentioned the BioCarbon Fund, administered by the World Bank, has agreed to purchase emission reductions in Communal forests in Albania after a negotiation of an Emission Reduction Purchase Agreement (ERPA) at a price of US$4.4 per ton of CO2. The biological growth in areas included is measured by local evaluators, subject to validation from an independent Designated Operational Entity (DOE). The same procedures to seek official Carbon Credits which could be used for meeting Kyoto Protocol commitments are at least initially not envisaged. There are two reasons for not following the same procedures as in the existing project on assisted natural regeneration through forestations: The selection of areas to be included are severely constrained by the Kyoto Protocol definitions The procedures for verifying carbon credits under the World Bank Carbon Fund is excessively bureaucratic However, the verification of the carbon effects from existing methodology would be used as a strong indicator of the level of continuing carbon benefits which would be realized from carbon sequestration in areas similar to but outside of those included in that project. Consequently no continuing payment for carbon would be paid but the project should also include a pilot scheme of identifying voluntary carbon credits and alternative verification strategies. An interesting possibility would be to assess the interest by European private companies to contribute funding of carbon sequestration, by paying for implementation of sustainable participatory management plans. They may be interested in such an arrangement in view of the public image benefits of supporting at the same time poverty reduction benefits and CO2 reductions as indicated through measurements of carbon benefits based on the NRDP component. The new project could also investigate the possibility negotiate Voluntary Carbon Credits provided by some of the voluntary carbon credit arrangements such as Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) thus making it possible to receive tradable Carbon Credits witch would provide forest and pasture users with additional and continuous .

3.7 Insufficient scientific data on PES need to be resolved by close cooperation with FAO
Other important project for the future in Albania can be project on PES Payments for environmental services Payment to the forest and pasture users for providing environmental services, requires

that these possible environmental services be verified. Assisted natural regeneration provides one example on how carbon sequestration could be verified and payments given to those who manage their forest and pasture for global environmental benefits. However, for other watershed management benefits such as reduced soil erosion and water management benefits, insufficient scientific data is available to verify and therefore also to negotiate payment for such services. This requires a comprehensive scientific approach with field trials to measure relationships

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

between forest and pasture management alternatives and the effects on silt load and water flow. It also requires that models be developed to study likely effects of watershed management and the likely cost saving effects on physical structures such as power dams, roads and water supply systems. This would provide an important tool to evaluate the possible utility of future payments for watershed related environmental benefits in Albania

4. Source of Information (Literature)


National Environmental Action Plan for the Republic of Albania, Ministry of Environment, 1993 and 2002 (updated and approved) Compendium of Environment Legislation, Republic of Albania, Ministry of Environment, March 2004 Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Republic of Albania , Ministry of Environment, 2000 National Strategy on Socio Economic Development, GoA , 2002 Albanian Watershed Assessment Project , US Department of Agriculture (USDA), May 2003 Environmental Diagnosis of Coastal Zone, Republic of Albania , UNEP/Map, Ministry of Environment, April 2004 Environmental Performance Review, Albania, United Nations Development Programme, 2002 State of Environment Report, Republic of Albania, Ministry of Environment, 2000 2002 Albanian Forestry Project, World Bank 1996 2003 National Assessment Report for the World Summit on the Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, Ministry of Environment, 2002 Environmental and Social Management Framework for World Bank Projects with Multiple Small- Scale Subprojects: A Toolkit, World Bank, 2004 This report was prepared by Haki Kola Enkeleda Pjetri*[1]

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010

Review of National Research, Data and Projects on Climate Change: Dimensions, Impacts, Mitigation and Adaptation Policies in ALBANIA

Prepared by : Haki Kola and Enkeleda Pjetri. Tirana 2010