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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB - II LABORATORY MANUAL

(III YEAR B.E. EEE)

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING INDRA GANESAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, TRICHY 620012

INDRA GANESAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, TRICHY 620012

OBSERVATION NOTE BOOK


Reg. No.

Certified .

that

this

is

the

work

done

by

Selvan

Selvi

... of the fifth semester Electrical & Electronics 2012 in the Electrical Machines -II

Engineering branch during the year 2011 Laboratory.

Staff in charge

HoD

INSTRUCTION TO THE STUDENTS The students must read the instructions carefully and follow the same throughout the semester. 1. Students have to go to respective lab classes according to the lab time table. 2. They have to wear the shoes and the prescribed uniform. 3. They have to know about the procedure of the experiment before start doing the Experiment. It will be checked by the staff members. 4. After the Circuit correction in the observation note book and viva voce, they have to get the indent slip from stores and get the required apparatus. 5. They have to give the circuit connections by involving themselves in their batch. 6. They have to take readings in proper manner without any error and get verified from the staff. 7. They have to get signature in result within two days after completion of the experiment. 8. They have to submit their completed previous experiment record at the time of entering the laboratory and they should enter the mark in the log book with the lab in-charge. 9. After completing the experiment, they have to return all the apparatus to the stores and get back the indent slip. 10. Strict discipline is solicited inside the laboratory.

CONTENTS S.No Date Experiment Page No. Marks Sign with Date

CONTENTS S.No Date Experiment Page No. Marks Sign with Date

SYLLABUS ELECTRICAL MACHINES - II LABORATORY LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Regulation of three-phase alternator by EMF, MMF and ZPF methods. 2. Load test on three-phase alternator. 3. Regulation of three-phase salient pole alternator by slip test. 4. V and Inverted V curves of Three Phase Synchronous Motor. 5. Load test on three-phase squirrel cage induction motor. 6. Load test on three-phase slip ring induction motor. 7. No load and blocked rotor test on three-phase induction motor. 8. Separation of No-load losses of three-phase induction motor. 9. Loss summation method on three-phase induction motor. 10. Load test on single-phase induction motor 11. Determination of Equivalent circuit of single -phase induction motor 12. Speed control of three phase induction motor by V/f method

Exp. No:

Date: REGULATION OF THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY EMF METHOD

AIM: To predetermine the voltage regulation of a three phase non-salient pole alternator by EMF method. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 Apparatus Name Voltmeter Range (0-600)V (0-30)V (0-2)A (0-10)A 300 /1.2 A Type MI MC MC MI Variable Digital Quantity 1 1 1 1 3 1

2 3 4

Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. 4. Keep the prime-mover filed rheostat at minimum resistance position and alternator field rheostat at maximum resistance position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE: Open Circuit Test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. Field rheostat of motor is kept at its minimum position at the time of starting. DPST Switch is closed. The motor is started by means of starter. The motor is set to run at rated speed of the alternator by varying the field rheostat of the motor. The residual emf of the alternator is noted for the zero field current of the alternator. Field rheostat of the alternator is gradually varied and the corresponding induced emf and the field current is noted between 0 to 120 % of rated voltage. Then the field rheostat of the alternator is brought back to its original position. i.e., the induced emf is brought back to almost zero voltage. Open circuit characteristic is drawn for the above values i.e., between Eg per phase and If .

TABULATION OPEN CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS S.No. Field current (If) in Amps Line voltage (Vl) in Volts Phase voltage (Vph) in Volts

SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS S.No. Field current (If) in Amps Short circuit current (Isc) in Amps

MODEL GRAPH OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS:

Armature current , (Ia) Amps

Generated voltage Vph , Volts

Vph rated Isc OCC SCC

Field current (If) Amps

Short Circuit Test 1. In short circuit test alternator output terminals short circuited as per circuit diagram. 2. For Short circuit test TPST switch is closed. 3. Field rheostat of the alternator is varied slowly up to the rated current (short circuit current) of the alternator. 4. The corresponding field current is tabulated. 5. Short circuit characteristic is drawn for the noted values i.e., between Isc and If . Synchronous impedance =

V ph rated I sc

for the same field current.

6. Various power factors are assumed and the phasor diagrams are drawn for both lagging and leading power factors. The voltage induced is obtained from the phasor diagrams and the voltage regulation corresponding to the power factors are calculated using the formulae. 7. Regulation characteristics i.e., power factor Vs voltage regulation are drawn for the various load currents. FORMULAE USED i. Synchronous impedance = Zs =

Where, Voc = Rated Open circuit voltage for face, (V) Isc = Short circuit current, (A) at a Field current corresponding to the rated Voltage ii. Synchronous reactance (Xs) Xs =

2 s

 Rac

Where, R ac = R a (dc) X (1.6) iii. % voltage regulation = {(E g -VT) / VT } X 100

ph rated

I sc

for the same field current.

COMPUTATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (R a ):

TABULATION TO FIND R a Voltage drop across the armature (Va) in volts Armature Current (Ia ) in Amps Armature Resistance (Ra = Va / Ia) in ohm

S.No.

Mean R a

MODEL PHASOR DIAGRAM (i) Lagging current

Eg VT IaRa IaXs

Ia

 

REGULA


R t S.No.

(ii)

di

curr

volt Gener ted Volt Lag eE % Volt e Regulation Lag Lead

Si

: Ia Eg IaXs IaRa VT

Cos

Lead

ARA

ERIS ICS

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is meant by voltage regulation? What is meant by Synchronous Impedance? What is OC test ? What is SC test? What is meant by mmf or field ampere turns?

RESULT:

Exp. No:

Date: REGULATION OF ALTERNATOR BY MMF METHOD

AIM: To predetermine the voltage regulation of a three phase non-salient pole alternator by MMF method. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Apparatus Name Voltmeter Voltmeter Ammeter Ammeter Rheostat Tachometer Range (0-600)V (0-30)V (0-2)A (0-10)A 220 /1.2 A Type MI MC MC MI Variable Digital Quantity 1 1 1 1 3 1

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. 4. Keep the prime-mover filed rheostat at minimum resistance position and alternator field rheostat at maximum resistance position at the time of starting. FORMULA: % Voltage Regulation = {(E g -Vt ) / Vt } X 100 PROCEDURE: 1. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Field rheostat of motor is kept at its minimum position at the time of starting. 3. DPST Switch is closed. The motor is started by means of starter. 4. The motor is set to run at rated speed by varying the field rheostat of the motor. 5. The residual emf of the alternator is noted for the field current of zero value. 6. Field rheostat of the alternator is varied and the corresponding emf induced and the field currents are noted. 7. Step 6 is repeated till the emf reaches 25% more than rated voltage.

8. Open circuit characteristics are drawn for the above values i.e., between Eg per phase and If Then the field rheostat of the alternator is brought back to its original position. i.e., the induced emf is brought back to minimum voltage. 9. For Short circuit test TPST switch is closed. 10. Field rheostat of the alternator is varied and the rated current (short circuit current) is made to flow. 11. The corresponding field current is noted. 12. Short circuit characteristic is drawn for the noted values i.e., Between Isc and If . For various power factors the voltage regulations are calculated and voltage regulation characteristic is drawn. . COMPUTATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (R A):

TABULATION TO FIND R a: Voltage drop across the Armature (Va) in volts Armature Resistance (Ra = Va / Ia) in ohm

S.No.

Armature Current (Ia) in Amps

Mean R a

TABULATION: (ii) Open Circuit Characteristics: S.No. Field current (If) in Amps Generated line voltage Vl (volts) Generated per phase voltage Vph (volts)

(iii) Short Circuit Characteristics: S.No. Field Current (If) in Amps Short Circuit Current (Isc) in Amps

MODEL GRAPH : OPEN CIRCUIT AND SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTICS

Generated voltage Eg/J, Volts

OCC SCC

Field current (If) Amps

MODEL PHASOR DIAGRAM: 1. Draw rated voltage (Vt) per phase as reference vector and then draw Ia with an angle of + (+ for lagging power factor and as Et. 3. From OCC curve, find I f1 for the corresponding value of E t and draw If1 normal to Et. 4. From SC curve find I f2 for the value of I a and draw If2 in phase opposition to Ia. 5. Add the current vectors If1 and If2, get the resultant field current vectors If. 6. From OCC curve find E g for the value of I f and draw Eg normal to If. (i) Lagging power factor for leading power factor). 2. Draw a line IaRa, parallel to Ia, then join point O and the end point of I aR a and it is known

If

If1 If2

If1 Field current corresponding to Et If2 Field current corresponding to Ia If Resultant field current of If1 and If2 Eg Generated voltage per phase corresponding to field current If Eg Vt

O Et

IaRa

Ia

If1

If Eg Ia Et IaRa Vt If

Rated current =

A Induced voltage per phase Eg volts Lagging Leading

S.No.

Power Factor

REGULA ION CHARACTERISTICS

Leadi

  

(ii)

er ac r

 

Rated voltage per phase = % Voltage Regulation Lagging Leading

MODEL CALCULATIONS

RESULT:

EXP.NO.

DATE:

REGULATION OF 3-PHASE ALTERNATOR BY POTIER TRIANGULAR METHOD AIM: To predetermine the regulation of three phase alternator by ZPF method and draw the vector diagrams.

APPARATURS REQUIRED:
S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name of the Apparatus Ammeter Ammeter Voltmeter Voltmeter Rheostat Rheostat Tachometer TPST knife switch Type MC MI MC MI Wire wound Wire wound Digital -Range 0 1/2 A 0 5/10 A 0 10 V 0 600 V 250 , 1.5 A 1200 , 0.8 A ---Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

FORMULAE USED:



PRECAUTIONS: (i) All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. (ii) Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. (iii) Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. (iv) Keep the prime-mover filed rheostat at minimum resistance position and alternator field rheostat at maximum resistance position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE POTIER TRIANGLE (ZPF METHOD): (All the quantities are in per phase value) 1. Draw the Open Circuit Characteristics (Generated Voltage per phase VS Field Current) 2. Mark the point A at X-axis, which is obtained from short circuit test with full load armature current. 3. From the ZPF test, mark the point B for the field current to the corresponding rated armature current and the rated voltage. 4. Draw the ZPF curve which passing through the point A and B in such a way parallel to the open circuit characteristics curve. 5. Draw the tangent for the OCC curve from the origin (i.e.) air gap line. 6. Draw the line BC from B towards Y-axis, which is parallel and equal to OA. 7. Draw the parallel line for the tangent from C to the OCC curve.

8. Join the points B and D also drop the perpendicular line DE to BC, where the line DE represents armature leakage reactance drop (IXL) BE represents armature reaction excitation (Ifa). PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM (ZPF METHOD) 1. Select the suitable voltage and current scale. 2. For the corresponding power angle ( Lag, Lead, Unity) draw the voltage vector and current vector OB. 3. Draw the vector AC with the magnitude of IRa drop, which should be parallel to the vector OB. 4. Draw the perpendicular CD to AC from the point C with the mag nitude of IX L drop. 5. Join the points O and D, which will be equal to the air gap voltage (Eair). 6. Find out the field current (Ifc) for the corresponding air gap voltage (Eair) from the OCC curve. 7. Draw the vector OF with the magnitude of I fc which should be perpendicular to the vector OD. 8. Draw the vector FG from F with the magnitude Ifa in such a way it is parallel to the current vector OB. 9. Join the points O and G, which will be equal to the field excitation current (If). 10. Draw the perpendicular line to the vector OG from the point O and extend CD in such a manner to intersect the perpendicular line at the point H. 11. Find out the open circuit voltage (Eo) for the corresponding field excitation current (If) from the OCC curve. 12. Find out the regulation from the suit able formula.

OPEN CIRCUIT TEST: Field Current(If ) in amps Open circuit line Voltage (vol) in volts Open circuit phase voltage (voph)in volts

S.No.

SHORT CIRCUIT AND ZPF TEST:


Short Circuit Test S.No Field current(I f) in Amps Rated Armature Current (Ia) in Amps Field current (If) in Amps Rated Armature Current (Ia) Amps Rated Armature Voltage (Va) in Volts ZPF Test W1 in Watts Act. = (Obs. X MF) W2 in Watts Act. = (Obs. X MF) Total Power in Watts (W1+W2)

MF

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant by ZPF Test? 2. What is Poitier reactance? How is it determined by Poitier triangle? 3. What is meant by armature reaction reactance? 4. What is the significance of the ASA modification of MMF method? 5. What is air gap line in Poitier method?

RESULT:

Exp. No: LOAD TEST ON THREE-PHASE ALTERNATOR AIM:

Date:

To conduct a load test on three phase alternator and to draw the following characteristics a) voltage regulation curve b) output Vs efficiency curve APPARATUS REQUIRED: Serial No. 1. 2. Name of the apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Range (0-600V) (0-250V) (0-50A) (0-2A) (0-10A) 3. 4. 5. Rheostat Tachometer Three phase Loading Unit 220 /1.2A 5KW Type MI MC MC MC MI Variable Digital Resistive Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. 4. Keep the prime-mover filed rheostat at minimum resistance position and alternator field rheostat at maximum resistance position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The connections are made as per the circuit diagram and the DPST is closed. Start the motor with the help of three point starter. By adjusting the field rheostat of motor, run the alternator at synchronous speed. The alternator field rheostat resistance is adjusted and set the voltmeter reading to rated voltage of the alternator. At no load take the readings of voltmeter, ammeter. Now, close the TPST switch and apply the load. Look for any change in the speed and voltage if so brings back to the previous values. Now take the corresponding reading of ammeter. Now open TPST switch and note down the alternator side voltage reading as Eg and immediately the TPST is closed. Repeat the above procedure until the machine is loaded up to 120% of rated current.

TABULATION:
MOTOR Input Current (Im) in Amps Input power (Wmi) in Watts Output power (Wmo) in Watts Output Load power current = IA in 3VLIL Amps Cos in watts Field winding voltage (Vf) in Volts ALTERNATOR Field winding current (If) in Amps Field Input to winding the input alternator (VLIL) in watts In Watts

S.No

Input voltage (Vm) in Volts

Load voltage (VA) in Volts

% Efficiency

% Voltage regulation (Eg-Vr)/Vr *100

FORMULA USED: Motor Input Power = Vm Im Motor Output Power =


m V m Im

[Assume motor efficiency]

Input to the Field Winding = V f If Alternator Input Power = Motor Output Power + Input to the Field Winding Alternator Output Power = 3V LILCos [Where Cos % of Alternator Efficiency (
A)

= 1]

= (Output Power/ Input Power)X100

% Voltage Regulation = [(E g1-Vr) / Vr]X100 % MODEL CALCULATION:

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What is meant by direct axis reactance? 2. What is meant by quadrature axis reactance? 3. How the regulation of alternator is predetermined? 4. What is the difference between salient pole alternator and cylindrical rotor type alternator? 5. What is the purpose of damper winding?

RESULT:

Exp. No:

Date:

REGULATION OF THREE-PHASE SALIENT POLE ALTERNATOR BY SLIP TEST AIM: To predetermine the voltage regulation of the given three-phase alternator by slip test. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Apparatus Name

S.No.

Range (0-600) V

Type MI MI MC MC MI Variable

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1

Voltmeter

(0-100) V (0-30) V

2 3

Ammeter Rheostat

(0-10) A (0-10) A 220 / 2.2 A

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE: 1. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. After closing the DPST switch, the motor is started by using three point starters. 3. Now the alternator is made to run at a speed slightly less than synchronous speed using field rheostat of the motor. 4. By using the three phase auto transformer, a low voltage is applied across the stator of the alternator. Suppose, if the voltmeter across the field winding, reads some value, then change the direction of rotation of the alternator or if the same voltmeter reads zero, then the speed of the alternator and voltage applied are slightly adjusted in such a manner that the pointer in the voltmeter and ammeter of the alternator oscillates with maximum and minimum amplitude. 5. The maximum and minimum values of the readings of both the meters are noted.

TABULATION

Minimum Voltage in Volts

Maximum voltage in Volts

Minimum current in Amps

Maximum current in Amps

Xsd in
;

Xsq in ;

Xsd /X sq

Ia =

Amps

Sl.No.

Power factor

Eo in Volts Lagging Leading

% Regulation Lagging Leading

Ia =

Amps

Sl.No.

Power factor

Eo in Volts Lagging Leading

% Regulation Lagging Leading

MODEL CALCULATION Maximum voltage/ph. = V max / 3 Minimum voltage/ph. = V min / 3 Synchronous reactance of direct axis Xsd = (Max. voltage/Ph.) / (Min.current/ph.) Synchronous reactance of quatrature axis Xsq = (min. voltage/ph) / (max.current/ph.) % Regulation = (E 0 Vph.) / Vph. X 100

TABULATION TO FIND Ra:

Mean Ra Average value of Ra = --------- ; Ra.c = Rd.c * 1.1 = ------- ; REGULATION CHARACTERISTICS:

S.No.

Vol age drop across the Ar ature (Va) i Volts

Ar ature Current (Ia) in A ps

!
Ar ature Resistance (Ra = Va / Ia) in ohm

COMPUTATION OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE (RA )

$ #

"

PROCEDURE TO DRAW THE VECTOR DIAGRAM

 Assume rated voltage V per phase as the reference vector and mark the endpoint as a .  Draw a line la lags the voltage V by an angle * .  From point a draw a drop l aRa in parallel with la and mark it as point b .  From point b draw a drop l aXq in quadrature with la and mark it as point c  Join the points o & c .  The angle between oc & V is H and the angle between oc & l a is U .  Draw the currents Iq & I d where Iq & I d are quadrature & direct components of Ia
where Iq =la cosU, Id = la sinU

 From point b draw a line I dXd in quadrature with Id and mark it as point d . From point d draw a line IqXq in quadrature with Iq and mark it as point e .  Join the points o and e it will give the value of the ge nerated voltage E o per phase

VECTOR DIAGRAM FOR 0.8 PF LAGGING

c Eo Iq o Id Ia VP a IaRa b Ia Xq

d IdX

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is the purpose of slip test on 3 phase alternator? 2. Define Slip 3. How is the regulation of alternator predetermined by slip test? 4. What is the purpose of damper winding?

RESULT

Exp. No:

Date:

V AND INVERTED V CURVES OF THREE PHASE SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR AIM: To draw V and inverted V curves of a given three phase synchronous machine. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. Apparatus Name Range (0 300 V) (0 600 V) (0 2A) 2. Ammeter (0 20A) (0 10A) 3. 4. 5. 6. Rheostat 50;/4.9A 360 ; / 1.1A Watt meter Power Factor meter Synchronizing switch 300V/10A 600V/10A Type MC MI MC MC MI Variable Variable UPF Analog Manual Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1

1.

Voltmeter

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE 1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. 2. DPST switch is closed and DPDT switch is thrown to position 1.

3. Now the armature rheostat of the motor is brought to its minimum resistance position. At this instant the SPST switch is closed.

4. The field rheostat resistance of the motor is adjusted so that the motor runs at nearly to its synchronous speed. 5. The supply voltage on the alternator side is measured. 6. By varying the filed rheostat resistance of the alternator the generated voltage is made equal to the supply voltage of the three phase side. 7. Now the TPST switch is closed and the lamp flickers. By adjusting the filed rheostat of the motor, bring the frequency of the flickering to very minimum. During the dark period, the synchronous switch is closed. Now the synchronous machine is synchronized with the main supply. 8. Now the DPDT switch is opened. 9. By varying the field rheostat resistance of the alternator, find the point where the field current is low and armature current in approximately 110% of the full load current. Note down all the meter readings. 10. Gradually move the rheostat resistance position such that, the field current increases and the alternator armature current decreases. Note down the readings for various armature currents. At one stage, the field current will still increase and the armature current will also increase. Take the readings up to the 110% of rated current of the armature. 11. Now DPDT switch is thrown to position 12. Repeat the previous procedure. 13. Draw the curves between field current Vs power factor and field current Vs armature current. 2. Apply some load on the DC generator.

TABULATION 1. at no load condition Field current (If) in Amps Power W1 x MF in Watts

S.No.

Vdc in Volts

Vac in Volts

Iac in Amps

Wattmeter reading W 1 in Watts

Power Factor

* MF is the watt meter multiplication factor 2. at any load condition

S.No.

Vdc in Volts

IL in Amps

Field current If in Amps

Vac in Volts

Iac in Amps

Wattmeter reading W 2 in Watts

Power W2 x MF in Watts

Power Factor

* Where MF is the watt meter constant

MODEL GRAPH:

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. Why Synchronous motor is not self starting? 2. What are the starting methods used for synchronous motor? 3. List the application of Synchronous motor? 4. What are the readings considered for inverted V curve? 5. What is synchronous condenser?

RESULT:

Exp. No:

Date:

LOAD TEST ON THREE-PHASE SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To conduct the load test on the given three phase squirrel cage induction motor and to draw its performance characteristics. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Tachometer Range (0-600)V (0-10) A 600 V, 10A -Type Ml Ml UPF Digital Quantity 1 1 2 1

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE 1. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. After closing the TPST switch, motor is started by using star-delta starter. 3. Note down the no load readings of V 1, I 1, W 1, W 2, S1, S2 and N. 4. By applying the load, take different readings till the current reaches 120% of the rated current. 5. Using the formula, efficiency, torque, power factor and slip are calculated and the curves are plotted.

TABULATION

Line S. Voltage No. (VL) in Volts

Load current (IL) in Amps

Spring balance Readings (Kg) S1 S2 S1~ S 2

Speed (N) in RPM

Wattmeter readings W1xMF W2xMF

Input power (Pt) in Watts

Torque (T) in N-m

Output power Power (Po) in factor Watts

% Slip (S)

% Efficiency (L)

FORMULAE USED 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Input Power (Pi ) = (MF x W1 + MF x W2) watts Torque (T) = 9.81 * (S 1 ~ S2) * Reff N-m

Output Power (Po) = 2 N T / 60 watts Efficiency (L) = (Output Power / Input Power)* 100 % of Slip (S) = (Ns N / Ns) X 100

Power Factor = Input Power / ( 3 * VL *IL)

Where, S1, S 2 p Reff Reff T N Ns MF p = p p p p Spring balance readings in Kg. Effective radius of the brake drum in meters. (Brake drum radius in cm + of thickness of belt in cm) Torque in N-m Speed in RPM Synchronous speed in RPM Multiplication factors of wattmeter

MODEL GRAPH

MODEL CALCULATION

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant by RMF? 2. Why an induction motor is called rotating transformer? 3. Why an induction motor will never run at its synchronous speed? 4. What are slip rings? 5. What are the advantages of cage motor? 6. What is meant by magnetic logging?

RESULT

Exp. No:

Date: LOAD TEST ON THREE-PHASE SLIP RING INDUCTION MOTOR

AIM To conduct a load test on slip ring induction motor and draw its performance characteristics. APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. PROCEDURE Name of the apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Tachometer Range (0 -600)V (0-10A) 600V/10A ---Type MI MI UPF Digital Quantity 1 1 2 1

 The connections are made as per the circuit diagram.  The rotor resistance starter should be at the maximum resistance position.  The TPST switch is closed.  The rotor resistance starter is adjusted by means of step by step and bring it in to
minimum resistance position.

 At no load take the readings of voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter and also the speed in
RPM

 Load the machine up to 120% of full load and note down all the meter readings.

TABULATION: Spring balance reading in kgs. S1 S2 S1~S2

S. No

Line voltage (VL) in Volts

Line current (IL) in Amps

Speed (N) in rpm

Wattmeter readings in Watts


W1 x MF W2 x MF W1+W2

Torque (T) in N-m

% slip (S)

Power factor

Output power in Watts

% Efficiency ( )

Without External Resistance With External Resistance

 Release the load fully and bring the machine to off position.  Repeat the above procedure when external resistance is included in the rotor circuit.
FORMULA: i). Input power P in = W 1 + W2 in watts Where, W1, W2 - wattmeter readings in watts

ii). Torque T = 9.81x (S 1~S2) x Reff. N-m Where, S1, S 2 - Spring balance readings in Kgs Reff - Effective radius of brake drum in m iii). Output power P o= (2 NT) / 60 in watts Where, N - Speed of rotor in rpm T - Torque in N-m iv). % Slip = ((N S-N) / NS) x100 Where, Ns - Synchronous speed in rpm v). % efficiency ( ) = (Output power / Input power) x 100 vi). Power factor (cos ) = Input power / ( 3V L IL) Where, VL - Supply voltage in volts IL - Line current in amps

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mention different types of speed control of slip ring induction motor? What is meant by crawling of induction motor? What are the advantages of 3-phase induction motor? What is the difference between slip ring and split ring? What is reason for inserting additional resistance in rotor circuit of a slip ring induction Motor?

RESULT:

Exp. No:

Date:

NO LOAD AND BLOCKED ROTOR TEST ON THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM To predetermine the performance characteristics of a three phase squirrel cage induction motor from equivalent circuit and circle diagram approach. APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No. Apparatus Name Range 0-5A 1. Ammeter 0-15A 0-15A 0-600V 2. Voltmeter 0-150V 0-30V 3. Wattmeter 600V/5A 150V/20A Type MI MI MC MI MI MC LPF UPF Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

PRECAUTIONS

 

TPST should be opened before verifying the circuit connections Autotransformer should be in the minimum voltage position

TABULATIONS NO LOAD TEST Line Voltage (VL) in Volts Line Current (Ia) in Amps Wattmeter reading in Watts W 1 x MF W2 x MF

No load input Power in Watts = W1 +W2

Speed (N) in rpm

BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Line Voltage (VL) in Volts Line Current (Ia) in Amps Wattmeter reading in Watts W1 X M.F W2 X M.F

Copper loss in Watts = (W1 + W 2)

TO FIND STATOR RESISTANCE Voltage drop in the stator (V) in Volts

S.No.

Stator current (Is) in Amps

Stator resistance (Rs = V / I s) in

Mean (R ac)

Stator resistance R1 =

Rac x 1.6 in

PROCEDURE NO LOAD TEST

 The connection are made as shown in the circuit diagram  After observing all precautions the TPST switch is closed  By adjusting autotransformer bring the voltmeter reading to rated voltage of the motor
then note down voltmeter, the ammeter and the wattmeter readings. BLOCKED ROTOR TEST

 Block the rotor by applying a load  After observing all the precautions the TPST switch is closed  By gradually adjusting the auto transformer bring the ammeter reading to the rated current of the motor then note down ammeter, voltmeter and wattmeter readings
TO FIND THE STATOR RSISTANCE

 The connection are made as shown in the circuit diagram  Apply different voltage to stator winding up to the full load current note down the ammeter and the voltmeter readings
FORMULAE NO LOAD TEST No load line voltage No load line current No load power BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Blocked rotor line voltage Blocked rotor line current Blocked rotor power = = = Vsc in Volts Isc in Amps Wsc in Watts = = = V0 in Volts I0 in Amps W0 in Watts

No load voltage per phase

V0

= = = = = = =
0

V L0 in V I L0 / 3 in A W L0 / 3 in W V Lsc in V I Lsc / 3 in A W Lsc / 3 in W W o / V 0 I0 Cos -1(Wo / V0 I0)

No load current per phase I0 No load power per phase W0 Blocked rotor voltage per phase Vsc Blocked rotor current per phase Isc Blocked rotor power per phase Wsc Cos Find Sin

Magnetizing branch resistance R0 Magnetizing branch reactance X0 Total resistance Rsc Total impedance Zsc Total reactance Xsc X1 Where X1 X21 R1 R21 Stator reactance in = X21 R21

= = = = = = =

V 0 / (I0 Cos V 0 / (I0 Sin W sc / Isc2 in V sc / Isc in Z sc2- Rsc2 in X sc / 2 in R sc R1 in

0) 0)

in in

Rotor reactance referred to stator in Stator resistance in Rotor resistance referred to stator in RL Z I11
1

For any slip S ,

= R 21 (1 - s) / s in = (R 1+ R 21 / s) + j(X1 + X 21 /s) in = (V 0 r / Z) in A in A

No load current per phase = I0

TABULATION FOR EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT METHOD Line Voltage (VL) in Volts Phase current (IPh) in Amps Line current (IL) in Amps Input power (Pt ) in Watts Output power (Po) in Watts

S. No.

% Slip (assume)

Speed (N) in RPM

Torque (T) in N-m

Power Factor

% Efficiency ( )

MODEL GRAPH (EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT)

I1 Line current IL Power factor Speed Input power Output power





= = = = = = =


I0 I Cos

+ I11 in A

3 I in A NS (1 - s) in rpm 3 x V ph x Iph x Cos 3 x (I 1)2 x RL in W




in W

      

Where ns synchronous speed in rps Repeat the above calculation for various slips.

MODEL GRAPH (CIRCLE DIAGRAM)

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is purpose of Equivalent circuit? What is meant by crawling of induction motor? How will you calculate Cu loss of 3-phase induction motor? How will you calculate core loss of 3-phase induction motor? List out the starting methods for 3 phase induction motor.

RESULT:

Exp. No:

Date:

SEPARATION OF NO-LOAD LOSSES OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM To separate the no load losses of a three-phase induction motor to its components a) Iron loss b) Mechanical loss APPARATUS REQUIRED S.No Apparatus Range 0-600 V 1. Voltmeter 0-30 V 0-5 A 2. 3. Ammeter 0-10 A Watt meter 600 V/5 A MC LPF 1 2 Type MI MC MI Quantity 1 1 1

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE

   

The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. By adjusting the autotransformer, the rated voltage is applied. The readings of Voltmeter, Ammeter and Watt meters (W1W2) are noted. By adjusting the autotransformer, apply slightly less than the previous voltage and the meter readings are noted. Repeat the above procedure until the voltmeter reads the minimum voltage. A graph connecting Vph2 Vs No Load Loss is drawn. From the curve mechanical loss and iron loss at rated voltage are calculated.

 

TABULATION SEPARATION OF NO LOAD LOSSES

S.No

Line voltage (VL) in Volts

Line current (IL) in Amps

Phase current (Iph) in Amps

Vph 2

Watt meter reading in Watts


W1x MF W2x MF

No load input Power in Watts ( W1 + W2)

Copper loss in Watts

No load loss in Watts

Mechanical loss (Wm) in Watts

Iron loss (Wi ) in Watts

FORMULA No load losses = No load input No load Cu loss

 

  

 

  

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are losses in 3-Phase induction motor? How will you separate losses of induction motor? What is meant by Hysteresis loss? What is meant by Eddy Current loss? How to minimize the eddy current and hysteresis losses?

RESULT:

Exp. No:

Date:

LOSS SUMMATION METHOD ON THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM To predetermine the performance characteristics of a given 3 phase induction motor by loss summation method. APPRATUS REQUIRED S.No. Apparatus Name Range 0 600 V 1. Voltmeter 0 150 V 0 30 V 2. Ammeter 0 10 A 0 10 A 600 V / 10 A 150 V / 10 A Type MI MI MC MI MC UPF UPF Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

3.

Wattmeter

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE NO LOAD & LOAD TEST

    
Note:

Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. By adjusting the autotransformer the rated voltage is applied. The NO LOAD readings of Voltmeter, Ammeter and Watt meters (W1, W2) are noted. Now the motor is gradually loaded and the corresponding readings are noted. This procedure is repeated till 125% of rated current is obtained. The brake drum spring balance readings ar e ignored.

BLOCKED ROTOR TEST

  

Connections are made as per the circuit diagram. The rotor is blocked. The autotransformer is adjusted such that the ammeter reads the same value of current as in the load test (i.e. rated current) and the corresponding readings of Voltmeter and Watt meters (W3, W4) are noted.

TABULATION LOSS SUMMATION METHOD

S. No

Line voltage (VL) in Volts

Line Current (IL) in Amps

Speed (N) in rpm

Wattmeter readings in watts


MF x W1 MF x W2 MF x W3 MF x W4

Input power (W) (W1+ W2) in


Watts

Cu loss (W) (W3+ W4) in


Watts

Output power in Watts

Torque (T) in N-m

Power factor

% Slip

% Efficiency

FORMULAE

Constant losses (Wo)

= No load input

No load Cu loss

No load input

3 I02 * Ra

Input power

= W1 + W 2

Cu loss

= W3 + W 4

Output power

= Input power Cu loss

Constant loss

= (W1 + W 2) (W3 + W4) W 0

Torque (T)

= (Output / 2TN) * 60 N m

Slip (%)

= (Ns N) / Ns * 100

Power Factor

= Input / (3 VL *IL)

Efficiency (%)

= (Output / Input) * 100

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Why the three phase induction motor is called as rotating transformer? How will you separate losses of induction motor? What is the relationship between load current and loss? Why the induction motors are generally called as asynchronous motor? Name the applications of 3 phase squ. Cage induction motor?

RESULT

Exp. No: LOAD TEST ON SINGLE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM

Date:

To conduct the load test on single phase capacitor start induction motor and to draw the performance characteristics curve. APPARATUS REQUIRED

S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Apparatus Name Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Single Phase Auto Transformer Tachometer

Range 0-300V 0-20A 300V/20A 230V/(0-270)V, 20A -

Type MI MI UPF Variable Digital

Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

PRECAUTIONS: 1. All the switches should be in open position while making the connection. 2. Check the fuse and meters are in required specifications. 3. Check all the load terminals are in off position at the time of starting. PROCEDURE

  

The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram. The supply is given and the DPST switch is closed. By adjusting autotransformer, bring the voltmeter reading to rated voltage of the motor. Under no load condition note down all the meters reading. Now apply the load in step by step up to the 125% of rated current, note down all the readings of the meters.

 

TABULATION Supply voltage (Vs) in Volts Line current (IL) in Amps Input power (W1xMF) (Watts) Speed (N) in rpm Spring balance reading in kg S1 S2 S 1~ S 2 Torque (T) in N-m Output power (Po) in Watts

S.No.

% Slip

Power Factor

% Efficiency

FORMULAE 1. Torque = 9.81 (S 1 ~ S2) * Reff in N-m Where S1, S2 - Spring balance reading in Kg Reff - Effective radius of the brake drum in metre. 2. Output power = 2 NT / 60 in watts 3. % Slip = (N s N) / Ns * 100 Where Ns - Synchronous speed of the machine. N - Rotor sped of the machine. 4. Power Factor = Input power / V LIL 5. % Efficiency = (Output power / Input power) * 100

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What are the various methods available for making a single-phase motor self-starting? 2. What is the function of capacitor in a single-phase induction motor? 3. State any four use of single-phase induction motor. 4. State the advantages of capacitor start- run motor over capacitor start motor.

RESULT

Exp. No:

Date:

DETERMINATION OF EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF SINGLE -PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR AIM: To draw the performance characteristics of a single phase induction motor by conducting the no-load and blocked rotor test. APPARATUS REQUIRED: S.No 1 2 3 Name of Apparatus Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter Range (0-300)V (0-150)V (0-10)A (0-2)A (330V,10A) (300V,5A) Type MI Quantity 1 1 1 1 1 1

UPF LPF

THEORY: A 1induction motor consists of stator, rotor and other associated parts. In the winding(provided) are

rotor of a single phase winding is provided. The windings of a 1-

displaced in space by 120.A single phase current is fed to the windings so that a resultant rotating magnetic flux is generated. The rotor starts rotating due to the induction effect produced due to the relative velocity between the rotor winding and the rotating flux. PRECAUTIONS: NO LOAD TEST: y y y Initially DPST Switch is kept open. Autotransformer is kept at minimum potential position. The machines must be started on no load.

BLOCKED ROTOR TEST: y y y Initially the DPST Switch is kept open. Autotransformer is kept at minimum potential position. The machine must be started at full load(blocked rotor).

PROCEDURE: NO LOAD TEST:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Precautions are observed and the motor is started at no load. 3. Autotransformer is varied to have a rated voltage applied.
BLOCKED ROTOR TEST:

1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Precautions are observed and motor is started on full load or blocked rotor position. 3. Autotransformer is varied to have rated current flowing in motor. 4. Meter readings are the noted.

Reff = 1.5*R dc FORMULAENO LOAD TESTy cos = Wo/VoIo y Iw = Io cos y Im = Io sin y Ro = Vo/Iw y Xo = Vo/Im BLOCKED ROTOR TESTZsc = Vsc/Isc Rsc = Wsc/Isc2 Xsc = (Zsc2 Rsc2)

TABULATION NO LOAD TEST No Load Voltage (Vo) in volts No Load Current (Io) in amps No Load Power (Wo) in watts Actual = Observed x MF

S.No.

BLOCKED ROTOR TEST Short Circuit Voltage (Vsc) in volts Short Circuit Current (Isc) in amps Short Circuit Power (Wsc ) in watts Actual = Observed x MF

S.No.

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What are losses in Single Phase induction motor? 2. Name the types of single phase induction motor? 3. What is the purpose of centrifugal switch? 4. State any four use of single-phase induction motor.

RESULT-

Exp. No:

Date:

SPEED CONTROL OF THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR BY V/F METHOD AIM To control the speed of a given Three-Phase Induction motor by V/f method and to draw the characteristics curves. APPARATUS REQUIRED S. NO 1 2 3 Name of the Apparatus Voltmeter Three-Phase Autotransformer Tachometer Type MI Variable Digital Range 0-600V 415V / (0-600)V Quantity 1 1 1

PROCEDURE VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Using the three-phase autotransformer motor is started to run. 3. The three-phase autotransformer is varied gradually and the corresponding voltage and speed are noted up to 120% of the rated speed. 4. The motor is switched off using the TPST switch after bringing autotransformer is their initial position.

TABULATION FOR VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD

S.NO

APPLIED VOLTAGE in Volts

SPEED IN RPM (N)

MODEL GRAPH:

Speed (N) in r.p.m

Vin in volts

VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD: 1. Circuit connections are given as per the circuit diagram. 2. Field rheostat of motor is kept at its minimum position at the time of starting. 3. DPST Switch is closed. The motor is started by means of starter. 4. The motor is set to run at rated speed of the alternator by varying the field rheostat of the motor. 5. Field rheostat of the alternator is gradually varied and set the rated voltage. 6. Then the field rheostat position of the motor is varied. i.e., the frequency of the induced emf also changed. 7. This induced voltage given to the induction motor. 8. For different frequency speed of the induction motor reading is noted.

TABULATION FOR VOLTAGE CONTROL METHOD Frequency in Hz f=PN/120 SPEED IN RPM (N)

S.NO

MODEL GRAPH:

Speed (N) in r.p.m

Frequency in Hz

Viva Questions: 1.What are the speed control methods of induction motor? 2.Write the speed equation for induction motor? 3.What are the speed control methods for Slip-ring Induction motor. 4.Define Synchronous speed.

RESULT: