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# Television and video Engineering(EC345) Class: Sixth semester ECE 1.Define scanning?

The scene is scanned rapidly both in the horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously to provide sufficient number of complete pictures or frames per second to give the illusion of continuous motion. The frame repetition rate is 25 per second in most television systems. 2. What is horizontal scanning? Horizontal line deflection coils deflects the beam across the screen with a continuous, uniform motion for the trace from left to right. At the peak of its rise, the saw tooth wave reverses direction and decreases rapidly to its initial value. This fast reversal produces the retrace or fly back. The start of horizontal trace is at the left edge of raster. The finish is at the right edge and then the fly back produces retrace back to left edge. 3.What is vertical scanning? The saw tooth current in the vertical deflection coils moves the electron beam from top to bottom of the raster at a uniform speed while the electron beam is being deflected horizontally. Thus the beam produces complete horizontal lines one below the other while moving from top to bottom. 4.What is flicker and how it is eliminated? The scanning of 25 frames per second in television pictures is enough to cause an illusion of continuity, but they are not rapid enough to allow the brightness of one picture or frame to blend smoothly into the next through the time when the screen is blanked between successive frames. This results in flicker. It is eliminated by means of interlaced scanning.

5. What is interlaced scanning? The total number of lines in a picture or frame are divided into 2 fields called even field consisting of even numbered lines and odd field consisting of odd numbered lines. Each field is scanned alternately. This method of scanning is known as interlaced scanning. 6.What are the vertical and horizontal scanning frequency? Horizontal scanning frequency = 15625 Hz The normal duration of 1 horizontal line = 64 s Vertical scanning frequency = 50Hz The normal duration of 1 vertical line = 20ms 7. What is called half wave dipole antenna? An ungrounded wire or rod whose length is one half of the wavelength () of the signal to be received is called half wave dipole antenna or a Hertz antenna. 8. What are the characteristics of an antenna? The characteristics of an antenna are: 9. What is the need for additional elements in case of half wave dipole? The simple half wave dipole may provide satisfactory signal for receivers located close to transmitter but in general for locations far away from the transmitter the problems of ghosts or insufficient signal strength need elaborate antenna arrays that provide more gain and directivity. The additional elements such as reflector and director added are not electrically connected to the main dipole and are usually referred to as parasitic elements. Polarization Antenna Directivity Antenna Gain Antenna Bandwidth Antenna Impedance

10. Write a short note on YAGI Antenna elements. The reflector and director locations of a YAGI-UDA or YAGI antenna are the same as for the dipole antenna. The antenna has: Impedance=300 and Gain=7db. It is unidirectional. To avoid pick-up from any other side, the back lobe of the radiation pattern can be reduced by bringing the radiating elements (reflector and director) closer to each other. 11. Give any two examples for microwave antennas that find wide application for TV reception. The microwave antennas that find wide application for television reception are: Bow Tie or Di-Fan antenna and Parabolic Reflector antenna. 12. What is Log Periodic Antenna? The name log periodic stems from the fact that the impedance of the antenna has a periodic variation when plotted against logarithm of frequency. 13. How is the antenna mounted? The receiving antenna is mounted horizontally for maximum pick-up from the -*0transmittingx v.n,``-5= antenna. The antenna is mounted on a suitable structure at a height around 10m above the ground level. This not only insulates it from the ground but results in induction of large signal strength which is free from interference. 14. Why do we use separate dipoles for each VHF bands? The main problem in using 1 dipole for both the VHF bands is, the difficulty of maintaining a broadside response. Hence antennas meant for both the VHF bands generally use either separate dipoles for each band or dipole for the lower VHF band is modified to provide broadside unidirectional response in the upper VHF band also. 1 5. What is the function of video amplifier? Video amplifier is to provide enough gain such that the output of the video signal attains amplitude that can drive the picture tube from cut-off for blanking to practically

zero grid cathode voltage for peak white. In peak-to-peak values, the signal swing may vary from about 30v for small pictures and 150v for large screen tubes. 16. What are the requirements of video amplifier? The relative amplitude and phase relations of frequency components of the video signal must be preserved for producing a high-resolution picture. For this, the video amplifier should ideally have a frequency response linear from dc to the highest modulating frequency of 5MHz. This is possible if the amplifier is dc coupled and provided with both low and high frequency compensating networks. 17. Write short notes on deflection circuits in TV receiver? Vertical and horizontal oscillators are the starting point for beam deflection. Each is a free running oscillatory circuit, which generates output with or without input signal. Sync input is used to control oscillator frequency. Vertical sync pulses control vertical oscillator and the AFC circuit controls horizontal oscillator. 18. What is the use of PLL in horizontal deflection system? A phase locked loop type of AFC circuit is commonly used in modern receivers to stabilize and control the line oscillator frequency. 19. What is the nature of circuits during vertical and horizontal scanning? For vertical scanning at 50 Hz, the deflection coils are mainly resistive and for horizontal scanning at 15625Hz, the deflection coils provide an inductive load since the sharp changes in current amplitude produce a large value of self-induced voltage. 20. What are the ranges of dc power supplies used in TV receiver? Low voltage: About 12 to 35 volts for ICs and small signal amplifiers. This supply to the ICs is definitely regulated. Medium voltage: 150v for horizontal output stage, 300 to 400v for screen and focus grids of the picture tube and 175v for the video amplifiers. High voltage: 15 to 18KV for the final anode of the picture tube.

2 1. What are primary and complementary colors? The primary colors are red, green and blue. The complementary colors are yellow, magenta or purplish red shade and cyan or greenish blue shade. 22. State Grassmans Law? The eye can perceive new colors depending on the algebraic sum of red, green and blue light fluxes. This forms the basis of color signal generation and is known as Grassmans Law. 100%white= 30%red+ 59%green+ 11%blue 23. What is meant by gamma correction? The R, G, B has the voltage levels VR, VG, VB respectively. A correction is applied to these voltages to compensate for any non-linearity of the system. This is called gamma correction. 24. What is meant by compatibility? The color TV signal must produce a normal B&W picture on a monochrome receiver without any modification of the receiver circuitry. This is called as compatibility. 25. What is meant by luminance? The luminance or brightness is the amount of light intensity as perceived by the eye regardless of the color. 26. What is meant by hue? The hue is the predominant spectral color of the received light. Thus the color of any object is distinguished by its hue or tint. 27. What is meant by Saturation? Saturation is the spectral purity of the color light. 28. What are the three characteristics of color to specify its visual information?

## Luminance Hue or tint Saturation

29. What is meant by chrominance? The hue and saturation of a colour put together is known as chrominance 30. What is meant by desaturated color? When a colour is diluted by white then it said to be desaturated colour. 31. What is trimming filters? The ray from each of the light splitters also pass through color filters called trimming filters. These filters provide highly precise primary color images, which are converted into video signals by image orthicon or vidicon camera tubes. 32. How the color difference signals are generated? The color difference voltages are derived by subtracting the luminance voltage from the color voltages. The color difference signals are: (R-Y), (B-Y), (G-Y). 33. What is the reason of unsuitability of (G-Y) signal for transmission? G-Y= -.51(R-Y)-.186(B-Y) If (R-Y) is the missing signal, its matrix would have to be based on the expression, R-Y= (-.59/.3)(G-Y)-(.11/.3)(B-Y) The factor .59/. 3 = 1.97 implies gain in the matrix and it needs an extra amplifier. The proportion of G in Y is relatively large so the amplitude of (G-Y) is small. It produces S/N ratio problems. 34. What is meant by Y signal amplitude? The Y signal contains brightness variations of picture information and is formed by adding the three camera outputs in the ratio,

Y=. 3R+ .59G+ .11B 35. How the complementary colors are produced from primary color? Primary Red+ Green Red+ Blue Blue+ Green Secondary Yellow Magenta (purplish red shade) Cyan (greenish blue shade)

35. What is meant by diachronic mirror? The image formed by the lens is split into 3 images by means of glass prisms. Three prisms are designed as diachronic mirrors. A diachronic mirror passes one wavelength and rejects other wavelengths. 36.Name the three types of color picture tubes? i) Delta gun ii) Precision in line iii) Trintron picture tube. 37.Define convergence: The technique of bringing the beam together so that they hit the same part of the beam (or) coincide the raster at the same point. 38. Mention the methods of convergence? i) static convergence ii) dynamic convergence. Static convergence: Movement of electron beam by the permanent magnetic field brings the beam to converge in the central area of the screan. Dynamic convergence: It is achieved by continuously varying the dynamic magnetic field; the strength of magnetic filed is proportional to the position of phosphor dots.

39.What are the drawbacks of Delta gun tube? Convergence is difficult. The electron transparency of the mask is very low. The focus can not be sharp over the entire screen 40.Define degaussing: 1,degaussing means demagnetizing the iron and steel parts of the picture tube mounting 2, it removes the magnetic flux from metals that have become magnetized.

41.What are the 3 photo electric effects used for converting variations of light intensity into electrical variations? Photo emission Photo conduction Photo voltaic 42.What is the purpose of a TV pick-up tube? The purpose of a TV pick-up tube is to sense each element independently and develop a signal in electrical form proportional to the brightness of each element. 43.Write the principle of photo conduction method: The conductivity or resistivity of the photosensitive surface varies in proportion to the intensity of light focussed on it. 44.Advantage of light storage tubes type camera tube? With light storage tubes the amount of photoelectric signal can be increased 10,000 times approximately compared with non storage type. 45.Give the functions of photo layer in vidicon camera tube?

It has a thickness of about 0.001cm. It behaves like insulator with a resistance of 20Mega ohm when in dark. With light focused on it, the photon energy enables more electrons to go to the conduction band and this reduces the resistively. 46.What is tristimulas values of spectral colours? The red ,green, blue have been fixed at wavelengths of 700nm,546.1nm and 438.8 nm of spectral respectively. The component values of the three primary colours to produce various other colours have been standardized and are called the tristimulas values colours .The reference white is the mixture of .3red,.59green,.11blue 47.What is frequency interleaving? The technique of combining two distinct signals within the same bandwidth is called frequency interleaving. 49.What is compatibility between colour TV and monochrome TV system? A colour TV signal can produce a black and white picture on a monochrome receiver and signals from a black and white system can produce a monochrome picture on a colour receiver. 50. What is picture IF and sound IF frequencies? Picture IF=38.9MHx sound IF =33.4 MHz 51. What is the principle of monochrome picture tube? i) Electrostatic focusing ii) Electromagnetic deflection 52. What is the use of secondary anode of monochrome picture tube? i) Increase the beam velocity ii) Removed unwanted secondary electrons. 53. What is deflection yoke? In combination the vertical and horizontal deflection coils are called the yoke.

54. Define deflection angle? This is the maximum angle thRough which the beam can be deflected without striking the side of the bulb in monochrome picture tube. 55. Define contrast. This is the difference between black and white part of the picture over and above the brightness level. 56. Define contrast ratio. The ratio of maximum to minimum brightness relative to the original picture is called contrast ratio. 57. What is aspect ratio? The frame adopted in all television system is rectangular with width/height ratio i.e. aspect ratio=4/3 58. What is composite video signal? The composite video signal consist of i) Picture information ii) Blanking pulse iii) Synchronizing pulse 59. What is the use of Synchronizing Pulse? Synchronizing Pulse is used to Synchronizing the transmitter and receiver scanning. 60. What is level of black white level? Level of black white level is 10 to 12.5% 61. What is level of blanking level? Level of black white level is 75 % 62.Define pedestal height? The pedestal height is the distance between the pedestal level and dc level of the video signal. 63.what are three section of horizontal sync pulse? i) Front porch ii) Line sync pulse iii) Back porch

64.what is the use of IF amplifier? i) To amplify modulated IF signal over the entire range with an input of about .5 mV signal from the mixer to deliver the 4V into the video detector. ii) to equalize the amplitude of side band components. 65.what are the requirements of vertical deflection stage? i) Vertical linearity ii) Suppression of undesired oscillator iii) Height raster. iv) Vertical rolling of picture. 66.what are three different system of colour television? i) NTSC (national television system committee) ii) PAL (phase alteration by line) iii) SECAM (sequential couleures a memoire) 67.What are the three primary colours? i) Red ii) Green iii) Blue 68.What is colour burst? The chroma signal in the TV system is modulated on a carrier called colour sub carrier and combined with the luminance signal. The colour sync consists of 8 to 10 cycle of colour sub carrier and sent during back porch interval of each horizontal sync pulse. 69.What are two type of colour mixing? i) ii) Additive mixing Subtractive mixing

## 70.what is the colour TV system adopted in India?

PAL (phase alteration by line) 71.What is the fundamental difference between SECAM and NTSC&PAL? The NTSC & PAL system transmits and receive two-chrominance signal simultaneously while the SECAM system is sequential a memoire. i.e. only one of the two colour difference signal is transmitted at a time. 72.What is the total bandwidth and sub carrier frequency of SECAM standard? Total bandwidth=8MHz Sub carrier frequency =4.4375MHz 73.What is line identification signal? Line identification signal is necessary for receiver to be able to deduce as to which line is transmitted. Such an identification of proper sequence of colour line in each field is accomplished by identification pulse that are generated and sent during vertical blanking period. The signal consists of saw tooth modulated sub carrier, which is positive going for red colour difference signal and negative going for blue colour difference signal. 74.What are the merits of SECAM standard? i) Because of fm, SECAM receivers are immune to phase distortion. ii) There is no possibility of cross talk between colour difference signals. iii) There is no need for use of QAM at the transmitter and synchronous detector at the detector. iv) The receiver does not need automatic tuning control and automatic colour control. 75.What are the limitations of NTSC system?

i) NTSC system is sensitive to transmission path difference, which cause phase errors that result in colour change in the reproduced picture. ii) When colour transmission is received on a monochrome receiver a dot Patten structures appears along raster line on the receiver screen this is caused by colour signal frequency that lie with in the pass band of video section of receiver. 76.What are the two main feature of PAL system? i) The weighted colour difference signal (B-Y)& R-Y) signal are modulated without being given a phsse shift of 33 as in the NTSC system. ii) On modulation both the colour difference quadrate signals are allowed the same bandwidth of about 1.3MHz. 77.What are the merits of PAL system? i) The problem of differential phase error has been successfully overcome in PAL system. ii) Manual hue control is unnecessary

78.Compare three colour TV standards. PAL 625 15625Hz 50Hz 7MHz 5MHz AM FM V=1.3 MHz U=1.3 MHz NTSC 525 15750Hz 60Hz 6MHz 4MHz AM FM I=1. 5MHz Q=.5 MHz SECAM 625 15625Hz 50Hz 8MHz 6MHz FM AM DR=1.5MHz DB=1.5MHz

No of scanning line Line frequency Field frequency Channel bandwidth Video bandwidth Picturemodulation Sound modulation Weighted Colour difference signal bandwidth

79.What is the principle of colour killer circuit? When black and white programme is being received ,the colour killer circuit is turned on. It cuts off the chrominance section of colour decoder. This prevents the application of any signal to the chroma delay line and to the U &V demodulator thus any stray colouring signal are prevented from reaching R, G, B amplifier and hence no colour noise appears in the black and white picture during monochrome transmission.

80.What is the function of burst phase discriminator? It works by comparing the phase waveform produced by reference oscillator with that of burst amplifier. Any difference between the two is used to generate a controlling

voltage, which is fed to the reference oscillator. In this way phase and frequency of the oscillator are kept lock in synchronism with those of colour burst. 81.What is the footprint area of the satellite? The satellite antenna transmit signal towards the earth in a particular Patten called its foot print .the signal are stronger at the center and decrease to father level towards outer edge of the footprint. 82.Give the uplink and down link frequencies used in satellite TV. Uplink frequency=5.9to 6.4GHz Downlink frequency=3.7to 4.2GHz 83.What are geostationary satellites? The satellites that rotate at the same speed of the earth are called geostationary satellites. 84.What are the two schemes of remote control signaling to the television receiver? i) By ultrasonic wave generated mechanically or electrically ii) By infrared wave transmission with LED 85.What is the range of operation of remote controls? The range of useful operation of remote controls is around 7m within the radius of 30 from of remote controls receiver on the control panel of TV set. 86.What is the function of remote processors and pulse shaper in remote cotrols? Remote processors are used to further amplification and demodulation of modulated signals. Pulse shaper is used to generate different pulse Patten corresponding to the function buttons pressed on the remote controls unit. 87.What is the range control frequency used in remote controls?

Remote control function lies between 37KHz to 44KHz 41.25 channel selection 37.75-volume up 43.25- volume down 88.What are the two approaches to recording &playback of picture? .i) laser disc system ii) Capacitance disc system. 89.What are the stages of Digital Transmission? 90.What are the stages of Processing? 91.What is Data Compression? i) Used to reduce average data rate about 3 to 6 Mbps ii) Compression possible while scanning any scene iii) Change of bit depend on motion occurring in the scene 92.What are the sections of Receiver Decoder ? i)Tuner demodulator ii)Forward Error correction Data Compression Encryption Packetising Encoding Processing Modulation Transmission

iii)Transport IC iv)Audio / Video Decoder v)Video Encoder vi)Audio Encoder 93. Any five merits of Digital TV receiver i)Reduced Ghosts ii)Reduction of 50 Hz flicker iii)High resolution pictures iv)Picture in Picture(PIP) v)Slow motion action vi)Reduced operational instability 94. What are domestic satellites? The domestic satellite systems are meant mainly for television Programmes and other services within the territory of owner countries. This enables economic coverage of large geographical area & remote areas where terrestrial systems would require transmitters for few users. 95. What is the frequency band for CCIR and Doordarshan ? CCIR has allotted the frequency band , 1.55 GHz to 2.7 GHz in the 3- band for domestic rebroadcast purposes. Doordarshan uses the range 2.5 to 2.7 GHz for its broadcasting. 96.Where are the frequencies of the channels in TVRO earth station receiving signal from INSAT ? TVRO earth station which is designed to receive the down link signal from INSAT series has two channels, each of bandwidth 40 MHz are between 2.555 to2.635 GHz respectively.

97. What is the use of PLL and de-emphasis circuit in demodulation of base band signals? A PLL type FM demodulator is used to obtain video and inter carrier sound IF base band range that extends from dc to 6.5 MHz. A de-emphasis circuit at the output of demodulator is for obtaining the original amplitude of the modulating signal. 98. What is an AV modulator? The audio and video outputs obtained after demodulation are suitable for driving a monitor receiver. These outputs are modulated on either TV channels 3 or channel 4 carrier frequencies. The circuit block, which accomplishes this at low-level outputs, is called AV or Audio- Video modulator. 99. Explain capacitance discs? In capacitance type vision discs, spiral v grooves are cut on which a diamond stylus rides. Information is recorded by varying the depth of the grooves. The capacitance decrease as depth increases. 100.Why is AM preferred to FM for picture signal transmission? If FM are used for signal transmission, the multiple path signals would produce a bar pattern interference in the mage with the shimmering effect. This bar pattern changes continuously .So any steady picture is not produced. If AM are used, the multiple signal paths can almost produce a ghost image which is steady. In addition to this, circuit complexity and bandwidth requirements are much less than FM. Hence AM is preferred to FM for broad casting the picture signal.