Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

Lillgrund Offshore Wind Farm Optimization

Study case of optimizing Lillgrund off-shore wind farm using WindPro


3/23/2011

The study investigates the possibility of optimizing Lillgrund off-shore wind farm so that at least it will be able to produce 330,000 MWh of annual production. Furthermore, the study considered the drawback of Wind technology in general, and considered the noise, shadow and the impact on landscape to assure the local acceptance.

Contents
Abstract ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 3 Strategy.................................................................................................................................................. 3 Criteria of Selection .............................................................................................................................. 4 Logistics................................................................................................................................................. 6 Wind farm layout and optimization .................................................................................................... 7 Results ................................................................................................................................................... 7 Noise Effect ...........................................................................................................................................8 Shadow Effect .......................................................................................................................................8 Visual impact ........................................................................................................................................ 9 Social Aspect ....................................................................................................................................... 10 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................11

Abstract
The study case was conducted to investigate about the possibility of repowering Lillgrund wind farm taking in consideration the learnt lessons from the real case project. The study proved that an annual production of more than 330.000 MWh can be achieved while at the same time the social aspect of project was considered to assure that the demand of the minimum noise, shadow and landscape impact were fulfilled,

Introduction
Lillgrund off-shore wind project is situated 4 km off the Swedish shore, it is around 7 km away southern the bridge connecting Malmo to Copenhagen, is consists of 48 turbines, with 2.3MW rated power for each one of them. The overall rated power of the project is 110MW. The project also included a transformer platform. Using the lessons learnt from the real case of Lillgrund project. This study has been conducted to develop a plan for building Lillgrund project. the plan assumed that Lillgrund off-shore wind farm is not exist, therefore, a new plan was put taking care of all of the logistics, supply chain, turbine selection, foundation selection, energy optimization and social aspect of the project.

Strategy
In order to start breaking into such project, different scenarios were overviewed and evaluated to use as a starting point. Previously studies shows that the lion share of offshore projects cost is for the structure of the turbine and foundations, shown in Figure [1]. Hence, the figure was used to put the optimization scenario Figure 1: Typical offshore wind energy project costs

considering increasing the rated capacity of the used turbine as possible, and minimizing the number of used turbine to the minimum so that the targeted production can be achieved. It is worth to mention the importance of considering water depth, as it is focal point to decide which foundation type should be used.

Criteria of Selection
In order to find the suitable turbine for this project, the WAsP module has been run for different types of turbines at the same position, the same environment, but the one with higher capacity factor has been chosen. ENERCON 4.5 MW has been chosen for this purpose. Figure [2] shows the available manufactures and ports can be used according to the study case description.

Figure 2: (a) and (b) shows harbors and blades manufacture according to the case description

Turbine: after the assessment conducted to find the proper turbine and price for the project, Harbor D will be used for turbines and the rest of turbine parts, the used turbine has the following specifications:

Table 1: Turbine specifications used for the project

Turbine Name Rated Power Manufacturer Gearbox or directive generator Hub height Rotor diameter Tower

ENERCON 4.5 ENERCON company Gearbox 125 m 114m 125m steel tower

Blades

With lightening protection

Towers: due to the cost limitation in Harbors B and C, and due to the encouragement by Harbor D by offering 10% less in the price, Harbor D used for towers. Steel towers were reliable in the offshore projects; therefore, steel towers were used in this project to be picked up within 3 months and placed in the storage yard before and during the installation process. According to a study conducted to compare the optimum height for 3 MW and 5MW offshore towers, the study proved that optimum height for 5 MW offshore turbines is 125m.

Foundation: assessment investigations show that a suitable foundation for this project is Gravitation foundation, as the seabed consists of sandy soil, the depth of water is not an issue especially because in the layout, all of the turbines are placed in an area of less than 25m depth. Foundations to be delivered from factory/harbor D, and the order to be sent 12 months ahead of time. Furthermore,

Blade: the blades can be brought from Factory C due to the distance factor, via special transportation to harbor D, and can be placed in the storage yard until the installation process takes its time. Anti-ice system is not that important in Lillgrund site. But lightening protection is important for the safety of the turbine.

Grid connection: Figure [3] shows the available connection points to the grid, in this project pint C is used to connect the wind farm because it is the closest one to the wind farm.
Figure 3:Avilable connection points to the grid according to case discription

In order to maintain processes running at the planned time, a storage yard were leased at Harbor D for storing equipments after being delivered from the factories.

Logistics
In order to make sure that the project is running according to a previously set plan, the work break down structure were developed to include the project activity according to the time and date. Table 2 shows project activities, the planned time for it, and the estimated time for it.
Table 2: WBS for Lillgrun wind farm project from 2011 till 2014

Month
Ordering equipment

1/2 011

1 0

11

1 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 0 1 2

Seabed investigatio n Seabed preparatio n Cable (under water) Cable onshore Installing transforme r Placing turbines Testing operation

According to the upper (WBS), the project has to start ordering the required equipment, according to the previously mentioned specifications, its important that each one of the activity being carried out within the planned time, otherwise, the overall project will late. Any delay in any of the project activities, means more cost, hence, the risk analysis considered to cover any delay might happen due to the natural conditions or any other technical issue. The plan is to use largest vessel to carry the whole turbine components (blades, nacelle, foundation, and tower) in each trip. And installing a whole turbine, and then coming back for

the others. The trip is estimated to be 3 days, one for going to the site, one for installing turbines, and the other day for returning back trip to harbor D.

Wind farm layout and optimization


Figure [4] shows suggested Lillgrund wind farm layout. The suggested layout was found after trying several trails with Windpro application. The optimize module was used to optimize energy in the layout. During the first trail, it was noticed that turbines were aggregating in the shallow water, in the middle and in the deep water. Turbines in the shallow water were left, while the others were dragged manually toward the shallow water, so that the costs can be minimized.

Figure 4: Wind farm layout for Lillgrund project.

Results
The Park module calculation was ran for the previously shown layout. The achieved park efficiency, park result and capacity factor were as shown in Table [3], based on 17 turbines wind farm:
Table 3: Parl result, park efficincy, and capacity factor for the wind farm based on 17 turbine of 4.5MW for each

Noise Effect
The decibel module was used to make sure that there is not side effect of repowering Lillgrund with bigger turbines. The following Figure, shows allowance area of the noise according to the Swedish standard.

Figure 5: noise allowance area around the field accourding to the Swedish standard

Moreover, the calculation based on decibel module proved that the noise level by the coastal area would be around 24.9dB. Comparing the result with the minimum allowed result (40 dB), the repowering plan will not affect the coastal area by noise.

Shadow Effect
It is important to find out the shadow effect resulted from the wind farm. Such calculation is important to promote for the project, and to show evidence to the local people showing that the proposed project will not annoying them, moreover, it is important for permission achievement for the authorities. Table [4] shows shadow data calculation for the proposed project. the calculation of the shadows shows that it is around 2 km for each one of the turbine. While the minimum distance from turbines area to the shore is more than 4 km. this proves that the repowering process will yield no shadow effect.

Table 4:Shadow data calculation shown in the table for lillgrund phase 2 project.

Visual impact
To promote for the local acceptance different simulation pictures were made showing the landscape and the visual impact of the project, to give an idea to local people of how the project will be. As it is important at the early stage of the project to share the local people and give them a chance to make some decisions and to have feedback from their side. Figure [6] and Figure [7] showing different view for phase two of Lillgrund project using Visual module in WindPro application.

Figure 6: Visual impact or repowering Lillgrund project

Figure 7: Satellite visual picture showing the 3-D layout of the project

Social Aspect
Phase 2 of this project might face some obstacles with local acceptance, because the turbines that will replace the old turbines are bigger, higher, and higher rated power which might result more noise beside the visual impact. But it is worth to mention that this project will use even less than half of the original number of the turbines, this point can be used to promote the local people to support this project. However, some difficulties expected to occur especially concerning the visual impact of high turbines and the concern of birds collision. several suggestions can be used to promote the local acceptance for the project , some of them can be stressed as follow: Marketing the project at the very beginning via media, television, and internet. Using the name of the project for funding some social activities. Donation for some of the aid organizations, health care and human rights organizations. Conducting open house meeting with the local residence. Pushing for offering electricity with lower price for the affected area.

Promoting for similar projects via workshops, field trips to the school students and university students to engage them early in the green technology. Holding several meetings to inform the residence about phase 2 of the project, and showing them some calculation that make them feel safe that there will be no noise effect associated nether shadow. These are some ideas that can be used or developed for gaining more acceptances within resident sector.

Conclusion
The previous study shows the possibility of repowering Lillgrund project with less number of turbines, and producing more energy. The study also shows that the noise condition was fulfilled according to the Swedish standards as well as there is no shadow effect toward the costal line. The study shows some pictures to give an impression about the visual impact of the project. the social aspect of the project was discussed, and few means were suggested to gain more acceptances.