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Where are we now? A review of management development issues in the hospitality and tourism sector
Implications for talent management
Sandra Watson
School of Management and Law, Napier University, Edinburgh, UK
Abstract
Purpose This paper seeks to explore the range of research that has been published in the eld of hospitality management development and discuss the implications of ndings for the eld of talent management. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides a literature review into factors inuencing and components of management development. It encompasses literature that addresses management learning, management development and career progression as these are seen to impact on talent management. Secondary research into articles published under the broad heading of management development in the hospitality industry in management, hospitality and tourism journals from 2000-2007 was conducted. After this initial trawl the author themed these into categories to aid presentation and discussion of ndings. Findings There are four key areas which emerge from this review. First, there is research which focuses on factors which inuence management development; second, there is a focus on hospitality management skills and competencies; third, there is work on hospitality careers; and nally, there is work on hospitality management development practices. Originality/value The paper highlights the relationship between characteristics and approaches traditionally associated with management development to those that can now be seen to fall within the rubric of talent management. The paper concludes with the presentation of a framework to articulate key characteristics and inuences on management development and talent management in the hospitality industry. Keywords Management development, Hospitality services, Tourism Paper type General review

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management Vol. 20 No. 7, 2008 pp. 758-780 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0959-6119 DOI 10.1108/09596110810897592

Introduction The hospitality industry is one of the fastest growing sectors globally. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WWTTC, 2006) estimates that the travel and tourism industry generated jobs represent 8.7 per cent of total employment, growing to 9 per cent of total employment globally by 2016. Managers represent 29 per cent of those employed in the industry, playing a vital role in the development and productivity of the sector (Wilson et al., 2006). However, there are concerns regarding hospitality organisations ability to attract, develop and retain managers, with 61 per cent of UK hospitality employers reporting difculties in recruiting experienced managers (Kent, 2006). Whilst research into issues affecting how managers are developed is apparent, there appears to be less attention given to the more recent concept of talent management in the hospitality industry. Therefore, this article primarily evaluates literature that addresses

management development in the hospitality industry, as this is a major component of talent management. Talent management and management development Doyles (2000) presents management development as being inuenced by organisational and external contexts, including political activities and institutional frameworks. In support of this view, Wexley and Baldwin (1986) argue that management development is multi-faceted, that there is no one-best-way of doing it. Rather it is contingent on managerial roles, individual needs and abilities, and the organisational context. Indeed, many academic studies focusing on management development in practice at an organisational level, highlight the contextual nature of management development (Garavan et al., 1999; Mabey, 2002). Doyle (2004) argues that this perspective allows the inuence of management development on an organisation to be realised with objective measures of its performance. Although this makes it easier to analyse, it may not reect the uid and relational nature of management development in practice. Indeed, recent works on management development portray it as a dynamic, changing concept (Cullen and Turnbull, 2005). In addition the term management development can be interpreted differently, depending on the perspective taken in using it in academic work and practice. For the purpose of this article, the term management development encompasses training, education and learning practices that are intended to assist managers realise their potential, either for personal or organisational benet. In a similar vein the concept of talent management has various meanings both theoretically and in practice (Story, 2007). In its broadest sense it is concerned with . . . identication, development, engagement/retention, and deployment of talent within a specic organisational context (CIPD, 2006, p. 1). Talent management is also presented as a new way of managing succession planning, focusing on fast track career opportunities, implying that it is primarily concerned with high potential employees (CIPD, 2006). However, there are similar capability building concerns expressed in both management development and talent management concepts, centred on both organisation and individual needs. Therefore, talent management can be presented as an integrated business strategy that enables the development of individuals to full their potential. This article reviews literature on external and internal factors that inuence approaches to developing managers in the hospitality industry. This includes works that address external political, economic and social factors inuencing management development, educational approaches and hospitality industry structure and characteristics. Organisational characteristics including the value given to development, culture and human resource (HR) support and approaches. It then draws attention to literature that explores the skills and competencies required by hospitality managers. A third stream of literature explores factors concerning hospitality management careers. The nal theme to emerge addresses literature on development practices in the hospitality industry. While this literature does not explicitly address talent management, the approach taken to developing managers is an integral component of talent management and the ndings from this research impacts on and inuences talent management practices in hospitality. Theme 1: factors inuencing management development in hospitality and tourism Many authors promote management development as being shaped by its internal and external contexts (Doyle, 2004; Stewart, 1999). Doyle (2004) presents this as an open

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system which accommodates both the functional complexities of managerial roles and the diverse needs of individual managers. This work presents a framework of management development within both organisation and wider external contexts. Management development also interacts with organisational and environmental factors, and integrates with other processes and procedures within the organisation. Indeed, many academic studies focusing on MD in practice at an organisational level highlight the contextual nature of MD (Garavan et al., 1999; Mabey, 2002). Therefore, it is important to explore factors that inuence management development in the hospitality industry. Literature which addresses both external and internal inuences on this is discussed below. A summary of this can be located in Table I. A characteristic of the industry that impacts on management development is the diversity of organisational types, their size, ownership and geographical spread, resulting in differing operating systems and a lack of coherency within managerial practices (Slattery, 2002). Consequently, it is difcult to view the industry as a homogenous entity, which can result in a fragmented approach to the development of hospitality managers. Managers need to understand the diversity and complexity of the characteristics of the hospitality industry (Slattery, 2002). In particular the volatile labour market presents challenges to organisations to be able to provide systematic, synchronised management development opportunities. One aspect that inuences the approach taken to developing managers for the industry is the changing prole of graduates and their expectations as discussed by Litteljohn and Watson (2004) and Barron et al. (2007). In addition, although synergy is found in vertical and horizontal ownership, resulting in operators running businesses in more than one sector of the industry, different organisational contexts require different managerial skills. For example, the skills and knowledge required to run a visitor attraction are different to those required to run a chain of fast food restaurants (Watson et al., 2004). Slattery (2002) stresses the importance of corporate contexts and that managers need the ability to manage portfolios at corporate level and an understanding of supply-chain management, as a result of the continued dominance of corporate chains. Jameson and Holden (2000) and Kyriakidou and Gore (2005) discuss the different abilities and attributes required when managing SMEs. The industry is associated with long, unsociable hours and poor working conditions (O Leary and Deegan, 2005). Martin et al. (2006) highlight the poor pay, low skills and lack of career opportunities as characteristics that inuence the attraction, development and retention of managers. Doherty (2004) in exploring diversity management in the hospitality industry reports that female managers are well represented in the industry, but fail to progress from middle management to top management in commensurate numbers due to inexible working practices and the long hours work culture. There is limited literature on culture and values in the hospitality industry that highlight the social, supportive, collegiate environment (Kyriakidou and Gore, 2005) whilst Ingham (2005) draws on similarities with family values, highlighting the social interaction and cooperation that underlies working in hospitality. The management of employees in the hospitality industry is often cited as informal with evidence of organisations failing to adopt good practice models of HRM (McGunnigie and Jameson, 2000). In investigating the relationship between HRM and

Authors Image

Focus

Sub-theme

Characteristics of industry Doherty (2004)

Martin et al. (2006)

Image

Litteljohn and Watson (2004)

External inuences on graduate proles

Jenkins (2001)

Image of the industry

Slattery (2002)

In exploring the effectiveness of work-life balance initiatives in the hospitality industry, this article highlights the long hour work culture as a key barrier to women progressing to top management. It also highlights that SMEs are able to be exible to accommodate work-life balance issues. A key conclusion is the need to humanise the workplace to make it more acceptable for both males and females to lead a more balanced life style The authors explore barriers to recruitment of managers and supervisors in Scottish tourism organizations. It highlights problems associated with status of the industry; low pay and informal management practices that acts as barriers to the recruitment and retention of managers and supervisors. The authors suggest a move from a vocational to a professional education orientation and the development of more diverse delivery approaches to development The authors explore a range of external factors on both content of and participation in higher education inuencing the nature of hospitality and tourism graduates in the UK. The authors argue that these are inuencing the graduate prole and contend that industry needs to focus attention on how these graduates are attracted, recruited and developed The focus of this article is on students perceptions on the hospitality industry as a career destination. The author conducts an international comparative study of undergraduate hospitality students. Students appear to be ambitious but the perceptions and views of the industry as a career choice diminish as they progress their studies This article is a response to academic attempts to dene the concept of hospitality. Slattery highlights the importance of contexts in understanding hospitality in practice and for researching in hospitality. He discusses industry, corporate and venue contexts as having impacts on understanding of hospitality management Industry structure This article draws similarities between hospitality industry and families in drawing Values & culture on the notion of the nuclear family and social interaction and co-operation that occurs in the industry. The author highlights how managers can adopt a development/coaching role similar to a parent and how mutual trust is important

Internal Factors Ingram (2005)

(continued)

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Table I. Factors inuencing management development

762

Authors HRM practices

McGunnigie and Jameson (2000) This article explores the relationship between HRM practices, management of commitment culture and the training and development of committed employees. The authors report a lack of congruence between selection and recruitment practices and committed staff, little attention on soft non-technical managerial skills commensurate with a commitment culture. There is evidence of sophisticated training and development practices Kelliher and Perrett (2001) This article explores the relationship between business strategy and approach to HRM in designer restaurants. The authors report that although there are some attempts to take a strategic approach to HRM, there is a lack of consistency in treatment of staff and lack of coherency across HRM practices Education Alexander (2007) This conceptual article explores the role played by operational training in hospitality education in attempting to meet both industry and educational demands. It raises the dichotomous nature of these demands and the resultant impact on the student learning experience. The author cautions against moving too far away from the traditional operational model but suggests the need to incorporate reective and business skills to raise its academic standing Barron et al. (2007) This article explores characteristics of generation Y undergraduate hospitality management students. The authors call for the industry to understand the expectations of these graduates and attempt to seek ways to make a career in hospitality management attractive Connolly and McGing (2006) This article explores hotel managers attitudes to graduate skills and abilities. It examines the changing context of the hospitality industry and hospitality education content and debates. The ndings indicate that qualications are not seen as essential for a managerial position, but experience is, indicating a preference for a vocational rather than reective orientation Jayawardena (2001) Set within the context of international hospitality education, this conceptual article proposes that education should be industry focused and that students are viewed as products. Using the metaphor of an uncut diamond, the author suggests that students should be exposed to learning processes which balance practice and theory to produce a polished diamond

Table I. Focus Sub-theme HRM practices Operational practice Expectations Vocational qualications Industry focused (continued)

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Authors Expectations

Focus

Sub-theme

Petrova and Mason (2004)

Riley (2005)

Food and beverage

Sigala and Baum (2003)

Learner centered and IT skills

Zopiatis and Constanti (2007)

This article explores the views of tourism students and industry representatives on the importance of an educational qualication in tourism. The article presents a divide between students expectations and industrys understanding of tourism education. The authors report a lack of awareness of tourism industry employment conditions that could lead to disillusionment in the students The author argues that food and beverage is still the bedrock of the hospitality industry and should still be a central core of hospitality management education programmes. However, Riley does highlight a need to encompass aspects of marketing, branding, IT and business process engineering in food and beverage skills This article discusses changes and challenges facing hospitality management education. The authors present the use of technology based education provision as a key enabler to meet these changing needs. However, the authors highlight the need to move to a more learner-centered approach and to enhance the IT literacy and knowledge management skills This article explores the relationships between students, industry and education in the preparation and value of internships in hospitality education in Cyprus. It identies issues around providing a supportive learning environment, realistic preview of demands on students, but mismatch between education inputs and operational practices, which inuence career choice Internships

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employee commitment in UK hotels, McGunnigie and Jameson (2000) report a lack of sophisticated selection and recruitment approaches, but strong training and development systems. They question the extent to which there is genuine support for the rhetoric of HRM and argue for greater synergy between these HRM processes. In a similar vein Nolan (2002) in exploring the SME hotel sector presents the ad hoc informal approach to human resource development as a barrier to management development. Kelliher and Perrett (2001) report improved HRM in designer restaurants, but highlight a lack of internal consistency in the treatment of staff and a lack of congruence in processes. Historically, the approach taken to the education of hospitality management students has been from a contingent vocational philosophy, resulting in an industry-related curriculum, with a period in work-based learning often provided as a component of student education (Alexander, 2007). This focus on vocational needs was heavily inuenced by professional bodies. Educational institutions are being forced to cut costs and seek ways to streamline their operations resulting in less attention being given to sector-specic professional development aspects of the curriculum, such as food and beverage related practical modules (Alexander, 2007; Ladkin, 2000). Riley (2005) draws attention to the importance of food and beverage skill and knowledge in career progression of hotel managers and suggests attention be given to business aspects of food and beverage studies including, branding, process reengineering and IT. There is some concern amongst hospitality academics that changes in educational content and practice are leading to a loss of identity, with hospitality becoming subsumed within general management education, making the curriculum less applicable to industrys needs. The challenge for hospitality educators appears to lie in nding a balance between vocational and reective perspectives, enabling students to develop an understanding of the wider world of action relating to hospitality management, while also developing the skills and knowledge needed to put critical ideas into practice (Alexander, 2007). Morrison and OMahony (2003) also argue that education in the liberal aspects of hospitality studies can contribute to greater depth and understanding of hospitality in new graduates. Sigala and Baum (2003) highlight a lack of use of IT in the delivery of hospitality education. Litteljohn and Watson (2004) explore a range of external factors inuencing the nature of hospitality and tourism graduates in the UK. This includes internationalisation, industry structure and image, competition in higher education and student experience and trends in continuing professional development. The authors argue that these are inuencing the graduate prole, which in turn focuses attention on how they are attracted, recruited and developed within hospitality and tourism organisations. In a study of students expectation and perceptions of the industry, Jenkins (2001) reports that while almost 50 per cent of the respondents were possibly looking for a position in the industry on graduating, their view of the industry as a career choice diminishes as they progress their studies and have greater exposure and understanding of the industry. A similar position is presented by Zopiatis and Constanti (2007) in exploring the value of internships, who contend that there is a mismatch between educational inputs and operational practices which result in graduates not entering the industry. Petrova and Mason (2004) also focus on mismatch of expectations in researching tourism students career intentions, as does Baron et al. (2007).

Theme 2: managerial skills and competencies The competencies and skills of managers impact on the approach to and content of management development. One of the enduring concerns in the literature is research that specically attempts to delineate the range of skills and competencies of hospitality managers (Watson and McCracken, 2002). Much of this work draws attention to the balance between the operational and managerial nature of hospitality management, highlighting the operational, reactive and active nature of hospitality management, presenting it as less systematic and more unpredictable than non-hospitality management (Slattery, 2002; Watson et al., 2004). Brophy and Keily (2002) develop a competency framework for middle level hotel managers by mapping these to the key results areas of customer care, quality and standards, managing staff, achieving protability and growing the business. They highlight the importance of operational activities for middle managers, concurring with the nding of Watson and McCracken (2002) and Watson et al. (2004). One of the characteristics of hospitality management is the centrality of food and beverage skills and knowledge. Ladkin (2000) summarises literature on hospitality managerial skills to illustrate the importance of technical rather than managerial skills. She found that gaining experience in food and beverage is advisable when following a career to hotel general manager. In support of this, Connolly and McGing (2006, p. 54), researching industrys appreciation of graduates in Irish hotels, report a strong preference to hire people with strong practical skills. Ladkin (2000) also reports that there is an increasing emphasis on managerial skills, evidenced by management training and education in generic business skills. Harper et al. (2005), researching hotel general manager careers, highlight a consensus by managers on the need to adopt a business rather than an operational perspective. In addition, Raybould and Wilkins (2005) in summarising the literature on hospitality skills, contend that increased competition and complexity in the industry has reduced the importance of technical and operation skills, in favour of leadership, corporate and strategic skills. This view is supported by Jauhari (2006) who contends that hospitality organisations need to be managed like any other business therefore students and managers need to be developed in business and management competencies and abilities including global exposure, customer service orientation, nancial management, market trends, innovation and commitment to work. In a similar vein Kay and Russette (2000) highlight the importance of leadership skills and an ability to adapt to change in hospitality managers. In exploring the devolvement of HR to line managers, Maxwell and Watson (2006) highlight the growing importance of good people management skills in middle managers. Brotherton and Watson (2001) in researching management development processes in licensed retailing report a shared understanding of the importance of people management skills in middle managers. A number of authors have examined managerial skills and competencies in international contexts. Kriegl (2000) draws attention to the cultural sensitivity, adaptive and exibility and interpersonal skills, while Velo and Mittaz (2006) also add, open mindness, team playing and service attitude skills. DAnnunzio-Greens (2002) research argues that developing trust, building relationships, exibility and resilience were among the key competencies and behaviours required of international hotel managers. She suggests a range of coping strategies that managers draw on when working in a culturally diverse environment (Table II).

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Managerial competencies Brophy and Keily (2002)

Brotherton and Watson (2001)

Jauhari (2006)

Kay and Russette (2000)

Maxwell and Watson (2006)

Table II. Managerial skills and competencies Focus Sub-theme Management competencies Managerial skills Business and management skills Management competencies The authors use a generic competencies framework to evaluate general and middle managers views on importance of competencies, their relationship to key results areas and time spent on activities. The article reports that general managers and middle managers perceive customer care, quality standards and managing staff as being similar with respect to level of importance and time spent on activities. The authors surmise that middle managers require to move from an operational focus to a more strategic orientation in their activities This publication focuses on the differences between the views of senior managers and middle managers regarding the nature and importance of the managerial skills required by managers in a large licensed retail organization. There is general harmony regarding the nature of the skills required by Licensed Hospitality Managers, with people-oriented skills, seen by both senior and middle managers as being important in achieving business success This article explores the characteristics of hospitality education in India and the competencies required hospitality managers. The article is informed by data from interviews with hospitality managers and educationalists. It laments the focus on operational issues in undergraduate degrees and calls for greater attention to be given to business and management skills. The author suggests greater collaboration between education and industry to enhance the development of appropriate business skills This article addresses transferable competencies required by successful hospitality managers. Competencies that fall under the leadership domain represented the majority of essential skills. Leadership and interpersonal skills were rated as essential to more than one functional area and management level. Technical knowledge of product-service and adapting creatively to change were seen as essential for all managers across the board The authors explore how the devolvement of human resource management activities is impacting on hospitality management skills. This case study research reports that managers are willing and committed to undertaking these activities, but have problems with balancing these with the operational immediate nature of much of their work HR skills (continued)

Authors This article presents the ndings of an exploratory stage of research, to examine the range and importance of current and future managerial competence and skills in the Scottish visitor attraction sector Key informants emphasise skills that are aligned to strategic activities, technology and managing human resources. However, visitor attraction managers appear to be preoccupied by immediate and operational issues, although people management skills were also high on their agenda. There appeared to be little evidence of the importance of strategic thinking as a managerial competence. Considering these ndings, there seems to be a gap between the perceptions of industry leaders and academic commentators and those of the managers who actually run visitor attractions Education and operational skills HR skills Managerial skills

Focus

Sub-theme

Watson and McCracken (2002)

Operational skills Ladkin (2000)

Maxwell and Watson (2006)

Raybould and Wilkins (2005)

This article explores the importance of vocational education and food & beverage experience in hotel managers career paths in the UK. The article reports that vocational education is important. The author also reports that food & beverage is an important route in becoming a general manager The authors explore how the devolvement of human resource management activities is impacting on hospitality management skills. This case study research reports that managers are willing and committed to undertaking these activities, but have problems with balancing these with the operational immediate nature of much of their work Set within the changing context of the hospitality industry, this Australian based research compares the responses of managers and hospitality students, on the importance of skills descriptors. The article draws attention to the disquiet between graduates conceptual analytical skills and industry practice of focusing on operational experience as part of graduate development, causing frustration and loss of expertise from the industry

Generic skills

(continued)

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Table II.

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Authors

International competencies Kriegl (2000)

DAnnunzio-Green (2002)

Velo and Mittaz (2006)

Table II. Focus Sub-theme International management competencies International skills/competencies The focus of this article is on exploring expatriate managers views on the skills and attributes required by hospitality managers working in international hospitality operations. The article reports that cultural sensitivity, interpersonal skills, managerial exibility, adaptive leadership and international motivation are rated as being important skills This article draws on in depth interviews with expatriate hotel managers working in Russia. It uncovers a range of skills/competencies and coping strategies that these managers drew on. While a number of similar issues were identied by managers, the article warns against generalising and stresses the impact that company culture and context can have on management experiences The authors examine barriers to overcome by international hotel chains expanding internationally in emerging markets. The authors conclude that success depends on different local competitive environments, the corporate vision and strategies used in the destinations. In addition qualities required by all property managers are open-mindness; cultural awareness; planning and adaptation capacities; managerial skills; quick capacity of reaction when facing new problems; service attitude; and team playing skills International skills

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Theme 3: hospitality management careers The importance of understanding how careers in hospitality management are developed is an integral component of both management development and talent management. Therefore, this section explores recent research into various aspects of career management, including career advancement, inuence of education and barriers to progression. In exploring individual and organisational characteristics inuencing career progression Garavan et al.(2006, p. 264) report career advancement is predicated on a combination of demographic, human capital, psychological-variables and to a lesser extent organisation-level variables. They highlight factors associated with investment in training and education, mentoring, networking, experience and competencies, and individual commitment to advancement as being important in enhancing careers. In addition, organisational support for development and career systems were also seen as playing a signicant role in career advancement. Akrivos et al. (2007) in their work on Greek general managers, report a use of a range of career advancement strategies, but key emphasis is on the use of interpersonal relationships, an ability to seek out opportunities, a willingness to be mobile and diversity in work experiences. In addition Ladkin and Juwaheer (2000) in exploring career paths of hotel general managers in Mauritius found career mobility to be important, but also highlight international experience and possession of an international qualication, whilst Ladkin (2002) also found ambition to have an inuence on career paths. Ladkins (2000) work on hospitality graduates reports that positions as rst-line managers or supervisors are taken by graduates who then feel the need to seek opportunities to broaden their experiential learning either within or out with the organisation. She reports that there is a mismatch in expectations which can inuence turnover. This mismatch is also reported in the SME sector by Jameson and Holden (2000) who indicate that graduate skills are being under utilised. Their ndings highlight the failure of most SMEs to recognise the knowledge and understanding that hospitality graduates can bring to the industry. The issue of graduate skills is further explored by Harper et al. (2005) who indicate that there is a reduction of emphasis on food & beverage experience in hotel managers careers, but that managers with qualications achieve general management positions more quickly than those without qualications. However, other authors report that food and beverage management, front ofce and housekeeping experience are still important in career progression (Garavan et al., 2006; Ladkin, 2002; Ladkin and Juwaheer, 2000). OLeary and Deegan (2005) highlight barriers to career progression including long unsociable hours, poor pay, and the physical and stressful nature of the work. The authors report high management turnover, with female graduates more likely to drop out due to work-life balance issues. In examining barriers to female manager advancement in Egypt, Kattara (2005) additionally forwards gender discrimination, lack of mentor support and network access as contributing factors (Table III). Theme 4: hospitality management development practices Historically, management development practices in the hospitality industry have been ad hoc and piecemeal, with development being typically seen as something that only occurs early on in a managers career (Baum, 2006; Watson, 2006). The recent research into management development practice is focusing on aspects around managerial learning, development initiatives and collaboration between education and industry.

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Akrivos et al. (2007)

Garavan et al. (2006)

Harper et al. (2005)

Jameson and Holden (2000)

Kattara (2005)

Ladkin (2002)

Table III. Hospitality career management Focus Sub-theme Career strategies Networking, mentoring and organisational support Qualications SME Career barriers Career strategies for Greek general managers. It reports the ndings of a survey of GMs in luxury hotels on 33 career strategies. The most commonly used are in relation to career opportunities, skills, mobility, interpersonal relations and handling diverse situations. The least commonly used ones relate to family contacts, job search techniques and pay In exploring career advancement of three groups of graduates (Irish, European and Asian) from Irish and Swiss hotel schools. The authors report that food and beverage management, front ofce and housekeeping experience was important. Factors associated with investment in training and education since graduating, mentoring, networking, experience and competencies, individual commitment to advancement are seen to be important. Organisational support for development and career system are also seen as playing a signicant role in career advancement This article examines the role of formal qualications in the career development of hotel managers in Scotland. It explores views on experiences and trajectories of general managers. The authors report that managers with formal qualications achieve general management more quickly than those with no qualications. In addition, the managers indicate that a need for a business perspective is reducing the importance of food and beverage positions in hotel management careers This article explores the relationship between graduates and managers in SME hospitality businesses. It compares the views of both graduates and managers and reports that being a graduate is not perceived to be signicant to employers and has little impact on selection or deployment. The authors highlight the under utilisation of graduate skills as a result of this approach This article explores barriers to career advancement for female managers in the Egyptian hotel industry. Using surveys and in depth interviews with managers in ve star hotels, the author identies potential challenges for female managers as gender discrimination, relationships at work, mentor support and lack of network access In exploring hotel general managers careers in Australia, she identies career length, vocational qualication, career mobility and ambition as useful indicators of career patterns. In particular she highlights the food and beverage career route and the importance of a vocational qualication on career paths to general management Food and beverage and qualications (continued)

Authors

Focus

Sub-theme Food and beverage experience

Ladkin and Juwaheer (2000)

OLeary and Deegan (2005)

The authors explore the career paths of hotel general managers in Mauritius. They identify that managers have a self directed approach to career development. They highlight the importance of possessing an international vocational qualication, and international experience as being pertinent. In addition the preferred route to general management is food and beverage, but that mangers also possess a high level of career mobility This article explores career progression of graduates from Irish hospitality and tourism education programmes. The authors report ndings from a longitudinal survey approach that highlight high industry drop out rates. In addition industry characteristics of long, unsociable hours, poor remuneration, physical and stressful nature of the work and lack of opportunities are seen as barriers to career progression in the industry. In particular females were more likely to drop out of the industry due to work-life balance issues

Industry characteristics

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Table III.

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In exploring management development in practice, Brotherton and Watson (2000) highlight the importance of linking these into business goals and ensuring a shared understanding of development priorities. Cox (2003) contends that information technology can be effective in linking people, knowledge and strategy in building leadership competencies. Some mention of the use of assessment centres and performance appraisal as formal means of identifying development needs can be found (Brownell, 2005). In addition Brownell and Chung (2001) examine the use of a competency based leadership development approach to improve individual and organisational performance for global managers Adams and Wallace (2002) explore how the evaluation of MD is used to demonstrate its value to the individual manager and the organisation, through the analysis of both hard and soft benets of MD delivered via a virtual university, highlighting the importance of locating learning in the work place. Hudspith and Ingram (2002) highlight the importance of evaluation of workplace learning at regular intervals during and after learning. The focus on management learning and experiential learning is evident in the work of Magnini and Honeycutt (2003),Teare and OHern (2000), Teare and Neil (2002) and Winch and Ingram (2002). Magnini and Honeycutt (2003) highlight the importance of managers being able to learn from the environment. Teare and colleagues evaluate the use of technology and action learning using collaborative education-industry initiatives to enhance the development of managers. They argue that these individual oriented learning approaches are easily accessible, encourage lifelong learning and improved career planning. Winch and Ingram (2002) in exploring action learning as a development approach discuss the signicance of level of maturity on learning. In focusing attention on education and industry collaboration, Best et al. (2007) report benets from an initiative within one hospitality retail organisation. Co-operative ventures between education providers and industry and the use of the concept of a corporate university as the umbrella for delivery of hospitality education programmes are evidenced throughout the industry (Adams and Wallace, 2002; Teare and OHern, 2000). In a similar vein, Sigala and Baum (2003) highlight the importance of strategic alliances in delivering quality education, while other authors cited in the previous section also call for greater industry education collaboration (Jauhari, 2006; Raybould and Wilkins, 2005; Table IV). Discussion and conclusion In relation to talent management, understanding the inuences and approaches to the development of managers is important. What emerges from this analysis of recent research into this aspect of talent management is that the development of managers is a complex issue. Firstly it cannot be seen as an isolated process as it is inuenced by external and internal factors. Therefore, examining hospitality industry characteristics and structures provides some insights into factors inuencing the selection of the industry as a career choice and the obstacles that organisations need to address to attract, retain and develop talented managers. Secondly, approaches to developing managers are linked to other HR systems and are inuenced by the organisational values and priority given to development. Thirdly, there is some discussion that focuses on career management within hospitality. Some authors draw attention to the role that individuals play in taking responsibility for their development while others

Authors Virtual Learning

Focus

Sub-theme

Adams and Wallace (2002)

Best et al. (2007)

Partnership development

Brotherton and Watson (2000)

Management development-processes

Brownell (2005)

Leadership development Competency-based development

Brownell and Chung (2001)

Cox (2003)

This article evaluates the effectiveness of a virtual learning environment on managerial learning in a case organisation. The authors evaluate the use of blended learning initiatives, encompassing hard and soft dimensions. The article concludes that the virtual university has been successful in both nancial and performance terms, but that workplace is the most signicant place for learning This article reviews the effectiveness of a collaborative education-industry advanced diploma. This leisure retail qualication enables participants to gain an academic qualication through part-time study and work-based learning. The participants all rate their learning as effective. In addition each of the managers retail outlets reported increased sales, protability, customer and staff satisfaction The article explores management development in practice through examining the shared understanding of the relationship between management development and the goals of an organisation. This case based research examines the link between organisational critical success factors, managerial skills/competences and their performance measures. The analysis highlights the importance of shared views, between top and line managers, on the purpose, scope and priority given to management development This theoretical article examines the use of assessment centres to evaluate and predict leadership competencies. The article forwards assessment centres as an integral component in the preparation and development of leadership that meets organisational goals This article explores the use of competency based development in post-graduate education programme, in the USA. The authors report greater satisfaction by learners, and greater opportunities to provide individualised coaching and enhancement of life long learning. The authors propose competency based development as a means to ensuring a diverse range of learners meet minimum levels of learning that can enhance their performance in the industry This article proposes that an electronically driven action learning based MBA can be effective in developing leadership skills. The article explains how IT can enhance the development of effective leadership, through exposing managers to communities of learning and aligning e-learning to the vision mission and values Electronic delivery

(continued)

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Table IV. Management Development Practices

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Authors

Hudspith and Ingram (2002)

Magnini and Honeycutt (2003)

Teare and OHern (2000)

Teare and Neil (2002)

Winch and Ingram (2002)

Table IV. Focus Sub-theme Action learning Learning orientations Workplace learning Workplace learning This case study explores the use of action learning in management development in a corporate business school. It explores the views of both learners and delivery team. It highlights the need to focus attention on the planning, delivery and evaluation stages of learning to improve effectiveness This article explores the importance of expatriate managers being able to continuously learn from their experiences and highlights the importance of measuring managers learning orientations in the selection process. The development of a high learning orientation is presented as being important for adaptability and success in expatriate managers This article examines the approach taken by Marriott International to develop service leaders through work-based action learning. It explores the use of educational partners to support and credit work based learning and assures appropriate support and curriculum. This approach is seen to support lifelong learning and accessibility for learners This article examines how one case organisation uses action learning and e- enabled learning to develop managers within the framework of a corporate university. It examines potential individual and organisational benets through accreditation of experiential learning. The authors examine how this can help develop future potential and can link into career development for individual managers This article examines action learning in a leadership development context that puts the learner at the centre of the process. The authors link this individual centred approach to organisational learning, with benets for both manager and business. The authors highlight the need to attract and retain talent and that a person centred approach enables individual managers to reconcile their needs without feeling constrained by the organisation Action learning

focus attention on the organisations role in developing managers. Finally, there is current research which focuses on managerial learning and the role of education and technology in enhancing work based learning. In this article the four key themes of inuences, managerial skills, career advancement and development practices are presented as distinct sub themes, however what is apparent is that research in these elds have identied a number of common key inuences on and characteristics of how hospitality managers are developed. These can be seen in Figure 1 which presents these within a framework to help understand how these impact on management development and talent management. Conclusion In conclusion, this article presents an overview of research examining issues on how managers are developed in the hospitality industry. It presents these literatures as being integral to understanding this important aspect of talent management. The following points highlight the key concerns for industry and organisations to consider in addressing talent management: (1) Management development is an integral, but complex component of talent management that requires to be linked to other HR practices. (2) Management development is inuenced by external internal and individual factors and should not be addressed in isolation. (3) Examining how managers are developed can provide an understanding of key issues to address in attempting to attract, retain and develop managers. (4) Key industry issues to be considered to enhance talent management are: . Image and working conditions of the industry. . Changing nature of hospitality education and its impact on development practices.

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Figure 1. Management development issues inuencing talent management

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Student expectations. Career limitations in the SME sector. (5) Internal organisational issues that support managers development include: . Other HR systems. . Value and priority given to management development. . Accessibility and relevance of learning opportunities. . Skills and competence development for career advancement. (6) Individual characteristics: . Mobility and motivation of managers. . Interpersonal and networking abilities. . Qualication prole. . Experience portfolio.
. .

On a nal note there are two issues, which have been expressed by a number of authors, which are presented as challenges that require to be overcome in efforts to attract, retain and develop talented managers. The rst is the need to align student and industrys expectations with respect to the recognition of skills and career opportunities. In essence this may involve strategic partnerships between education and industry to research and deliver development opportunities to match both student and organisational needs. At a holistic level, tourism development and training organisations like Scottish Tourism Forum and the Sector Skills Council could commission research into expectations and publish good practice of linking expectations to career opportunities. In addition SMEs can form either geographical or sector collaborative networks to enable greater career opportunities for individuals. The second challenge is the call for industry and education to work in more collaborative ways to enhance the industrys ability to manage talent. Whilst this requires senior management support, there are opportunities to ensure that development is relevant and valued by both organisation and individuals, through greater use of experiential learning. However, these development opportunities also need to be linked to other HR systems and take cognizance of external factors inuencing the attraction retention and development of individuals. Examples of good practice that enable development of existing talent should be published, in order that organisations can learn from each other.
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Further reading Deery, M. and Jago, L. (2001), Hotel management style: a study of employee perceptions and preferences, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 20, pp. 325-38. Corresponding author Sandra Watson can be contacted at: s.watson@napier.ac.uk

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