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Chapter 4 Paper 1

Interdependence among Living Organisms and the Environment

Each question is followed by four options. Choose the best answer for each question. 1 Which of the following characteristics is most important when an animal is choosing its habitat? A The availability of space B The pH value C The availability of water D The presence of sunshine What does a group of organisms of the same type living together in a specific area form? A A community B A species C A population D An ecosystem Paddy plants Birds Larvae Small fish Grass Grasshoppers Snails

Where would you find the organisms given above? I In a vegetable garden II In a rainforest III By the side of a hill IV In a paddy field A I only B IV only C I, II and IV only D I, III and IV only 4 What makes up an ecosystem? I Animals II Plants III Air IV Water A I and III only B II and IV only C I, II and IV only D I, II, III and IV

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Which of the following shows living things are dependent on non-living things? A Plants carrying out photosynthesis B Plants competing for space C Animals eating plants D Animals eating other animals What do you study in the field of ecology? A The factors that make up the environment B The interactions between living things and the environment C The basic needs of living things D Pollution, its causes and prevention

Which type of interaction is similar to the one shown in the figure above? A Algae and fungi B Remora fish and sharks C Parasites in human intestines D Bacteria in termite intestines 8 Which of the following are examples of biological control? I Using owls to control the rat population II Using beetles to control the aphid population III Using fish to control the mosquito larva population in a lake IV Using human divers to remove the crown of thorns starfish from corals A I and III only B II and IV only C I, II and III only D I, II, III and IV Which of the following is the most important aspect of biological control? A It requires careful research before implementation B It totally eliminates the pest population C It does not destroy the habitat of the pest D It controls the pest population

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10

What type of interaction is shown in the figure above and what are the organisms involved? A Commensalism orchid and tree B Mutualism bacteria and soybean plant C Symbiosis - Morning glory and tree D Parasitism Rafflesia and tree 11 Which of the following will help you understand the interactions of organisms in an ecosystem? I A food pyramid II A pyramid of numbers III A food chain IV A food web A I and III only B II and IV only C II, III and IV only D I, II, III and IV 12 Which of the following is a correct food chain? I Cabbage worms chicken humans II Paddy chickens grasshoppers III Grass goats tigers IV Carrots rabbits snakes eagles A I and III only B II and IV only C I, III and IV only D I, II, III and IV 13 Grass grasshopper frog cobra Which of the following is correct about the food chain above? I Producer - grass II Primary consumer - frog III Secondary consumer - grasshopper IV Tertiary consumer - cobra

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A B C D 14

I and III only I and IV only I, III and IV only I, II, III and IV A B C D

The figure above shows a pyramid of numbers. Which of A, B, C and D, represents secondary consumers? 15 Which of the following food chains has the least efficiency in the transfer of energy? A Water weeds larvae small fish big fish humans B Spinach humans C Grass goats humans D Paddy grasshoppers birds humans 16 P Q R S : : : : The leaf is boiled in alcohol Two drops of iodine are added to the leaf The leaf is placed in boiling water for several minutes The leaf is placed on a white tile

The steps above were carried out to test for the presence of starch in a leaf. Which of the following sequences is correct? A S, Q, R, P B P, S, Q, R C Q, R, P, S D R, P, S, Q

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17 Carbon dioxide + water

chlorophyll glucose + oxygen P The equation above represents a process that takes place in plants. What is P? A Chemical energy B Sunlight C Stored energy D Green plant

18 Which comparison between respiration and photosynthesis is correct? Respiration Photosynthesis I Happens in all cells Happens only in plant cells II Happens day and night Happens only during the day III Uses oxygen Releases oxygen IV Forms food Breaks down food A I and III only B I and IV only C I, II and III only D I, II, III and IV 19

The apparatus as shown in the figure above was set up and left in the Sun for several hours. The gas released A turns limewater cloudy B does not affect a glowing wooden splint C dissolves in sodium hydroxide D dissolves in alkaline pyrogallol solution 20 A group of ecologists studied a rainforest and declared it a balanced ecosystem. Which of the following shows the correct inference about the ecosystem? A No new species was discovered B No species became extinct C The number of living organisms remains almost the same D All the organisms interacted in a large food web

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21 Why are marine parks important? A Fishing is banned and biodiversity is protected B Research sites, hatcheries and marine nurseries are established C Ships are not allowed to sail in marine parks D Ecotourism is promoted 22 Constructing hydroelectric dams Deforestation Mining

What do the above activities have in common? A They help conserve biodiversity B They lead to species extinction C They lead to reforestation D They are ways of extracting natural resources 23 What do we do when we conserve an ecosystem? I We maintain the biodiversity level II We preserve soil fertility III We ensure that high quality products are made from natural resources IV We ensure that good quality medicines are extracted from the organisms A I and II only B I and IV only C I, II and III only D I, II, III and IV 24 Which of the following animals are protected by the Wildlife Protection Act? I Ostriches II Leatherback turtles III Elephants IV Tigers A I and II only B I and IV only C II, III and IV only D I, II, III and IV 25 Why must the rainforests be preserved and conserved? A They are beautiful B They have few rare plant and animal species C It is the law of the country D They are valuable economic resources

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Paper 2 Answer all the questions. Section A Eagle 1 Rat Snake Owl Paddy Frog Grasshopper The figure above shows how living things interact in a paddy field ecosystem. (a) How many food chains are there in the food web shown in the figure above? a (b) Write out all the food chains. (c) How are the food chains similar? Give two similarities. (d) Predict what will happen if all the frogs move out of the ecosystem. Give two reasons for your answers. 2

(a) Name the habitat in the figure above.

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(b) Define the following terms. (i) Species (ii) Population (iii) Community (iv) Ecosystem (c) Look at the organisms in the figure above. State one example of interdependence between (i) animals and plants (ii) two types of animals (iii) living things and non-living things Section B 3 An experiment was carried out to determine if carbon dioxide was needed for photosynthesis. (a) Draw and label the set of apparatus used in the experiment. (b) Name the variable that (i) is kept constant (ii) is manipulated (iii) responds (c) Name two reagents that are used when carrying out the test for starch? (d) (i) What must be done before placing the plant in the apparatus as shown in (a)? (ii) Why? (e) When testing for starch, (i) why is the leaf boiled in water? (ii) why is the leaf heated in alcohol? (f) Give two reasons why photosynthesis is important to an ecosystem. 4 Two types of organisms M and N were placed in a fenced up grassland. The numbers of M and N organisms were observed over 16 days. The findings were recorded in a table as shown below. Day Organism M Organism N 0 20 20 2 17 20 4 13 20 6 7 25 8 4 25 10 2 39 12 5 31 14 9 27 16 15 30

(a) What type of interaction is shown by organisms M and N?

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(b) Describe the effects of the interaction in (a) on (i) organism M (ii) organism N (c) Sketch a graph to show how the population of organisms M and N change over time.

Number

Organism M Organism N

Time (d) What are the eating habits of the following? (i) Organism M (ii) Organism N (e) State two variables which are kept constant in this experiment. (f) Suggest how the interaction between organism M and organism N may be used beneficially. (g) State two advantages of your answer in (f).

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