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The Introduction To The Commentary On The Great Perfection:

The ature Of Mind, The Easer Of Weariness [1] Called The Great Chariot
Om Ah Hum {Footnotes Appear in a separate section at the end of the text} [ ote 1: This work is part of a trilogy. The other titles are like this one except for substituting bsam gtan, Dhyana/ meditation and sgyu ma/ illusion for sems nyid. Dzogchen or ati is the tradition that this teaching is part of, and also its fruition. A basic understanding of the titles is that samsara involves suffering and weariness. The view that sees the nature of mind, practicing meditation, and regarding activity from the viewpoint of all things being illusory are means of easing weariness or relaxing tension. The result of doing so is resting in the great perfection. The three means regarded from the viewpoint of the great perfection produce the fruition. If they are samsarically regarded they are part of the problem. The Sanskrit offered for sems nyid is citta, whose primary meaning is mind in the conceptual sense, the very thing that needs to be eased. In the same way meditation as the notion that our being is intrinsically bad and needs to be made into something else is a problem. Illusion in the sense of clinging to confused views and goals is a problem. This points out a central point of ati, that this very world of samsara is the world of nirvana, when we relax our confused fixations about it and stop struggling with the projects that confusion suggests of saving ourselves and the world from spiritual degradation.] In Sanskrit the title is Mahasandhi citta visranta vritti maharatha nama, In Tibetan Rdzogs pa chen po/ sems nyid ngal gso'i/ shing rta chen po/ shes bya ba I prostrate to glorious Samantabhadra From the ocean of the glorious two accumulations come clouds that bear the abundant rain of peace and happiness. These are the hundreds of qualities of the ature that constitute the beauties of trikaya. The thunder of wisdom and kindness pervading the limits of space, the great drum of Brahma, sounds. (i.e. About the two accumulation: We have to use both method and wisdom, to accumulate both merit and wisdom; this is in accord with the goal, with the real nature of everything: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither; inseparability of upaya and praja; inseparability of compassion and emptiness; luminous space; empty and still functional ...) To the all-knowing Chief of Beings, to the Dharma, and Sangha, the leaders of beings, I bow.

On an island in the lake of Uddiyana, Born within the blossom on a lotus stalk, Spontaneous emanation of the victorious ones, Blazing with qualities of the major and minor marks, Padmasambhava protects the lotus of my mind. (i.e. Taking refuge in the Buddha- ature) O primordial, spotless, full ocean; you who emanate samsara and nirvana O non-dual, unborn, full nature; perfect essence of Buddha, you the natural state, O fullness with no existence or lack of it, views that things are eternal or nothing, coming or going, nor object of complex variety. O fullness with no conception of good or evil, you who neither accept or reject. I bow to the uncompounded nature of the mind. This is the unsurpassable city of joyous liberation. Here the Victorious Ones of the three times attained supreme peace. So that all beings may go there directly, it embodies the heart of the sutras and tantras. Here, day and night, with unremitting effort, with singleminded devotion, my mind is absorbed in peace. May this Great Chariot of the profound path that liberates from samsara be clearly elucidated. Of this explanation of the GREAT PERFECTIO , THE ATURE OF MI D, THE EASER OF WEARI ESS, The single path of all Dharmas and traditions, There are three main sections:
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First, the manner of entering on the composition of the treatise and the meaning of the introductory section, Second, the extensive explanation of the main subject of the text (i.e. The 13 chapters) Third, the conclusion. (i.e. Chapter 14)

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First, the manner of entering on the composition of the treatise and the meaning of the introductory section, The divisions are (i.e. Taking full benefits of this precious human life)
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First, the meaning of the homage (i.e. In order to make us feel inspired.)

Second, The vow to compose the text. (i.e. out of great compassion for all the sentient beings stuck in samsara.)
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First, the meaning of the homage (i.e. In order to make us feel inspired.) The Buddha has come into this world. The excellent speech of his teachings, holy Dharma, by the kindness of genuine beings remains in existence. Here are the details of how the ocean of the sutra and mantra vehicles may be practiced by a single individual now that the freedoms and good favors, so difficult to attain, have been attained. In that way oneself and others may completely cross the ocean of sufferings of samsara. How mind [2], wearied in samsara, eases its weariness in the land of peace is taught fully and without error. This goes from how the beginner enters and begins, up to how the fruition of Buddhahood manifests as the completed and perfect meaning of all the vehicles. Wishing to compose the thirteen chapters of this treatise, the Great Perfection, the ature of Mind, the Easer of Weariness, first I offer a short homage: The primordial lord; the great, full ocean [3] of Buddha qualities; Whose natural wisdom and kindness is limitless in its depth, Birthplace of the Victorious Ones and all their sons, Who emanates heaped up clouds of goodness and benefit, I prostrate to the one who is all that is desired. Thus I call on him. This lord is the manifestation of enlightenment, whose place is in the primordial ground. This is the teacher, the Buddha Bhagavat. Having the nature of the great full ocean of qualities of renunciation and realization, he rules the sphere of inexhaustible adornments of body, speech, and mind. All the depth and expanse of supreme understanding and wondrously arisen compassion are just this. This saying is incomprehensible to the mind that sees only the manifestations of the I of "this side." By earnestly practicing the Dharma taught here, mind becomes the source of the jewel of the Buddhas of the three times and their sons. Then for all the realms of sentient beings, as limitless as the sky, there are temporary benefits in accord with the happiness of each. Gods and human beings alike are brought to happiness. The ultimate happiness is being brought to whichever of the three enlightenments of the shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas is in accord with the good fortune of one's powers. The holy masters join us to supremely ultimate great enlightenment, omniscient Buddhahood. Therefore, I prostrate to glorious Samantabhadra and so forth, all the victorious ones and their sons throughout the ten directions and the three times. As for the ocean of Buddha qualities of this primordial lord. The glorious et of Illusion says:

The lord is timeless perfection, known as Buddhahood. This is the precious ocean of Buddha qualities. These precious jewels also arise within the connections of cause and effect. The Uttaratantra says: From the Buddha comes the Dharma; From the Dharma comes the assembly of the oble Ones. Regarding emanation of heaped up clouds of goodness and benefit for sentient beings, the Mahayanasutralankara says: They have compassionate kindness for every sentient being. They have the kind of vision we do not need to seek. They have the kind of vision that is inseparable. I prostrate to you with the vision of goodness and happiness. We should prostrate, because there are such great benefits for both ourselves and others. Since our bodies are of this excellent kind, if we briefly praise the good fortune of words and meaning, we realize that all this is holy. If we undertake this holy activity who stay with it, we cannot but reach the goal. The Great Commentary on the Prajpramit in 8000 Lines says: Those who have the kindness of benefit for others For the sake of living beings do not relax their powers. Though these holy beings bear a heavy burden, they never put it down and dwell in discouragement. This needs to be attained by others as well. When the teacher and shastra are understood in the highest way, there is devotion. argarjuna says: It is never fruitless, when the authors of the treatises express their homage to the teacher and the teaching [4]; Because of doing so they make us feel inspired. [5] [ ote 5: This increases merit so that enlightenment is gained. If reasoning is rightly used it inspires people to appreciate directly the experiential meaning of the teachings and teacher. But often the result is just the opposite, to make it all seem very conceptualized, abstract, and proud of its orthodoxy. It becomes uselessly circular. The teachings are true because the Buddha taught them, and the Buddha is an authentic, true person because the teachings say so. We have to be inspired to see for ourselves what is meant. For example, the Gelugpas often begin more with reasoning and then practice. The nyingmas and Kagyus tend to start in the middle with some of both. But in the end, if they practice well, they all go to the same place. KPSR.] As for saying that both kinds of benefit must be attained, by perfecting the accumulations the goal of ripening will be accomplished. The Sutra of Vast Play says: The wishes of those with merit will surely be accomplished.

The Sutra producing many Buddhas: Whoever for the Conqueror as a leader, Does even a little bit of activity, having gone to various celestial realms, Will attain the level of Buddhahood. Second, the vow to compose the text: (i.e. Taking full benefits of this precious human life; and out of great compassion for all the sentient beings stuck in samsara.) Here why homage is made: Luminous Dharmakaya, immaculate realm of the conquerors! For us who wander here in samsara, by ignorant grasping,

Amidst this realm of grief of karma and the kleshas, Today may our weariness come to rest in the nature of mind. (i.e. May all sentient beings come to realize the real nature of their own mind, and thus the real nature of everything. That will be enough to Liberate them from any attachments to those illusion-like dharmas. May they come to realize the inseparability of the Two Truths, the inseparability of their Trikaya, the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness.) The nature of mind is primordial luminosity, the essence of the Buddha realm. It is beyond the four extremes of existence, non-existence, Eternalism, and nihilism. It primordially pervades all sentient beings. (i.e. Unborn non-dual Buddha-nature) (i.e. About "the four extremes" / the tetralemma: -- Here the four extremes are listed as "existence, non-existence, Eternalism and nihilism. -- There is also the four extremes of production as explained by argarjuna and Chandrakirti. -- And there is the four extremes of 1. Existence, 2. on-existence, 3. Both existence and non-existence, 4. either existence nor non-existence; Which are the same as the four extreme positions of 1. Realism / Eternalism, 2. ihilism / idealism,

3. Dualism 4. And monism / oneness. Some Quotes On The Various Forms Of The Tetralemma : -- " ever are any existing things found to originate From themselves, from something else, from both, or from no cause." -- Karikas 1.1 -- "8. Everything is "actual" (tathyam) or "not-actual," or both "actual-and-notactual," Or "neither-actual-nor-not-actual": This is the teaching of the Buddha. " -Karikas 18 -- "11.One may not say that there is "emptiness" (sunya) (1) nor that there is nonemptiness. (2)" or that both [exist simultaneously] (3), nor that neither exists (4); the purpose for saying ["emptiness"] is for the purpose of conveying knowledge. 12.How, then, will "eternity," "non-eternity," and [the rest of] the tetralemma apply to bliss (santa)? How, then, will "the end," "without end," and [the rest of] the the tetralemma apply to bliss? " -- Karikas 22 -- "17.It is not expressed if the Glorious One [the Buddha] exists (1) after his death, Or does not exist (2), or both (3) or neither (4). 18.Also, it is not expressed if the Glorious One exists (1) while remaining [in the world], Or does not exist (2), or both (3) or neither (4). " -- Karikas 25 -- "13.Thus the view concerning the past which [asserts] "I have existed (1)," or "I have not existed (2)," Both ["existed and not existed"] (3) or neither (4): this does not obtain at all. 14.[The views:] "I will become something in a future time (1')," Or "I will not become (2') [something]," etc. (3') (4'), [should be considered] like those [views] of the past. 20.If someone who is eternal does not exist, who will exist being non-eternal, Or who being both eternal and non-eternal, or devoid of these two [characteristics] ?" -Karikas 27 -- "It does not arise from itself; how can it come from other? Also it is not from both; how can it be without a cause?" "Since production from self, other, both, or without depending upon a cause do not exist, Things are free from inherent existence." -Chandrakirti's Guide to the Middle Way; this refutation is known as 'vajra segments'. -- "460. If a producer producing a product that is other is a cause, Then what is produced, an existent, a non-existent, both, or neither? If it is an existent, what need is there for a producer, and what need is there if it is a non-existent? What need is there for both, and what need is there for neither?" -- Chandrakirti's Guide to the Middle Way -- "195. Teaching existence, non-existence, both existence and non-existence, and neither Surely are medicines for all That are influenced by the sickness." -- The Treatise of the Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas - Aryadeva

-- "346. The approach of existence, non-existence, both existence and non-existence, and neither, Should always be applied by those with mastery to oneness and so forth." -- The Treatise of the Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas - Aryadeva -- "400. Against one who holds no thesis that [things] Exist, do not, or do and do not exit, Counter-arguments cannot be raised o matter how long [one tries]." -- The Treatise of the Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas - Aryadeva -- "48. An existent's arising is impossible; A non-existent's is like flowers in the sky; For a thing to be both is absurd fallacy; So neither do they originate together. 49. Since an entity does not arise from itself, And is not from another, or even from both, or is it yet without cause; therefore it has o intrinsic nature by way of own-existence." -- A Lamp for the Enlightenment Path Composed by Atisa Hence, Buddhism has always defined itself negatively, as a rejection of the four extremes, or heresies: monism, dualism, nihilism and Eternalism. It follows that Buddhism must be essentially pluralistic: because the non-dual View could give rise to infinite different Paths of practice. ... ... The Buddhist tradition comes from vision, from human personal experience. That is why we chose Vision as the name of our magazine. The Tibetan word for the Buddhas subsequent teachings is ch, meaning As It Is, and any teachings, which happened to explain the nature of beings and phenomena in the same way would also be ch. If Pathfinder on Mars were to pick up radio signals or prehistoric rock-carvings, which translated into teachings on the non-duality of emptiness and form; and if they thereby rejected the extremes of monism, dualism, nihilism and Eternalism; then we could say with confidence "We recognize this! This is what we call Buddhism." Indeed, there is a text which declares that the Dzogchen teachings are to be found in more than a dozen other solar systems. Sadly, the appetite for sectarianism among Buddhists on this planet is already too much for the teachings of our own solar system.-- Buddhism in the West: A View from the Thunderbolt Bridge by gakpa Rig'dzin Dorje

Lokayatika Sutta - The Cosmologist - S XII.48 " ow, then, Master Gotama, does everything exist?" "'Everything exists' is the senior form of cosmology, Brahmin." (i.e. Existence; realism) "Then, Master Gotama, does everything not exist?" "'Everything does not exist' is the second form of cosmology, Brahmin." (i.e. onexistence; idealism or nihilism) "Then is everything a Oneness?" "'Everything is a Oneness' is the third form of cosmology, Brahmin." (i.e. either existence nor non-existence; monism or oneness) "Then is everything a Many ness?" "'Everything is a Many ness' is the fourth form of cosmology, Brahmin. (i.e. Both existence and non-existence; dualism) Avoiding these two extremes, the Tathgata teaches the Dhamma via the middle: . (i.e. The Middle Way is to stay away from the four extremes of existence, non-existence, both, neither;

away from the four absolute positions of realism, idealism or nihilism, dualism, monism or oneness. ot accepting them as absolute truth; not rejecting them as meaningless, useless. o absolute, only adapted skillful means. The real nature of everything is not existence, not non-existence, not both, not neither or something else. The real nature of everything is beyond any description, beyond any conceptualization, beyond any duality, beyond causality space and time. We cannot express what it is but only directly seeing it by directly seeing the real non-dual nature of our own mind. But we can express what it is not by using this tetralemma. The whole path, with its two accumulations of merit and wisdom, is based on this realization of the real non-dual nature of everything. There is merit because emptiness doesn't mean complete non-existence. And there is the wisdom realizing the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharmas. We need both together, all the time, until we can realize the perfect Union of The Two Truths: dependent origination and emptiness. We need to use methods, and to know the emptiness of all the elements, subjects, objects, actions, characteristics, ... So the whole path turns around this tetralemma. This is a very important key in all vehicles.) Isidatta Sutta (S XLI.3) About Isidatta "Venerable sir, concerning the various views that arise in the world -- `The cosmos is eternal' or `The cosmos isn't eternal'; `The cosmos is finite' or `The cosmos is infinite'; `The soul and the body are the same' or `The soul is one thing, the body another'; `A Tathgata exists after death' or `A Tathgata doesn't exist after death' or `A Tathgata both exists & doesn't exist after death' or `A Tathgata neither exists nor doesn't exist after death'; these along with the sixty-two views mentioned in the Brahmajala [D 1] -when what is present do these views come into being, and when what is absent do they not come into being?" When this was said, the senior monk was silent. A second time ... A third time ...)

The Uttaratantra says: When by the luminous nature of the mind It has been seen that kleshas are essence-less, After it has been realized that all beings Are completely pure of the four extremes, (i.e. All empty of inherent existence; merely imputed by the mind; not existent, not nonexistent, not both, not neither; no absolute objective characteristics to really discriminate objects; not really arising, not really existing, not really ceasing.) All will dwell within perfect Buddhahood, Possessing the mind that has no obscuration. Beings completely purified will possess the limitless vision of the perceiver, wisdom. Therefore, to that nature I pay homage.

(i.e. Like space and sun; inseparability of space/emptiness and luminosity/wisdom. -Once the real non-dual nature of appearances / defilements is directly seen then one is liberated from its grasp. There is nothing to accept or get, nothing to reject or drop. It is just a matter of directly seeing the real nature of our own mind, and thus the real nature of everything.) Though primordially pure wisdom exists within us, (i.e. We all have the Buddhapotential, but still are not realized Buddha because of our ignorance... We have all the potential to realize the real nature of everything, and act in perfect accord with this real non-dual nature, instead of reacting in accord from past errors and conditioning. We naturally have this potential because we are part of it ... this ocean, or luminous space beyond conceptualization, causality space & time, beyond existence, non-existence, both, neither. It is just a matter of directly seeing this real nature, and acting while always being aware of it. The Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting.)
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by not recognizing it, we wander here in samsara. This karma of ignorance produces ego-grasping. By that in turn are produced passion, aggression, ignorance, pride, and envy.

It is because of these five poisons or kleshas that we are whirling around here in samsara. Why so? As various habitual patterns are superimposed on alaya, we enter into unhappiness.

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The least result is that by the karma of ignorance we are born as animals. The intermediate is that by the karma of seduction and desire we are born as pretas. The worst is that by the karma of aggression we are born in Hell.

Those who have pure merit, but also an equal amount of pride, are born as gods or human beings. Those who have equal parts of goodness and jealousy are born as asuras.

Each of these has their own realm of existence, with its happiness, sorrow, and the states between them. They have their own sorts of good and evil behavior. So it is that we wander helplessly in this plain of the beginning-less and endless sufferings of samsara, so difficult to cross. In vanity we grasp at an I or real self, which is like the seeming appearances of a dream. Though if we examine these well, they are non-existent, at this time of our confusion they appear to be really and truly existent. The Samadhiraja Sutra says:

The life of samsaric beings is like that in a dream. Since this is so, no one is ever born or dies. (i.e. no real origination, duration, or cessation) The Request of Brahma says: The beings of appearance are like those in a dream. By their personal karma, they are bound as individuals. They wander among Samsras many joys and sorrows. Though their nature is such-ness that is ego-less Still these unknowing children fixate I and ego, And so Samsras torments are ever on the rise. The sentient beings of samsara are held in various kinds of bondage. Though all dharmas are ego-less, fixators of ego excluded themselves off from the eye of liberation, and have to be taught their own true essence. How? When they know that this is their path, it is improper for them to concern themselves with the goal of peace alone. As all beings wander here in beginning-less samsara, there is not even one has not been our father and our mother. So to reject them and liberate ourselves alone is not the proper way. The Teacher's Letter says: Our kinsmen who are carried in the ocean of samsara Seem to have tumbled down into a great abyss If we have rejected these, who do not know what they are, Because of the process of birth and death and transmigration, If we produce liberation for ourselves alone, They will never be liberated from their karma. Thinking about that, and seeing the weariness of sentient beings, exhausted by the burden of their long wandering here in samsara, I wanted to compose a treatise giving the instructions of how we can ease this weariness by coming to the resting place ornamented by the wondrous wealth of the Victorious Ones, the level of great nirvana. I wanted to illuminate how by immeasurably abundant compassion, we can guide those wandering in samsara. The Avatamsaka Sutra says: Kye! O son of noble family, when we see the realm of sentient beings, all undertakings of body, speech, and mind become the immeasurable great compassion. We work with the worldly sciences and those beyond the world that have come from the heads of the noble ones. Having been inspired to the good, we perform once more the Buddha activity of the former Victorious Ones. Let us offer to the Tathgata. Let us raise the victory banner of Dharma. Let us introduce the great path of liberation. O Holy beings! O precious crest-ornament! (i.e. Understanding the causes of samsara, and seeing how all sentient beings are stuck in it without knowing how to stop creating more suffering, I feel great compassion and vow

to take full benefit of this precious human life in order to attain full Buddhahood and be able to help them all. This text will explain the full path that helps in attaining the unborn, uncaused fruit.) That was the vow to compose the text.

Second, there is the extensive explanation of the actual subject. In general, the extensive explanation of the subject, how the two benefits arise, is in thirteen chapters. (i.e. the 13 chapters)

Summery of the Chapter


Prostration,

taking refuge in the mind's true unborn non-dual nature, beyond the four extremes, beyond all dualities. explain the unique essence, the true meaning, the common fruit, and the details of all Buddhist paths (sutra, tantra, and oral instructions).

Desire to

May

this Great Chariot of the profound path that liberates from samsara be clearly elucidated? of all Dharmas and traditions.

The single path

Here are the details

of how the ocean of the sutra and mantra vehicles may be practiced by a single individual now that the freedoms and good favors, so difficult to attain, have been attained.

This

goes from how the beginner enters and begins, up to how the fruition of Buddhahood manifests as the completed and perfect meaning of all the vehicles.

By

earnestly practicing the Dharma taught here, mind becomes the source of the jewel of the Buddhas of the three times and their sons. may our weariness come to rest in the nature of mind.

Today

The nature of

mind is primordial luminosity, the essence of the Buddha realm. It is beyond the four extremes of existence, non-existence, Eternalism, and nihilism. It primordially pervades all sentient beings. (i.e. Unborn non-dual Buddha-nature) about that, and seeing the weariness of sentient beings, exhausted by the burden of their long wandering here in samsara, I wanted to compose a treatise giving the instructions of how we can ease this weariness by coming to the resting place ornamented by the wondrous wealth of the Victorious Ones, the level of great nirvana. I wanted to illuminate how by immeasurably abundant compassion, we can guide those wandering in samsara." the "Conclusion" (i.e. Chapter 14)

"Thinking

See also

"O Subhuti, those who develop the conduct of the ten virtues, the four samdhis, and the four formless attainments, when they also arouse bodhicitta, aspiration to unsurpassable enlightenment, at that time, since this is in accord with liberation, it becomes a cause of omniscience. This should be performed. By being mastered, this should be established." -- The Middle Length Prajpramit (C4)

Key Points
Tetralemma:

The Middle Way is staying away from the four extremes of existence (realism), non-existence (idealism or nihilism), both existence and non-existence (dualism), neither existence nor non-existence (monism or oneness). It is not accepting any position as absolute, not rejecting any skillful means. much realism and determinism (like too much emphasis on dependent origination, karma, causality) leads to the frozen hells. Too much nihilism (like rejecting karma or causality, too much emphasis on death and impermanence or on emptiness), leads to the chaos of the hot hells. The Middle Way consists of staying on the edge between total determinism and absolute chaos. nature of everything is beyond any description, any conceptualization, beyond causality space and time, beyond any duality. It has to be directly seen by seeking the very subtle nature of our own mind. By directly seeing the real nature of our own mind, we see the real nature of everything. no absolute, only adapted skillful means.

Too

The real

There is

Purification

of the body, speech, mind, and the three together, is directly seeing the real nature of the objects of those three realms [the objects of the senses (material and limited), the abstract objects (immaterial and limited), and the unlimited objects like space (immaterial and unlimited)] and their inseparability. It is a gradual process done using adapted skillful means more and more subtle. The fruit is the five wisdoms, the inseparable Trikaya, the Buddha qualities and activities. are three occasions of the mind: with conditioning and producing conditioning, with conditioning without producing more conditioning, without the influence of conditioning and without producing more conditioning. Or as exemplified by body, speech / abstractions and pure mind. They correspond to three stages of purification of the mind with the practice of the eight Dhyanas, or going to sleep, or dying. are three states where we can observe the mind while seeking its real nature under all the added conditioning. The usual every day state is when it is under the influence of accumulated conditioning and producing more karma (much fermentations); then there is the eight consciousnesses (assimilation, accommodation, becoming). As a result of the first four Dhyanas, the mind is not producing any more

The three worlds

The three occasions

new karma (no action, no-thought), and what can be observed is the alayavijnana, the subtle mind, which is still under the influence of already accumulated karma (still filtering, assimilating on acquired schema). As a result of the formless Dhyanas, the mind is also temporarily free from the influence of accumulated karma (no objects), while still not producing any more new karma (no action, no thought). Then the mind that is directly seen is the alaya, the essence. -- But these three occasions are still within samsara. Only the union of upaya and praja will permit to transcend all conditioning definitively, thus escaping all karma influence and formation.)
The perfection

of the Dhyanas (upaya) is to combine them with Vipashyana (praja); staying away from the two extremes: not rejecting the world as if completely nonexistent or falling for a mind that is suppose to be without any thought, not accepting the world as inherently existing or being slave of the conditioning; not meditating, not nonmeditating. Only then is it in accord with the goal, with the real nature of the mind and of everything: Dharmadhatu, luminous space.

is acting more and more in accord with the real nature of everything. It is gradual, adapted skillful means. It consist of adding more and more wisdom to the methods, the skillful means. It is guarding the mind so we are constantly aware of the real nature of everything, or at least of our actions compared to the guidelines. -- What makes an action unwholesome is its divergence with the real nature of everything, the fact that it is an investment based on an error, based on ignorance.-- Wholesomeness, virtues, Buddha wisdoms, qualities and activities, are already in us, in the sense that they are acting in accord with the real nature of everything which we are part of. It is just a matter of directly removing the ignorance and automatically its consequences (fixation, grasping, karma formation and its consequences) are dropped. -- Both unwholesome and wholesome actions produce karma, but wholesomeness is preferable because it is closer to the real nature of everything by combining upaya and praja, it produce better conditions favorable to be able to directly see the real nature of our own mind and to transcend all conditioning definitively.
The two

Wholesomeness

accumulations: The path consist of accumulating both merit and wisdom together because this is in accord with the non-dual nature of everything: not existence, not non-existence, ... So the perfection of any wholesome action or virtue is to see the emptiness of the subject, object and actions while doing it. of the two aspects: Everything has the two aspects inseparable (inseparable appearance or luminosity or interdependence, and emptiness) reflecting the non-dual nature of everything: not existence, not non-existence, not both, not neither. It is just a matter of directly seeing this, and being fully aware of this all the time. our Buddha-nature is seeing the real nature of everything, acting according to the real nature of everything, being constantly aware of the emptiness of everything while still dealing with appearances. That is the perfect Union of The Two Truths. Truths: Dependent origination (conventional truths) and emptiness (Ultimate Truth) are not separate or different, but still not the same. They are complementary, coemergent. One implies the other. The real nature of everything is beyond this duality: not accepting it, not rejecting it.

Inseparability

Seeing

The Two

on-duality is not one, not two.

Conditioning: Unwholesomeness,

and wholesomeness, are like developing habits. The more we do them, the more they become our second nature. They are self-amplifying. path probably goes by successively seeing the faults in the four extreme positions: realism, idealism, dualism, monism.

The gradual

The way

out of any difficult situation like the suffering of the lower realms is always to realize the real nature of the three: the subject suffering, the object or cause of the torment, and suffering itself. the body, speech and mind corresponding to the three worlds: The purification of the body permits to go beyond ordinary realism, and to see the alayavijnana, the mind interpreting the world without actually producing more karma. The purification of the speech permits to go beyond simple idealism, beyond the acquired karma, the scheme of assimilation, by creating an artificial situation where there is nothing concrete to assimilate, or to filter using the karma seeds. What is seen then is the alaya, the very subtle mind without the influence of the karma seeds. The purification of the mind, is to go beyond this artificial state of pure mind; not thinking there is this duality of an impure mind, and a pure mind; and thinking that one is preferable than the other. Purifying the three together is to see their inseparability, not falling into monism either. This is done while perfecting Dhyanas by combining them with Vipashyana. It is then seen that a mind with or without thoughts is not different, not the same; that appearances and mind are inseparable; that appearances and emptiness are inseparable; that mind and body are inseparable. So the real nature of everything is gradually seen as being : not existence / realism (empty), not non-existence / idealism / nihilism (still dependently arisen and functions), not both / dualism (inseparability), not neither / monism (non-dual: not one, not two). Those are the stages of the progressive purification along the path. is about a self-conditioning loop based on ignorance; it works on all levels of organization simultaneously. And the only way to stop it, is by directly seeing the real nature of this conditioning loop. Everything in the path is aimed at this goal. the result into the path: Wholesomeness, Buddha qualities and activities, are in accord with the real nature of everything. That is why they do not bring suffering; they are not in opposition with this real non-dual nature. If they are done, even without totally understanding their logic, they will still bring great peace, happiness, and the conditions necessary to be able to see through all conditioning. Morality has always been about using guidelines that were given by those who have succeeded in transcending all unwholesomeness and their consequent suffering. But morality gets more and more subtle as we progress. The ultimate is to guard the mind, to always be aware of the emptiness of everything as we continue to act for the benefits of all sentient beings (because we are not separate from them, but still not the same -- not one, not many).

About the purification of

Karma

Bringing

Correspondence between: the four immeasurables, the five poisons, the five wisdoms, the 3 inseparable kayas (C7), purification of the inseparable body speech and mind,

After kindness has transformed aggression into the mirror-like wisdom (knowing the real nature of the seeds, of concepts, of the form realm, of conditioning; not falling for the conditioning, luminous emptiness; not adding or withdrawing anything, without defilements / obstructions), one attains Sambhogakaya (pure speech). Kindness is the antidote used to purify the speech, the form realm, thinking words; concepts are real (being hurt by some, desiring others, using them as weapons to hurt or control others), idealism - non-existence, being slave of accumulated conditioning or concepts (alayavijnana's karma seeds). It leads to realizing that obstacles (concepts, characteristics) are fabrications of the mind (conditioning, taints on the mirror); seeing the real nature of the objects of the form realm / seeds (abstract, conceptual, symbolic); Inseparability of emptiness and sounds; simplicity (no need to over analyze, escape from conceptualizing)

Compassion pure of desire is discriminating awareness wisdom (knowing the real nature of the formless realm, discrimination between self and beings knowing their real nature; understanding nature and extent; objects are distinct; discriminating all the Buddha qualities with their causes and effects) and Dharmakaya (pure mind). Compassion is the antidote used to purify the mind, the formless realm, thinking there is an opposition between self and others, dualism - both existence and non-existence, slave of the belief in a self separated from the world (alaya). It leads to realizing that the self is not separated or different from the world, not the same; seeing the real nature of the objects of the formless realm (intuitive); Inseparability of emptiness and awareness (mind); one taste (escape from all -- but temporarily)

By immeasurable joy one attains the all-accomplishing wisdom (knowing the real nature of the sense realm, understanding personalities (particular five aggregates); perfectly adapted Buddha activities not obstructed by knowing everything all the time), whose nature is perfect Buddha activity. Purifying jealousy makes irmanakaya (pure body) manifest. Joy is the antidote used to purify the body, the desire realm, the realm of the senses, thinking objects of the senses are real and that we should compete for them, realism - existence, thinking things exist independently of the mind (seven consciousnesses) and have absolute characteristics. It leads to realizing that objects of the senses are all like illusions; seeing the real nature of the objects of the desire realm (objects of the senses); Inseparability of emptiness and appearances (body); stable shamatha (escape from the desire realm)
o o

When equanimity has purified pride and ignorance, the wisdom of equality (equality of self and others, equality of all dharmas in emptiness; equality of samsara and Nirvana; all empty of inherent existence because dependently arisen, composite, merely imputed by the mind ...) and the Dharmadhatu wisdom (inseparability of the three worlds; knowing the real nature of the mind and of everything; beyond conceptualization; Union of the Two Truths) are established. Svabhavikakaya (inseparable pure body speech and mind), the unchanging vajrakaya and the kaya of the manifestation of enlightenment manifest. Equanimity is the antidote used to purify the body, speech and mind, the three realms together, thinking everything is one, monism - not existence and not non-existence, believing in inherent existence (eight consciousnesses). It leads to realizing that everything is non-dual, luminous space; seeing the real nature of the objects of the three realms, of the three together (of our own mind and of everything, of all discrimination); inseparability of emptiness and D.O., of the Two Truths, of body and mind; no meditation (transcending everything)

Longchenpa's Great Chariot


The Commentary On The Great Perfection: The ature Of Mind, The Easer Of Weariness Called the Great Chariot
Manjusri: " oble sir, one who stays in the fixed determination of the vision of the uncreated is not capable of conceiving the spirit of unexcelled perfect enlightenment. However, one who lives among created things, in the mines of passions, without seeing any truth, is indeed capable of conceiving the spirit of unexcelled perfect enlightenment. oble sir, flowers like the blue lotus, the red lotus, the white lotus, the water lily, and the moon lily do not grow on the dry ground in the wilderness, but do grow in the swamps and mud banks. Just so, the Buddha-qualities do not grow in living beings certainly destined for the uncreated but do grow in those living beings who are like swamps and mud banks of passions. Likewise, as seeds do not grow in the sky but do grow in the earth, so the Buddha-qualities do not grow in those determined for the absolute but do grow in those who conceive the spirit of enlightenment, after having produced a Sumeru-like mountain of egoistic views. oble sir, through these considerations one can understand that all passions constitute the family of the Tathgatas. For example, noble sir, without going out into the great ocean, it is impossible to find precious, priceless pearls. Likewise, without going into the ocean of passions, it is impossible to obtain the mind of omniscience."-- Vimalakirti Sutra

Om Tare Tuttare Ture Mama Aryu Puni Gyanya Punding Guruye Soha White Tara's Long Life Mantra (Homage to White Mother Tara, bestower of long life and health. May my Dharma life increase steadily and my precious human body of constant benefit to others.

Chapter One The Free And Well-Favored Human Body, So Difficult To Obtain
(i.e. The success or not of your spiritual journey depends on these [four] foundations.

Appreciation of the value of the precious human rebirth; -- chapter 1 Understanding impermanence and death; -- chapter 2 Understanding the causes, conditions and results of positive and negative actions (karma); -- chapter 4 And understanding how all of cyclic existence is problematic and not free from suffering, -- chapter 3 Regardless of your station in life, these are the key important factors which form the basis of the spiritual journey. -- Lama Karma Samten Gyatso) (i.e. "The four foundations are meditation on the precious human rebirth, on impermanence, on karma and on the faults of samsara. They are common to all levels of practice and all schools" -- Thrangu Rinpoche Four foundations of meditation (Tib. tun mong gi ngon dro shi) These are the four thoughts that turn the mind. They are reflection on precious human birth, impermanence and the inevitability of death, karma and its effects, and the pervasiveness of suffering in samsara. Four ordinary foundations (Tib. tn mong gi ngon dro shi) This is meditation on the four thoughts that turn the mind towards dharma which are the precious human birth, impermanence, samsara, and karma. Four thoughts that turn the mind (Tib. blo do nam shi) These are realizing the preciousness of human birth, the impermanence of life, the faults of samsara, and realizing that pleasure and suffering result from good and bad actions.) I. The free and well-favored human body, so difficult to obtain.

A. The general explanation of being free and well favored, so difficult to obtain. (i.e. The precious, hard to get, human life with its freedoms, endowments and opportunity to learn the Dharma and to put it into practice. Everything else is a waste of time. If we waste this great opportunity we will end up in the three lower realms for very long. - - It is not a matter of getting something, or rejecting something. It is a matter of gradually purifying the body speech and mind by following the Dharma, gathering the two accumulations of merit and wisdom, and directly realizing the non-dual nature of our own mind and of everything. - - It may be hard at first, but the more we practice, the more we accumulate merit and virtues, and the more it become easy to do it. It is like developing a habit, a skill, but it is accumulation of karma in order to transcend all habits, all conditioning, all karma formation. That is why we need both method and wisdom all the time.) Within the general topic there are

1.

The summary of the essence

2. The extensive explanation of the nature 1. The summary of the essence (The support of establishing enlightenment is being "well-favored". This teaching is for those with the precious human life and with the bodhicitta motivation. Urging us to take full benefit of this precious and rare opportunity for Enlightenment.) ow from the explanation of the real body of the text, first, briefly, the support of establishing enlightenment is being "well-favored." As for the details, here is the praise: My friends, this body, the precious essence of freedom and favor, Is very hard to gain within the six realms of beings, Thus, like a blind man who has found a precious treasure, With excellent joy, may good and benefit be accomplished. Who has crossed over to enlightenment? This is the spiritual friend who has established enlightenment. The instruction is given to those with the good fortune of bodhicitta, the wish for enlightenment. In regard to attaining the holy freedoms and favors, it is wonderful even for those who are not poor to attain what is supremely precious, let alone the poor. If those who are blind and helpless attain it, it is even more astonishingly wonderful than that. As for praise of beings, who attain the free and well favored human body, while they are whirled about in the six lokas of samsara, The Sutra Teaching the Freedoms and Favors says: It is like this: Like a blind person who finds a precious jewel among earth and stones, sentient beings wandering in samsara, blinded by cataracts of ignorance who find their real humanity are supremely joyful. And so we ought to practice the Dharma, which is always excellent. 2. The extensive explanation of the nature, There are eight topics a. The extensive explanation of the eighteen freedoms and favors (8 freedoms, 10 endowments of the precious human life. Without them we couldn't have access to and practice the dharma, no opportunity for Enlightenment) b. ot being steadfast, even if we have the freedoms and favors

(If we waste this great opportunity, we will end up in the three lower realms for a long time without even any knowledge of karma and its consequences. We will thus have no opportunity to get out of them except for one chance out of a billion-billion.) c. The instruction to strive for the Dharma ( ow that we have come out of the three lower realms and have this very hard to find opportunity, we should rely on the dharma, gather the two accumulations of merit and wisdom, and completely go beyond samsara, so we will never go back to the lower realms. Death is inevitably approaching, and we don't know when. othing else makes sense.) d. How we must work hard at this ( ow that we have come out of the three lower realms and have this very hard to find opportunity, there is no better time to try to escape the whole cycle of samsara. After losing this precious human life we will not be able to do it for a very long hard time.) e. The suitability of this (This is what we have to understand, to do to directly see while we can, and the final unborn uncaused result: All suffering and happiness are from our own mind with ignorance or without ignorance; but not from the mind-only. The is no absolute good and bad; nothing to accept or produce, nothing to reject or drop. But still nothing is uncaused, or without an effect. The problem is the belief in inherent existence, the fixation and grasping based on that. When the mind is purified, and the real non-dual nature of samsaric objects is directly seen, they naturally turn into inseparable kayas, wisdoms beyond conceptualization, and pure Buddha fields. Objects still appear, but they are seen as illusions. Then the Two Truths of dependent origination and emptiness are united. That is why the path is using both method skillful means upaya and wisdom praja knowing the emptiness of all objects and means. This is in accord with the real non-dual nature of everything beyond the extremes of existence, non-existence, both, neither.) f. The samsaric torments if we do not make an effort now (So we need both together, this precious human life as the support, and the Dharma to practice. One without the other is totally useless) g. The teaching of the freedoms and favors, which support the Dharma (Once we have this precious human life as the support, the rain of Dharma naturally falls. And vice versa. To increase its benefits we need to practice it. This is like a selfamplifying virtuous process; each of these two elements support each other. Realizing this we practice with joy. That is the way good karma and favorable five aggregates are related: not separate or different, not the same.) h. Why the freedoms and favors are difficult to obtain

(Once we have fallen into the three lower realms, this human life is extremely hard to get because, there, we are continually tormented, we have no leisure to learn the dharma, and even don't have any understanding of karma and its consequences. So, the probability to produce enough good karma to have a rebirth as a human is extremely infinitesimal. It is even harder to have both a human life and the actual ability and opportunity to practice the Dharma. So let's not waste it and fall back to the three lower realms.) a) The extensive explanation of the eighteen freedoms and favors: (i.e. eight freedoms, ten endowments of the precious human life. Without them we couldn't have access to and practice the dharma, no opportunity for Enlightenment.) If you ask what are these freedoms and excellent favors [endowments], We were not born in Hell [1], or yet among hungry ghosts [2]. We are not beasts, [3] nor long-lived gods, [4] nor vicious barbarians [5], We were not reared in wrong views, nor in a time without Buddhas [6], or have we been born as idiots without speech, [7] We are completely free from all these eight non-freedoms. We were born in the human realm, and in a central country. Also we sound in all our faculties, ot having done inexpiably wrong in deeds and actions, We are properly faithful to the objects of faith. Thus the five holy favors regarding oneself are complete. The Buddha has appeared and he has taught the Dharma. Moreover, at this time the teachings still remain. So that they may continue, people still follow them, And others are treating us with kindness and concern. These five favors are those that exist in regard to others. Those were the eighteen kinds of being free and well favored. On this auspicious occasion they are complete within us. So strive from the heart, that liberation may be accomplished. (i.e. Precious - Basic conditions necessary to practice the Dharma

Eight Freedoms
1. Freedom from rebirth as a hell being (from having killed with hatred; suffering heat and cold) 2. Freedom from rebirth as a hungry ghost (from greed; suffering from thirst and hunger, also heat, cold, fear, tiredness) 3. Freedom from rebirth as an animal (from stupidity and ignorance; suffering from stupidity and confusion, heat, cold, hunger, thirst, exploitation by men, the law of the jungle)

4. Freedom from rebirth as a long life god (from jealousy of the virtues of others, or pride; suffering from constant fighting, and long death ending in the three LR) 5. Freedom from rebirth in a place with no dharma (think you are smart enough to find it alone) 6. Freedom from rebirth in a time before a Buddha (same; thanks for His great kindness) 7. Freedom from rebirth with impaired senses of body or mind (have compassion for other) 8. Freedom from rebirth with wrong views (like rejection of the Law of Karma, the continuity of consciousness...) -- see the 16 wrong views bellow Ten Endowments -- ten blessings which enable us to practice the Dharma Five personal 1. Rebirth as a human being 2. Rebirth in a place with dharma 3. Rebirth with all sense powers and able to understand and practice dharma 4. ot having done one of the five bad deeds with immediate retribution (like killing mother, father, arhat, harming a Buddha, causing a schism in the Sangha) we have a karmic link with the dharma 5. Having faith in the three baskets (or three gems) and the Buddhist teachings as a whole.

Five circumstances:
1. Being born in a time where a Buddha has appeared 2. Being born in a time where a Buddha has taught (great kindness and compassion for us) 3. Being born in a time where the dharma is stable and flourishing (living tradition) 4. Being born in a time where there are dharma practitioners (available to anyone) 5. Being born in a time where there are kind benefactors (and Teachers)

Conclusion:
So we have all the conditions amenable and necessary to practice the dharma.

We rejoice to have this precious human life and this potential (even though this body and mind is in the nature of suffering). Still, these opportunities and these blessings are not permanently established. In fact, they could easily be destroyed and disappear. ote: It is not a luck that I have this precious human life; it is due to our accumulated karma. So this precious human life has causes and conditions, and is functional, although everything is empty of inherent existence. It is both empty and dependently originated (functional: being both an effect and a cause). In addition, we need The Three Confidences and they are: 1. Faith in the clear mind arises when we see the supreme qualities of the Three Jewels. We develop devotion for and interest in the Buddha as the teacher who shows the path, the Dharma, which becomes the path, and the Sangha, which guides one in order to accomplish the path. 2. Faith of desire, the wish to be enlightened, to study and practice the Dharma. Seeing what samsara is, we sincerely wish to escape, to reach enlightenment. Recognizing the assets of virtue, we wish to make them our own. Seeing the defects of non-virtue, we wish to avoid them. These wishes inspire the faith of desire. 3. Faith in the truth of karma (causes and effects), trusting that happiness is the fruit of virtuous causes and suffering is the fruit of non-virtuous causes. One must have all the above qualities together to be freed from samsara. -- Khenchen Konchog Gyaltsen Rinpoche

Eight Freedoms (Skt. ashtakshana, Tib. tel wa gye). These are not living in hell realm, not living in the hungry ghost realm, not living in animal realm, not a long-living god, not having wrong views, not being born in a country without dharma, being mute, or being born in an age without Buddhas. Assets, ten or ten endowments (Skt. dashasashpada, Tib. jor wa chu) These are the factors conducive to practice the dharma. They are being human, being born in a Buddhist place, having sound senses, being free from extreme evil, having faith in the dharma, a Buddha having appeared, a Buddha having taught, the flourishing of his teachings, people following the teachings, and having compassion towards others.

Four Unfavorable Obstacles

The four obstacles that hinder one from complete enlightenment: These are hostility or dislike of dharma, strong belief in self, fear of suffering so one doesn't enter the Mahayana, and lack of helping others.) We should take this to heart. Why? The life of the king of Brahmins Drvkyi Kyeche says: It is hard to find the opposites of the eight non-freedoms. It is hard to find attainment of humanity. It is hard to find the freedoms in purity and completeness. It is hard to find the arising of a Buddha. It is hard to find true powers that are without defect. It is hard to listen to the teachings of a Buddha. It is hard to find the friendship of any holy beings. It is hard to meet with genuine spiritual friends. If we are born as Hell beings, pretas, or animals; distracted by suffering, we have no freedom of body. The blind, who cannot associate verbal symbols with their meanings, have no freedom of speech. Those who are long-lived may never see the practice of Dharma. Buddhas may be absent, so that they arise in a dark kalpa without the appearance of the teachings. Even if Buddhas appear, people may be coarse barbarians with no idea of entering. Even those who want to enter, falling into extremes of exaggeration or denigration, may fall into the four wrong views. Such people have no freedom of mind. one of these have an opportunity to practice Dharma. They have been deprived of it by their own bad karma of the eight non-freedoms. By abandoning those eight, one always has the corresponding freedoms. The Commentary on the Prajpramit in Eight Thousand Lines says: Beings in Hell, the pretas, and the animals; The long-lived gods and those who are barbarians, Those in an age without Buddhas and those who have wrong views, These and the blind comprise the eight states of non-freedom. The Spiritual Letter, says: Those who grasp wrong views and animals, The hungry ghosts and beings born in Hell, Those without the word of Victory, And those who are born as savage barbarians, The blind, the feeble-minded, and the gods; These possess the faults of the eight non-freedoms. Those who have the freedoms from these eight Should strive in eliminating further births. As for being well-favored, the Moon in your Heart Sutra says: Those for whom the ten qualities are complete Are said to be the ones who are well-favored.

What are these ten qualities. The following have been listed: 1. We have left behind the lower realms of life. 2. We are not feeble-minded. 3. Our senses are not impaired. 4. We are born as vessels. 5. Our health is good. 6. We are not impoverished. 7. We are not enslaved. 8. We have the power to use words. 9. We have come within view of many noble beings. That is many people's view of what they are. But here they are as in the Sutra of the Twelve Perfections: These are the five perfections pertaining to oneself 1. We have attained the human condition. 2. We are born in a country where there are noble ones. 3. Our powers are sound. 4. We have not performed extremely evil deeds. 5. We have faith in the proper topics of faith. These are the five perfections pertaining to others. 6. A Buddha has come. 7. The Dharma has been taught. 8. The holy Dharma still remains. 9. Others also practice it. 10. Others show kindness to those who practice the Dharma. As for kindness to others, the spiritual friend apprehends us with compassion, and leads us to the Dharma. As for there being twelve perfections, the two bases of distinction are also counted. [8] A tantra commentary says: A central human being with faculties that are sound, Without extreme bad actions, but with faith in the objects of faith. These are the five kinds of favor pertaining to oneself. A Buddha has come and taught, and the teaching still remains. The teaching still is followed and beings are kind to others. These are the five kinds of favor pertaining to other beings. [9] Here the freedoms are the essence and the favors are its particular dharmas. This is like the blue utpala lotus and its stalk and so forth. The Middle Length Prajpramit says:

If even becoming human is difficult to attain, Why even speak of completing the view of the precious freedoms? b) ot being steadfast, even if we have the freedoms and favors (I.E. If we waste this great opportunity, we will end up in the three lower realms for a long time without even any knowledge of karma and its consequences. We will thus have no opportunity to get out of them except for one chance out of a billion billion.) Even though we may have attained all of these freedoms, by craving samsaric happiness even a little: If we accomplish no benefit within this life, We may not hear later even the words "the higher realms." Cycling again and again on the wheel of samsara For a long time we will have to stay in the lower realms. Having no knowledge of what we should accept and reject, We will certainly go upon a mistaken path Wandering in samsara, without beginning or end. (I.E. Evaluation for our next rebirth
Have we accumulated

enough merit: love, compassion, wisdom, bodhicitta, six

paramitas
Have we purified To

all our bad karma and evil

be reborn in the three upper realms.

ow that we have the knowledge of karma and its consequences we should take this into account and act accordingly, because once we are in the three lower realms we loose the ability to distinguish between right and wrong actions, and thus keep accumulating the causes for more suffering, keep cycling in the three lower realms.) If within this life, so good to obtain, we do not practice the beneficial holy Dharma, by the power of karma we will be born in the lower realms. There we shall not so much as hear the words "higher realms," to say nothing of going there. The Bodhicaryavatara [10] says: As for our behavior, which is of such a kind, If we shall not even gain a human body, It goes without saying we cannot go to higher realms. For if we shall not even gain a human body, We shall do only evil, and there can be no good. ow when there is a chance for excellent behavior, If, even so, good actions are not what we perform, What are you going to do when they have come for you With the stupefying sufferings of the lower realms?

If we go to the lower realms, we shall not be liberated for a very long time. The same text says: Even in the course of a thousand million kalpas I will not even hear the words, "the higher realms." c) The instruction to strive for the Dharma (i.e. ow that we have come out of the three lower realms and have this very hard to find opportunity, we should rely on the dharma, gather the two accumulations of merit and wisdom, and completely go beyond samsara, so we will never go back to the lower realms. Death is inevitably approaching, and we don't know when. othing else makes sense.) An opportunity of liberation from the limitless depth of samsara is hard to find. So let us strive for the Dharma with all our hearts. That is the instruction. Therefore, now when we still have the power to do so, By auspicious conditions that accord with the proper path, Relying on the inexhaustible wholesome dharmas Gained by having gathered the two accumulations, Let us pass beyond the city of samsara. i.e. Conclusion: We should feel afraid of losing this great opportunity (and for the suffering of the three Lower Realms) and do whatever it takes to recreate it or bring it to its fulfillment. We should also have compassion for all other human beings who, without knowing it, are wasting their time and creating more of their suffering. It is as if, in an eternity of suffering, we have a very brief moment of chance to escape. This kind of opportunity will not present itself for another eternity after that. All we have to do is to realize, using the gift of intelligence and heart we have, the true nature of reality. Anything else is a waste of time and opportunity. Any pleasure is negligible compared to an eternity of suffering. That is the only thing that gives life a meaning. And it is gone so fast. So we should drop other attachments to temporary pleasures that create more suffering here now and in latter lives. Drop this illusion of a body and of a self. Cultivate renunciation and desire for Liberation for all -- Enlightenment. Study and practice Dharma.) Keep in mind aging, becoming old and decrepit, and dying. ow while we still can, let us be guided by the path of liberation. If we do whatever goodness we can, we shall surely come forth from samsara. The Sutra of the Vast Display says:

O monks, because death, aging and enfeeblement are non-existent, because by nourishing goodness, one's powers will be transformed, and because enlightenment will proliferate, strive to accumulate merit and wisdom. For you the three cities of samsara will be emptied. The gates to the lower realms will be cut off. The stairway to the higher realms will be established. The realm of liberation will be attained. d) How we must work hard at this (i.e. ow that we have come out of the three lower realms and have this very hard to find opportunity, there is no better time to try to escape the whole cycle of samsara. After losing this precious human life we will not be able to do it for a very long hard time.) When the freedoms and favors of knowing about and establishing such benefit and goodness are accomplished by a guide who is our spiritual friend, extreme situations do not manifest. When this precious ship has been attained in the middle of the fearful, limitless ocean of samsara: If we do not cross the limitless ocean of samsara ow at the time of having attained this precious ship, Then how can we do it at another time When painful waves of the kleshas are always utterly raging? If we have a great ship, which will serve our purpose, we should use it to cross the ocean. Similarly, having attained this ship of humanity, we should cross the great ocean of samsara, so fearful and unbearable, whose beginning and end are not apparent. Because of wandering in constant birth, old age, sickness, and death, samsaric situations are never bearable. Shantideva says in the Bodhicaryavatara: Whoever with the support of this ship of human birth, Can cross the great waters of the river of suffering, Since later such a ship may be difficult to find, Would be wrong to sleep at this time, because of stupidity. e) The suitability of this, Mind (i.e. This is what we have to understand, to do / to directly see while we can, and the final unborn / uncaused result: All suffering and happiness are from our own mind with ignorance or without ignorance; but not from the mind-only. There is no absolute good and bad; nothing to accept or produce, nothing to reject or drop. But still nothing is uncaused, or without an effect. The problem is the belief in inherent existence, the fixation and grasping based on that. When the mind is purified, and the real non-dual nature of samsaric objects is directly seen, they naturally turn into inseparable kayas, wisdoms beyond conceptualization, and pure Buddha-fields. Objects still appear, but they are seen as illusions. Then the Two Truths of dependent origination and emptiness are united. That is why the path is using both method skillful means upaya and wisdom praja / knowing the emptiness of all objects and means. This is in accord with the real non-dual nature of everything beyond the extremes of existence, non-existence, both, neither.)

Because the freedoms and favors are so difficult to attain: Therefore, quickly donning the armor of exertion Clear the murk of mind and the events of mind, And thus complete the path of spotless, luminous wisdom. May the path of enlightenment be without obstacles. When the turbulence of samsaric mind and mental events is pacified, the luminous wisdom of the nature of mind naturally rises. Becoming familiar with this is called the path of enlightenment. Try to practice it uninterruptedly day and night, abandoning sleep and tiredness. Just remain there. (i.e. More on the Union of the Two Aspects of the real nature of the Mind: The goal is to quickly realize the real nature of our own mind: Emptiness And clarity / luminosity / cognitive lucidity. Like not existing, and not non-existing...the union of the two. Like empty but still functional. Like inseparability of appearances and emptiness, of wisdom and space. Like inseparability of method / upaya / skillful means and wisdom / praja / emptiness. Like the inseparability of the relative and the absolute, of samsara and irvana. Like the Union of the Two Truths: appearances dependently originated and emptiness. Union means non-duality: not one, not two. ot separate or different, not the same. Interdependent. ot realism / Eternalism, not idealism / nihilism, not dualism, not monism. This real nature is beyond any description, beyond any conceptualization, but we use those concepts to say what it is not, thus eliminating the wrong views, and to point toward it. Once the real nature of our body, speech and mind are seen for what they are, they are seen as the Buddha's Trikaya. Once the five poisons are seen for what they really are, they are transmuted into the five wisdoms. Once the real nature of all appearances are seen for what they are, they are self-liberating, and seen as pure Buddha-fields.) i.e. Clarity (Tib. selwa) also translated as luminosity. The nature of mind is that it is empty of inherent existence, but the mind is not just void-ness, completely empty because it has this clarity, which is awareness or the knowing of mind. So clarity is a characteristic of emptiness (shunyata) of mind. Luminosity (Tib. selwa) In the third turning everything is void, but this void-ness is not completely empty because it has luminosity. Luminosity or clarity allows all phenomena to appear and is a characteristic of emptiness (Skt. shunyata).

Co-emergent wisdom (Skt. sahajajnana, Tib. lhen chik kye pay yeshe) The advanced realization of the inseparability of samsara and nirvana and how these arise simultaneously and together. Eight mental fabrications or complications ot having the eight mental fabrications is to be without a beginning, without a cessation, without nihilism, without Eternalism, without going, without coming, not being separate, and not being non-separate. Five poisons (Tib. dug) these are passion aggression, delusion, pride, and jealousy. Five wisdoms (Tib. yeshe nga) Upon reaching enlightenment, the eight consciousnesses are transformed into the five wisdoms: the mirror-like wisdom, discriminating wisdom, the wisdom of equality, the all-accomplishing wisdom, and the Dharmadhatu wisdom. Four extremes (Skt. catushkoti, Tib. mu shi) These are a belief in the existence of everything (also called "Eternalism"), a belief that nothing exists (also called "nihilism"), a belief that things exist and don't exist, and the brief reality is something other than existence and non-existence. (i.e. Vast un-originated self-luminous wisdom space is the ground of being - the beginning and the end of confusion. The presence of awareness in the primordial state has no bias toward enlightenment or non-enlightenment. This ground of being which is known as pure or original mind is the source from which all phenomena arise. It is known as the great mother, as the womb of potentiality in which all things arise and dissolve in natural self-perfected-ness and absolute spontaneity. -- Dzogchen Practice in Everyday Life, HH Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche) (i.e. ow, one can present Mahamudra in different ways. For example, it can be presented as ground Mahamudra, path Mahamudra, and fruition Mahamudra. When it is explained in even more detail, it can be explained as the Four Yogas of Mahamudra, each of which has this threefold classification, thus yielding a twelve-fold Mahamudra. Explanation of this twelve-fold classification seems quite elaborate, but, generally speaking, the idea of ground Mahamudra is quite similar to the Madhyamika explanation of relative and absolute truth. What ground Mahamudra refers to is the luminous energy aspect of the mind that is within every sentient being. Having understood the ground this way, one listens to and contemplates the teachings and then applies them in meditation. This is the path aspect of Mahamudra. Doing so, one becomes clearer about the whole idea of luminosity and the experience of meditation progresses. Having listened and contemplated, one gradually develops consistency in practice until one eventually reaches the point of understanding the vipasyana experience, which is learning to rest the mind in its natural state. In other words, through long, consistent effort, one is actually maturing and ripening the basic emptiness and luminosity of the mind. Thus, the purpose of explaining the Mahamudra teachings is to help everyone understand and realize their own innate nature not something new or extra. In order to understand this innate nature, which has always been within, one listens to and contemplates the teachings and applies them through meditation, which brings about the realization that this quality has always been there; one is not acquiring something new. What one needs to do in order to realize this luminous wisdom energy of the mind is

to eliminate the obscurations, or kleshas, which one has been accumulating from beginning-less time. Through eliminating these obscurations, one comes to the fruition of realizing the luminous wisdom mind. To eliminate or transform these kleshas is very difficult. Why? First of all, we have become familiar with these conflicting emotions since beginning-less time. In a sense, these kleshas have been friends of ours for a very long time. Since they have been friends of ours for such a long time, it is very hard to abandon or give them up immediately. Therefore, tremendous training is required to transmute these kleshas. Generally speaking, it is very difficult to separate the nature of the mind from the mind's own obscurations, because of how they bond together; it seems that there is really no separation between the two. In order to understand the difference, one needs to listen to many teachings. Getting the appropriate information is required. One needs to listen and contemplate, to get enough intellectual feedback, so to speak, to meditate upon that and, having really understood it, to eliminate the confusion once one has grasped the actual realization of wisdom itself. That is the ultimate perfection of realization, free from obscuration, which is known as fruition. The degree to which one individual can understand a teaching depends on his or her depth of comprehension of this wisdom. Whether it is a Mahayana teaching or a Madhyamaka teaching, the aim is to express the ultimate nature of Mahamudra. If an individual lacks this depth of wisdom, then even if given the highest teaching the individual will not grasp the meaning. Therefore, it is said that there are no meaningless or senseless teachings of the Buddha. They all have meaning and all make sense, if we can only comprehend them. -- From: The Mahamudra prayer, Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche - KTD -- See also) (i.e. When the time comes that you can perceive simultaneously the appearance of things without this causing their void-ness to be obscured to your mind, and their void-ness without your mind ceasing to make their appearance dawn, you have directly manifested the excellent pathway mind that perceives everything from the single, integrated point of void-ness and dependent arising being synonymous. The attainment of the resultant two unified Buddha bodies comes from the unified practice of wisdom and method; this follows from the fact that all objects have both void-ness and appearance [levels of truth]. -- The Main Road of the Triumphant Ones, The First Panchen Lama) The Five Stages says: All the complexities of mind and mental events At the time when these are completely pacified Arise as luminosity, the state of wisdom, (i.e. Transmutation of the five poisons into the five wisdoms) This is without conceptions and has no center or limit. (i.e. Wisdoms beyond conceptualization, beyond mental fabrications.) Here, "Mind," means exaggerated conceptions [11], which support the three realms. By the expressions of subsequent analysis [12] in terms of these there arise murky disturbances that obscure Such-ness. But when these conceptions are completely pacified, we enter into wisdom that is completely non-conceptualized. (i.e. Transmutation of the five poisons into the five wisdoms beyond conceptualization)

The Two Truths says: Mind and mental contents [13] are merely conceptualization [14], Exaggerated phenomena, the three realms of samsara (i.e. All merely imputed by the mind, mental fabrications -- dependent on the mind, not existent, but not from the mind-only and completely non-existent.) Samsaric mind correlates with the generalized conception [15] of "this," when an object is first seen [16]. "That's an utpala lotus" is the mind's consciousness [17] of such a first moment. Then, as we discriminate [18] various distinctions of that object, we make analytic demarcations of the contents of mind. Here there are such conceptions as, "this utpala lotus is blue in color, and round in shape. It has a blossom, stamens, and pistil." (i.e. All based on the belief of inherent existence of something, or based on the belief of some absolute, some impartially observed characteristics. We think we are objectively perceiving the characteristics and objects, and thus simply impartially being conscious of their presence. We are not aware that all perceptions and consciousnesses are based on accumulated karma, dependent on the actual five aggregates. So we believe in real impartial discrimination, real classification, real recognition...) The Center and Extremes says: To see the object as "that" is consciousness. Distinctions of that are objects of the mind. The Abhidharmakosha [19] says: There are conception and analytic discernment and these may be fine and coarse. All who are bound in such conception and analytical discernment, bound by such habitual patterns of mind and mental events, are blocked from the level of Buddhahood. (i.e. It is because of this ignorance, the belief in inherent existence, the belief in real characteristics, real objects, real perception, real consciousnesses, that we develop attachment, fears, and all other defilements. Because of this there is cyclic karma formation and suffering.) The Madhyamakavatara [20] says: When all the dry firewood of knowable objects has been burned, There is peace, the Dharmakaya of the victorious ones. Then there is no arising, and also no cessation. Cessation of mind brings manifestation of the kayas. When, within self-awareness wisdom, we become enmeshed in the net of the kleshas, because of the confusion of grasping and fixation, that is called "samsaric mind," the dim and dismal cellar of examination and analysis. Liberation from that is Buddhahood. The enlightened object and perceiver are free from the attachment to the examination and analysis of grasping and fixation. (i.e. When those illusion-like appearances are directly seen for what they really are, when there is realization that there is no absolute / objectively perceived characteristics

of any kind, then they are naturally "transmuted" into kayas, wisdoms, and Buddhafields. If fact, they have always been pure, it was just a matter of perception with ignorance of their real nature. There has never been any real arising, duration and cessation of anything inherently existing. -- There is apparent dependent origination / causality / perception / consciousness, but nothing is inherently existing in this ocean of interdependence. o absolute causes, effects or causality, but no complete absence of causality either. o real production, no complete absence of production either. The real nature of everything is beyond description, beyond any conceptualization, but, still, we can say that everything is not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. -- Samsara and irvana are not different or separate, not the same.) The Praise of the Vajra of Mind, says: If we are enmeshed within the net of kleshas, "Mind" is that which is expressible by speech. If we should be separated from the kleshas, This is the very thing that is known as Buddhahood. The Abhisamayalankara says: Having "big mind" is the jewel itself Buddhahood is having "big mind," or the great wisdom. (i.e. The samsaric mind transmuted into Buddha mind by directly realizing its real nature: being aware of characteristics and objects, using skillful means, but at the same time, being fully aware of their real nature. That is the Union of The Two Truths as realized by the Buddhas. Inseparability of appearances and emptiness. -- So irvana is not different than samsara; it is not going somewhere else, not producing something new; not dropping something bad. It is knowing the real nature of the mind and of everything while using them. o absolute, only relative dependently arisen truths, only adapted skillful means. - Samsara and irvana are not separate or different, not the same.) The Sutra on the Array of Qualities, says: The mind of sentient beings is that of false conception. However, the great wisdom is the mind of Buddhahood. Just like gold in mountains or in the banks of rivers, Sometimes it is pure and sometimes it is not. (i.e. othing new created, it is more like "purifying" something already there: the Buddha-potential, the Buddha-nature.) In Mantrayana big [21] mind and its big kleshas are said to be wisdom itself. It is like that: The dimness that does not know that is purified of its blindness. (i.e. The process of purification, or removing the ignorance of the real nature of the mind, and of everything. The gradual process of letting go of the defilements, the egoistic

obsessions and passions. this letting go of attachments is not done actively by dropping them but the automatic consequential result of directly seeing their real nature.) The unceasing desire of mind is stupidity. When we meditate, objects still appear within awareness, but awareness of concept and analysis ceases. (i.e. The problem is not pure or impure dharmas, nor their appearance, but the ignorance of their real nature. The problem is thinking that concepts represent real things, absolute characteristics and relations. The problem is the fixation and grasping based on the belief in inherent existence. Appearances will not disappear; only the belief in the inherent existence of dharmas and the consequential attachments and fears will be pacified.) (i.e. When the time comes that you can perceive simultaneously the appearance of things without this causing their void-ness to be obscured to your mind, and their voidness without your mind ceasing to make their appearance dawn, you have directly manifested the excellent pathway mind that perceives everything from the single, integrated point of void-ness and dependent arising being synonymous. The attainment of the resultant two unified Buddha bodies comes from the unified practice of wisdom and method; this follows from the fact that all objects have both void-ness and appearance [levels of truth]. -- The First Panchen Lama, The Main Road of the Triumphant Ones) The Sutra on the Bases of Discipline says: Within Dhyana O monks, though the motion of mind has ceased, objects still appear within the sense-consciousnesses. Objects whirl with the motions of samsara. But now they are like fleeting reflections in a still pond. (i.e. Objects are still dependently arisen because not from the mind-only, not completely non-existent, but they are know to be empty of inherent existent, not really existing independently of the mind. That is the inseparability of appearances and mind, their non-duality: not one, not two. They are not separate or different, not the same. -- And from the point of view of the discrimination between objects, since there is no real impartial absolute characteristics (they are all relative to the mind), then there is no real impartial absolute basis for discrimination, for identification of objects. That is why all dharmas are said to be "of one taste". That is their non-duality: they are not separate or different, but still not the same. -- But it should be clear that the Middle Way is staying away from the four extremes of: realism/Eternalism, nihilism/idealism, dualism, and monism/oneness. These four extreme views are not the real nature of everything, even if they might be used as skillful means in particular situations in order to be used as antidotes to their apparent opposite until there is transcendence. The Middle Way is not accepting anything as absolute (all views are flawed, empty of inherent existence), but still not rejecting any views, not rejecting dependent origination, causality, as if they were completely non-existent, of from the mind-only, or un-caused, or non-functional. -- That is the main message of this whole great chariot: the real nature of reality: nonduality: not one, not two; not the same, not different or separate. That is the inseparability of appearances and emptiness; inseparability of dharmas and dharmata; inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness; inseparability of The Two Truths; inseparability of method/upaya and wisdom/praja; luminous space;

inseparability of the two kayas or of the Trikaya; "From the time they appear, their birth and such are nature-less"; "Within the appearance of mind there is no nature at all"; "the perfection of the paramitas is practicing them while knowing the emptiness of the three"; "Even though various images rise within a mirror, The surface of that mirror is really only one"; "Objects are uncertain, appearing in various ways. In the great impartiality, mind has no reference points." "Inseparable and primordial appearance and emptiness Simplicity without perception of either one or many. With neither bias or partiality, all is equal, Equal appearance and emptiness; equal in truth or falsehood. Existence is equal and non-existence is also equal. This is equality transcending all extremes, The single state of the space of primordial purity."; "Insight without fixation is the completeness of being, The nature of the great perfection, the natural state."; "Inseparable absolute and relative Is the great mandala of truth."; "inseparability of space and luminosity/wisdom" -- All of these mean the same thing: we have to unite the two truths, to know the real nature of anything as it arise in dependence, as we use it. We have to combine method and wisdom all the time. -- ote: on-duality, as argarjunas tetralemma, are negation without affirmation. There is no view proposed here, no system, no absolute. This is equivalent to saying: "There is no absolute, only adapted skillful means. Even this is not an absolute, but jut another skillful means. And this ...") The Ascertainment of Proper Reasoning says: Even when the inner self rests motionless, Visual forms arise in the mind of the visual sense. Within the senses, apparent objects are not conceptualized. The same text says: This is taught because sense-awareness is not samsaric. (i.e. The problem is not the objects of the senses, or the perception itself. The problem is 'not knowing the real nature of everything' as we perceive everything. There is nothing to accept, nothing to reject. Everything is already pure when seen for what they are; everything is then self-liberating. -- This precious human life is not the problem; we should not try to reject it, to drop everything. Instead we should try to use it the best we can. A stupid animal, a brainless chicken, or a rock, cannot get enlightened. Even though nothing is absolute, even though everything is empty of inherent existence, we should not think that everything is meaningless, causeless or non-functional. Emptiness doesn't deny dependent origination.) In brief, conceptualization and analysis of objects produced due to grasping and fixation are called samsaric mind and its mental objects. Object and insight [22] when grasping and fixation are completely pacified are kaya and wisdom. (i.e. The problem is thinking that everything is inherently existing, not merely imputed by the mind. It is because of this ignorance that we are grasping at thing, that there is becoming and the consequent suffering. We then discriminate on this basis, thinking things and attributes are inherently existing, absolute.

-- When everything is seen as empty of inherent existence at the same time as they appear, then there is no more attachment and 'problems'. Once the body, speech and minds are seen for what they are, they are the inseparable non-dual unborn Trikaya. When defilements are seen for what they are, they are transmuted into wisdoms beyond the faults of conceptualization. When the environment objects are seen for what they are they are transmuted into Buddha fields. Everything is then pure; that is irvana. -- ote: There is nothing wrong per se with conceptualization, or using models, or using skillful means. The problem is when we think that they represent real things, or that they are absolute theories. The problem is to base those on a belief in inherent existence of some things, some invariants, so objective perception, some absolute truths, some real characteristics. When we fully realize that there is no absolute characteristics, no real basis for discrimination, classification, identification, then we can still perceive the luminosity, but we know their real nature at the same time, and thus we are free from any attachments, ... Thus everything become peace and purity. Still appearing and functional, but empty of inherent existence.) The Sutra of the Glorious Garland says: Whenever there are distinctions of grasping and fixation that is re-provable. Such conceptualization of objects is the mind of samsara. Whenever grasping and fixation do not exist, object and insight are the wisdom of liberation. By that it is established. (i.e. Therefore, I think it's so worthwhile and so important that while we occupy these precious human bodies, with all our intelligence and where everything has come together, we use our ability to seek our inner nature and release ourselves from all the problems of mental defilement, which come from our ego. Everything weve done since the time we were born until now has come from our ego, but it's all been so transitory and our pleasure has been so small. -- Lama Thubten Yeshe, Give Your Ego the Wisdom Eye) (i.e. "We have the opportunities afforded by the holy Dharma, the opportunity to understand the nature of reality and to help all sentient beings. We have the opportunity to reach enlightenment and liberate them from suffering." -- Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche, In Search of a Meaningful Life) f) The samsaric torments if we do not make an effort now. (i.e. So we need both together, this precious human life as the support, and the Dharma to practice. One without the other is totally useless.) A person who has the Dharma by the power of former goodness: Whoever has the happy good fortune of the Dharma, Becoming a vessel of that precious spotlessness, Yet has no use for its cooling rain of Dharma-amrita, Will be annihilated by the torments of samsara.

The holy rain of the cooling waters of wisdom From the banks of clouds of benefit and great bliss Falls to cleanse the free and favored minds of beings. Being a good vessel is like having the precious human body. When the rain of Dharma falls on us, if we are not vessels who can hold it, we will only exhaust oneself in suffering in the torments of samsara. The Generation Born in an Iron House says: Even though the free and favored vessel is gained, Since no drops of Dharma are received within it, We shall roast in Hellfire, so difficult to bear. Long and excruciating pain will be our karma. g) The teaching of the freedoms and favors, which support the Dharma. (i.e. Once we have this precious human life as the support, the rain of Dharma naturally falls. And vice versa. To increase its benefits we need to practice it. This is like a self-amplifying virtuous process; each of these two elements support each other. Realizing this we practice with joy. That is the way good karma and favorable five aggregates are related: not separate or different, not the same.) Supported by the freedoms that we have, the natural arising of Dharma is like this: Therefore joyfully practice the Dharma from your heart. That is the instruction. The supreme teachings of the Buddha are the rain of Dharma. The freedoms and favors are its support. This rain naturally falls. The Arrangement of the Vessel says: Kye! O child of a noble family, for those with the freedoms and favors, the great rain of perfect Dharma will fall. They will possess immeasurable benefits. h) Why the freedoms and favors are difficult to obtain: (i.e. Once we have fallen into the three lower realms, this human life is extremely hard to get because, there, we are continually tormented, we have no leisure to learn the dharma, and even don't have any understanding of karma and its consequences. So, the probability to produce enough good karma to have a rebirth as a human is extremely infinitesimal. It is even harder to have both a human life and the actual ability and opportunity to practice the Dharma. So let's not waste it and fall back to the three lower realms.)

It is harder for us to gain a human birth Than for a tortoise to thrust its head into a yoke That is tossed about in the middle of the ocean. That is what the teacher of Gods and men has said. Then why even speak of a free and well-favored body. Let us be diligent in days that are to come. (i.e. Rare and very hard to obtain) a) Causes producing this very rare effect Strict moral discipline Complementary practices: Generosity, Patience... Prayers with strong aspiration to be reborn with a precious human life b) The turtle analogy
o The probability of having a rebirth with a precious human life from one of the three lower realms is almost negligible (see: turtle analogy)

c) By the numbers umber of hell beings is greater than umber of hungry ghosts is greater than umber of animals is greater than umber of humans is greater than umber of humans practicing dharma in a pure form.
o

Conclusion
From one of the three lower realms it is almost impossible to get a precious human life. So we should have this urge not to waste any moment of it and take the full potential of it.) Let us say that a turtle lives in an ocean for a hundred times a hundred years. Floating upon that ocean is a single yoke with a hole in it, blown by the wind so that it did not stay in one place for even a moment. It is very unlikely that the turtle's throat will be thrust into it. But obtaining a human body from within the lower realms of samsara is taught to be far more difficult. The Spiritual Letter says: It is harder to gain a human birth and the Dharma, From the state of having been an animal, Than for a turtle to put its head into a yoke While both of them are lost in the vastness of the ocean. Therefore with these faculties of human beings By practicing holy Dharma let us reach its fruition.

The Bodhicaryavatara says: This is the reason why the Bhagavan has taught That attaining human birth is much more difficult Than for a turtle to put its head into a yoke, Tossed within the vastness of a limitless ocean. As for the scripture they are speaking about, the Bunch of Flowers says: It is difficult for the Buddha Bhagavats to enter into the world. But very much more difficult than that is attaining human birth. Let the reason for this be taught in an example. O Shariputra, let the great difficulty of the first be like an ocean. Within it let there be a yoke, having a single hole. Let there also be a decrepit turtle. In that great ocean the wind blows from above and blows from below, and as it blows these things about, that decrepit turtle rises out of the ocean once in a hundred times a hundred years. The difficulty of becoming human again after having fallen back is not equal to that of the throat of that decrepit turtle that rises once in a hundred times a hundred years quickly entering into the hole of that quickly moving yoke. For those who fall away like that, becoming human again is very much more difficult. If even attaining the human body is so very difficult, why even speak of a body with the freedoms and favors, and the view that realizes the Dharma. The Bodhicaryavatara says: That a Tathgata has actually arisen, That we have faith, and have attained a human body, And that, in addition, we can practice goodness; When will what is so rare ever be gained again? The Request of The One with the Jewel in the Crown says: To see a guide is something very hard to find. To hear the teachings, the Dharma of peace, is very hard. It is very hard to be born as a free and favored person. Discipline and faith are always hard to find. B. ow there is the second division of the general meaning: delineating the nature of the freedoms and favors Recognition of being free and well favored (i.e. The need to put the instructions of the Dharma into pure practice motivate by bodhicitta and not mixed with worldly concerns / dharmas. Only then will we progress quickly. After a while the merit and virtues gained will help to make the practice more and more easy and natural.) There are six sections: 1. The explanation of merely attaining a human body

(Having a human body is not enough to be called precious. One has to encounter the dharma, to practice it, to live in it exclusively, and to encourage others to do so.) a. Here is the explanation of the three divisions of those with a human body (3 type of humans) b. What is said about the divisions (Those who have no knowledge of right and wrong, none about karma and its consequences; the barbarians. They will fall into the three lower realms) 2. The special human body (Those who though may have heard the Dharma do not apply the teachings. They never, or not enough, acted on what they heard. They do not have enough faith, and have too many distractions. Their discipline is not pure enough. Their understanding of karma and its consequences is not perfect; they mix good and bad. They are slightly above the lower realms. They will fall into the three lower realms because of their negligence) 3. The Precious Human Body (Those who are spotless vessels, the precious ones. They have heard and practiced the Dharma, tamed their mind, and are also exhorting others to goodness. They are not only conceptualizing it; they are living it 100% all the time, combining method and wisdom, producing union beyond conceptualization and dualities) 4. Why we should think about the Dharma (Renunciation of the worldly concerns, motivated by bodhicitta, and thinking only about the Dharma, helps to make it less difficult to practice. The more you do it the more it becomes easy. Mixing it with worldly concerns makes it very difficult to understand and to practice. It is like starting from scratch all the time; like falling back to a bad habit while trying to go over it. Like trying to go over an addiction while living among people who are indulging in this addiction. Practicing only the Dharma is a self-amplifying good habit; it generates virtues that facilitate the practice. Wisdom and method are supporting each other. The reverse is like growing a bad habit that gets stronger and stronger and brings more and more suffering. That is the way the cycle of karma and the five aggregates are related: not separate or different, not the same.) 5. The benefit of contemplating the reason (The benefit of renunciation, motivated by bodhicitta, and exerting ourselves in the Dharma alone, is going quickly beyond all conditioning, beyond all uncontrolled karma formation, beyond all suffering, to perfect peace; and more: Enlightenment.) 6. If the inhabitants of this earth practice, there will be great benefit (So it is not enough to be humans; we have to live in goodness. Only fools would knowingly waste such great opportunity. We have to exert ourselves in the truth and goodness of Dharma alone, in order to gradually purify our mind and quickly attain the perfection of the Buddha qualities and be in a position to help all other sentient beings

stuck with ignorance in this samsaric cycle of suffering. While we practice the virtuous actions, our virtues will increase and make it even more and more easier to live in virtues. There are also great short-term benefits for all.) 1. The explanation of merely attaining a human body (i.e. Having a human body is not enough to be called precious. One has to encounter the dharma, to practice it, to live in it exclusively, and to encourage others to do so.) a. Here is the explanation of the three divisions of those with a human body (3 type of humans) b. What is said about the divisions (Those who have no knowledge of right and wrong, none about karma and its consequences; the barbarians. They will fall into the three lower realms) What is a "precious human body?" a. Here is the explanation of the three divisions of those with a human body: (i.e. 3 type of humans:) There are some who merely gain a human birth, Some whose body is special, and some whose birth is precious. b. What is said about the divisions: (i.e. i- Those who have no knowledge of right and wrong, none about karma and its consequences; the barbarians. They will fall into the three lower realms.) Respectively these are persons who act improperly, Because they have no knowledge of what is right and wrong. Even if their powers are sound, their birth is common. They are barbarians even in the central realm. The Sutra of Precious Space says: These are born in the human world because of former goodness, have senses that are completely sound, and always are born in a country where the Dharma is practiced. However, they still do not know about karma and its ripening. Many of them will depend on the path of what is not good. It may be said that these have become human beings, but they will only be the worse for it. That is the last time they will be human, because they will fall without limit into the lower realms of death.

(i.e. Be Careful : Dangers In This Life)

The Sixteen Unfavorable Conditions


(Eight lack of freedom plus Sixteen unfavorable conditions equals Twenty-Four situations which become hindrances to the practice of the Dharma) -- While we may have been able to avoid the eight gross negativities, there still remain the sixteen unfavorable conditions that we can be ensnared by, if indeed, this has not already occurred. Therefore, it is important to know what they are, so that we can maintain a vigilant mindfulness to remain free of them. 1. The upheaval of negative emotions 2. Coming under the influence of bad friends 3. Coming under the influence of false views and practices 4. Habit of laziness 5. Effects from previous bad actions 6. Falling under the control of another person 7. To practice the Dharma in the hopes of gaining more material comforts for yourself 8. To seek understanding of the Dharma merely to gain fame and reputation for yourself 9. Great attachment to wealth and to oneself 10. Having an overly aggressive and rude personality 11. Having no fear of the different sufferings 12. Insensitivity to the teachings 13. Having no appreciation of Dharma practice 14. Having the propensity for indulging in negativities 15. Having negative views about a solemn vow or aspiration one has made and then violating it 16. Breaking the samayas, the sacred commitments, one has with the teacher from whom one has received the sacred teachings and empowerments.

The Sixteen Wrong Views and Sixteen Positive Attitudes


Guru, precious life, death, attachment, three LR, refuge, karma, Living according to the law of cause and effect,

Un-satisfactoriness, renunciation, liberation, Three higher trainings, loving our mothers, self-cherishing, emptiness, tantra

The Eight Worldly Dharmas - Motivations


Being Being Being

desirous of gain and averse to loss desirous of receiving praise and averse to receiving blame desirous of receiving benefit and averse to receiving harm

Being desirous of the pleasant feeling that arises from a good reputation and being averse to the unpleasant feeling that arises from a bad reputation) (i.e. Beings possessing a human body who haven't met Dharma, no matter how much wealth they have, no matter how may friends they have, no matter how much they appear to be enjoying their lives, in reality are only living with hallucination; they are living with wrong concepts, so many piles of wrong concepts. They are not aware of what is happening to them, they are not aware of their own life. They are not aware of the powers of their hallucination, the piles of wrong concepts that compel them to create the causes of samsara and the causes of the lower realms. They don't have the opportunity to plant the seed to be free from samsara, to cut the root of samsaric ignorance, because there is no understanding of emptiness, no opportunity to meditate on emptiness. If a person has a good heart, a sincere mind, and gives some help to others without expecting any results, then maybe they create some pure Dharma -- and that's very rare; otherwise not. Usually people live the life only with a worldly mind, particularly attachment, clinging to this life. They use the whole human life, the precious human body and all their education just to create additional causes to go to the lower realms. This is what is happening in every day life. For the entire life people act like a moth attracted to the flame, completely hallucinated, completely deceived, not knowing the flame will burn, that it is completely other than what it appears. Even though they get burned, while they still have the power to fly they will continue to go towards the flame. It is exactly the same with a fish and a baited hook. The fish does not know that there is a hook that cheats, leading to death and unbelievable suffering. Having no idea of the danger, it is constantly being drawn with strong desire toward the hook baited with a piece of meat. The result that the fish experiences is completely other than what it expected. Once caught, there is no way to get away alive. Following the dissatisfied mind, desire, the worldly mind, brings exactly the same result. Once sunk in the quagmire of the activities of this life, it is difficult to escape the hundreds of different problems, emotional pains of the mind and of the body that come from this one root, the dissatisfied mind, desire, attachment, clinging to this life. All we are doing is making samsara longer by creating karma; we are making a donation, a contribution to samsaric suffering, making it longer and longer. And then, of course, there are the sufferings of the lower realms, which are difficult to get out of. It's the same with the way in which an elephant can be caught. A female elephant is used as a lure; the male elephant becomes crazy with desire and as a result, becomes trapped inside a cage. What was expected in the beginning was happiness, but what was received in the end was something else, something completely frightening.

All these examples show us the way in which samsara and the samsaric perfections cheat us that they are not to be trusted. -- Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Advice from the Spiritual Friend: Remembering Death) 2. The special human body (i.e. Those who, though may have heard the Dharma, do not apply the teachings. They never, or not enough, acted on what they heard. They do not have enough faith, and have too many distractions. Their discipline is not pure enough. Their understanding of karma and its consequences is not perfect; they mix good and bad. They are slightly above the lower realms. They will fall into the three lower realms because of their negligence.) Those who do not apply the teachings are confused They do not have proper faith about what is right and wrong. Preoccupied with this life, distracted by its business, Undisciplined and beguiled, neglecting what is to come, With no interest in liberation, though they may hear the Dharma, They do not have the best body, but only the middle kind. Occasionally their minds are drawn to something wholesome, But mostly their mental vision is blocked by evil deeds. They only go through the motions, what good are they to anyone? Whether they take the form of a householder or a monk, Only because they are slightly above lower realms, The Buddha has said that these have a special human body. The Sutra of Precious Space says: In the realm of sentient beings some do not dwell purely in the Dharma, even though they could, because their behavior mixes right and wrong, and they are preoccupied with worldly activities. Even if they are sincere, with undisciplined body, speech, and mind, they are easily seduced. Falling into the three lower realms, they have the karma of remaining there. However, since they have seen the sunlight of the Buddha's compassion, and have had seeds of liberation for a long time, they are said to have the special human body. (i.e. eight worldly dharmas (Tib. jik ten ch gy) These keep one from the path; they are attachment to gain, attachment to pleasure, attachment to praise, attachment to fame, aversion to loss, aversion to pain, aversion to blame, and aversion to a bad reputation.) Because their behavior mixes vice and virtue and they give only lip service to devotion, they are not protected from the lower realms. The Samadhiraja Sutra says: Breaking their discipline, they go to the lower realms. They are unprotected, no matter how great their learning. The irvana Sutra says:

Kashyapa, the monk Devadatta had heard only the ordinary sutra vehicle of the burden of an elephant. Even though he grasped it, because of his non-virtue, he fell into the lower realms. The Pair Sutra says: Collection of Medicines, those sentient beings who wail so at the time of death are not among the ones who possess ripened karma of good deeds. If these are protected from karma, who would not be? Also it says there: Though the Tathgata has arisen and been seen, And though the striking of the gandi has been heard, Though they have heard the teachings of the holy Dharma, Which take us to the peace which is called nirvana, evertheless they never acted on what they heard. People such as these are later going to say: I am a person with the mind of a perfect fool. Having fallen under the power of bad companions, By the desires which rose from confusion in my mind, I produced the karma of many evil deeds. By cultivating and going along with these desires I have been a murderer of living beings. By listening to the people who waste the goods of the Sangha I had to know the unbearable fruit of doing that. I am destroying stupas by my harmful thoughts By malicious words I punish everyone, even my mother. Regarding this human body that I formerly made Soon all my transgressions will be common knowledge. My mind will then be summoned to the lowest Hells. The births I see ahead are more than I can bear. 3. The Precious Human Body. (i.e. Those who are spotless vessels, the precious ones. They have heard and practiced the Dharma, tamed their mind, and are also exhorting others to goodness. They are not only conceptualizing it; they are living it 100% all the time, combining method and wisdom, producing union beyond conceptualization and dualities.) As for the third part: Supremely excellent beings, spotless vessels of Dharma Apply their powers to what they hear and contemplate. Having tamed themselves, they establish others in goodness. They are immovable in their practice, like Mount Meru. All these straightforward sages, like banners of saintliness,

Whether they are householders or renunciates, Are taught by the Teacher to have the precious human body. (i.e. Rinpoche Literally, "very precious" and is used as a term of respect for a Tibetan guru.) After having tamed oneself by hearing, contemplating, and the yogic resting of meditation, one also exhorts others to goodness. That is the good gate of auspicious Dharma. Putting on the great armor of liberation one flourishes the great banner of the sages. Calling this badge or clothing a victory banner is not just a figure of speech. When we urge others to work for the good, whether one lives in a house or is a renunciate, this is called having the precious human body. The Sutra of Glorious Secret says: Glorious Secret, though many have heard this, their hearing is obstructed. The meaning is made into conceptualized thoughts. But by meditating without kleshas, union is produced. If one also urges others to do this, this produces the essence of the freedoms and favors, the most sublimely beautiful thing in this world including its gods. Also the Middle Length Prajpramit says: Subhuti, bodhisattvas say, "I practice the good," to exhort others to do the same. Producing the essence of the freedoms and favors, this is praised by all the Buddhas. I praise it. I honor it. As to how others should be exhorted the Vast Play says: All compounded things will quickly be destroyed. Like lightening in the sky they cannot last for long. As your time too is therefore drawing ever nearer, The time has come for true repentance to manifest. The master Chandrakirti says: First for a little while all the listeners Will certainly be joined to small talk and the like. When they become good vessels, after that occurs, That is the time to relate to them with deeper words. That is how it should be done. What it is to be such a vessel generally depends on which of the vehicles one is concerned with. In particular, as for the freedoms and favors in the unsurpassable vessel, the Jewel of Space Sutra says: The bodhisattva Akashagarbha asked, "Bhagavan, how should the freedoms and favors be viewed?" This was the word of the Buddha: If it is divided by the discursive conceptions of mind, it is abused. This should be known as disturbing what one is engaged in. After discursive

conceptions of mind have been pacified, resting within the nature is known as freedom. As for the favors, if the nature of mind, awareness, receives the wealth of what mind really is, that is being well favored. 4. Why we should think [only] about the Dharma. (i.e. Renunciation of the worldly concerns, motivated by bodhicitta, and thinking only about the Dharma, helps to make it less difficult to practice. The more you do it the more it becomes easy. Mixing it with worldly concerns makes it very difficult to understand and to practice. It is like starting from scratch all the time; like falling back to a bad habit while trying to go over it. Like trying to go over an addiction while living among people who are indulging in this addiction. - - Practicing only the Dharma is a self-amplifying good habit; it generates virtues that facilitate the practice. Wisdom and method are supporting each other. - - The reverse is like growing a bad habit that gets stronger and stronger and brings more and more suffering. - - That is the way the cycle of karma and the five aggregates are related: not separate or different, not the same.) Here is the reason why the person who has attained freedom and favor should think only of the Dharma: Therefore, having heard the Dharma from holy beings, To establish what is proper, abide within in the Dharma Cultivate what is Dharmic, weed out what is not. By practicing Dharma, we will abide within the Dharma. That is the holy instruction. It is difficult to meet with a spiritual friend. To hear the Dharma and be able to practice it is difficult. Always to work hard is very difficult. When the Buddha was expounding the scriptures of the Vinaya at Vaishali, this was among the beneficial instructions given: O monks, look on the beings of the lower realms. After going there, a material human form is very difficult to obtain. (i.e. starting from scratch) Look on bad teachers. Meeting a genuine spiritual friend is very difficult. Look on those who have broken their discipline, and how they have damaged discipline and liberation. By dwelling in the goodness of renunciation, Dharma, which alone is good, will be practiced. Therefore, joyfully dwell in forests or monasteries, and go beyond these others. 5. The benefit of contemplating the reason (i.e. The benefit of renunciation, motivated by bodhicitta, and exerting ourselves in the Dharma alone, is going quickly beyond all conditioning, beyond all uncontrolled karma formation, beyond all suffering, to perfect peace; and more: Enlightenment.) As for the benefit produced: Procrastinate no longer. Cross over Samsras ocean. Quickly go to the island of peace and pass beyond suffering. The Request of Devaputra Sutra says:

Devaputra, Exerting ourselves in this alone, let us exert ourselves on the side of the good. We shall quickly hold the benefits of complete, perfect enlightenment. The Spiritual Letter says: Having well attended an excellent spiritual friend, We ought to make the attempt to behave in a decent way. This is what was taught by the utterly perfect Sage. Attend on holy beings, for having attended them, There are very many who will attain to peace. 6. If the inhabitants of this earth practice, there will be great benefit. (i.e. So it is not enough to be humans; we have to live in goodness. Only fools would knowingly waste such great opportunity. We have to exert ourselves in the truth and goodness of Dharma alone, in order to gradually purify our mind and quickly attain the perfection of the Buddha qualities and be in a position to help all other sentient beings stuck with ignorance in this samsaric cycle of suffering. While we practice the virtuous actions, our virtues will increase and make it even more and more easier to live in virtues. There are also great short term benefits for all.) Beings who have been born as inhabitants of this earth, Jambuling, have established a portion of goodness. But if, having become human beings, they do not train in goodness, here is what is said: There is no one who has a mind more foolish Than those becoming human who do not live in goodness. Like coming back empty-handed from a land of jewels, They make no use of the freedom and favor of their lives. So let us act in the way of the Dharma, which leads to peace. Though we may have attained these freedoms, if we do not practice the holy Dharma, then even though we have come to an island of precious jewels, we take none of them. Returning empty-handed, we are fools. The Bodhicaryavatara says: If even having attained the leisure of these freedoms We do not train in what is wholesome and what is good, There is no seduction that is greater than this. There can be no fool who is greater than such a one. After doing some insignificant bit of good, we shall not have complete attainment. But by exerting themselves in the truth and goodness of Dharma alone, many attain the perfection of the Buddha qualities. The Precious Mala says: Thus it is that if we always practice the Dharma, We shall be the masters of all within the world.

Whoever transforms what is noxious into goodness, In a little while will surely reach the peak. Because the good of Dharma will wake us from our sleep, When we awake to goodness, we shall be purified. Because the master within us is one who has no faults, (i.e. Buddha-nature) Even in dreams we shall see what is virtuous and wholesome. If we have respectful devotion to our parents, Attending on the principal persons of our family, Committing ourselves with patience to virtuous behavior, Speaking soft words of truth without any calumny, By such discipline over a single lifetime, The powers of a god have actually been attained. Once again at this time, we shall produce those powers, We gradually will establish the state of Buddhahood. After that: As for the benefits, the fruition of such karma, We shall act in accordance with what we have come to know. (i.e. A self-amplifying virtuous process.) If we are always performing benefits for beings, This itself will be of benefit to us. While we do so, for this reason, there will be the wholesome merits of the Dharma. C. True examination of the nature of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world True analysis of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world (i.e. The perfection of this meditation: meditating on the precious hard to get human life with its freedoms, endowments and opportunity, while remembering the emptiness of the three, their non-duality, or interdependence. Using both method/upaya and wisdom/praja, in accord with the goal, in accord with the non-dual nature of everything (not existence, not non-existence, not both, not neither). The fruit of this meditation: great joy and enthusiasm to practice day and night. The best support of all the vehicles. Better than a rebirth as a god.) There are six sections: 1. The teaching of mind, the root of Dharma (Emptiness, all merely imputed by the mind: Perfecting the meditation on the precious human life (and dependent origination) by joining wisdom to the method. Combining to this meditation (and dependent origination), a meditation on emptiness. Perfecting this meditation by seeing the real nature (emptiness, non-duality) of the elements of this meditation: the interdependence between the world and the mind, the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness, the non-dual luminous space. - - First we

understand this intellectually, then we try to see this directly observing our own mind in meditation, then to abide in this non-dual not-conceptual truth all the time. - - Since everything is dependent on the mind, since all problems and solutions come from the mind, we should turn inward, guard the mind and tame it, gradually purifying it. - Since Liberation is gained by directly seeing the unborn non-dual nature of our own mind, and thus the real nature of everything, we have to first calm the body and mind with moral discipline, to tame the mind, to develop great peace and concentration, in order to be able to get insights and develop wisdom. Since the potential is already present, it is compared to a process of gradual purification of our body, speech and mind. When their real nature is directly seen, they are seen as the inseparable Trikaya and wisdoms.) 2. The Instruction that We Should Exert ourselves in Dharma Day and ight (Dependent origination, not from the mind-only, not useless / meaningless: Meditating on the precious human life (and dependent origination) with its freedoms, endowments and opportunity, and the consequence of not taking full benefits of it, helps us to be motivated to practice purely day and night. It is a positive antidote against discouragement, depression, and nihilism. - - The practice is not useless even if everything is impermanent, unsatisfactory, and empty of inherent existence. - - Saying that everything is dependent on the mind, empty of inherent existence, doesn't mean that everything is from the mind-only, or completely non-existent. Emptiness doesn't mean that there is no precious human life, no karma consequences, that we should reject everything, that everything is meaningless, useless, a-causal or non-functional. Emptiness doesn't deny dependent origination. They are interdependent; one implies the other. They are not separate or different, not the same. The application is that if we do not use this opportunity to escape samsara we will be stuck in it and suffering for a long time. But if we use it fully, we can transcend all conditioning, and suffering. There is nothing better to do than to practice the dharma, to aim from transcendence of all impermanent empty conditioning.) 3. When the benefits have been explained, we arouse joy (We are extremely fortunate to have this opportunity, this access to the dharma, and to be able to practice it purely. Repeating this meditation on our precious human life with its freedoms, endowments and opportunity brings great joy and helps us to be motivated to practice purely day and night. So this meditation is part of the virtuous actions that increase the virtues and make it less and less difficult to practice the Dharma. It is part of the self-amplifying virtuous cyclic process of wholesome actions and good conditions: good / white karma formation. And it reinforces the antidote against rejection, the extreme of nihilism / idealism. It reinforces the idea that "methods" are necessary in addition to wisdom.) 4. How we can attain superhuman goodness (This precious human life, because it is unsatisfactory but still permits to seek the truth and to escape the whole cycle of samsara, is more precious than a rebirth as a god. Gods usually do not have the motivation to seek liberation from their conditions, or to seek Enlightenment. If they do, gods have too much pride to succeed. Therefore, we should

rejoice in having this precious human life with its imperfections, freedoms, endowments and opportunity to learn the Dharma and practice it purely.) 5. Praise of the freedoms and favors, the [best] support of all the vehicles (This precious human life is the best support of all the vehicles. It permits to reach the goals of any vehicle: either simply a good rebirth, the complete Liberation from samsara for us alone, or the full Enlightenment of the Mahayana. It even permits to practice the quick path of the Tantra yana.) 6. Meditating on how difficult these are to obtain (The actual meditation on this difficulty of obtaining a human body: Take refuge, arouse bodhicitta, visualize that we have this complete precious human body with the freedoms and endowments. And we fell great joy (no fear or discouragement or depression) because we have it. Ending with dedication.)

1. The teaching of mind, the root of Dharma. (i.e. Emptiness, all merely imputed by the mind: Perfecting the meditation on the precious human life (and dependent origination) by joining wisdom to the method. Combining to this meditation (and dependent origination), a meditation on emptiness. Perfecting this meditation by seeing the real nature (emptiness, non-duality) of the elements of this meditation: the interdependence between the world and the mind, the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness, the non-dual luminous space. - First we understand this intellectually, then we try to see this directly observing our own mind in meditation, then to abide in this non-dual not-conceptual truth all the time. - Since everything is dependent on the mind, since all problems and solutions come from the mind, we should turn inward, guard the mind and tame it, gradually purifying it. - Since Liberation is gained by directly seeing the unborn non-dual nature of our own mind, and thus the real nature of everything, we have to first calm the body and mind with moral discipline, to tame the mind, to develop great peace and concentration, in order to be able to get insights and develop wisdom. Since the potential is already present, it is compared to a process of gradual purification of our body, speech and mind. When their real nature is directly seen, they are seen as the inseparable Trikaya and wisdoms.) When we undertake to find the natures of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world, they are truly analyzed as being one: (i.e. The world and the mind are not separate or different. But, as we will also see in the next point, they are not the same either. They are interdependent. They are inseparable. They are not two, not one. They are non-dual. Everything is dependent on the mind (not existent independently or inherently), but not from the mind only (not completely nonexistent), etc. (not both existent and non-existent, not neither existent nor non-existent).) (i.e. "Today's world requires us to accept the oneness of humanity." -- HHDL speech, 1997; also)

Dharma depends on mind, and likewise mind in turn Depends on the freedoms and favors, so both depend on them. ow these many conditions and causes have come together. The thing we chiefly need to do is tame our minds. (i.e. All problems and solutions come from the mind. So turn inward. To be free from the suffering of everything we have to seek and directly see the real nature of everything. To do that we have to turn inward, seek and directly see the real nature of our own mind. To be able to directly see the real nature of the mind, we have first to calm the body and mind greatly, to purify it from all the mud swirls that are constantly obscuring its true essence. And to be able to do that, we have to renounce worldly goals after seeing their impermanence and unsatisfactory nature. -- ote: Total control of the mind is not the goal. The Middle Way is not letting the mind go wild, not trying to control it. The goal is to directly see its subtle non-dual unborn nature. So calming the body and mind, like renunciation, motivated by bodhicitta, are temporary adapted skillful means. Once we have directly seen the real nature of our own mind, and thus have directly seen the real nature of everything, then there is nothing to reject, and nothing to gain. Everything is already pure, inseparability of appearance and emptiness, self-liberating.) (i.e. Using both method and wisdom: Here the method of meditating on the precious human life with its freedoms and opportunity is mixed with the wisdom of realizing the real nature of everything including the mind: their emptiness of inherent existence, being merely imputed by the mind, while still being dependently arisen and functional. So we are using both method and wisdom together, increasing the two accumulations together, even with this first basic meditation. -- The mind is empty, but still dependently arisen depending on conditions, and still functional in influencing the way we see the world. So the mind and the world are interdependent: not separate or different, not the same; not two, not one; they are inseparable, non-dual. -- Everything is dependently arisen, dependent on the mind, and thus empty of inherent existence; not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. -- Karma is dependent on the five aggregates, and the five aggregates are dependent on karma. They are not different or separate, not the same. The only control we can really have is on our own mind. The only direct experience we can have is with our own mind.) All dharmas depend on mind. Mind depends on the free and well-favored human body. This is the interdependent arising of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world. Mind is the realm of Dharma, the cause of all that is wholesome. As it is the companion necessary condition of the freedoms and favors, we must study exactly how to tame the mind. (i.e. Interdependence of the world and the mind equals inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness, inseparability of appearances and emptiness; the inseparability of the two truths, ... This will be the recurring theme in this whole document. It is all based on the fact that the real nature of everything, even if beyond all description and beyond all conceptualization, is not existence, not non-existence, not both, not neither. That is why we cannot accept anything as absolute, nor reject anything as if completely non-existent. That is why we need to use both method and wisdom together all the time. That is why there is the two accumulations of merit and

wisdom. -- Here it means that we need to realize that this precious human life, although empty of inherent existence, is still dependent on causes and conditions, and still functional, still efficient in gaining wisdom and transcendence from all conditioning. -- Also since everything is coming from the mind, we need to understand this aspect and thus understand how suffering and happiness are caused by our own mind.) The Spiritual Letter says: The Bhagavan says we must tame our minds. Mind is the root of Dharma, as is taught. The All-creating King, says: Without remainder all dharmas, however they appear, Are emanated by mind, produced by the nature of mind. The Lankavatara Sutra says: Though reflections may appear within a mirror They do not exist; and if we do not know The appearances of mind as mere appearances, The duality of conceptual thinking will arise. With the seeds of habitual patterns, what is completely pure Arises as the variety of the mental contents. Though for human beings these seem to be external, evertheless the phenomenal world is only mind. (i.e. All merely imputed by the mind, dependent on the mind.) Also it says there, in regard to mind that does not possess true reality: For mind that is disturbed by seeds of habitual patterns Within the completely real, appearances will arise. The appearances of mind are like those of a dream. Arising merely from the viewpoint of confused mind, the variety of inner and outer arises as nothing at all. Such appearances arise from the seeds of confused habitual patterns. In reality they do not truly exist; but because they appear in the mind as if they did, mind is the root of all dharmas. Though mountains and so forth appear externally projected from the viewpoint of confused mind [23], there are really no mountains. They exist only in the mind. If students have not guarded the mind before, they will not be able to guard it later. The Bodhicaryavatara says: If this mind has not been guarded previously, We will not be able to keep the disciplines. Also it says there:

Aside from the kind of discipline that guards the mind, What is the use of performing many disciplines? Also it says there: Thus it is that everything that frightens us, And also all of our measureless pain and suffering, Are only contents that have risen with the mind. So it has been taught by the Speaker of Truth himself. Who was it that produced the multitude of weapons For the use of sentient beings within the Hells? Who was it that produced this ground of blazing iron? From where do these multitudes of blazing flames arise [24]? Every one of them, and all such things as these, Are the mind of the evildoer, so the Sage has said. Thus it is that in the whole of this three-fold world, there are no terrors that are other than the mind. Also it says there: If we ever succeed in taming the mind alone, All these various things will likewise have been tamed. Since all that is wholesome and unwholesome within samsara has arisen from mind, working to tame the mind is the root of all Dharmas. (i.e. All paths turn around "taming the mind", "directly seeing the real nature of the mind and thus of everything".) The Sutra of the Clouds of the Three Jewels says: When we have been instructed by our worldly mind, This mind of ours will never see the actual mind. All our virtuous karma and that which has no goodness Are nothing but collections in that worldly mind. Also it says there in the chapter called, "Guarding the light:" Mind produces various karmas like a painter. In manifesting all harm, it is like an external danger. In producing all suffering, it is like an enemy. The Dro amje Sutra [25] says The ground is made of iron, blazing hot, And blazing tongues of flame are everywhere. The justice of the sharpened iron saws Divides a single body into eight. Such things as these arise as mental contents, From evil acts of body, speech, or mind.

Mind is the root of all our joys and sorrows. Our only effort should be to tame the mind. (i.e. All problems and solutions come from the mind.) 2. The Instruction that We Should Exert ourselves in Dharma Day and ight. (i.e. Dependent origination, not from the mind-only, not useless / meaningless: Meditating on the precious human life (and dependent origination) with its freedoms, endowments and opportunity, and the consequence of not taking full benefits of it, helps us to be motivated to practice purely day and night. It is a positive antidote against discouragement, depression, and nihilism. - - The practice is not useless even if everything is impermanent, unsatisfactory, and empty of inherent existence. - - Saying that everything is dependent on the mind, empty of inherent existence, doesn't mean that everything is from the mind-only, or completely non-existent. Emptiness doesn't mean that there is no precious human life, no karma consequences, that we should reject everything, that everything is meaningless, useless, a-causal or non-functional. Emptiness doesn't deny dependent origination. They are interdependent; one implies the other. They are not separate or different, not the same. - - The application is that if we do not use this opportunity to escape samsara we will be stuck in it and suffering for a long time. But if we use it fully, we can transcend all conditioning, and suffering. There is nothing better to do than to practice the dharma, to aim from transcendence of all impermanent empty conditioning.) When we are wandering in samsara, as successive distractions occurring time and time again, here is what should be done: Being terrified of death, within our endless births, With deprivation and suffering falling on us like rain, Arises from making no use of being free and well-favored. The result is a state of becoming radically disturbed. The higher manifestations, the dharmas of truth and goodness Arise from thinking how hard it is to be free and favored, Enjoy such an effort unstintingly, working day and night. (i.e. Meditating on the precious human birth as an antidote to discouragement and depression. The opposite is the meditation about death and impermanence. We have to know which antidote to use with the proper situation in order to stay away from all extremes.) The Gandavyuha Sutra says: Kye! O son of noble family, wherever beings wander within samsara, the body adorned with the freedoms and favors, so hard to obtain, is not produced, due to manifestation of thoughts. Because of the bad company of non-spiritual friends, there are samsaric phenomena, and we are tormented in flames of suffering. evertheless, by contemplating the freedoms and favors, we shall be completely liberated from samsara.

3. When the benefits have been explained, we arouse joy (i.e. We are extremely fortunate to have this opportunity, this access to the dharma, and to be able to practice it purely. Repeating this meditation on our precious human life with its freedoms, endowments and opportunity brings great joy and helps us to be motivated to practice purely day and night. So this meditation is part of the virtuous actions that increase the virtues and make it less and less difficult to practice the Dharma. It is part of the self-amplifying virtuous cyclic process of wholesome actions and good conditions: good / white karma formation. And it reinforces the antidote against rejection, the extreme of nihilism / idealism. It reinforces the idea that "methods" are necessary in addition to wisdom.) ow there is the instruction to be joyful because of these benefits: Here since it is useful to have seen a guide, And it is of use to hear the Dharma and practice it, Making use of this life and all its later fruits, Arises from having gained this free and favored body. Contemplate this again and again, with the highest joy. (i.e. Meditating on our precious human birth brings joy. A great antidote to sadness and difficulties.) Having seen how Buddhas of former times were completely liberated, having the benefit of being well- favored day and night on the present occasion, and collecting the seeds of a later liberation--this is what we have, if we are among the fortunate. All this arises from contemplating the freedoms and favors, which are so hard to obtain. The Closely Placed Mindfulness says: nanda, how should the arising of what has been well seen and well heard by you from having contemplated the freedoms and favors be viewed? It is what establishes the happiness of beings, and whatever good dharmas there may be. That is how it should be viewed. Therefore, let us meditate with heartfelt joy on having attained these freedoms. 4. How we can attain superhuman goodness (i.e. This precious human life, because it is unsatisfactory but still permits to seek the truth and to escape the whole cycle of samsara, is more precious than a rebirth as a god. Gods usually do not have the motivation to seek liberation from their conditions, or to seek Enlightenment. If they do, gods have too much pride to succeed. Therefore, we should rejoice in having this precious human life with its imperfections, freedoms, endowments and opportunity to learn the Dharma and practice it purely.) ow, moreover there is the explanation of how superhuman goodness is to be established:

Since having attained the deathless level of amrita By the Lord of this world of beings, including the gods, And his sons among the shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, Arose from having attained the precious human body, The freedoms and favors are praised as better than being a god. Therefore, rejoice in having attained this human body. (i.e. Only this precious human birth can be used to gain Enlightenment. The other realms are either to miserable of too happy to be favorable environment for renunciation and turning inward in order to seek and directly see the real nature of our mind and thus of everything. In the other realms there is not enough opportunity or motivation to do it perfectly. So even the difficulties of this precious human birth condition should also be seen as favorable conditions for this. If everything was perfect as in heavens, we would not be inclined to question everything superficial and seek the truth.) When the Sage, the Bhagavan, attained enlightenment, he became the chief of the human beings of Jambuling. Therefore, he was called better than the gods. The Sutra of Complete Enlightenment says: Enlightenment in the realm of the gods produces an exclusive pride, and truth is not completely realized. It is seen only as a human being, for whom the freedoms and favors are complete. Therefore, to the place of those who dress in yellow and white [26]. The Bodhicharyavatara says: This body, which is better than the body of a god...

5. Praise of the freedoms and favors, the best support of all the vehicles (i.e. This precious human life is the best support of all the vehicles. It permits to reach the goals of any vehicle: simply a good rebirth, the complete Liberation from samsara for us alone, or the full Enlightenment of the Mahayana. It even permits to practice the quick path of the Tantrayana.) The level of wisdom, that sees the truth without conception Is easy to gain among gods and men as a human being. Even the vajra vehicle, profoundest heart of the path, Is easily gained as the fruit of attaining a human body. It is taught that among the foundations of the Dharma, Within both the greater and the lesser vehicles, The free and well favored human body is best of all. (i.e. Great Value - the three Superior Aims 1. Rebirth in one of the 3 upper realms: temporary goal

2. Complete Liberation from Samsara 3. Full Enlightenment: ultimate goal by practicing the three superior trainings by practicing the five principal causes : renunciation, bodhicitta, emptiness, generation stage and completion stage of the secret mantra

Conclusion
So we will take full advantage of this great opportunity and study the dharma. And feel sorry at the taught of having wasted any moment of this opportunity. ote: We could use our accumulated merit for temporary happiness or permanent cessation. And if we generate Bodhicitta, we accumulate much more merit and have deeper wisdom.) The Abhidharmakosha says: Thirdly, nothing higher than this is seen: Within the valley of sadness of human beings So that they might see its end this was composed. Also the such-ness of the secret mantra is quickly established with the support of human birth. The Tantra of Exhausting the Four Elements says: This is the wondrously risen king of secret mantra. If human beings exert themselves in gaining it, Accomplishment occurs within this very life. Why even speak of the siddhis of any other yogas? Therefore, as the support of all the vehicles, the freedoms and favors have been praised.

6. Meditating on how difficult these are to obtain. (i.e. The actual meditation on this difficulty of obtaining a human body: Take refuge, arouse bodhicitta, visualize that we have this complete precious human body with the freedoms and endowments. And we fell great joy (no fear or discouragement or depression) because we have it. Ending with dedication.) To take this difficulty of obtaining a human body as an object of meditation, sit on a comfortable seat. Take refuge and arouse bodhicitta. Then we visualize our own bodies, adorned with the freedoms and favors:

As a poor man who has found a gem of the highest value, Fearful and anxious that it was nothing but a dream, Contemplate the freedoms and favors with joyful longing, Since this will establish the holy benefits of the Dharma. Like a poor man who finds the finest of gems, let us rejoice in having obtained these freedoms and favors. This is a Dharma that should be practiced exclusively. Thinking, "If only this is not a dream!" we are afraid and terrified. Since we have attained it, meditating in heartfelt joy, let us dedicate it to the ultimate benefit of sentient beings. The Discrimination of Scripture says: Maudgala, these freedoms alone should be contemplated. Remember them with joy. D. The fourth section of the general meaning: Dedicating the Merit. (i.e. Dedication of the merit of having taught this meditation. May all beings reach enlightenment by reading, taking to heart, and putting into practice these explanations and instructions. - -By following this dharma, the body speech and mind are pacified, the mind is tamed, Dhyana concentration is developed, the body speech and mind are gradually purified; the real nature of the mind and of everything is directly seen; the poisons are transmuted into wisdoms, all fixation and grasping are automatically dropped, all obsessions and fears calmed, everything is seen as inseparable Trikaya, wisdoms beyond conceptualization, and pure Buddha-fields. The Union of The Two Truths. Unborn non-dual luminous space.) ow there is the dedication of the merit of having taught the freedoms and favors to sentient beings: The futile agitation of beings is pacified, By the precious amrita of this auspicious news. Going into sweet solitude of pleasant forest retreats, May Mind, worn out within this thicket of the kleshas, Be freed this very day from all its weariness. By looking at this explanation of the holy amrita of peace, adorned with a continuous stream of the flowers of truth, may all beings, exhausted by the agitations of this life, eliminate them. In a single joyful life, in the peaceful solitude of meditation, may their minds, long wearied by samsara, be released from that weariness. This is the instruction on the particular topic of easing weariness. May the meaning of the whole chapter showing samsara and its sadness be instantly taken to heart. There is also a dedication written after completing the chapter. May the further chapters also be known in that way: In peaceful forests, caves, and joyful valleys of herbs, Dancing with moving flowers, to the rush of waterfalls, May this mind, which has been so long in complete exhaustion.

Producing the holy benefit of the freedoms and favors, Come to rest in unmoving equality/equanimity. May no beings be seen who are not tamed by that. With pacification of kleshas and the seven noble riches [27] After leaving behind this body and this life, May we reach the primordial level -- the King of Mind.

Om Tare Tuttare Ture Mama Aryu Puni Gyanya Punding Guruye Soha White Tara's Long Life Mantra (Homage to White Mother Tara, bestower of long life and health. May my Dharma life increase steadily and my precious human body of constant benefit to others.)

Quotes
Guru Puja - Reviewing the Stages of the Path Realizing how this body of liberties and endowments Is found but once, is difficult to obtain and is easily lost, We seek your blessings to partake of its essence, make it worthwhile And not be distracted by the meaningless affairs of this life. The Mountain of Blessings, by Lama Tsong Khapa Bless me first to realize That the excellent life Of leisure I've found Just this once Is ever so hard to find And ever so valuable; Grant me then To wish, and never stop to wish, That I could take Its essence night and day. "Three Principals of the Path" - Lama Tsong Khapa Reverence to the Holy Gurus! I will explain as best I can The essential import of all the Victor's Teachings,

The path praised by all the holy Bodhisattvas. Best entrance for those fortunate ones who seek freedom. Listen with clear minds, you lucky people, Who aspire to the path that pleases Buddhas, Who work to give meaning to leisure and opportunity, Who are not addicted to the pleasures of cyclic life. Lust for existence chains all corporeal beingsAddiction to the pleasures of the life-cycle Is only cured by transcendent renunciation. So seek transcendence first of all! Leisure and opportunity are hard to get, And there is no time to life; keep thinking on this, And you will turn off your interest in this life! Contemplate the inexorability of evolutionary effects And the sufferings of life-over and over againAnd you will turn off interest in future lives! By constant meditation, your mind will not entertain A moment's wish even for the successes of life, And you will aim for freedom all day and nightThen you experience transcendent renunciation! Transcendence without the spirit of enlightenment Cannot generate the supreme bliss Of unexcelled enlightenment-therefore, The Bodhisattva conceives the supreme spirit of enlightenment. Carried away on the currents of four mighty streams, Tightly bound by the near-inescapable chains of evolution, Trapped and imprisoned in the iron cage of self-concern, Totally wrapped in the darkness of mis-knowledge, Born and born again and again in endless life-cycles, Uninterruptedly tormented by the three miseriesSuch is the state of all beings, all just your mothersFrom your natural feelings, conceive the highest spirit! Even though you experience transcendent renunciation And cultivate the spirit of enlightenment, Without the wisdom from the realization of emptiness, You cannot cut off the root of the life-cycleSo, you should strive to understand relativity. Who sees the inexorable causality of all things Both of cyclic life and liberation And destroys any sort of conviction of objectivityThereby enters the path pleasing to Victors.

Appearance as inevitably relative, And emptiness as free of all assertionsAs long as these are understood apart, The Victor's intent is not yet known. But, when they are simultaneous without alternation, The mere sight of inevitable relativity Becomes sure knowledge rid of objective habit-patterns, And the investigation of authentic view is complete. Further, while appearance eliminates absolutism, (i.e. Further, [knowledge of the nature of] appearances [existing only nominally] excludes the extreme of existence) Emptiness eliminates nihilism, (i.e. And [knowledge of the nature of] emptiness [as the absence of inherent existence] excludes the extreme of non-existence.) And you know emptiness manifest as cause and effectThen, you will not be deprived by extremist views. When you realize the essentials Of the three principles of the path, Rely on solitude and powerful efforts, And swiftly achieve the eternal goal, my son! argarjunas Aspiration Prostration to the Triple Gem! Through each of my lives in samsaric states Until I achieve the state of patience toward phenomena, May I never be born in the three lower realms; May I be born in higher realms in a human birth. Having taken human birth in a higher realm, May I not take birth as a sinful king or his minister. May I not take birth as the leader of an army or an executioner. May I not take birth as a profiteer, liquor seller, sesame seed grinder, thief, or male or female slave. May I not take birth as one who dominates Bhikshus, A working monk, enforcer of evil rules, Disciplinarian, sweeper monk, or challenger. May I not take birth in any of these jobs. May I not take birth in the land of savages or barbarians. As one dumb, blind, deaf, imbecilic, or jealous, In the castes of heretics, or those with wrong view, In the lower castes, or as a butcher. Until enlightenment is reached, May I always take birth as a practitioner of the holy Dharma. Having been born as a Dharma practitioner, May I not be under the power of non-virtue.

With a life unhindered by illness, May I meet the Dharma soon after birth. Having met the Dharma soon after birth, May I train my mind in the wisdom of study, contemplation, and meditation. May my mind be able to remain in single-pointed concentration, Six consciousnesses undistracted by objects, Developing physical power without defective limbs, Sense organs perfect, as the object of veneration in a higher birth. Able to accomplish all the Buddha's Dharma, May I renounce the world as a youth and maintain morality, Always relying on holy spiritual masters, And gradually traverse the ten paths. May I reach the unsurpassable essence of enlightenment. Having attained the unsurpassable essence of enlightenment, For all six realms beings in samsara, Through various actions of skillful means, May I perform the benefit of beings through the four social gatherings. What It Means To Be Lucky What It Means To Be Lucky: The Excellent Path Laid With Precious Gems E ma ho! ow you have got what's so hard to get The precious freedoms and advantages This one life alone means so little So why be so obsessed with it? If to do some good for yourself and others too You listen to Dharma, and then reflect Then you are so fortunate This is what it means to be lucky. This life is quite impermanent It will definitely disappear You think everything will stay just as it is How to come out from this confusion into the clear? Cut the root of Samsras confused appearances By meditating on the meaning of what you've heard If you do this, you are so fortunate-This is what it means to be lucky. If you do good, you'll be happy If you do bad, you'll suffer pain. Think well about how karma works And you'll gain certainty that it's an unfailing law.

If then you act in a rightful way Doing what you should do and giving up the rest Then you are so fortunate This is what it means to be lucky. The nature of samsara is the three sufferings When you know this in your heart, and it's not just something you say And so you can free yourself and others from Samsras ocean You cut off suffering right at the root If you can do that, then you are so fortunate This is what it means to be lucky. Meditating on impermanence Cuts off attachment to this life Thinking over and over of Samsras suffering Makes you realize how worthless samsara is This gives you the determination To strive for nirvana's liberation If you do that, you are so fortunate-This is what it means to be lucky. Knowing Samsras cause is belief in 'I' You know its remedy to be selflessness So if you apply scripture and reasoning To gain certainty that there is no self And if you meditate on selflessness, you're so fortunate This is what it means to be lucky. All beings have been your father and mother Knowing this you train your mind in love and compassion This makes you stop worrying so much About your own comfort and happiness When you give rise to supreme bodhicitta This is what it means to be lucky. Everything in samsara and nirvana, Without exception, is neither one nor many So all phenomena are empty of essence And knowing that, if you meditate on profound emptiness Then you are so fortunate This is what it means to be lucky. Meditating on emptiness cuts the root of existence Love and compassion free you from the extreme of peace When you bring together wisdom and means That are stuck in neither existence nor peace's extremes Then you are so fortunate This is what it means to be lucky.

When you've made the Mahayana path your sturdy base And you know so excellently The way that the totality of appearance Is an infinite expanse of purity Then the four empowerments Will ripen your continuum When you practice profound creation and completion This is what it means to be lucky. The fruit of this creation and completion Must ripen at the appropriate time This depends on your pure vision Of your vajra brothers and sisters--it must increase! So if pure vision dawns in your mind This is what it means to be lucky. Another reason you might be lucky The freedoms and resources, this excellent base Is hard to find, and what's harder than that Is using it to practice Dharma correctly So if you are on the path of correct practice This is what it means to be lucky. Knowing what it means to be lucky Day and night, without distraction In order to accomplish great benefit For the teachings and for all beings May all of us practice The Dharma of the lucky ones. Wishing Prayer for the Attainment of the Ultimate Mahamudra, The Lord Protector Rangjung Dorje, The Third Gyalwa Karmapa

amo Guru
You Lamas, Yidams and Protectors of the power circles, You victorious Buddhas and your Bodhisattva sons of the ten directions and the three times, Think lovingly of us and give your blessings That our wishes may be fulfilled exactly as they are made. Arising from the snow mountain of the perfectly pure thoughts and actions of ourselves and all beings, May the river of good deeds, unsullied by the concept of a separation into three, Flow into the ocean of the four Buddha-states. Until that happens, may we, in all lifetimes, from one birth to the next, ever once hear the sound of pain or suffering, But instead experience oceans of radiant goodness and joy.

Having attained a free and fully endowed birth, A precious human life with confidence, diligence, and wisdom, Relying upon a spiritual teacher and receiving his Essential instructions, May we then practice the precious teachings without hindrance in this and all future lives. Hearing the teachings frees us from the veils of ignorance. Contemplating the Oral instructions removes the darkness of doubt. The light arising from meditation makes clear the nature of mind, exactly as it is. May the light of these three wisdoms increase. May we receive the flawless teachings, the foundation of which are the two truths Which are free from the extremes of Eternalism and nihilism, And through the supreme path of the two accumulations, free from the extremes of negation and affirmation, May we obtain the fruit which is free from the extremes of either, Dwelling in the conditioned state or in the state of only peace. The basis of purification is the mind itself in its union of clarity and emptiness. The method of purification is the great Mahamudra Diamond-practice. What is to be purified are the transitory illusory impurities. The fruit of the purification is the perfectly pure truth-state. May this become realized. Overcoming doubts concerning the fundamental teaching gives trust in the view. Protecting this view without distraction is the essence of meditation. Correct meditation in itself is best behavior. May we trust the view, the meditation and the conduct. All phenomena are projections of the mind. Mind is not a mind; the mind is empty in essence. Although empty, everything constantly arises in it. Through the deepest examination of the mind may we find its innermost root. Self-manifestation, which has never existed as such, is erroneously seen as an object. Through ignorance, self-awareness is mistakenly experienced as an I. Through attachment to this duality we are caught in the conditioned world. May the root of confusion be found. It is not existent for even the Buddhas do not see it. It is not non-existent, being the basis for both samsara and nirvana. It is not the opposites, nor both, nor something else, but rather their union - the middle way. May we realize the true nature of mind, which is beyond extremes. It cannot be described by saying, it is. It cannot be denied by saying it is not. The incomprehensible absolute reality is not composite. May we achieve certainty about the correctness of this ultimate meaning.

As long as this is not recognized, the wheel of existence turns. When this is understood, the state of Buddha is nothing other than that. There is nothing that can be described as either existing or not existing. May the nature of reality, the true nature of the Buddha mind, be recognized. Appearance is only mind, emptiness is only mind, enlightenment is only mind, and confusion is only one's own mind. Arising is only mind; disappearance is only mind. May every doubt and hesitation that concerns the mind be overcome. May we neither be sullied by forced intellectual meditation nor disturbed by the winds of everyday life. May we skillfully hold onto our practice concerning the nature of mind. May the immovable ocean of meditative peace, Where the waves of subtle and gross thoughts come to rest through their own power, and Where the waters of the unmoving mind remain in themselves, Unspotted by laziness, sleepiness or un-clarity, become stable. If again and again we examine the mind, which cannot be examined, We see that which cannot be seen, with total clarity, just as it is. May the faultless mind, freed from all doubts about being and not being, recognize itself. Through the examination of external objects we see the mind, not the objects. Through the examination of the mind we see its empty essence, but not the mind. Through the examination of both, attachment to duality disappears by itself. May the clear light, the true essence of mind, be recognized. Being without intellectual concepts, it is called the Great Sign, or Mahamudra. Being without extremes, it is called the Great Middle Way, or Madhyamika. As it embraces everything, it is called the Great Perfection, or Maha-Ati. May we have the confidence that the experience of one is the experience of the meaning of all. May we constantly and effortlessly experience the never-ending highest joy, which is without attachment, The clear light that is without categories or veils of obscuration, and The spontaneous, concept-free state that is beyond intellect. Attachment to pleasant experiences vanishes of its own accord. Illusory and negative thoughts are in their essence pure, like space. In that simple state of mind there is nothing that must be given up or developed, avoided or attained. May the truth of the uncomplicated nature of reality be realized. Although the true nature of beings is always the Buddha essence, Still we always wander in the ceaseless wheel of life, not understanding that. May infinite compassion arise for the limitless suffering of all beings.

Although this infinite compassion is strong and unceasing, The truth of its empty nature arises nakedly the very moment it appears. This union of emptiness and compassion is the highest faultless way. May we meditate inseparable from it, the whole time, day and night. May we attain the state of Buddha through maturity, realization, and completion, And develop beings through divine eyes and clear sight arising through the power of meditation. May we realize the Buddha fields and fulfill the wishing prayer of the perfection of the Buddha qualities. You Buddhas and Bodhisattvas from the ten directions, Through your compassion and through the power of all the pure and good that exists, May the pure wishing prayers of ourselves and all beings be fulfilled, Just as they were made.

Summery of Other Texts


Precious: eight freedoms, ten endowments Great value for the three superior aims Rare and very hard to obtain Evaluation for our next rebirth; if we are not born as a human we would not be able to progress We have this great opportunity but what should we do with it? All the problems and all the solutions are inside, not outside. So we should turn inward, developing the mind, knowing the mind -- instead of being slave to external impermanent goals Turn to the Dharma, learn it, practice it Conclusion: Determination to take full advantage of this great opportunity immediately, without wasting any moment Renunciation, compassion, determination, engagement Depending on the level of our motivation we would chose the right path Four resolutions of Lama Tsong Khapa "I need to practice dharma. I can practice dharma.

I need to practice dharma in this life. I need to practice dharma now." ote: What is missing from those other texts is the clear union of both method and wisdom, the perfecting of this meditation by combining its practice with the meditation of the emptiness of its objects. That is the added value of the "Great Chariot". For this reason, it is much more profound, and more advanced.

More Reflection On This


This human life (with its freedoms, endowments and problems) is very precious, rare, hard to get, of great value for all three goals, and should not be wasted (death may come at any time). And it is very important to put the teachings into practice. The more we meditate on this precious human life and its fragility, the more we will develop compassion and strengthen our determination to practice now.

The Problem
We act as if life was a gift, as if it was free and eternal, as if our acquiring actions will have permanent effect, and as if our negative actions will have no effects at all beyond death. We act as if our precious human life was causeless and eternal. We are not aware that we are wasting a very precious, rare, hard to obtain commodity. We are continually oscillating between Eternalism and nihilism, between existence and non-existence, depending on our mood. Continually jumping from one extreme to the other depending on the focus of our mind, on what we think is inherently existing. All of this without even noticing the contradiction and absurdity. We are trying to give meaning to our life by pursuing external goals, accumulating things and knowledge, trying to control everything. All of our discrimination, actions, are based on the assumption of inherent existence of things, ideas, and attributes. We believe in absolute characteristics, truths, and meanings. But reality is not like that at all. So, necessarily, we have to pay for our own mistakes; and we suffer because of these. Meditating on all of this brings: Compassion for all sentient beings in the same situation, Joy to have this opportunity to work for Enlightenment, Determination to take full benefit of this great opportunity while it last

Antidote: Meditating on the precious human birth brings joy; it is an antidote to discouragement, torpor, depression, and nihilism. It opposite antidote is the meditation on death and impermanence. Conditionality: this human life is a hard to get effect, and a precious great cause - we should not waste it. Against Eternalism and Annihilationism. This precious human life is an effect, and a great cause. It is not eternal, causeless, nor meaningless. It is an introductory level teaching about karma, dependent origination. This meditation is essentially anti-nihilism. It affirms the usefulness of conditionality (and karma) against the belief of no-retribution from previous acts or total nihilism. So we should not go in life as if it was eternal, as if our actions are without consequences, as if we can get a life like this any time We should think hard about the purpose of this life and see how futile are most external goals. We should stop, reevaluate everything and seek true permanent peace and happiness for everybody. Stop taking this life for granted and wasting it. Stop pursuing meaningless goals. How to take full advantage of it? Where to seek permanent peace? ot wasting it. Abandoning meaningless goals. Seeking the Truth, not outside or in ordinary knowledge, but inside. All problems and solutions come from the mind. "All dharmas depend on mind." -"Mind is the root of all our joys and sorrows. Our only effort should be to tame the mind." So turn inward, seek and directly see the real nature of the mind, and thus the real nature of everything. The root cause of all suffering is the ignorance of the real nature of our mind, and of everything. "Taming the mind." "By meditating without kleshas, union is produced." "Resting within the nature [of the mind] is known as freedom" What we are trying to see: the real nature of our mind and of everything: "The nature of mind is primordial luminosity, the essence of the Buddha realm. It is beyond the four extremes of existence, non-existence, Eternalism, and nihilism. It primordially pervades all sentient beings." -- "Though primordially pure wisdom exists within us, by not recognizing it, we wander here in samsara."

Inseparability of appearances and emptiness. The Union of The Two Truths: The Union of Dependent Origination (conventional truths) and Emptiness (Ultimate / Sacred truth). The Union of Compassion and Emptiness. The Middle Way: there is nothing to accept or to get or to produce, and nothing to reject or drop. Everything is already pure. It is just a matter of removing this ignorance. We should use a raft, a path, but also know that it is just a temporary raft, an adapted skillful means; not an absolute. on-duality: not discriminating, not non-discriminating; not acting, not non-acting o absolute, only adapted skillful means used in order to stay away from all extremes. The impermanence of external goals and knowledge. o absolute there. This precious raft is not existent, not non-existent. othing is inherently existing. But, still, nothing is uncaused or non-functional. o cause without an effect; no effect without a cause. o absolute causality, no total absence of causality. o absolute control, no total absence of control either.

Conclusion
Although this precious human life is empty of inherent existence, it is our rare precious raft to cross the ocean of samsara. It should not be accepted as it appears (hedonism), and should not be totally rejected either (nihilism). Emptiness doesn't deny conditionality, dependent origination. They are interdependent. One implies the other. We should use this raft, but at the same time try to see its real nature so we do not become slave to it. And to do this we have to turn inward, seek and directly see the real nature of our own mind. Then the Union will be realized. This will counterbalance the effects of the meditations on death, impermanence and emptiness. o absolute, only adapted skillful means used in order to stay away from all extremes.

More Reflection On This


Here We Insist On The Positive Points Of Our Life In opposition to the meditation on death and impermanence Two opposite antidotes ot Just As An Ordinary Human:

The precious human life is not just about getting rebirth as a human. It is also about having assembled the right causes and conditions to be able to seek the true peace and to practice the dharma. There is no point in being a human and living like a stupid ignorant animal. Security And Peace Is In Knowing The Truth: The best strategy is always to know reality for what it is. Being slave of illusions and dogmas is never wise. So now that we have this opportunity we should seek the true nature of everything, starting with ourselves. The dharma is the path to know this truth, and this truth. It consist of seeking and directly seeing the real nature of our own mind, and the real nature of everything. Its opposite is falling for ordinary knowledge, to impermanent mental fabrications, to dogmas, to absolutes, to extremes. ot Without Causes And Conditions: We didn't get here by total luck, or through the will of a god. It is the result of certain causes and conditions. And if we want to keep having this precious human life we have to understand what were the causes and conditions and try to maintain them. And we have to understand the causes and conditions of the three lower realms and try not to cause them. By trying to find the right causes and conditions for perfect peace and happiness, we will come to understand the cycle of conditionality, the emptiness of causes and conditions, and then be able to transcend the whole cycle. So it is not a matter of finding the right primal cause, or to produce the right final effect, but instead to see the real non-dual nature of all of this. Causes and conditions are empty of inherent existence, but, still, there is no effect without a cause, or no cause without an effect. The Precious Opportunity We Have: Through evolution and their body, animals are conditioned and cannot escape their conditioning. Humans are also conditioned by their body and through social conditioning. But they have the opportunity to understand themselves and transcend their conditioning. We have to understand the essence of this great opportunity and take full benefit of it. The opportunity we are having, that is the continuity of this precious human life, is to be able to transcend all conditioning by directly seeing the real nature of our own mind, and thus of everything. We have the opportunity to understand the real cause of all suffering, and find the true way out of it. Other sentient beings cannot do this; we are the only one in this position.

What makes us different than animals is this capacity to reflect on our own conditioning and to seek other solutions than the usual ones. Instead of being slave to reactive behavior (acquired through natural selection, through evolutionary discrimination), we have the capacity to go beyond those and reflect on the whole process of conditioning (or evolution / becoming / karma) itself. We have this opportunity to turn inward, to be able to directly see our own mental conditioning in action, and to be able to generalize to all conditioning (karma / dependent origination / the Wheel of Life). And once we have directly seen the real nature of this conditioning in action we are free from all this conditioning, from all the illusions created. By directly seeing that everything is dependently arisen, we come to understand that everything is empty of inherent existence. ot Permanent So this precious human life, being an effect dependent on causes and conditions, is not permanent. We have to work in order to try to maintain the right causes and condition, without thinking that we can reach total control Knowing that it is impermanent and very hard to obtain we should try to get the most of this present situation; we should try to go even further than just trying to maintain the status quo. We aim at permanent peace. ot Without Effect, ot Without Functionality: Even though this human life is full of conditioning and suffering, we have enough freedom to seek the truth about suffering and conditioning. We should use all experiences as teachings. Our efforts are not meaningless. They can be used to maintain this great opportunity, and to even go further, and to be able to help all other sentient beings. We have enough suffering to served as teachings and generate renunciation; gods have no motivation to seek the truth until the last moment where it is too late. And we have enough freedom, peace and mental capacity to analyze all of this and see the real nature of everything; hell beings have not enough peace of the body and mind to be able to concentrate on it. All causes are effect and all effects are cause. There is no beginning and no end to conditionality / samsara. o first cause, no final effect. Even though everything, including this life, is empty of inherent existence, it is not without cause or without functionality.

The Commentary On The Great Perfection: The ature Of Mind, The Easer Of Weariness Called The Great Chariot

"O Bhikshus! Do not grieve! Even if I were to live in the world for as long as a kalpa, our coming together would have to end. You should know that all things in the world are impermanent; coming together inevitably means parting. Do not be troubled, for this is the nature of life. Diligently practicing right effort, you must seek liberation immediately. Within the light of wisdom, destroy the darkness of ignorance. othing is secure. Everything in this life is precarious. Always wholeheartedly seek the way of liberation. All things in the world, whether moving or non-moving, are characterized by disappearance and instability. Stop now! Do not speak! Time is passing. I am about to cross over. This is my final teaching. " -- Parinirvana Sutra --

Chapter Two The Impermanence Of Life


II. The Impermanence of Life There are five sections.
A. B. C. D. E.

The brief teaching The extended explanation The instruction that we should exert ourselves The concluding summary The dedication of merit

A. The brief teaching. (i.e. Anything dependent on causes and conditions vanishes with any change in the causes and conditions. And since everything is dependently arisen, then everything is necessarily impermanent [and empty of inherent existence]. Everything is continually changing; nothing remains the same even for an infinitesimal moment, because their causes and conditions are also dependent on other causes and conditions...ad infinitum. So, there is no reliance in anything, no possible absolute control on anything. Even this precious human life [body and mind] with its characteristics is impermanent. Death is certain, but we don't know when it will occur. So we might lose this precious human life with its freedom and opportunity any time. We will then leave behind everything; only the karma will continue. Remembering death and impermanence helps to generate renunciation for worldly concerns and motivation for practicing the Dharma.)

Even though the freedoms, so difficult to obtain, have been obtained, since our minds are not stable, we are instructed that our nature is such that we need to exert ourselves: Even if this hard-won freedom has been gained, These destructible dharmas will not last for even an instant. If they are examined, they are without an essence. They are no more to be trusted than bubbles floating on water; So contemplate day and night the certainty of death. Even if the freedoms and favors are obtained, they cannot be permanent. They have no heart like a banana tree and, will not bear analysis. Like bubbles on water, they appear for only a moment. Then every one of their main and subsidiary characteristics is destroyed. On examination, they are necessarily found to be separable from reality. The Shrine of Telling the Reason Why says: Kye ma! How impermanent are all compounded things! Anything that is born is going to be destroyed. Since having once been born, all will be destroyed, "Them as dies quickly will be the lucky ones!" They are like starry lamps that are clouded-over with mist, Ephemeral things like bubbles on water or drops of dew, Dreamily insubstantial, like lightning in the clouds. All compounded things are taught to be that way. B. The extended explanation (i.e. All dharmas, including all beings, are impermanent, there is no exception. The whole samsara, including the three world and the six realms, is totally unreliable, unsatisfactory (an empty of inherent existence). There is no reliance in any kind of investments, projects, views, rebirths, Dhyanas, bodies, minds, ... they are all caused, fabricated, and thus impermanent. At the moment of death, leaving everything behind, only the Dharma will help, because, even though there is no permanent dharma (all empty of inherent existence), there is karma and its consequences (dependent origination), and there is the possibility of transcendence. -- Like, even though everything is empty of inherent existence (or impermanent), nothing is without a cause (this precious human life is not without causes and conditions very rare and hard to find), and no cause is without an effect (there is no way to escape the consequences of our actions in death). Emptiness doesn't deny dependent origination, and vice versa. They are interdependent, inseparable. The same for impermanence and karma) 1. Grasping the importance of the impermanence of the human body 2. To attain even the realm of Brahma and so forth is impermanent 3. There is impermanence because change is the nature of things 4. The impermanence of the Vessel and Essence

5. Impermanence of the teachings of how the victorious ones and their sons attain nirvana 6. We are impermanent because our lives never wax but always wane 7. How what seems external is inner impermanence 8. An example of impermanence 9. All is impermanent and must be left behind 10. The impermanence of the three times 11. The impermanence of the three levels 12. Instantaneous Impermanence 13. The impermanence of the conditions and time of our existence 1. Grasping the importance of the impermanence of the human body. (i.e. Impermanence of the body: Antidote to desire [to please this body, or to be attracted to another body], to thinking that it is important, lasting, pure : contemplate the impermanence of the body, it impurity, how it will end. There is nothing we can do for this body that will last. At the moment of death we will loose all our investments; nothing, but the Dharma, will helps us then. So, we should guard this body, use this precious opportunity, but also remember its real nature: impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, no self, emptiness. It is a tool, a raft; it should not be the master. We should use it to practice the Dharma while we can.) This essence-less body is impure and changeable. Its individual qualities are separable and nothing about it continues. Here is the instruction that those inclined to material desires should absorb the mind day and night in contemplating impermanence: (i.e. The main remedy [antidote] to the thought of the worldly dharmas is meditation on impermanence and death. -- Lama Zopa Rinpoche) (i.e. The best remedy to the eight worldly concerns is to reflect on impermanence: the changing nature of all things. -- Ven Sangye Khadro) (i.e. One of the best ways to overcome possessive-attachment to loved ones is to meditate on impermanence. -- Ven Sangye Khadro) (i.e. When we understand the impermanent nature of things, the non-stop change, we allow ourselves time and space to accept any situation that comes. -- Lama Thubten Yeshe) (i.e. Then we meditate upon impermanence and death, which helps us transcend grasping at petty aspects of life and directs our minds to search for spiritual knowledge. ... We should try to meditate regularly on death and impermanence and thus become a spiritual practitioner of initial scope. -- His Holiness Kyabje Ling Rinpoche) (i.e. Sometimes we can apply more specific antidotes -- for example, meditating on

compassion when anger arises, on the impurity of the human body when lust arises, on impermanence when attachment to situations arises, and so on. These antidotes can counteract particular delusions, but they cannot remove the root of delusion. To remove the root of delusion one must realize shunyata. The wisdom of shunyata is like a sharp axe having the power to cut the root of all distortion. -- Geshe Lhundrub Sopa) (i.e. The first obstacle [to meditation] is agitation. Why does agitation occur? It comes from ordinary attachment to this life. ... Therefore, the remedy is to contemplate impermanence. Understanding this calms agitation. -- Kunzig Shamar Rinpoche, Seven Points on Meditation) This body, the principal source of the rising of the kleshas, Is the source of all suffering and unhappiness of the mind. Though decked in garments and ornaments, flower garlands and such, And worshipped with many offerings of food and drink, In the end we must separate and part from it. Because it is impermanent and destructible, This body will be food for foxes, vultures, and jackals. Abandon all thoughts that it is important, lasting, or pure. Rather, from now on, let us practice the holy Dharma. Grasping our alleged bodies as a permanent I and self, we offer them food and clothing, tending them with a level of ceremony befitting our ideas. Though we hardly want to talk about it, sorrowful time speaks instead by reversing our ministrations to harm. (i.e. The Treatise of the Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas, Aryadeva

Chapter One - Abandoning Belief in Permanence (Remembering death: in order to abandon obsession to worldly concerns, attachments, fears. Everything, the five aggregates, are constantly changing, impermanent. othing is static, existent. Considering the coarser aspects of impermanence. Four main topics for meditation on impermanence: The fact that death follows birth That rise is followed by fall Accumulation by dispersal And meeting with parting Subtle impermanence is introduced only briefly, since it is much more difficult to recognize.

Here the emphasis is placed on recognition that people, things and situations are not static. Clinging to them and wishing them to remain unchanged is unrealistic and a cause of fear. Once we are able to acknowledge this, our attachment and thereby our fear will diminish, and we will be better prepared to face both life and death.) Chapter Two - Abandoning Belief in Pleasure - nothing is essentially pleasant (The subtle form of suffering: the aggregates themselves, the conditioning, are suffering - it we cling to them -, because impermanent: The body itself constitutes the pervasive suffering of conditioning. Without recognizing that the contaminated psycho-physical aggregates themselves are the subtlest form of suffering, we cannot develop the genuine wish to free ourselves from the cycle of birth and death. Understanding the other two kinds of suffering (physical and mental) leads toward an understanding of this. There will never be any real pleasure in acquisition, friends, developing new habits, talents, knowledge ... Instead of satisfying short-term goals; we should focus on the long-term effects of our actions. Everything that comes into being, will necessarily decay, bringing much suffering, and be gone. So birth of anything necessarily brings decay, suffering and death. -- But in fact birth is birth created by our own thought, our own illusion and attachment. Thinking things are real, existent, static. Things do not really have origination and cessation. So, our problem is that we are attached to impermanent things, like our body or pleasures, to objects that necessarily bring suffering. -- Because we ignore the real nature of the three; that they are "merely imputed by the mind"; that there is "no chunks in the flow". All that is impermanent is suffering / unsatisfactory. There is no permanent pleasure in the five aggregates. Although they should be used to gain transcendence.) Chapter Three - Abandoning Belief in Cleanness - nothing is essentially attractive (Desire! Desire for what? Temporary antidote to sensual desire: foulness of the body. Desire for sensual pleasures is unlimited and inexhaustible; no matter what pleasures we enjoy of how we indulge in them, our thirst will never be quenched. The only effect of sensuality is to increase craving. In demonstration the undesirability of what we desire as well as the unwholesomeness of desirous state of mind, this chapter focuses mainly on attachment to sexual pleasure and on the unclean nature of the body. There is no real worthy cause for desire. othing is essentially desirable. It is always relative, illogical, temporary.

Desire itself is not pleasant; it is a poison that needs another poison at its antidote. It is a sickness. Most do not see that desire, and the satisfaction of desire; bring only short-term pleasure, and much more suffering later. Attachment necessarily brings the fear to lose. It is like a bad habit, developing itself exponentially. The more we believe in its reality -as a worthy cause of satisfaction -- the more we desire it. The more we get it, the more we believe in its reality. ... The real nature of the five aggregates: impermanence, un-satisfactoriness, selflessness -emptiness. The body should be seen as unclean when sensual desires arise. -- Otherwise it should be seen as part of the precious human life. This letting-go of the desires bring much peace and calm. Those are necessary to produce good concentration, then insight. When concentration and insight are enough developed, this meditation on the repulsiveness of the body, should be replaces with the impermanence of the body, the selflessness of the body, the emptiness of all. Then the purity of everything in emptiness. Desire, grasping, should be seen as a sickness, a corruption of the mind. All the objects of desire should be seen as illusions. Passions consist of conceptualizations.) Chapter Four - Abandoning Pride - our "self" is not in those objects of pride - there is no absolute quality (Proud! Proud of what? Temporary antidote to arrogance, pride, conceit, non-compassion, the belief in absolute quality: Proud of what? -- since everything is dependent, impermanent, relative, unsatisfactory, not-self, not absolute, not really existent; since all is illusion created by the mind. o reason to be proud of: possessions, status, caste, power, wealth, giving one's life for another, reputation, friends, knowledge, spiritual practices or association, ... Attachment to any of those objects of pride is the problem, the cause of rebirths. A proud man has no compassion for others - do not even understand the need for compassion; a basis for disrespect and unpleasantness; reinforces this sense of selfimportance and over evaluation of the ego; having no respect for others, rejecting their views, their propositions, their remarks, their help; Real merit is gained through developing virtues.

You are the only responsible for your acts, and the only one who will bear the consequences. Pride should be abandoned. There is no real absolute cause for valid pride. Equanimity: Everybody should be seen as equal in suffering in samsara, and has having the potential for liberation. Humility should be developed realizing the way our mind works, all of our own defaults, the relativity of everything, the equality of everybody, the absurdity of all views, the emptiness of the three. Other short-term antidotes: generosity, meditation on death and impermanence, meditation on the three lower realms, meditation on the suffering in the realm of gods, exchanging self with others, bodhicitta. To prostrate and worship is to learn humility and reverence. A man with pride has no place for compassion. Pride is one of the greatest obstacles to our spiritual development. Like using Buddhist knowledge as an object of pride; thinking we are essentially superior because we "have it"; thinking we have this absolute permanent quality. The way pride is generated in dependence: from past success, from adopting absolutes, from fear of loosing privileges -- allowing arrogance and self-complacency to emerge. Then jealousy. We believe in an absolute essence, an absolute quality, in ourselves that makes us superior than some others. We identify ourselves with this one-time success, one time action judged favorably by others, and make it a permanent quality. One whose Dharma career is tainted by narrow-mindedness and attachment to one's own interests while rejecting those of others will never overcome the many obstacles to the attainment of wisdom or insight. Bodhisattvas: they have abandon holding on to any habits or views - the profound principle of relativity; they have realized that the true nature of all things is something transcendent, not expressible in words - the intuitive tolerance of the ultimate incomprehensibility of all things. They have suppressed pride, vanity, and arrogance. Seeking knowledge in order to avoid pride

Objective Humility Should Replace Conceit


Chapter Seven - Abandoning Attachment to Sense Objects - Renunciation of the whole samsara (The desire to escape the suffering of the lower realms is not enough; we must generate the desire to escape the whole cycle of birth and death.

Even attachment to any religious view is flawed. They may result in a higher rebirth, but those are also impermanent. After a high rebirth, most often, sentient beings return to a lower realms, because pride is without compassion. There is no absolute path. o absolute actions, causes, effects or causality. o absolute control. So stop trusting one view or another. They are no more than social customs. Transcend them all. Meritorious actions should not be done with attachment, with greed for merit. The perfection of Morality is based on realizing the emptiness of the three. Seeing the faults of all samsaric realms, generate true renunciation.) (i.e. Gates To Buddhist Practice, Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche Question: Can you say more about how contemplating impermanence reduces attachment? Response: Imagine a child and an adult on the beach building a sand castle. The adult has never taken the sand castle to be permanent or real, and isn't attached to it. When a wave comes in and washes it away or some other children come along and kick it down, the adult doesn't suffer. But the child has begun to think of it as a real house that will last forever, and so suffers when it's lost. Like the child, we have pretended for so long that our experience is stable and reliable that we have great attachment to it and suffer when it changes. If we maintain an awareness of impermanence, then we are never completely fooled by the phenomena of samsara. If you contemplate the fact that you don't have long to live, it will help you. You'll think, "In the time that I have left, why follow this anger or attachment, which will only produce more confusion and delusion? If I take what's impermanent so seriously and try to grasp it or push it away, then I'm only imagining as solid what isn't solid. I'm only further complicating, and perpetuating, the delusions of samsara. I won't do that! I'll use this attachment or this aversion, this pride or this jealousy, as practice." Practice isn't only sitting on a cushion. When you're there with the experience of desire or anger, right there where the mind is active, that is where you practice, at each moment, each step of your life. Question: In contemplating impermanence I find my attachment lessening to a certain extent, but I wonder how far I should go in dropping things. Response: You need to be discriminating in what you address first. Eventually you may drop everything, but begin by abandoning the mind's poisons; for example, anger.

Instead of thinking, "Why wash these dishes, they're impermanent?" let go of your anger at having to do them. Also understand that whatever arises in the mind that sparks your anger is impermanent. The anger itself is impermanent. Whatever someone said to you that's affected you in a negative way, that too is impermanent. Realize that these are only words, sounds, not something lasting. The next thing to drop is attachment to having your own way. When you understand impermanence, it doesn't matter so much if things are going as you think they should. If they are, it's all right. If not, that's all right, too. When you practice like this, the mind will slowly develop more balance. It won't flip one-way or the other according to whether or not you get what you want. Question: Is there anything wrong with being happy or sad, with feeling our emotions? Response: Reminding ourselves when we experience happiness that it's impermanent, that it will eventually disappear, will help us to cherish and enjoy it while it lasts. At the same time, we won't become so attached to it or fixated on it, and we won't experience as much pain when it's gone. In the same way, when we experience pain, sorrow, or loss, we should remind ourselves that these things, too, are impermanent, which will alleviate our suffering. So what keeps us balanced is our ongoing awareness of impermanence. Shantideva says: This body of ours is like a momentary reflection. The time when we will be taken by the Lord of Death comes without warning. When the mind separates from the body, we cannot be with the body any more. It will be food for charnel birds, dogs, foxes, and vultures. To count such a thing as paramount and even think that we should do evil deeds for its sake should be regarded as vanity. Really we are something like a servant indentured to the body's happiness. Why is the body so worthy of being rewarded with food and clothing?

What is Worth Exertion Day and ight is the Dharma


The Sutra of Instructions to the King says: O great king, these have an essence like a great mountain, solid and firm in all the four directions. This mountain is indestructible, not to be split, very hard, un-damageable. Its four sides, dense and massive, touch the sky and return again to the earth. Grass, trees with trunks, branches, and all their leaves, living things, and spirits accumulate there, like flour on a mill- stone. To escape it by speed, remove it by force, buy it off, or get rid of it with substances, mantras, and medicinal herbs is no easy task.

O great king that is what these four great terrors are like. One cannot escape them by speed, remove them by force, buy them off. To get rid of them with substances, mantras, and medicinal herbs is no easy task. What are these four? They are old age, sickness, death, and deterioration. O great king, old age comes to conquer youth. Illness comes to conquer health. Deterioration comes to conquer all our good qualities. Death comes to conquer life itself. One cannot escape them by speed, remove them by force, or buy them off. To get rid of them with substances, mantras, and medicinal herbs is no easy task. O great king, it is like this. The king of beasts, the lion, dwells among the beasts. He preys on the beasts. He rules as he wishes. The beasts are powerless against his mighty jaws. O great king, it is like this. There is no provision against the gleaming staff of the Lord of Death; there is no protector, no refuge, no friendly forces, no friends and relatives. Our joints will divide and come apart. Our flesh and blood will dry up. Our bodies will be racked by sickness. We shall rage with thirst. Our arms and legs will convulse. We will not be able to act. We will have no strength. Our bodies will be covered in saliva, mucus, urine, and vomit. Our powers of vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, touch, and thought will fade away. We shall vomit. Our voices will crack and wheeze. Our medicines will be given up as useless. All our medicine, food, and drink will be thrown away. Our possessions will go to others. We shall lie in our beds for the last time. We shall subside into the beginning-less round of birth, old age, and death. We shall have no body. We shall be terrified by the Lord of Death. Our powers of acting will be gone. Our breathing will stop. Our mouths and noses will gape. Our teeth will be exposed. They will demand, "Give us our inheritance." Our karma will take over, and we shall pass into the control of samsaric existence. Alone without a second, we shall be friendless. We shall leave this world. We shall be outside the world. We shall be borne up in the great change of abode, which is death. We shall dwell in the great darkness. We shall fall over the great precipice. We shall be crowded off the edge of the world. We shall be cast into the great wilderness. The great ocean will carry us away. Our karmic energy will pass away. We shall go to ugly places. We shall enter the great battle. We shall be seized by the great harm. We shall die away into space. Our fathers, mothers, brothers, sisters, sons, and daughters will gather round. Our breathing will stop. They will say that our property and clothes should be handed out. Oh no! Our fathers will say. Oh no! Our mothers will say. Oh no! Our children will say. Fear will overwhelm us. Generosity, penance, and Dharma will be our only friends. There will be no refuge but Dharma. There will be no other protector. There will be no other friendly forces. O great king, at this time, at this moment, the Dharma will be an island, a dwelling, a protector, a teacher. O great king, though looking like we are asleep in our beds, we shall experience appearances of the life to come. If we are going to go to the lower realms, terrifying premonitions of those realms will arise. What refuge will there be then but Dharma?

O great king, you should fully guard such a body. But no matter how perfectly you look after it, its time of death will come. Intimates having all virtues, with whom we have been satisfied by much pure food and drink and so on, parents and children, will be there for the last time. The medicines will be thrown away. When everything is gone, we will be unhappy. Such will be the time of death. O great king, your body will be repeatedly washed and fumigated with incense. It will be covered with fragrant flowers and, no doubt, pleasantly perfumed aromas will arise. O great king, you will be dressed in fine clothes of Varanasi cotton and silk, and when this has been done for the last time, it will be like going to a defiled, stinking place, as a servant who has to go alone, and so the time of death will come. O great king, though you have enjoyed your various desirable possessions, abandoning them all, as if they did not satisfy your desires, the time of death will come. O great king, within your house incense, flowers, silk hangings, seats, and various cloths will be collected. With the pillows on the left and right, your bed will be taken away to the great charnel ground full of crows, foxes, and nauseating human corpses. Doubtless your motionless body will lie upon the ground. O great king, as you are thus carried on the backs of your elephants, horses, and so on, different kinds of music will be heard and pleasantly enjoyed. Various parasols, victory banners, and so forth will be raised aloft. The new king, minister, and friends and relatives will make pleasant little speeches, praising you and going to look at you. The bed, formerly not raised very far, after you have died in it will be raised high by four pallbearers, lifted by your brothers and so forth. After servants, compelled by painful beatings bring it out by the south gate of the city, in a solitary wild place it will be put down on the earth. You will be eaten by crows, vultures, foxes, and so forth. Your bones will be burned by fire, thrown into water, or put on the ground, whichever it may be. They will be dispersed by wind, sun, and rain, and strewn in all directions. They will rot. O great king, all composite things are impermanent. Do not rely on them. This extensive teaching should be taken to heart and remembered. Persons knowing that the appearances of this life, no matter what they are, are empty should try to exert themselves solely in practicing the holy Dharma, day and night. (i.e. Vipallasa Sutta - (Anguttara ikya IV.49) - Perversions "Monks, there are these four perversions of perception, perversions of mind, perversions of view. Which four?
'Constant'

(permanent) with regard to the inconstant (impermanent) is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view. with regard to the stressful.... regard to not-self....

'Pleasant' 'Self' with

'Attractive'

with regard to the unattractive is a perversion of perception, a perversion of mind, a perversion of view. These are the four perversions of perception, perversions of mind, perversions of view.

"There are these four non-perversions of perception, non-perversions of mind, nonperversions of view. Which four?
'Inconstant'

with regard to the inconstant is a non-perversion of perception, a nonperversion of mind, a non-perversion of view. regard to the stressful....

'Stressful' with '

ot-self' with regard to not-self....

'Unattractive'

with regard to the unattractive is a non-perversion of perception, a nonperversion of mind, a non-perversion of view. These are the four non-perversions of perception, non-perversions of mind, nonperversions of view.") (i.e. Pariyesana Sutta-- Searches. What are you searching for? Are you looking for happiness in all the wrong places, or are you truly looking for a lasting, noble happiness? "Monks, these four are ignoble searches. Which four? There is the case where a person,

1. Being subject himself to aging, seeks [happiness in] what is subject to aging. 2. Being subject himself to illness, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to illness. 3. Being subject himself to death, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to death. 4. Being subject himself to defilement, he seeks [happiness in] what is subject to defilement. These are four ignoble searches. " ow, these four are noble searches. Which four? There is the case where a person, 1. Being subject himself to aging, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to aging, seeks the un-aging, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. 2. Being subject himself to illness, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to illness, he seeks the un-ailing, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding. 3. Being subject himself to death, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to death, he seeks the undying, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding.

4. Being subject himself to defilement, realizing the drawbacks of what is subject to defilement, he seeks the undefiled, unsurpassed rest from the yoke: Unbinding.

"These Are Four oble Searches"


(i.e. Samyutta ikya LI.20 - Iddhipada-vibhanga Sutta - Analysis of the Bases of Power And how does a monk dwell so that what is below is the same as what is above, and what is above is the same as what is below? There is the case where a monk reflects on this very body, from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin, and full of various kinds of unclean things: 'In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin-oil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine.' This is how a monk dwells so that what is below is the same as what is above, and what is above is the same as what is below. D 22 - (d) Foulness - The Bodily Parts - i.e. discern the body in terms of parts [4] "Furthermore...just as if a sack with openings at both ends were full of various kinds of grain -- wheat, rice, mung beans, kidney beans, sesame seeds, husked rice -- and a man with good eyesight, pouring it out, were to reflect, 'This is wheat. This is rice. These are mung beans. These are kidney beans. These are sesame seeds. This is husked rice,' in the same way, monks, a monk reflects on this very body from the soles of the feet on up, from the crown of the head on down, surrounded by skin and full of various kinds of unclean things: 'In this body there are head hairs, body hairs, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, tendons, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, large intestines, small intestines, gorge, feces, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skinoil, saliva, mucus, fluid in the joints, urine.' (Body parts consciousness development: A healthy negative image sees that all bodies, no matter how attractive, young, or healthy they may seem at the skin level, are composed of the very same parts, all equally unattractive. This perception of the equality of all bodies, if handled properly, is healthy in that it helps liberate one not only from feelings of inferiority but also from the disease of lust and desire, promoting a sense of dispassion toward lustful thoughts in general. This insight can form the basis for perceptual skills that can act as a very liberating antidote to the mind's tendency to self-delusion.) (i.e. There appears to be a twofold purpose behind the development of mindfulness regarding the various parts and constituent elements of the body:
(1) The knowledge that no

abiding ego exists in the body but only those parts that can be observed and inferred from this observation (searching for the "Ego" and separating the impermanent from the permanent) and "vile" and impermanent nature of the body. (To reduce craving for

(2) The essentially

other bodies)

(Also) the process

of aging and death present in all parts of the body, the susceptibility to sickness, the non control, the unsatisfying nature of all of this. This second purpose is carried to even greater extremes in the fourth aspect of bodily mindfulness, the cemetery contemplations. Here the Bhikkhu is enjoined to contemplate his own body as though it were undergoing ever-increasing degrees of decomposition after death. Initially he contemplates a body abandoned in a graveyard which is swollen and turning black and blue; then a body which has been partially eaten by wild animals; and finally a body which has been reduced to a mere heap of bones. All of these contemplations are symbols of the transient nature of the body. 2. To attain even the realm of Brahma and so forth is impermanent.

(i.e. Impermanence of all beings, including gods: There is no protection from death, not even as a great king, or as a god; not even in the profound Dhyanas. All beings are subject to death; no exception. Everything that is caused is necessarily impermanent. By opposition irvana is "not caused", "not impermanent".) Those who are the true foundation of wealth on the three levels1 Gods like Brahma Shiva, Surya, and Ishvara, Though they shine in the radiant gleam of fame and fortune, Have no chance to vanquish the realm of the Lord of Death Even if they stay in samdhi for a kalpa, When their karma has been exhausted, that is their time of death. Gods as well as asuras, siddhas, and sorcerers, However many villeins and vassals there may be Throughout their endless births are terrified by death. Bhrama, Maheshvara, Vishnu, Indra, the four great world-protecting kings, and so forth fill the world with great rays of light, brighter than a thousand suns. They are more splendid than a mountain of gold. The fame of their merits fills the world. They are the highest beings of the three worlds, below the earth, upon the earth, and above the earth. But, though they are adorned with all this real wealth, they still have to die. The Dulwa Lung says: O monks, look on this wealth as being essence-less and subject to deterioration. If the retinue mindful of my teachings were transferred into the inconceivable life and insatiable powers of Brahma, Indra, the world protectors and so forth, they would be brought down to the lower realms. Also it says there: Brahma the pure one, wrathful Indra, and thousand-eyed Surya, As well as desire-less Vishnu, are impermanent, and passing. The display of the sun and moon is only for a moment. The continents of the world are seen to have been emptied. The gods of the four Dhyanas, and the other gods, the asuras, siddhas who have accomplished austerities, and all holders of vidya mantra still die.

The same text says: The gods who accomplish the Dhyanas, as well as the kinnaras And ascetic sages who are not gods but blaze with splendor, Are impermanent, though they may live for a long time or a kalpa. As for conditioned humans, whose bodies are like foam, o need to discuss their freedom from individual destruction? The lords of the four continents, the universal monarchs, kings, ministers, and all kinds of ordinary people, monastic renunciates, Brahmins, householders and so on, none of them escape death. The Shrine-room of Telling the Reason Why says: Kings possessing the seven precious treasures, Great noble lords and royal ministers Monks and Brahmins, householders and such, All of these beings are impermanent. They are like beings experienced in a dream. (i.e. "The last of the six realms is the gods' realm. It is considered to be the highest realm because it is the most pleasurable and the most blissful. The beings there are extremely beautiful with gorgeous fragrances, brilliant colors, and music that is so pleasurable that if we were to hear it would be instantly healing. Bodies of the gods are pure and perfectly sweet. There is not a bit of decay, sweat, bacteria, aging or any processes that produce the foul smells we have. It is beauty beyond what we can understand, completely free of ugliness or decay. Pride is the main cause for being reborn here, and even though the gods live for thousands of years, life is not permanent there. It actually takes a tremendous amount of good karma and pure virtue to be reborn in the gods' realm, but while there you use up all your accumulated good karma very fast, like a big V-8 engine burning gas going up hill. Suddenly after a very long life span, decay sets in. One's accumulated virtue becomes exhausted and death approaches. It is horrible to them because they who have experienced nothing but beauty, sweetness, bliss, gorgeous music, and celestial food are about to experience terrible suffering. This impermanence is the predominant suffering of the gods' realm.") --Jetsunma Ahkn Lhamo "Life in the Six Realms"

3. There is impermanence because change is the nature of things [the subtle mark of impermanence]. (i.e. Everything that is dependent on causes and conditions is necessarily impermanent. "Being itself is really a process of becoming". And that includes everything in the three worlds. othing, no being, stays the same even for an infinitesimal moment. It is a continuous flow of interdependence, a dance, with no real lasting entities in it. Like a multitude of swirls at the surface of the water.)

Because there is transference and change, there is impermanence: Within the impermanent play of the rain-clouds of this life, In garlands of flashing lightning, dances the Lord of Death. Day and night, the falling rain of the changing seasons Drowns whatever sprouts may grow within the three levels Ornamented by the essence of the freedom and favors, the dark summer cloudbanks of this life gather, while, naturally wreathed in quivering lightning, the Lord of Death performs his dance. Day and night, not pausing for an instant, the rain of immanent death falls constantly, flooding out and drowning all the sprouts of sentient beings dwelling within the three worlds. The Vast Play says: The three worlds' impermanence is like the clouds of autumn. The birth and death of beings has the aspect of a dance. The lives of beings vanish like lightning into space. Like waterfalls cascading down a precipitous mountain, As quickly as the water comes it falls away. (i.e. A Theravadin perspective from: The Trilogy of Anicca, Dukkha and Anatt - By Bhikkhu Bodhi The Buddha says that we have to examine our experience in order to discover its most pervasive features, the universal characteristics of phenomena, namely, impermanence, un-satisfactoriness and ego-less-ness or not-self. The Buddha says: I. All formations are impermanent. II. All formations are unsatisfactory. III. All phenomena, everything whatsoever, are not self. Formations are things, which arise from causes and conditions. They include all compounded or formed phenomena. Although all formations around us have these three characteristics, we are unable to see them because our minds are ordinarily cloaked by ignorance. Ignorance is a mental factor, which has been covering the minds of all sentient beings through beginning-less time. It covers the minds of every one but the fully enlightened ones, the Buddhas and the arahants. Ignorance functions in two ways, negative and positive. On the negative side it simply obstructs us from seeing things as they are; it throws up clouds of mental darkness.

On the positive side, it creates in the mind illusions called perversions. Due to these perversions, we see things in quite the opposite way from the way they really are. These perversions are: (a) Perversion of seeing what is unattractive as attractive. (b) Perversion of seeing what is Dukkha or unsatisfactory as pleasurable. (c) Perversion of seeing what is impermanent as permanent. (d) Perversion of seeing what is really not self as self. These illusions give rise to craving, conceit, wrong view and all other defilements, and in that way we become entangled in dukkha. These universal characteristics have to be understood in two stages:
First intellectually, And

by reflection;

thereafter by direct insight or realization through insight meditation.

When we explain these intellectually, we should not make this a substitute for practice, but only take it as a guideline for understanding what has to be seen by the actual practice of insight meditation. I. Impermanence - Aniccata This is the root characteristic of the Buddha's teaching, the most fundamental characteristic, which forms the basis for the other two. The mark of impermanence has two aspects, a) gross and b) subtle. a) The gross mark of impermanence is fully evident as soon as you pay attention to it. If we do so it becomes clear That everything that arises must at some time pass away, That whatever comes into being must pass out of being, That whatever is put together at some time comes apart. This is evident in the cosmic process, in the course of history and in the course of our lives. The Buddha teaches that the cosmic process goes through four stages of development. (a) It emerges from a state of undifferentiated matter. (b) It evolves to a point of maximum differentiation.

(c) It begins to disintegrate. (d) Then it reaches a stage of total disintegration, destruction. Then after sometime, the process repeats itself. In this way every world system arises, evolves and passes away. In history we find the same pattern. A civilization arises, reaches its zenith, declines and eventually perishes. In life, we are born and grow up; when growth reaches the maximum it is followed by ageing decay and death. othing in life is absolutely reliable. Fortune changes, character and relationships evolve and dissolve. That is the gross or coarse feature of impermanence. b) The subtle mark of impermanence is more difficult to grasp. This indicates not only that everything produced eventually perishes, but that being itself is really a process of becoming. Buddha points out that there are no static entities, but only dynamic processes which appear to us to be stable and static only because our perception is not sharp enough to detect the changes. Things themselves are constantly undergoing changes just as a waterfall is always changing but from a distance it seems solid, because we can't perceive the flow. Three stages of becoming: According to the Buddha all momentary happenings go through three stages, three submoments: 1. A moment of arising, 2. Finally a moment of perishing, 3. And between the two "a transformation of that which stands." This intermediate stage means that even in the brief moment that a thing exists it isn't static but changing, a process, a flux of becoming. The stable entities that we see are really bundles of events, "packages" of momentary flashings strung together by laws of conditionality. The Eye of Insight: The Buddha's teaching of radical impermanence Applies to all formations without exception,

Especially to the five aggregates of clinging, to our own personality. To the eye of insight our entire being dissolves into a compound of conditioned factors. First take the aggregate of material form. The body is made up of minute groups of material phenomena which are themselves actually streams of events arising and passing away with incredible speed. The change takes so fast that the eye and the mind cannot register it. If we twirl a glowing stick in the dark, the eye fuses the moving points of light into the shape of a circle, so it appears to be a solid circle of light. In the same way all material form is fused together into the appearance of a solid body, but the solid body is only a mental representation and not a reality. The same process of change applies to the mind. The mind is a composite of four mental aggregates - feelings, perceptions, mental formations and consciousness. These are all in process, streams of events arising and perishing countless times each second. In every moment there is a new feeling arising and passing, a new perception, new mental formations and new consciousness. They appear to form a stable lasting mind. But this is only an appearance caused by the continuity of the process. II Dukkhata Un-satisfactoriness Dukkha means both pain and suffering and also the general un-satisfactoriness of conditioned existence. A fundamental reason why existence is unsatisfactory is because it is connected with pain, subject to suffering. The pain and suffering to a great extent are rooted in impermanence. We crave for a world where everything that we value and love will remain forever, but when it changes we undergo suffering. The five aggregates themselves are impermanent. We would like to preserve them, to dominate them with our will but when they escape our grasp we meet with dissatisfaction. Dukkha has the meaning of "oppression by rise and fall." When we contrast the rise and fall with our desire for peace and stability, then the process of rise and fall seems oppressive. For detailed discussion of Dukkha see First oble Truth. III Anatt - ot Self The 'not-self' nature of "Myself" The characteristic of selflessness, non-self, is the deepest and the most difficult of the characteristics. In the teaching of Anatt, the Buddha proclaims that there is nothing that can be identified as self, that all the things that we take to be ourselves, to be I and mine, are really not self.

This teaching cuts sharply against the traditional forms of thinking and makes Buddhism a distinctly unique teaching. Almost all of our thoughts and activities are centered around the idea of "I" and "mine" and "myself". Yet the Buddha holds that these notions are deceptive. They are delusions that lead us into conflicts and suffering. And he teaches further that, in order to get free from Dukkha, we have to break out of the clinging to the idea of self. The only way to do this is to penetrate the mark of selflessness, to see with insight the selfless nature of all phenomena.) 4. The impermanence of the Vessel and Essence (i.e. Impermanence of all the levels of worlds and beings: A universe based on many interdependent levels from gross to very subtle: This flow of interdependence, and of impermanent objects and beings, is operating on an infinite number of levels, like a fractal that operates in the three worlds simultaneously (their distinction is only another artificial discrimination from the mind). But usually it is resumed with four levels: outer, inner, secret and such-ness mandalas -- related to body, speech, mind, and inseparability of the three, also related to the four kayas, the four empowerments, the four offerings ... The message in this section is that everything is impermanent in any of those levels. And also that these levels arise and ceased in a particular order, from gross to subtle and then very subtle; that will be explained later with the Bardo.) On each level: The vessel is the world, which has long been stable and motionless. The accompanying essence or contents supported by it is taught to be moving beings. When the vessel and contents of this impermanent world With all its various cycles of creation and destruction, Is destroyed seven times by fire and once by water, And blown away like dust by the force of the raging wind, Even Mount Meru, with its four slopes of precious substance, Surrounded by the four oceans and the four continents, Encircled by mountain ranges and the ramparts of the world, Will not endure when all is turned to a single space. Thinking that this time must certainly come to pass, Therefore, let us practice the Dharma from our hearts. The external vessel and contents are destructible. The inner vessel and contents too are taught to be impermanent.

The External Vessel: the world: In the beginning of the first kalpa, in the accommodating sky, the empty space of nothing whatever, pranavajra was born from a crossed vajra, indestructible. Above it was born the mandala of water, hard like vajra. There also on the little island, which is this world, was the supreme mountain of precious substances, Mount Meru. The east was made of crystal, the south of yellow beryl, the west of ruby, the north of gold. Reaching to the edges of the surrounding water, with seven lakes between them are yashing Dzin, and so forth, the seven mountain ranges, surrounded by the expanse of the outer ocean. [2] In the outer ocean, in the east is the continent Purvavideha. In the south is Jambudvipa, in the west Aparagodaniya, in the north Uttarakuru. On Mount Meru, are four groves, and to the northeast, completely enclosed in trees, is the all-victorious good house, ornamented by caverns like a city, with agreeable mountains at the edge. From this to the ocean's horizon, as far as the other surrounding iron mountains [3] is the vessel, the world, and ornamented by the sun and moon. [Its content: beings] Supported within it is the essence, sentient beings. The luminous gods are separated from people of the four main continents and eight sub-continents beside them. These sub-continents are Deha and Videha, Chamara and Upachamara, Satha and Uttaramantrina, Kurava and Kaurava. Also there are the appearances produced by lower karma, the individual realms of lower beings, the animal, hungry ghost, and Hell realms. In the dhatu of the animals the great ocean is the root place. Below, the hungry ghosts' royal capital city is their chief place. Hell beings have the hot Hells and snow mountain cold Hells. Under them all, like a yellow rose with eight joined petals, are the neighboring Hells, oriented in the four directions of the Avici or Unremitting Hell, which is the place at the root. The widely scattered animals, the hungry ghosts wandering in space, and the ephemeral human realm are also there. The six kinds of kama divinities of the desire realm, kama deva shatkula, are halfway up mount Meru in the rising place of the sun, moon, stars, and planets. First there are the four, great, noble kings. Above them is the heaven of the thirty-three. Above them with their sky palaces dwelling like the stars and planets, in order there are the desire realm deity heavens of the strife-less, Yama; joyful, Tushita; Delighting in Emanation, irmanarata; and Mastery over Transformation, Paranirmita. In holes in the rocks of Mount Meru dwell the asuras. In the edges of the water Rahu, and in Skartreng, Garland of Stars, a city at foot of Mount Meru, is the asura king Kanto Mali. In the edges of earth are nicely textured slopes where desire gods contend in wealth and enjoyments. Of the four realms of the desire gods, in the Brahma realms of the first Dhyana are the stratum of Brahma, Abhasvara; Priests who chant before Brahma Bhramapurohita; and Great Brahma, Mahabhrama. In the space above is the heaven of Mastery over the Emanations of Others, Para-nimitta-vashvartin (the sixth of the twenty-eight desire heavens) whose thrones reach upward four pagtse. The second Dhyana has the heavens of Lesser Radiance, Parittabha; Immeasurable Radiance, Apramaanaabha; and radiance, Praabhasvara. The third has Lesser Virtue, Parittashubha; Immeasurable Virtue, Apramanashubha; and Vast Virtue, Shubhakritsna. The fourth has Cloudless; Increasing Merit, Punyaprasava; and the great fruition born of merit Brihatphala. Then there are the five Pure Abodes, Paqcashuddhanivaasa. Here the three places of individual beings are the Slightest, Avriha; Painless, Atapa; and Attractive Sudrisha. The other heavens of the pure realm gods are extreme Insight, Sudarshana, and the Highest, Akanishta. These five heavens are one above the other. The four formless realms are limitless space, Akashanabtyayatana, limitless consciousness, vijqanabtyayatana nothing whatsoever,

Akimchanabtyayatana and neither perception nor non-perception, naivasamjqasamjqayatana. These peaks of samsara depend on former attainment of the formless samdhis. They are in the place where one dies. [A Buddha appearing in each of those worlds] Thus, uniting the aspects of vessel and essence, as explained, this is called one world realm of four continents. A thousand of these, likewise surrounded by iron mountains as high as the place of the thirty-three gods, is called a first thousand-fold world realm. A thousand such realms, with surrounding mountains as high as the Para-nimitta-vashvartin realm is called a middlethousand world realm. [4] A thousand of those, with surrounding mountains as high as the special first Dhyana realm, is called a great three thousand fold world realm. [5] In each of these worlds is shown a body like that of the supreme irmanakaya, performing the twelve deeds of a Buddha that are not performed before or after. By its appearance, these are called worlds of those to be tamed. Other than that in the ten directions, are measureless other words, round, semi-circular, square, and of other shapes, pervading to the limits of space. They also have immeasurable kinds of sentient beings above, below, and on the same level. [The dynamic of these worlds, and the appearances of Buddhas] Generally, in this universe of suffering, the times of arising, enduring, destruction, and vacuity are equal. The first is the time of well arising. Then there is the present time of well-remaining, from the time of the coming of the Tathgata ampar Zikpa [6] when all beings attain immeasurable lives to when Shakyamuni comes, to the time when beings have lives of ten years. From the long ago time of the beginning lives each decrease by 200 years each. Then when they reach 100, they increase by one from 11 to 80,000 after Maitreya has come. After 100, they diminish by one, until reaching 10 years of life. There are 80 such cycles of increase and decrease, 18 in the present kalpa; among these, 995 Buddhas arise. Then from 200 years lives increase by one to measureless. When they go a little lower, after the Buddha called "Devoted" comes," all the deeds, lives and assembled retinues of former Buddhas are brought into one, and the same deeds and lives and assemblies arise. Beings not tamed by the former Buddhas are tamed. The sound of the three jewels is heard. This continues until even beings who had sundered the basis of discipline and completely slandered virtue are liberated from samsara, and by the power vows to do so, these deeds are fully accomplished. Until their nirvana the holy Dharma also remains that long. The completely perfect third-thousand-fold universe's sentient beings, however many they were are established in liberation. After their tenth year of life, that kalpa is entirely burned seven times by destroying fire, to ashes. The fire lasts a day. Some sutras say seven days. Some say that one sun having the heat of seven arises. In reality 700 times ten million suns will occur and, the universe will be annihilated and burned. The ashes will be washed away by water, scattered by wind, and finally, having become a single space, it will be like the former situation where nothing had yet been born. Know all dharmas to be like that. [The Same For The Inner Vessel / The Inner Mandala] Like this story of how the outer vessel and essence will be destroyed, the inner body too should be viewed. Mind becomes the single first nature of mind. From within that the wind of ignorance and discursive conceptualization are born. Because of that, by the karma of dwelling in samsara, by the condition of the karma establishing the nature of water, from the semen and blood of the father and mother, the body is Mount Meru, the eyes are the sun and moon, whose inner essential natures are white and red. The twelve ayatanas and dhatus (i.e. irreducible

elements) are the four continents and eight sub-continents. The eight consciousnesses are the seven mountains and the great horizon, making eight altogether. The accompanying essence or contents / the beings of the inner mandala: Supported by body, speech, and mind are the three main nadis, roma and kyangma to the left and right and the central channel. With the support of the three gates, the three poisons, and the three kayas there are the three realms. The nadis petals, which are the five or six chakras are the five or six Buddha families. Like a fractal of infinite number of levels and swirls: There are many distinct but similar realms, and within all these thousand-fold world systems appear many joys and sorrows and so forth. Gathered together, they separate. Born, they die. Compounded, they are destroyed. Dynamic of the whole mandala: outer, inner, secret, such-ness: When the time of death comes, the four external elements within which dwell the four inner elements, are destroyed seven times by fire and once by water, eight altogether. Then the inner elements dissolve into the secret elements, primordial luminosity, and everything becomes a single space. When the four elements of the body have been gathered together, the emptying of prana nadi and bindu are the seven destructions by fire. Transmigration of life is the one destruction by water. Cessation of the breath is the final scattering by wind. The individual body disperses, finally becoming nothing at all like space, like before the body was born. (i.e. About not getting obsessed in levels and mandalas the perfection of mandala practice equals knowing their emptiness at the same time: For students who rejoice in counting characteristics, Counting mantras is taught and developing mandalas, For whoever has placed their hopes upon the path of Trikaya. Those who produce understanding by means of heaping up concepts, For the length of time of a hundred million kalpas Will never realize the sense of the undeveloped mandala. Kye! for me the teacher, the King, the doer of all, By accumulations and mandala being self-perfected, The nature of Dharmata does not need to be created. As the nature with neither wish nor development, Know The mandala of the King, the doer of all. -- The All-Creating King Also: From the nature without conception and perception, Come the varied phenomena of the mandalas of light. These several luminosities that shine in the center of space, By expressing variety, have never risen at all-- The Avatamsaka Sutra)

(i.e. The Eight Stages of the Death Process From -- Preparing for Death and Helping the Dying, Amitabha Buddhist Center Stage Factors Dissolving External Sign Body becomes thin, shrinks, weaker; Eyesight becomes unclear; Unable to open and close eyes. Forms become unclear. Body fluids dry up; Body becomes numb; Hearing ceases; Bodily feelings cease. Digestion ceases; Forget life's affairs; Inhalation weak, exhalation strong; Smell ceases. Can't remember names. Breathing ceases; Winds move to heart; Body can't move; Taste and touch cease; Lose awareness of external activities, etc. Winds above heart enter into central channel. Winds below heart enter Internal Sign

Earth element; Form aggregate; Eye sense; Basic mirror-like wisdom.

Mirage

Water element; Feeling aggregate; Ear sense; Wisdom of equality.

Smoke

Fire element; Discrimination aggregate; ose sense; Basic wisdom of analysis.

Sparks

Wind element; Compositional factors aggregate; Tongue and body senses; Wisdom of achieving activities. Consciousness aggregate; Eighty conceptions. Mind of white appearance.

Dying flame

White appearance

Red appearance

central channel 7 Mind of red increase. Mind of black near-attainment. Winds gather at heart. Winds dissolve into very subtle wind at heart. Darkness, then unconsciousness Clear light)

The Later Tantra of Vast Wisdom: says: Ripened by the elements of air and water and fire, The world of the body is engendered as the vessel. adi and prana and the essence of the elements, Existing as the pure nature of the four great elements, Then abide in the form of changeless, radiant light. Dwelling in space, if we transfer into purity, All the different elements, nadi, prana, and essences, That is like the world-destruction by seven fires. The dissolving of the elements is the one destruction by water. Cessation of coarse and subtle is the scattering by wind. Entering into the light is the realm of spaciousness. Then there is the primordial lord, enlightenment, This is reaching the final goal of non-confusion. We should examine further the subsiding of the worlds of individual sentient beings. The Spiritual Letter says: For seven days the mass of the earth, as well as the oceans, Will blaze, and all these beings will be burned away. If visible bodies all will be reduced to ashes, Why even speak of those which are invisible. That is how we should think about it. (i.e. Samyutta ikya XXXV.82 - Loka Sutta - The World : Then a certain monk went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there, he said to the Blessed One: "`The world, the world (loka),' it is said. In what respect does the word `world' apply? "Insofar as it disintegrates (lujjati), monk, it is called the `world.' ow what disintegrates? The eye disintegrates. Forms disintegrate. Consciousness at the eye consciousness disintegrates. Contact at the eye disintegrates. And whatever there is that arises in dependence on contact at the eye -- experienced as pleasure, pain or neither-pleasurenor-pain -- that too disintegrates.

"The ear disintegrates. Sounds disintegrate.... "The nose disintegrates. Aromas disintegrate.... "The tongue disintegrates. Tastes disintegrate.... "The body disintegrates. Tactile sensations disintegrate.... "The intellect disintegrates. Ideas disintegrate. Consciousness at the intellect consciousness disintegrates. Contact at the intellect disintegrates. And whatever there is that arises in dependence on contact at the intellect -- experienced as pleasure, pain or neither-pleasure-nor-pain -- that too disintegrates. "Insofar as it disintegrates, it is called the `world.'")

5. Impermanence of the teachings of how the victorious ones and their sons attain nirvana. (i.e. Impermanence of even the teachers and of their teaching.) Even the teachers who come into these worlds, the many Tathgatas and their retinues, go beyond suffering to nirvana. In considering how their teaching declines, there is the further teaching that our own lives are impermanent: Even the leaders of the world, the lord Buddha sages, Attended by their retinues of Buddha sons, Pratyekabuddhas and hosts of shravakas, As within the clear sky the always-existing moon Is encircled by its attending garland of stars and planets; Though these shine with brilliance in their luminosity, They also teach impermanence by passing into nirvana. See too how the measureless sun of the precious teachings Sets ever more from generation to generation. Then why should our bodies, like plantain trees without a heart, Or like a phantom castle, fail to be destroyed. Teachers came to this world of suffering. Their forms were seen. Vipashyi, Ratnach_da, Vishvabhu, Krakucchanda, Karakamuni, Dipamkara, and Shakyamuni, like the full moon rising on an autumn evening, blazed with the brilliance of the major and minor marks. They were surrounded by hosts of stars as their retinue, shravakas, bodhisattvas, pure ones, world protectors, and so on. Their bodies blazed with splendor. Their speech was brilliant, and without meaningless chatter. Their spotless minds shone with their illumination. They were as firm as vajra, having passed beyond suffering. (i.e. Anguttara ikya III.134 - Dhamma-niyama Sutta - The Discourse on the Orderliness of the Dhamma

The Blessed One said, "Whether or not there is the arising of Tathgatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dhamma, this orderliness of the Dhamma: All processes are inconstant (impermanent). "The Tathgata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening and breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, and makes it plain: All processes are inconstant. "Whether or not there is the arising of Tathgatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dhamma, this orderliness of the Dhamma: All processes are stressful. "The Tathgata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening and breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, and makes it plain: All processes are stressful. "Whether or not there is the arising of Tathgatas, this property stands -- this steadfastness of the Dhamma, this orderliness of the Dhamma: All phenomena are notself. "The Tathgata directly awakens to that, breaks through to that. Directly awakening and breaking through to that, he declares it, teaches it, describes it, sets it forth. He reveals it, explains it, and makes it plain: All phenomena are not-self.") (i.e. Diamond Sutra: 21.Subhuti, do not say that the Tathgata conceives the idea: I must set forth a Teaching. For if anyone says that the Tathgata sets forth a Teaching he really slanders Buddha and is unable to explain what I teach. As to any Truth-declaring system, Truth is un-declarable; so "an enunciation of Truth" is just the name given to it. 23. "Again, Subhuti, this Dharma is even and has neither elevation nor depression; and it is called supreme enlightenment. Because a man practices everything that is good, without cherishing the thought of an ego, a person, a being, and a soul, he attains the supreme enlightenment. Subhuti, what is called good is no-good, and therefore it is known as good." 26. "...If any one by form sees me, by voice seeks me, this one walks the false path, and cannot see the Tathgata." 29. "Subhuti, if a man should declare that the Tathgata is the one who comes, or goes, or sits, or lies, he does not understand the meaning of my teachings. Why? The Tathgata does not come from anywhere, and does not depart to anywhere; therefore he is called the Tathgata.) Other teachers, gradually declining, depend on the supreme being of the Shakyas. If all of them were impermanent, how will my body, as insubstantial as a bubble, not be impermanent. The Shrine of Impermanence says: Ablaze with a thousand marks is the body of sugatagarbha. If this is impermanent, established with merit a hundred times over, Then, as unreliable as a breaking bubble, How can, this, my body, not certainly be destroyed? The one who is the benefit of sentient beings, The Victorious One, the Sugata, passes like the sun, The moon, the treasure of holy Dharma, is seen to set.

As for our goods, our retinues, and our enjoyments, We should be ready to know that they are impermanent. 6. We are impermanent because our lives never wax but always wane. (i.e. So if we are sure to die, we don't know when. We shouldn't wait for later to use this great but brief opportunity. All other activities are a waste of time based on vanity that will end up in the three lower realms.) If even a vajra-like body is impermanent, why depend on this body, as insubstantial as a plantain tree. That is the instruction: Therefore, though it is certain that we are going to die, Of where and when and how there is no certainty. Our life-span never waxing [increasing], is always on the wane [decreasing], Conditions of death are many, and those of living few, Life has no time to waste, so keep right to the point. From today onwards, what makes sense is to work with Dharma. Just by being born, death is certain. The White Lotus of Holy Dharma says: Wherever there is birth, death will be there too. Wherever there is gathering, there is dissolution. Though time is beginning-less, everyone has died. The Good Marks Sutra says: Who was ever known who might not die tomorrow? Therefore this very day we should exert ourselves. The Lord of Death and his considerable tribe, either of the two, are any friends of ours. Anywhere in the world, death is inevitable. Walking, standing, or whatever we are doing, we should be ready, thinking, "Is it today that I will die?" The Sutra of the Good Army says: Mountains or steep ravines, defiles or precipices, At home or in the streets, or on the bank of a river. Somewhere upon the earth will be my last abode. This is something that is not to be divulged. This completely removes my enjoyment of the world. Because of conditions, the time of death too is uncertain. The scriptures say: Some people die from choking on their food. Others die from taking their medicines. Why even say that beings have different conditions? There is no certainty of the time of death. Our life spans never increase, but always grow shorter. Death is certain. The ews of Impermanence, says:

Like the rock of a pool that was cut by falling water, There is no increase, but always only decrease. Since all of us must enter on the path of death, Who can rely upon this incidental life. The Bodhicaryavatara says: Day as well as night it never stays at all. This life eternally fleeting is getting ever-shorter Having gotten shorter, it will not then increase. Why would one like me not be going to die? Few conditions are required for death other than birth in a womb. Death is certain. The ews of Impermanence, says: Though the conditions of death are a numerous multitude, The conditions of our being born are very few. Therefore since it is certain that we shall quickly die; Let us keep the holy Dharma in our hearts. 7. How what seems external is inner impermanence (i.e. Even our own mind, our presumed permanent self, is dependently arisen and thus impermanent. Its permanence is an illusion, like the illusion of inherently existing objects. Mind itself is the king of its mental fabrications. There is just the flow of change, without any inherently existing subjects or objects.) One's own mind is even more mortal than an ancient ruined city: Sentient beings, like a bower gathered from the four elements Are ornamented with moving thoughts like people inside. Composite, their dharmas arise from conditions and are destroyed. Since all is impermanent, like an ancient city, Let us quickly perform the actions of holy Dharma. (i.e. ot only are external objects and bodies dependently arisen and thus impermanent, but so are all internal dharmas like: our feelings, our ideas, concepts, mental fabrications, our consciousnesses, our perceptions. All are based on subjective [relative] characteristics even though we usually attribute them to some kind of objective perception and consciousness. But it should be evident that our feelings for something or someone are pretty much dependent on how much pleasure they bring to us in the short term, and can easily change in time if those conditions change. Our concepts, ideas, theories, are also dependent on acquired and conventional concepts. Theories change, understanding change none is absolute. Even our ways to re-act are based on acquired relative customs. Even our perception and consciousness of something is based on past karma. othing is absolute; all can change with time and occasions. So there is no absolute discrimination based on permanent characteristics, permanent attributes, absolute concepts and ideas. They are all dependently arisen, conditioned, thus impermanent and empty of inherent existence. In that sense seeing the impermanence of

all characteristics, all aggregates, all dharmas is an introduction to seeing the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharmas.) (i.e. The teachings say that we can understand impermanence by seeing how friends turn into enemies and enemies turn into friends. -- Hannah ydahl) That is the exhortation. Ruined cities that are now abandoned were once wellconstructed and filled with many beings. Later they became vacant. Look at this life as being like that. Kye ma'o! What is left of the former youth and wealth of these samsaric beings? Only the people's names remain. Their adornments destroyed, bones are all that is left of these beings who once emanated their various discursive thoughts. Like this, our bodies, these bowers collected from the four elements, are now beautiful with clothing and ornaments. What people will later call by our names is our bones. "That's how it is," we should think from our hearts. The Spiritual Letter says: As we near the finish of the body, we glimpse its bleak end. At last its foul essence is not there at all. It is worn out, decomposes, and is completely destroyed. Know that its dharmas will be torn asunder. (i.e. Samyutta ikya XXII.48 - Khandha Sutta - Aggregates At Savatthi. There the Blessed One said, "Monks, I will teach you the five aggregates and the five aggregates of clinging/sustenance. Listen and pay close attention. I will speak." "As you say, lord," the monks responded. The Blessed One said, " ow what, monks, are the five aggregates? "Whatever form is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near: that is called the aggregate of form. "Whatever feeling is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near: that is called the aggregate of feeling. "Whatever perception is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near: that is called the aggregate of perception. "Whatever (mental) fabrications are past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near: those are called the aggregate of fabrications.

"Whatever consciousness is past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near: that is called the aggregate of consciousness. "These are called the five aggregates. "And what are the five aggregates of clinging/sustenance? "Whatever form -- past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near -is cling-able, offers sustenance, and is accompanied with mental fermentation: that is called form as an aggregate of clinging/sustenance. "Whatever feeling -- past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near -is cling-able, offers sustenance, and is accompanied with mental fermentation: that is called feeling as an aggregate of clinging/sustenance. "Whatever perception -- past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near -is cling-able, offers sustenance, and is accompanied with mental fermentation: that is called perception as an aggregate of clinging/sustenance. "Whatever (mental) fabrications -- past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near -are cling-able, offer sustenance, and are accompanied with mental fermentation: those are called fabrications as an aggregate of clinging/sustenance. "Whatever consciousness -- past, future, or present; internal or external; blatant or subtle, common or sublime, far or near -is cling-able, offers sustenance, and is accompanied with mental fermentation: that is called consciousness as an aggregate of clinging/sustenance. "These are called the five aggregates of clinging/sustenance.") (i.e. Samyutta ikya XXII.47 - Samanupassana Sutta - Assumptions At Savatthi. There the Blessed One said, "Monks, whatever contemplatives or priests who assume in various ways when assuming a self, all assume the five aggregates for sustenance/clinging, or a certain one of them. Which five? There is the case where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person -- who has no regard for nobles ones, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma; who has no regard for men of integrity, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma -Assumes form (the body) to be the self, Or the self as possessing form, Or form as in the self,

Or the self as in form. "He assumes feeling to be the self, Or the self as possessing feeling, Or feeling as in the self, Or the self as in feeling. "He assumes perception to be the self, Or the self as possessing perception, Or perception as in the self, Or the self as in perception. "He assumes (mental) fabrications to be the self, Or the self as possessing fabrications, Or fabrications as in the self, Or the self as in fabrications. "He assumes consciousness to be the self, Or the self as possessing consciousness, Or consciousness as in the self, Or the self as in consciousness. "Thus, both this assumption and the understanding, 'I am,' occur to him. And so it is with reference to the understanding 'I am' that there is the appearance of the five faculties -- eye, ear, nose, tongue, and body (the senses of vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch). " ow, there is the intellect, there are ideas (mental qualities), there is the property of ignorance. To an uninstructed run-of-the-mill person, touched by experience born of the contact of ignorance, There occur (the thoughts): 'I am,' 'I am thus,' 'I shall be,' 'I shall not be,' 'I shall be possessed of form,' 'I shall be formless,' 'I shall be percipient (conscious),' 'I shall be non-percipient,' or 'I shall be neither percipient nor non-percipient.'

"The five faculties, monks, continue as they were. And with regard to them the wellinstructed noble disciple abandons ignorance and gives rise to clear knowing. Owing to the fading of ignorance and the arising of clear knowing, (The thoughts) -- 'I am,' 'I am this,' 'I shall be,' 'I shall not be,' 'I shall be possessed of form,' 'I shall be formless,' 'I shall be percipient (conscious),' 'I shall be non-percipient,' and 'I shall be neither percipient nor non-percipient' -Do not occur to him.") (i.e. Samyutta ikya XXII.1 - akulapita Sutta - To akulapita Ven. Shariputra said: " ow, how is one afflicted in body and afflicted in mind? "There is the case where an uninstructed, run-of-the-mill person -- who has no regard for noble ones, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma; who has no regard for men of integrity, is not well-versed or disciplined in their Dhamma -Assumes form (the body) to be the self, Or the self as possessing form, Or form as in the self, Or the self as in form. He is obsessed with the idea that 'I am form' or 'Form is mine.' As he is obsessed with these ideas, his form changes and alters, and he falls into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair over its change and alteration. "He assumes feeling to be the self, Or the self as possessing feeling, Or feeling as in the self, Or the self as in feeling. He is obsessed with the idea that 'I am feeling' or 'Feeling is mine.' As he is obsessed with these ideas, his feeling changes and alters, and he falls into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair over its change and alteration. "He assumes perception to be the self, Or the self as possessing perception,

Or perception as in the self, Or the self as in perception. He is obsessed with the idea that 'I am perception' or 'Perception is mine.' As he is obsessed with these ideas, his perception changes and alters, and he falls into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair over its change and alteration. "He assumes (mental) fabrications to be the self, Or the self as possessing fabrications, Or fabrications as in the self, Or the self as in fabrications. He is obsessed with the idea that 'I am fabrications' or 'Fabrications are mine.' As he is obsessed with these ideas, his fabrications change and alter, and he falls into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair over their change and alteration. "He assumes consciousness to be the self, Or the self as possessing consciousness, Or consciousness as in the self, Or the self as in consciousness. He is obsessed with the idea that 'I am consciousness' or 'Consciousness is mine.' As he is obsessed with these ideas, his consciousness changes and alters, and he falls into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, and despair over its change and alteration. "This, householder, is how one is afflicted in body and afflicted in mind.

"And how is one afflicted in body but un-afflicted in mind? There is the case where a well-instructed noble disciple -- who has regard for nobles ones, is well-versed and disciplined in their Dhamma; who has regard for men of integrity, is well-versed and disciplined in their Dhamma -Does not assume form to be the self, Or the self as possessing form, Or form as in the self,

Or the self as in form. He is not obsessed with the idea that 'I am form' or 'Form is mine.' As he is not obsessed with these ideas, his form changes and alters, but he does not fall into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair over its change and alteration. "He does not assume feeling to be the self.... "He does not assume perception to be the self.... "He does not assume fabrications to be the self.... "He does not assume consciousness to be the self, Or the self as possessing consciousness, Or consciousness as in the self, Or the self as in consciousness. He is not obsessed with the idea that 'I am consciousness' or 'Consciousness is mine.' As he is not obsessed with these ideas, his consciousness changes and alters, but he does not fall into sorrow, lamentation, pain, distress, or despair over its change and alteration. "This, householder, is how one is afflicted in body but un-afflicted in mind." (i.e. Samyutta ikya XXXVI.11 - Rahogata Sutta - Alone Then a certain monk went to the Blessed One and, on arrival, having bowed down to him, sat to one side. As he was sitting there he said to the Blessed One: "Just now, lord, while I was alone in seclusion, this train of thought arose in my awareness: `Three feelings have been spoken of by the Blessed One: a feeling of pleasure, a feeling of pain (stress), and a feeling of neither pleasure nor pain. These are the three feelings spoken of by the Blessed One. But the Blessed One has said: "Whatever is felt comes under stress (pain)." ow in what connection was this stated by the Blessed One: "Whatever is felt comes under stress (pain)?"'" "Excellent, monk. Excellent. These three feelings have been spoken of by me: a feeling of pleasure, a feeling of pain (stress), and a feeling of neither pleasure nor pain. These are the three feelings spoken of by me. But I have also said:
'Whatever is

felt comes under stress (pain).'

That I have stated simply in connection with the inconstancy of fabrications.

That I have stated simply in connection with the nature of fabrications to end ... in connection with the nature of fabrications to fall away ... to fade away... to cease ... in connection with the nature of fabrications to change. 8. An example of impermanence (i.e. The example of the lamp. Being dependent on ever-changing causes and conditions, themselves dependent ... at infinitum, there is no reliance at all in this life. We will all certainly die; it is just a matter of time. Only using the opportunity of this precious human life in learning and practicing the Dharma can help to reach the three possible goals: a rebirth in a higher realm, Liberation from samsara, or Enlightenment.) Like being instantly killed in a dream in which we have enjoyed celestial bliss for a long time, at that time: As the flame of a lamp that has been caught in a sandstorm Flickers and is not steady, even for a moment, When suddenly we are struck by the fierce conditions of death, We shall not endure, but certainly will die. Therefore, practice the holy Dharma right away. A lamp may endure a soft breeze rising from the hearth, but is quickly blown out when a strong wind arises. Our lives, like such a flickering lamp, are agitated by the incessant, soft wind of day and night. When we have grown old, death gives no respite, and as if by a fierce wind, we will be quickly blown away by conditions of illness or harm. Think about this being certain. The Letter to Students says: Like the tongue of flame of a lamp, Blown away by a mighty wind This tiny moment of life, Has no reliance at all. 9. All is impermanent and must be left behind. (i.e. othing remains, but karma: At the moment of death all of our investments are useless; we have to abandon everything and everybody (nothing is without a cause, thus impermanent, nothing permanent, nothing eternal). There remains only the consequences of our accumulated karma (there is no cause without an effect, no discontinuity, no annihilation). And so, only the Dharma can help. But do we have to wait until it is too late to realize this? Only using the opportunity of this precious human life in learning and practicing the Dharma can help to reach the three possible goals: a rebirth in a higher realm, Liberation from samsara, or Enlightenment. All other activities are a waste of a good opportunity and accumulation of karma, the causes of more suffering in the lower realms. On one hand we might think we are eternal and thus should not worry about death. On the other hand we might think that there is nothing after death and that we don't have to suffer the consequences of our actions. Both are extreme wrong views. We should try to see reality for what it is while we can: not permanent or eternal or inherently existing, not impermanent in the sense of totally

discontinuous a flow of interdependence without any real entities having their own essence.) Moreover, as for thinking of impermanence; because, having left everything behind, we must go: Attendants, pleasures, friends and relatives, Youth and beauty, power and social rank-We have to leave alone, abandoning them all, Followed by black and white karma, until they both are emptied. Then there is no refuge other than the Dharma. Why should we not exert ourselves to go beyond them? At the time of death, none of the appearances of this life will be of any use to us. Only the Dharma will be our refuge from the execution of the karma of our virtue and vice. About this the Sutra of Instructions to the King says: The time approaches when the king will go, Your cherished pleasures, friends and relatives Will not follow where you must go then. As for kings, wherever they may go, Karma follows after like a shadow. Mind (i.e. otes:

Karma, Impermanence And The Two Truths


At the time of death, nothing remains, but the consequences of our actions are not annihilated. There is impermanence, but there is also karma. ot Eternalism, but not Annihilationism. This is again the Middle Way between existence and non-existence. The same as between dependent origination and emptiness. Karma represent the continuation of the chain of dependence; death represent the non-permanent-existence or emptiness of being. So the complementarity of these two concepts (impermanence and karma) is an introduction to the more advanced concept of the Union of the Two Truths: like emptiness and dependent origination. From a gross model to a more global model:
Death,

and impermanence are similar to saying "not existent", or an introduction to the more general concept of "emptiness". is similar to saying "not non-existent", or an introduction to the more general concept of "dependent origination"

Karma

The Union

is "both impermanence and karma", like with "The Union of The Two Truths: dependent origination and emptiness"

The difference between the two models is that one operates at the level of "sentient beings" the other is at the level of "all dharmas" on whatever level they might be. One alone is not enough:
Rejecting

karma would be like rejecting half of the Two Truths, like rejecting the continuity of dependent origination, like falling into the extreme of nihilism by thinking that emptiness means that things are completely non-existent.

Similarly,

ignoring death and impermanence, would be like rejecting the emptiness, falling into the extreme of Eternalism or realism by thinking that things and beings have an essence that they are inherently existing. nature of everything is not expressed by any of those extreme views: realism / Eternalism, idealism / nihilism, dualism, monism / oneness. The real nature of everything is not existence, not non-existence, not both, not either. It is called the Union of the Two, even though it is beyond any description, beyond any conceptualization. It is called non-duality: not one, not two. It is called the inseparability of appearances and emptiness, inseparability of the Two Truths, inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness. Here we might call this introduction: the inseparability of karma and impermanence. Things and beings do not last, but still there is no discontinuity.

But the real

So karma is a skillful means comparable to dependent origination, and impermanence is a skillful means comparable to emptiness. one is the real nature of everything, which is beyond description. But we cannot reject those skillful means, or use just one. We need to use them both as method (using karma as upaya) and wisdom (using impermanence as praja) to have a path in accord with the goal, with the real nature of everything. The perfection of this meditation on death and impermanence There are two ways to look at perfecting this meditation in combining method and wisdom.
The gross

level consist of using all dharmas, including this precious human life, and the Dharma, while remembering that they are also dependently arisen and impermanent. It is about the complementarity of acting in accord with the law of karma and impermanence. In this case "impermanence" is seen as the wisdom that complement the methods based on the observation of the law of karma. consist of meditating on impermanence of all dharmas, including this life, while remembering the emptiness of the three (subject, object, action), including the emptiness of all the elements in the Wheel of Life, in the theories of dependent origination, rebirth, Bardo, etc., the whole path. In this other case "meditation on impermanence" is the method, the skillful means, and emptiness is the wisdom. It is like when we talk about the emptiness of emptiness. The important point is to see the inseparability of the two complementary concepts as an aid to point toward the real nature of everything, which is beyond any description, beyond any conceptualization. One concept alone is not the whole story.

The subtle level

Complementarity of impermanence and karma (like between emptiness and dependent origination, or the two truths) The Treatise of the Four Hundred Stanzas on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas, Aryadeva

Whoever sees phenomena as like A collection of mechanical devices (or dependent on causes and conditions) And like illusory beings, (or empty of inherent existence) Most clearly reaches the excellent state. (Or we need both together)

"Since functional things arise There is no discontinuation (or karma, or dependent origination) And because they cease There is no permanence. (Or no inherent existence, or emptiness)"

Guide to the Middle Way, Chandrakirti "Living beings are seen to be transient (or dependently arisen, functional) and empty of inherent existence (or impermanent), Like a moon in rippling water."

Mahayanavimsika, argarjuna 3. " either Samsara (or impermanence) nor irvana (or permanence) exist, But all is a complex continuum (no discontinuity) With an intrinsic face of void (with no inherently existing entities), The object of ultimate awareness." (The Union of The Two Truths) Three Principals of the Path, Lama Tsong Khapa 11. "As long as the two, the understanding of appearances--the infallibility of dependent arising, (or karma) And emptiness--the non-assertion [of inherent existence], (or impermanence) Appear to be separate, there is still no realization Of the thought of Shakyamuni Buddha 12. When [the two understandings exist] simultaneously without alternation, And when, from just seeing dependent-arising to be infallible, Definite knowledge destroys the mode of apprehending [an inherently existent] object, Then the analysis of the view is complete. 13.

Further, [knowledge of the nature of] appearances [existing only nominally] excludes the extreme of existence And [knowledge of the nature of] emptiness [as the absence of inherent existence] excludes the extreme of non-existence. If [within] emptiness, one knows the mode of the appearance of causes and effects, One will not be taken over by extreme views." The Meaning of Om Mani Padme Hum, by H. H. the Fourteenth Dalai Lama It is very good to recite the mantra Om Mani Padme Hum, but while you are doing it, you should be thinking on its meaning, for the meaning of the six syllables is great and vast. The first, OM is composed of three letters, A, U, and M. These symbolize the practitioner's impure body, speech, and mind; they also symbolize the pure exalted body, speech, and mind of a Buddha. Can impure body, speech, and mind be transformed into pure body, speech, and mind, or are they entirely separate? All Buddhas are cases of beings who were like ourselves and then in dependence on the path became enlightened; Buddhism does not assert that there is anyone who from the beginning is free from faults and possesses all good qualities. The development of pure body, speech, and mind comes from gradually leaving the impure states and their being transformed into the pure. How is this done? The path is indicated by the next four syllables. MA I, meaning jewel, symbolizes the factors of method - the altruistic intention to become enlightened, compassion, and love. Just as a jewel is capable of removing poverty, so the altruistic mind of enlightenment is capable of removing the poverty, or difficulties, of cyclic existence and of solitary peace. Similarly, just as a jewel fulfills the wishes of sentient beings, so the altruistic intention to become enlightened fulfills the wishes of sentient beings. The two syllables, Padme, meaning lotus, symbolize wisdom. Just as a lotus grows from mud but is not sullied by the faults of mud, so wisdom is capable of putting you in a situation of non-contradiction whereas there would be contradiction if you did not have wisdom. There is wisdom realizing impermanence, wisdom realizing that persons are empty of being self-sufficient or substantially existent, wisdom that realizes the emptiness of duality -- that is to say, of difference of entity between subject and object -and wisdom that realizes the emptiness of inherent existence. Though there are many different types of wisdom, the main of all these is the wisdom realizing emptiness. Purity must be achieved by an indivisible unity of method and wisdom, symbolized by the final syllable HUM, which indicates indivisibility. According to the sutra system, this indivisibility of method and wisdom refers to wisdom affected by method and method affected by wisdom. In the mantra, or Vajrayna vehicle, it refers to one consciousness in which there is the full form of both wisdom and method as one un-differentiable entity. In terms of the seed syllables of the Five Conqueror Buddhas, HUM is the seed syllable of Akshobhya -- the immovable, the un-fluctuating, that which cannot be disturbed by anything. Thus the six syllables, Om Mani Padme Hum, mean that in dependence on the practice of a path which is an indivisible union of method and wisdom, you can transform your

impure body, speech, and mind into the pure exalted body, speech and mind of a Buddha. It is said that you should not seek for Buddhahood outside of yourself; the substances for the achievement of Buddhahood are within. As Maitreya says in his Sublime Continuum of the Great Vehicle (Uttaratantra), all beings naturally have the Buddha nature in their own continuum. We have within us the seed of purity, the essence of a One Gone Thus (Tathagata-garbha) that is to be transformed and fully developed into Buddhahood. Extracted from Compassion and Wisdom, Amitabha Buddhist Center, 1991. "Impermanence" is a temporary skillful means, so is karma (so are dependent origination and emptiness). The real nature is beyond those duality (not accepting the duality, not rejecting it equals the Union equals non-duality equals inseparability). "I salute him, the fully-enlightened, the best of speakers, who preached The non-ceasing and the non-arising, The non-annihilation and the non-permanence, The non-identity and the non-difference, The non-appearance and the non-disappearance, The dependent arising, the appeasement of obsessions and the auspicious." -- argarjunas introduction to the Karikas. "Homage to that perfect Buddha, The Supreme Philosopher, Who taught us relativity Free of destruction and creation, Without annihilation and permanence, With no coming and no going, either unity nor plurality; The quieting of fabrications, The ultimate beatitude!" -- Praise for Buddha Shakyamuni for his teaching of relativity, by Je Tsong Khapa "[In the true nature] there is neither permanence nor impermanence, either self nor non-self, neither clean nor unclean And neither happiness nor suffering. Therefore, the [four] mistaken views do not exist. " -- Selected Verses From argarjunas Seventy Stanzas on Emptiness If things are not existing, how can they be impermanent or change? Permanence and impermanence form a duality in our mind. Both are dependent on each other. The real nature of everything is not permanence, not impermanence, not both

together, not either. One should try to transcend this duality. either accepting it, neither rejecting it; the Middle Way between permanence and impermanence. "What is meant by the "individually-adapted siddhaanta?" One contemplates the way a person's mind works and then speaks Dharma for him [accordingly]. With regard to a given matter, perhaps he will take heed or perhaps he won't [depending upon one's skillfulness]. For instance, as stated in a sutra, "On account of various retributions for actions, one takes up various rebirths in the world, experiencing various types of contact and various feelings." But, in addition to this, we have what is said in the Phaalguna Sutra: "There is no person who experiences contact. There is no person who experiences feeling." Question: How can these two sutras be reconciled? Reply: It was on account of there being a person who doubted future existences, who did not believe in offenses or blessings, who engaged in unwholesome conduct and who had fallen into the annihilationist view, that, out of a desire to cut off his doubts and cause him to forsake his unwholesome conduct and out of a desire to extricate him from his annihilationist view, it was therefore said, "One takes up various rebirths in the world, experiencing various types of contact and various feelings." [However], this Phaalguna believed in the existence of a self and in the existence of a spirit and [thus] had fallen into an eternalist belief. Phaalguna asked the Buddha, "Venerable one, who is it that experiences feelings?" If the Buddha had replied that it was such-and-such or so-and-so who experiences feelings, then [Phaalguna] would have fallen [even further] into eternalist beliefs and his views, which clung to the concepts of a "person" and a "self" would have become doubly solidified and impossible to reverse. On account of this [the Buddha] did not say that there was anyone who experiences feelings or who experiences contact. [Teachings with] characteristics such as these fall within the scope of the "individually-adapted siddhaanta."" -- Prajpramit - The Individually-adapted Siddhaanta

"The dharmas of the Buddha are incalculable in number and are as vast in scope as a great ocean.
As

adaptations to the minds of beings, there are all sorts of different articulations of Dharma. In some cases, there is the discussion of existence, in others, nonexistence.

In some cases, the positing of permanence, in others, impermanence. In some cases, discussions of suffering, in others, discussions of bliss. In some cases, the positing of a self, and in others, the absence of a self.

In some instances, there are discussions of diligently cultivating the three modes of karmic action and accumulating all manner of good dharmas, whereas in others, there are discussions of all dharmas as characterized by being beyond the sphere of aspirations (apra.nihita)."
In

the case of those wanting in wisdom, when they hear all of these different explanations, they may be of the opinion that they are perversely contradictory and erroneous. however, have entered the three types of entryways to Dharma, and in contemplating all of the discourses of the Buddha, they understand that they are all genuine Dharma and are not contradictory. argarjuna Bodhisattva on the Perfection of Wisdom

The wise,

Prajpramit-

"Question: If impermanence is not actually the case, why did the Buddha speak of impermanence? Response: The Buddha accorded with what was appropriate for particular beings and so spoke the Dharma for their sakes. (i.e. o absolute, only adapted skillful means. Staying away from any extreme by using its opposite antidote while not getting attached to it either.)
It was in

order to refute the inverted view, which imagines permanence that he spoke of impermanence.

In

the opposite case, because people were unaware of or did not believe in later existences, he spoke of the mind going on into a later existence and being reborn in the heavens, explaining that the karmic causes and conditions of offenses and merit are not lost even in a million kalpas. These are instances of the counteractive siddhaanta. They do not represent the supreme meaning siddhaanta. The ultimate reality aspect of all dharmas is neither permanent nor impermanent. (i.e. nor both, nor neither. It is the Union of the Two.) Then too, the Buddha spoke in place after place of the emptiness of dharmas. In the sphere of the emptiness of dharmas, impermanence [itself] is nonexistent. Therefore, to declare that the world is impermanent is an erroneous view. Hence one refers to the emptiness of dharmas." -- Prajpramit- argarjuna Bodhisattva on the Perfection of Wisdom

The real or main means to liberate beings from sufferings is, as the great master of logical reasoning Dharmakirti has said in his Treatise on Valid Cognition, (Pramanavarttika): The view of emptiness liberates, And the remaining meditations are means to achieve it.

Thus indicating that the wisdom realizing the emptiness of inherent existence is the only real means of liberation and the remaining meditations, that is the meditations on the nature of impermanence, suffering and so forth are auxiliary means of achieving and developing the understanding of emptiness.

Teaching existence, non-existence, Both existence and non-existence, and neither Surely are medicines for all That are influenced by the sickness. The approach of existence, non-existence, Both existence and non-existence, and neither, Should always be applied by those With mastery to oneness and so forth. If through seeing things one could refute The statement that things do not exist, Who then sees the elimination Of fallacies regarding all four theses. Against one who holds no thesis that things Exist, do not, or do and do not exit, Counter-arguments cannot be raised o matter how long [one tries]. -- Aryadeva Method, Wisdom and the Three Paths - by Geshe Lhundrub Sopa Question: Buddhism believes strongly about past and future lives. How is this consistent with the idea of impermanence taught by Buddha? Answer: Because things are impermanent they are changeable. Because impurity is impermanent, purity is possible. The relative truth can function owing to the existence of the ultimate truth. Impurity becomes pure imperfect becomes perfect. Change can cause conditions to switch. By directing the way our life builds and develops, we can stop negative patterns. If things were not impermanent there would be no way to change and evolve. In terms of karma and rebirth, impermanence means that one can gain control over the stream of one's life. Our life is like a great river, never the same from one moment to the next. If we let negative sources flow into a stream it becomes dirty. Similarly, if we let bad thought, distorted perception and wrong action control our lives, we evolve into negative states and take a low rebirth. Alternatively, if we control the flowing of the stream skillfully we evolve positively, take creative rebirths and perhaps even attain the highest wisdom of Buddhahood. Then the coming and going or imperfect experiences subside and the impermanent flow of the pure perfection comes to us. When that happens the human goal has been achieved. The Sutra requested by Shriidatta [7], says

By karmic confusion we are made to seek enjoyments We are also distracted by our children and spouses. By that we shall experience suffering alone. They will do us no good at our appointed time. Our beloved parents, siblings, children, and spouses, Servants, wealth, and crowds of friends and relatives, Will not travel with us when we go to death. Karma will be an only child at that time. At that time those who have gathered powerful bad karma will seem to be surrounded by those whom they have killed, and the minions of the Lord of Death will seem to lead them away with a noose. The Bodhicaryavatara says: If this is the day when a man is being led To a place where he will have a limb cut off, With dry mouth, blood-shot eyes, and such, He seems quite otherwise than he was formerly. When the utterly terrifying messengers of the Lord of Death Having a form of flesh, seize us bodily. How badly will we be stricken with the illness of great fear? What need is there to say how terrible that will be? Who is the sahdu [8] that can be our guardian One who is able to guard us from such frights as these, Our flesh will crawl with panic, and with staring eyes, We shall search for protectors in the four directions. Having seen that in the four directions there are none, We shall be enveloped in complete despair. Then it will be too late to think about Dharma. It will be like criminals looking for a refuge as they are given into the hands of their executioners. From now on we had better remember that. The same text says: Even if we truly abandon laziness, Then it is too late. Then what could we do? After the Lord of Death has suddenly appeared, We shall think, "Oh no, all is surely lost." Thus: The three jewels and the virtue of Dharma are a refuge For those who have supplicated for this spotless gift. For those besides such beings, though they have appropriate virtue, Even our father and mother will be no refuge to us, or will a host of friends, and wealth and beautiful youth. All such refuges will sink into samsara.

We should give over our bodies joyfully to the Buddhas, And likewise entrust to them our lives and our enjoyments. Other than the three jewels, there is no refuge at all On which we can rely while we are sentient beings. 10. The impermanence of the three times (i.e. All beings of the six realms in the past, present and future are equal in being dependent on their causes and conditions, impermanent, subject to aging, illness, death, [again and again in the cycle of samsara]. The only way out is to use this rare, precious, and very brief opportunity to learn and practice the Dharma. If we waste this great opportunity, we will end up in the three lower realms for a long time without even any knowledge of karma and its consequences. We will thus have no opportunity to get out of them except for one chance out of a billion-billion.) Samsaric existence and the being of ourselves and hosts of others are all more impermanent than we think: Think of the existence of former and later worlds. Countless former generations have passed away. Also most of the beings of the present world Certainly will not last another hundred years. Those of the future will follow in a similar way. Young and old are equal in their lot of passing away. Because we too will not transcend this common nature, Thinking that death is certain, let us practice Dharma. Our existence was primordially good and pure, but think of the other spheres of apparent being to which we will later transmigrate. Look and see whether the people who lived a hundred years ago are still embodied. We who are now human beings a hundred years from now will be only names. The Shrine of Telling the Reason Why says: A person who just for a night Entered into a womb, Would suffer tremendous harm. Such going is irreversible. In the morning one would see Many different beings. By evening some would be gone. Of the many one would see later The next morning more would be gone. umerous men and women Die even in their youth. Why are the young so cheerful, So confident they will thrive? Some will die in the womb. Some the day they are born. Some will be snatched away,

In unexpected departures. Some will die old, some young But one by one they will go, Like fruit that ripens and falls. (i.e. Samadhi Sutta (A V.57) -- (Immeasurable) Concentration:
o

There are these five facts that one should reflect on often... "I am subject to aging, have not gone beyond aging." "I am subject to illness, have not gone beyond illness." "I am subject to death, have not gone beyond death." "I will grow different, separate from all that is dear and appealing to me."

"I am the owner of my actions (kamma), heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and live dependent on my actions. Whatever I do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir".... "I am not the only one subject to aging, who has not gone beyond aging. To the extent that there are beings -- past and future, passing away and re-arising -- all beings are subject to aging, have not gone beyond aging." "I am not the only one subject to illness, who has not gone illness. To the extent that there are beings -- past and future, passing away and re-arising -- all beings are subject to illness, have not gone beyond illness." "I am not the only one subject to death, who has not gone beyond death. To the extent that there are beings -- past and future, passing away and re-arising -- all beings are subject to death, have not gone beyond death." "I am not the only one who will grow different, separate from all that is dear and appealing to me. To the extent that there are beings -- past and future, passing away and re-arising -- all beings will grow different, separate from all that is dear and appealing to them"." "I am not the only one who is owner of my actions (kamma), heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and live dependent on my actions; who -whatever I do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir. To the extent that there are beings -- past and future, passing away and re-arising -- all beings are owner of their actions, heir to their actions, born of their actions, related through their actions, and live dependent on their actions. Whatever they do, for good or for evil, to that will they fall heir." So ... overcome all intoxication with health, youth, and life as one who sees renunciation as security.)

11. The impermanence of the three levels [9] (i.e. All beings of the six realms in the three levels (on earth, in the air, in the oceans) are equal in being dependent on their causes and conditions, impermanent, subject to death, reborn in dependence on their karma [again and again in the cycle of samsara].) Moreover: Within the three levels from Hell up to the peak of samsara, There is no liberation from the Lord of Death. All is impermanent, changing, and essence-less. othing stable, and things roll along like a wagon wheel. Particularly the human world has many afflictions. Being a place of harm by sickness and by dns [10] By fires and falls and weapons; by poison and wild beasts. By kings and enemies, by robbers and the like, We will be ravished of life and our wealth will be destroyed. There are no beings anywhere in the six realms, for whom death does not establish itself. We should recall that none of the six kinds of beings in the three levels transcend death. The Sutra on Teachings that are the Bases of Discipline says: Someone who is born without death being established Such a one does not exist within this world. or are there any in the air or in the oceans. There are none who live among the tallest mountains. When we die, as soon as we lose our bodies, this mind by its former karma undergoes rounds of samsaric existence in many worlds. The Vast Play says: Beings, by of the power of samsaric ignorance, In divine and human paths, and those of the lower realms, Are tumbled in samsara as five kinds of ignorant beings. For example, as a pot is turned upon a wheel. Baited with fine and pleasant forms and ravishing sounds, Sweet fragrances, delicious tastes, and blissful touch, The snare of evil times always traps these beings For example, like a monkey snared in a hunter's net. Many in the human realm are afflicted with leprosy, contagion, disorders of prana and bile, and other diseases. There are many injuries from birds, rakshasas, dakinis, geks and dns. Kings, enemies, savages, dissipation of the skandhas, and so forth end hundreds of lives. These contend with the Lord of Beings for our body and life. Since we die without respite, we should try to practice the holy Dharma. The Collection of Precious Qualities says:

With the many harmful spirits and diseases of the world, Peace is a truly kind and beneficial gift. 12. Instantaneous Impermanence (i.e. Even if we are without any apparent afflictions, or have great means for prolonging life, it is certain that we will die one day. There is no sure refuge from death. -- In fact, we are never the same for two infinitesimal consecutive moments. Being dependent on ever-changing causes and conditions, it is like we are being newly born and dying at every instant. Like a river that is never the same because the water is always flowing, changing. -- There is no permanent body, no permanent mind, no permanent essence. But there is the functioning of causes and conditions / karma. Impermanence is an introduction to the wisdom of emptiness. Karma is an introduction to the Wheel of Life, and to dependent origination.) ot only do we die of such afflictions, but even if we have no afflictions, the life of sentient beings is passing away: Even with no afflictions, the life of beings is passing. Day and night, with the passing of every moment or instant, It is always approaching the land of the Lord of Death. As over waterfalls, water flows into the ocean, Or far to the west the sun declines until it sets. Even though there are lives where someone can say, "I have not been harmed by incidental affliction," and though there are teachings that extend life by appropriate food and medicines and so forth, in the end it is of no use--we have to enter death. (i.e. I should say something of samsara, this flow of forms of life coming one after the other that we find ourselves stuck in. We didn't come here having thought 'I am going to come here'. We ended up here through no particular decision on our own part, not because we were free to come. In other words, we're caught within a flow of existence's, which cannot stop because the moment we find ourselves taking birth in a form of life like this, we are moving towards death, and that death itself is a precursor of a state, which simply goes towards another birth. And thus this flow or this samsara, going on and on, has no beginning and as it is now, will never end for us. Having this reality in mind, this reality in which we find ourselves caught, the Enlightened One said: 'You should know this to be suffering, you should know what causes it, you should know the end of it, and you should know the path to that end'. The example that illustrates the idea is this. You have to first of all know that one is sick. When one knows one is sick one then goes to a doctor who has to find out what's causing the sickness. And then having identified what causes the sickness, prescribe a medicine. And by taking that medicine one gets well. That is the example. So similarly, one has to be aware that our being here, our state of our ongoing being, is itself a problem. The reason being that until one understands it to be a problem, until one knows it is suffering, one will never have the thought, 'I will have to get away from this'. That is why one can think of suffering in many ways. You can think for example from six angles about how this is indeed suffering. If we look at the state in which we find ourselves, we see that contentment can never come. o matter how much we consume, we will always need something the next day. It is also a state in which there is nothing

definite relative to other living creatures. They might be friends or enemies today but tomorrow they might have changed. othing is certain. It is possible that even somebody who is a heart friend will become a mortal enemy tomorrow, and somebody who is a mortal enemy today can be heart friend tomorrow. That is built into the situation in which we find ourselves. On top of this the body that were carrying with us is something that is going to drop from us at some point. This is a situation in which we will find ourselves again and again, and each time we die we go forth totally alone, whether our mother, father, partner or friend, nobody but ourselves goes on each time. And this too; that our struggles to succeed will end in failure. In other words, that no matter how much we attempt go up, the end of all going up is coming down. It is a part of the problem of being as we are. You can look at it more significantly from the viewpoint of a life form like we have. ot just any life form but human life form. Problems we face are the sufferings associated with being born, getting sick, getting older and of dying. The suffering of losing friends and the things, which we like, and meeting with enemies and things we don't like. The suffering of unrequited hopes when we struggle for something we need or want, and no matter how much we try, sometimes, we just can't get it. What all this is coming down to is that this great heap of meat and bone that we are sitting in here is itself what's meant by the 'suffering flow of existence'. In this sense, if we are as we are, we are capable of feeling cold, we can get burned and get to hot, we feel hunger and thirst. It's all part and parcel of this kind of reality. One also needs all sorts of things, for example one has to put a roof over ones head, one has to go and buy clothes. Many things become necessary indeed! And why do we go out to work? I mean we prefer to just take it easy, right. We don't go out to work for ourselves, we go to work for this heap of flesh and bones because 'It' needs us to work to keep it going. Look how hard we work for it, we really have to spend a tremendous amount of time on it to keep it fit and going well. We are servants to it (the body). So you see, one is directing one's thoughts to a theoretical state in which this heap of flesh and bone didn't come forth with me stuck in it. One is getting an idea of what such a state might be. So say one gets to be born a celestial being. One stands up not with this lump of flesh and bone but in some sort of light form. It is true, we wouldn't then have quite the problems that come with flesh and bones, but it is only a temporary state of excellence, as the energy that keeps it going degenerates. -- Commentary on "Praise of Dependent Origination of Tsong Khapa", Geshe Yeshe Tobten) The Bodhicaryavatara says: Though seemingly today, I am without any illness, Even if I have food and am without affliction This life is still no more than an illusory instant, This body is no more than a momentary reflection. About its not lasting for even a moment, the Pinnacle of Precious Gathering says: It was said by Subhuti, "The life of beings is like a waterfall. The Sutra on Teachings that are the Bases of Discipline says:

Waterfalls descend in rivers to the sea The sun and moon sink down behind the western mountains. Day and night tick off their fragmentary instants. Like these the life of beings must pass and disappear. (i.e. othing remains the same for two consecutive moments. Heraclitus said we can never bathe twice in the same river. Confucius, while looking at a stream, said, "It is always flowing, day and night." --Thich hat Hanh

Vimalakirti irdesa Sutra


For the Buddha has declared, "Bhikshus, in a single moment, you are born, you age, you die, you transmigrate, and you are reborn." The Buddha likened the life span of a living being to a single point on the wheel of a chariot (i.e. the infinitesimal point where a circle touch a line). He said that, strictly speaking, a living being only endures for the time it takes one thought to arise and perish, just as the chariot wheel, whether rolling or at rest, makes contact with the ground at only a single point.
In

this context, the past moment existed but it does not exist now, nor will it exist in the future; exists now but did not exist in the past, nor will it exist in the

the present moment

future;
and

the future moment, although it will exist in the future, does not exist now, nor did it exist in the past. ... Remember that each of these thought-moments is said to last less than one billionth the time it takes to wink an eye. (i.e. the infinitesimal time where a point of a turning circle touch the base) Thus when the Buddha said that a living being endures only as long as a single thought-moment, he was talking about an extremely brief period of time. -- The Tree of Enlightenment - An Introduction to the Major Traditions of Buddhism by Peter Della Santina Freedom and bondage - Patrick Kearney - an exploration of interdependent arising and the interdependently arisen in early Buddhism.

Buddhadasa

therefore declares that birth is "the birth of the I concept ... and not the physical birth from a mother's womb." He argues that when someone decides to steal, he is born a thief at that moment; if someone is lost in the experience of pleasure, he is born into heavenly realms at that moment; if someone can't eat fast enough because the food is so good, he is born a peta or hungry ghost at that moment.

In

this sense the ordinary person is born very often, time and time again. A more developed person is born less frequently; a person well advanced in practice is born less frequently still, and ultimately ceases being reborn altogether.... As soon as anyone thinks like an animal, he is born as an animal that same moment. To think as a human being is to be born a human being.

Rebirth

occurs but no-one is reborn: this is a paradox that cannot be resolved by philosophical thought, only by directly seeing the arising and cessation of one's own mind-body process.

While conventional,

or linear, causation assumes separate, independent entities that give rise to other separate, independent entities over time, interdependent arising assumes there are no separate entities to begin with. Rather, it says that every "entity" exists only through its dependence on other "entities"; there is no independence, and therefore no separation. of a single human life span assumes an entity who exists from physical birth to physical death, but such an enduring entity is explicitly denied by interdependent arising. Govinda points out that according to the Abhidhamma birth and death are taking place with extraordinary rapidity every moment. "Three lifetimes" really means three consecutive periods of time, regardless of the unit employed. Bodhi says: To prevent misunderstanding it has to be stressed that the distribution of the factors into three lives is an expository device employed for the purpose of exhibiting the inner dynamics of the round [of birth and death]. It should not be read as implying hard and fast divisions, for in lived experience the factors are always intertwined.

The notion

Bhikkhu

In

conclusion, while interdependent arising does not deny causation over time, it is fundamentally concerned with the structure of the experienced present. However, one aspect of the experienced present is its flow from past to future. Interdependent arising can, therefore, be used to explain causation over time in terms of continuity without someone who continues. To the degree that interdependent arising can explain continuity from one moment to the next, it can explain continuity from one lifetime to the next. From the viewpoint of interdependent arising, there is no qualitative distinction between the two. Continuity from one moment to the next is structurally the same as continuity from one lifetime to the next.)

Mind
(i.e. From "Meditation on Emptiness, by Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche" Once again, bring your attention away from hallucination to the realities of life, the nature of which is impermanence and death (i.e. mindfulness of impermanence).

This frees our mind from delusion and karma so that we can not only bring to an end the entire round of suffering, the cycle of death and rebirth, But also eradicate even the subtle errors of mind, Thereby attaining enlightenment for the sake of all sentient beings. All causative phenomena -- our life, our body, our mind, our self, our possessions, our relatives and friends, all other people -- are changing, not only day by day, minute by minute and second by second, but every tiny moment. They do not last for a fraction of a second. Because they are under the control of causes and conditions, they are in a state of constant decay and can cease at any time. This is the nature of our life. If we can remain aware of this, We will prevent our mind from coming under the control of the delusions -- the disturbing emotional minds that hurt us and other sentient beings, prevent us from transforming our mind and gaining realizations of the path to enlightenment, and stop us from seeing the ultimate nature of all phenomena. First we stop delusions from manifesting, and then, by actualizing the remedial path, We eradicate even the imprints that they have left on our mental continuum. By destroying the seeds of delusion, we attain nirvana, ultimate liberation from the six realms of suffering and its cause, freedom from the circling aggregates, which are samsara itself. These are the benefits of mindfulness of impermanence. We free ourselves of disturbing thoughts, Immediately experience peace and satisfaction, Free ourselves from samsara, And eventually attain enlightenment and enlighten all sentient beings. Contemplate all this. ow meditate on emptiness, the actual nature of all phenomena.
Think how

your I, actions, objects, and in fact all phenomena -- everything that is called "such and such" and "this and that" -- are just names.

ames have to come from the mind; they don't exist from their own side. ames are labels applied by the mind. However, it is not just that phenomena are labeled by the mind -they are merely labeled by the mind.

In

other words, all phenomena -- I, action, object, everything -- are merely labeled by the mind, in relation to their base. Think about this.

How things exist - merely labeled by the mind (i.e. ot everything the mind labels exist. There needs to be a valid base.) ow I'm going to elaborate a little on the subject of emptiness.
The way

in which everything exists is by being merely labeled by the mind. not mean that everything the mind labels actually exists.

But that does

Even though everything exists by being merely labeled by the mind, that doesn't mean that if your mind labels something it automatically brings it into existence. A valid base (i.e. Things are not totally created from the mind; there needs to be a valid base.)
For things There has

to exist, mere labeling by mind is not enough. to be a valid base.

ot just any base -- a valid base. Therefore, I cannot label my bell "car." This object can receive the label "bell," but not "car" or "airplane." It receives the label "bell' by virtue of the way the valid base functions. Mere labeling by mind is not enough -- there has to be a valid base. In the case of a bell, the base has to have a certain shape and perform the function of ringing. This is what validates it. Furthermore, the valid base that is merely labeled "bell" by the mind should not be harmed by another's valid mind. What's a valid mind? A mind that perceives things correctly, that is not under the influence of disease, drugs, mantras or hypnotic spells, which might cause it to see sense objects in an illusory way. ext, the object we claim to exist should not be harmed by a fully enlightened being's mind. A Buddhas mind is completely unmistaken, completely purified, free from hallucination. All existent phenomena are the object of the omniscient mind; it sees whatever exists. If the omniscient mind does not see the bell, the bell does not exist. Finally, for the bell that is merely labeled by the mind to exist, it should not receive harm from the wisdom realizing emptiness, ultimate nature. If the bell, which is merely imputed by the mind, is harmed by the wisdom realizing emptiness, it does not exist. Thus, there are three kinds of mind that can harm, or invalidate, the existence of what appears to be, for example, a bell:

Another person's valid conventional mind; An omniscient mind; And the wisdom realizing emptiness. ow, regarding this valid base, this phenomenon that has the function of ringing and possesses this particular shape, our mind creates the label, "bell." This, then, is the real bell, the bell that we use, the one that is merely imputed by our mind, the valid base that is labeled "bell" by our mind.) 13. The impermanence of the conditions and time of our existence: (i.e. Even our actual precious human life is impermanent. Being dependent of a multitude of causes and conditions that are themselves dependent ... ad infinitum ... there is no way to control everything. So we will surely die, but we don't know when. Everything is impermanent, and all worldly projects are born to fail; all views are flawed. They are futile and based on vanity. The only thing they do is to create more complexity, more expectation, more conditioning, more karma, more causes for suffering. one of them could be "the solution", "the absolute"; they are all dependently arisen, relative, imperfect, impermanent. We become proud of them identify ourselves with them, fight others for them, but they are all empty space. All just a waste of this precious human life if we get attached to them. -- The only thing that can really help us is the Dharma, because, even if it is also impermanent, it is the skillful means used to transcend all conditioning, all uncontrolled karma formation, all suffering. It is efficient because it is based on the true realization of the real non-dual nature of everything beyond all fabrications and conceptualization, because it is based on the two accumulations of merit and wisdom leading to the two kayas. But we have to remember that even the dharma is impermanent, just a raft, and that we should not develop pride, or hurt others, because of it. We have to use both method and wisdom all the time.) Having completed life's conditions, such as food, As sure as taking poison, will bring occasions of suffering. With so many contrary conditions that do us harm, How can this completion fail to be destroyed? All of it must turn into a cause of death. ever knowing how or when or where we die, We have been seduced into futility. Therefore, abandoning the dharmas of this world, Let us turn to genuine practice from the heart, Attaining the Dharma teaching of impermanence and death. Though food is necessary for life, it is also a condition of sickness. Though it appears to be temporarily beneficial, essentially it is an inevitable establisher of harm. Even beneficial purification with baths and medicine leads to sickness, not to mention life being cut off by damage that actively opposes it. Since the conditions of death are changelessly many, let us consider the approach of death. Moreover, as above, whoever lives will die. Only when and how are uncertain. We cannot even be sure that we will not die today.

And even if we could, the Bodhicaryavatara says: "At least today I will not die," I say. What reason is there to rejoice in that? For still, the time when I become a non-existence Will doubtless come to pass, in any case. (i.e. As the great eleventh century Indian master Atisha has said, "The human lifespan is short, the objects of knowledge are many. Be like the swan, which can separate milk from water." Our lives will not last long and there are so many directions in which we can channel them. We should be like the swan, which extracts the essence from milk and spits out the water. There is so much that can be done: we should practice discriminating wisdom and direct ourselves to essential goals that benefit both ourselves and other beings in a way affecting this and future lives. -- Method, Wisdom and the Three Paths by Geshe Lhundrub Sopa) C. The three instructions of striving (i.e. How to benefit from the Dharma: with the guru as a guide, by putting it into practice, with bodhicitta, remembering the emptiness of the three. Combining methods (guru, renunciation, disciplines, bodhicitta, contemplation, meditation...) and wisdom (impermanence, emptiness).) 1. The instruction to practice at this favorable time of having the guru and oral instructions 2. The exhortation truly to make an effort from our hearts 3. The motivating power of compassion 1. The instruction to practice at this favorable time of having the guru and oral instructions. (i.e. How to: In order to take full advantage of this precious human life, this Dharma, we need the guidance of a real teacher, a guru.) At this auspicious time of completely attaining the free and well-favored human body, we should liberate ourselves from samsara: If, having attained the ship of being free and well-favored, Whose captain is the oral instructions of the guru, If we do not strive to cross the river of suffering, But stare at it fascinated, until there is no choice, At last we shall fall in, and so be swept away.

In the ship of external freedom and favor, having the holy guru as our guide, if we think we do not need to work with the tradition of Dharma established by the Buddha Bhagavat, we are much deceived. The Letter to Students says: Whoever, attains the path of Dharma of the Sages, The tradition like a great ship, and throws it away again, Will whirl like a giddy dancer in the ocean of samsara. A mind that thinks that joy is certain is deceived. (i.e. From Guru Puja: section on "The way to develop the mind on the common Path of the person of initial-level motivation:" 84. Through the power of having made offerings and respectful requests To you, O holy and venerable Gurus, supreme Field of Merit, We seek your blessings O Protectors and root of well-being and bliss That we may come under your joyful care, 85. Realizing how this body of liberties and endowments Is found but once, is difficult to obtain and is easily lost, We seek your blessings to partake of its essence, make it worthwhile And not be distracted by the meaningless affairs of this life. 86. Aghast at the searing blaze of suffering in the lower realms, We take heartfelt refuge in the Three Precious Gems and seek Your blessings that we may eagerly endeavor to practice the various means For abandoning what is bound to misfortune and accumulating virtuous deeds.) 2. The exhortation truly to make an effort from our hearts: (i.e. How to: Put it into practice, because once this opportunity is gone, we are lost for ever in the wheel of suffering, and we are not in a position to help anybody.) This is because if we do not try, we will not be liberated. While we have this precious vessel praised by the Teacher, Which offers an end to evil and attainment of what is pure, If we will not receive the wealth of the two benefits That for ourselves and also that for other beings, We only chain ourselves in the prison of samsara. Those with the support, these freedoms, who do not practice the holy Dharma that benefits self and others will be bound forever in the noose of samsara. Those who use their leisure to turn back samsara will establish the liberation of holy Dharma. (i.e. Reflecting on impermanence and death in itself is not really a big deal, but thinking about it because of what follows after the death is important. If there is negative karma, then there are the lower realms of unimaginable sufferings, and this is something that can be stopped immediately. -- Remembering Death by Lama Zopa Rinpoche)

Urging practice, the Letter to Students says: Whoever has the best gifts of the ocean of arising Also plants the good seed of supreme enlightenment. Its virtues are better than those of a wish-fulfilling gem. Whoever has human birth, though lacking the fruition, Having the power of mind attained by human beings Should rely on the sugata path, which is the guide of beings. Such a path is not attained by gods and nagas, By sky-soarers, kinnaras or serpent gods. [11] Having attained humanity, so hard to gain, Whoever really thinks about the worth of that Will practice very hard with the greatest diligence. 3. The motivating power of compassion (i.e. How to: not using the Dharma as a weapon, instead knowing its emptiness and developing compassion. There is a danger of using the Dharma for self-liberation, or to use it to boost pride, and to hurt others. But, instead, a real understanding should boost the four immeasurables: equanimity, love, compassion, joy. -- Understanding the nature of samsara, and seeing that all beings in the six realms are equal in being in the same situation, all stuck in this cycle of samsara, going through birth, aging, illness, death, again and again endlessly, without even understanding karma and its consequences, or knowing how to end it ... we then develop renunciation for worldly concerns, for any rebirth in any of those six realms, ... we lose our pride in our worldly investments, our ordinary knowledge, our views, ... and we also develop compassion of all other sentient beings in the same situation. Since everything else is impermanent, we are all equal in this. So we drop the need to discriminate for our ego, and adopt the point of view of equanimity, love and compassion. And we are motivated to work hard for Enlightenment, and feel great joy to have this opportunity.) Third, for the human beings who have been so well urged, there is also the motivating power of compassion. These words have been spoken so that we can protect beings. How can we not hold this in our hearts? Therefore, our aspiration to peace is always motivated by the guiding power of compassion. Kye ma! As if we had been chained to solid rock, Thinking mostly of this world, our sorrow grows. ot realizing what was taught; not understanding the teachings, Even though our day of death may be tomorrow, We fixate our lives as being long and permanent. ot grieving at samsara, with no speck of renunciation, We are consciously proud and knowingly confused. While we are so distracted, the rain of the kleshas falls. How can we ever be of use to sentient beings.

Kye ma! Sentient beings have been told how things are, but with a fool's intelligence, they do not comprehend the details of the symbols and the means of practice. Really having very little freedom to follow them, they will never realize them. They do not understand the explanations. Some, even while they are being urged to get rid of the appearances of this world right away, are actually attached to keeping them, motivated only by the actions of this world. Their karmas and kleshas blaze like a fire, and they are far from happiness. Others with the fire of aggression burning within them are jealous of others. They abuse them in many ways, provoking faults, spreading bad rumors, and belittling them. Some, no matter how many sufferings torment and oppress them, are not saddened by samsara and do never experience the least particle of renunciation. Some, who have heard just a little, dispute and condemn others because of pride and arrogance, emanating a thousand tongues of klesha flames in the ten directions. Dispensing with the natural goodness of their being, they burn up anything pure. As they break vows and samayas day and night, there falls a rain of evil. When we see this, sometimes the thought arises that we should give up and just try to practice profound samdhi alone in peaceful forests, with the intent of personal enlightenment. But for the most part, the powerful force of compassion produces the joyful thought, "Let's get enlightened!" The following are verses on this highest of aspirations. Those who are in the ten directions of the world, As many sentient beings as may be in existence, By my merit may all of them gain happiness, And may they all be free from any suffering. Those who are sickly and those whose lives will be cut short, May they have the good fortune and auspiciousness Of lives that are long and happy, without attacks of sickness. May those condemned to being poor and hungry beggars Have abundant food and drink, and ample wealth. May all in fear of bandits, savage ones, and kings, Great abysses, water, fire, and other terrors, Attain the happiness that is free from all such fear. Whatever they wish for, may their wishes be established. Because of always acting well and properly, May they be liberated in enlightenment. By a good Sakyong King may the whole earth be protected. May his gentle kingdom widely spread and flourish. May his ministers' Dharmic wishes be fulfilled. May his servants always live in happiness. May those who have the sufferings of the lower realms, Be freed and have the happiness of the higher realms. May those who have the sufferings of the higher realms, Be peaceful and establish prosperity and bliss.

May sentient beings who dwell in the three realms of the world All be happy in their minds and every thought. Let no evil conceptions flash within their minds. Day and night may they transcend them through the Dharma. May there be good harvests in all the realms of beings May they be free from every sickness and affliction. May there be no strife and quarreling between them. May they be happy, like the gods in heavenly realms. May promoters of goodness be completely successful. Those who want wealth and retinue, servants, and attendants, May it be accomplished, just as they desire. May merit and dominion increase for sentient beings. May the Dharma increase for its renunciates. For those who want virtue, may virtuous states of mind increase. May life and auspicious fortune flourish and increase. For those who practice Dhyana, may samdhi and insight, Higher perceptions, and miracle flourish and increase. May there be the path and fruition of the Dharma. May we come face to face with liberating wisdom. Those who are tormented with pain and suffering, May their minds be soothed, expanding with great joy. May those who are idle and slothful, strive for enlightenment. May those well-ornamented with the wealth of merit, Those who have Dhyana and discipline, never be separate From all who need them in their fear and anxiety. May the many children of the Victorious One Have immeasurable body, life, and Buddha activity. May benefit for others be completely perfect. May they time they remain on earth be very long. If anyone at any time who depends on me, May happiness and prosperity of such beings increase. Those who have mastered the vinaya, knowing what is allowed, May they be possessors of the seven Aryan riches [12] Whether they praise or blame, or verbally disparage, May all who see or hear, remember or contact me Quickly cross the fearful ocean of samsara. May those who even hear my name, because of that, Be expelled from samsara in that very life. Attaining bliss and liberated from samsara, Let them be set firm as unsurpassable Buddhas.

May I always, like the elements, earth and so forth, Be a sustaining ground for the sake of sentient beings. May everything that is beneficial be established. May those who are poor and suffer setbacks in samsara, eedlessly tormented in blazing tongues of flame, Become a happy throng, completely liberated. May they always try to benefit other beings. May beings' sufferings serve to ripen them for me. Whatever merit I have, may it ripen sentient beings. By any virtuous mental power I may have, May beings attain to bliss and purification of suffering. May suffering be unseen, even in their dreams. May they attain an ocean of bliss and happiness. Pervading the space of the sky in all the ten directions As many Buddhas and sentient beings as there may be, May they be associated with happiness. May they be wealthy and prosperous, because of what I do. Throughout the ten directions, for all who hear my name, May there fall a rain of all that is desired. Making offerings to Buddhas and other sentient beings, May sentient beings of the six realms and ten directions o more be surpassed by any victorious ones. May I completely liberate every one of them. May the endless ocean of samsara be empty. Sukhavati [13], totally beautified by ornaments of light, the precious source of all beings, is a universe filling the whole of space, established from clouds of pure happiness. By grasping this white yak tail scepter or jeweled umbrella, all the obscuring torment of the three levels is cleared away. In this undisturbed water, may the gradually blossoming lotus of the victorious ones be planted! May pleasant and delightful divine maidens, their heads adorned with fragrant lotus garlands, playing on a platform with water birds, lovingly caress the lotus! By these teachings may human hearts be greatly exalted, floating in the water of explanation emanating as it does in the Pure Lands. Free from the harm of the kleshas, completely filled with samdhi, may those excellent ones help all sentient beings cross over. Like the undefiled young sun, whose eye is characterized by an excellent red light, wreathed in variegated stars. Becoming amrita for beings, their eyes shine more excellently than the brilliantly blazing light of Brahma. May the vast appearance of these radiant masters, revealed as great beings adorned with the mandala of the major and minor marks, fill the whole of space.

May all beings effortlessly reach that field, the supreme wealth of Trikaya, the cloudless path of the sun and moon, free from even an atom of the nirvana of lower people. Without duality of one and many, in uncompounded, primordial existence incomprehensible to thought, the spontaneous presence of peace, in the field of Samantabhadra may the purified minds of all beings heal their weariness. May they reach the space of the dhatu beyond wide and narrow, high and low, bias and partiality, concept and thought. There may they remain without sadness and weariness, with excellent thoughts, exerting themselves to benefit self and others among the Rocky Mountains. Urged on by the intention of benefit, one can hardly not be sad at the Dharma teachings of impermanence. For those with a mind that always grasps samsara and never turns back, teaching Dharma is like addressing a lump of stone or an animal. The Instruction on Impermanence says: Like me you too will die. And: There is no doubt about it. Kye 'ud! I am an animal.

D. The final summary (i.e. How to apply this meditation: Always remembering death wile using this precious human life. Always remembering the real nature of all dharmas all the time while using them: their impermanence, un-satisfactoriness, emptiness. Thus combining method and wisdom. This meditation is part of the foundation for the whole path leading to Enlightenment.) There are two parts.
1. 2.

How to think of impermanence in order to cross over from samsara The Benefits of the Teachings

1. How to think of impermanence in order to cross over from samsara. (i.e. The actual meditation and post meditation instructions: A progressive path in order to always see the impermanence of everything, including our body and mind. This is like an introduction to seeing the emptiness of everything all the time while using skillful means. ote: it doesn't say to drop everything, but just to see the real nature of everything as we use them. This is the exhortation to use wisdom (praja) at the same time as we use methods (upaya). This is the perfecting of any methods, and in this case the perfecting about using this precious human life and the Dharma.)

ow the final summary teaches of the great exhortation to meditate and work until samsara is gone: Whoever truly wishes to cross the ocean of evil And establish the wondrously risen excellent qualities, ow should contemplate the certainty of death. Meditate day and night on impermanence alone. Again and again arouse renunciation and sorrow. Whether going, staying, eating, sleeping, arising, walking, talking, or seeing a crowd of many people; and whether staying in villages, valleys, or monasteries, always meditate on impermanence. Whatever we see, hear, and remember has the nature of impermanence, and the marks of impermanence. Remember the exhortation of impermanence. The Bodhicaryavatara says: Always, day and night, I should think of this alone. If we do not think about it, what's the problem? Having come into the power of this life alone, there will be ambition; love of fame, desire, hatred, laziness, hoarding, indolence, cantankerousness and sometimes the Dharma's not arising. We will not quickly be liberated from samsara. We do not have enough time for ordinary tasks, let alone the liberation of enlightenment. Strive with a long and continuous effort until Buddhahood is attained. Dipamkara, Shakyamuni, and so forth were at first sentient beings like us. But by their exertion, they became Buddhas. ow we are the ones wandering in samsara. Even though countless former Buddhas have come, we have not been healed by their realization of enlightenment. Thinking that by our own karma, we will wander limitlessly in samsara, by now we should have been led to complete their path of enlightenment. Thinking that this life is impermanent, like a borrowed moment or instant, we should try to practice the Dharma. (i.e. Using skillful means, using this precious human life, while remembering the impermanence of everything. This is like an introduction to: using methods (upaya) while remembering the emptiness of everything (praja). This is combining method and wisdom. This is in accord with the real nature of everything: not existence, not nonexistence, ... It means that everything is impermanent or empty of inherent existence, but still not completely non-existent, a-causal, non-functional, or from the mind-only. We need to use skillful means, to use this precious human life, to learn and practice the Dharma, but we should not get attached to any of those. They are all like any dharmas: dependently arisen, impermanent, empty of inherent existence. Whether they are seen as "unsatisfactory" or "pure" is a matter of perception and progress along the path.) The Bodhicaryavatara says: If I do not make an effort from now on I will simply go ever lower and lower still. Though countless former Buddhas have come throughout the past, Having the purpose of benefit for all sentient beings,

I, because of my own faults and shortcomings, Was not within the scope of their healing ministrations. If from this time on, I still act like that, Again and again, as it has been before, I will die and have to go to the lower realms, Being cut in pieces and suffering other tortures.

2. The Benefits of the Teachings (i.e. The benefits of this meditation: part of the foundation for the whole path, renunciation, motivation to practice, equanimity, love, compassion, joy, moral discipline, concentration, insights ... Enlightenment) If we meditate day and night only on impermanence and death, in a short time we will accumulate a measureless accumulation of virtues. Then because of that, (i.e. If you can practice mindfulness of the facts of life -- impermanence, impending death, emptiness and so forth -- in your daily life, if you can maintain constant awareness of the basic nature of phenomena, you will be able to stop disturbing, emotional thoughts from arising. ormally, these disturbing thoughts control our lives, torture us daily, always give us trouble and prevent our minds from experiencing any peace. Instead of peace, happiness and satisfaction, all we get from them is dissatisfaction, unhappiness and problems -- not only in this life but, through the karma they force us to create, in many future lives to come. Thus, practicing mindfulness of impermanence, death and emptiness -- the fundamental nature of phenomena, which cuts the root of suffering, ignorance, the unknowing mind -- everything we do in our lives becomes the cause of our liberation from all suffering and its cause. In this way, we can help others at a deeper level by also liberating them from the cycle of death and rebirth and its cause, the disturbing thoughts and the actions they motivate, karma. -- Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Virtue and Reality - Living with Bodhicitta) (i.e. "if you understand impermanence you don't waste time" -- Padampa Sangye) Thus goodness and benefit will surely be established. Striving with fierce energy to establish them, The mind of this life will be abandoned and cast away. The confusion of fixating ego-hood will be destroyed. In brief, establish all the excellent qualities. Restrict the mind to the root of all dharmas, impermanence. This will be the cause of holy liberation, Bringing us the end of everything that is evil. (i.e. By remembering impermanence and death, karma and the lower realms of suffering, the mind is persuaded to use the solution of Dharma practice. Immediately the mind prepares for death. Immediately it purifies the heavy negative karmas that cause

one to remain in the lower realms, where there are unimaginable sufferings and no possibility to practice Dharma. ... -- Therefore always remembering impermanence and death becomes so essential. Reflecting on impermanence and death makes life highly meaningful, and so quickly and so powerfully destroys the delusions and seed imprint. It is very easy to meditate on and one can cease the delusions. It leads one to begin to practice Dharma, and to continue and complete the practice. -- Remembering Death by Lama Zopa Rinpoche) (i.e. That which cuts craving for reward and honor, The best spur to practice with effort in seclusion, The excellent secret of all the scriptures, Is initially to remember death. -- Aryadeva) Death is certain, thus our own death is certain. When the smoke of thinking, ceaselessly "Will we have even tomorrow," continually arises, the blazing fire of exertion in Dharma will also naturally arise; and so we will be led to the path of this and later benefits. When appearances of this life are seen not always to have power, mind does not desire, be contentious, quarrel, grasp maliciously, be angry, harm others, and naturally leaves behind all afflictions. Pride and ego grasping cannot occur, and by the rising of the extraordinary, all is harmonious and pleasant. Since we know that wealth, retinue, and all relatives and companions are impermanent, desire and attachment to them will not arise. When through these relatives and companions other harms or benefits arise, whatever joys and sorrows occur, no desire or aggression will arise. When these die or are separated from us, or even if we have nothing, the suffering of unhappiness will not arise. Wherever we go in the world, we will not return to the karma of desire and attachment. Whatever suitable and unsuitable conditions arise, the individual marks of desire, aggression, and the grasping of attachment will not arise. Day and night will pass in happiness. Having come to the path of Dharma, we will fulfill our vows and difficult practices. Our activities will be spotlessly pure, un-obscured by transgressions. Working with the Dharmic activities of the path, we shall accumulate the two accumulations a hundred times over. Since our conduct will not be mixed with evil deeds, there will be no regret for anything we do. A special faith, compassion, and renunciation will newly arise. The Buddha and all the bodhisattvas will take care of us. Men and non-men will have no opportunity to harm us, and the gods of Abhirati will keep us within the whiteness of virtue. We will sleep in happiness, rise in happiness, go in happiness, walk in happiness, possess happiness, and live happy lives. The higher worlds of the celestial realms will arise. We shall see the Sugata and his children. We shall hear the good Dharma. We shall meditate on the good path. We shall attain the good realm of Sukhavati.

The Sutra on Teachings that are the Bases of Discipline says: Those who act with pure conduct And meditate well on the path, Will not suffer in dying, As if freed from a burning house. These and limitless other virtues will be attained. (i.e. More on the subject: The disadvantages of forgetting about death and impermanence:
If

one does not remember death, one does not remember Dharma.

And

even if one remembers Dharma, if one does not remember impermanence and death, one does not practice Dharma. Even though you may accept that you can die at anytime, in your daily life you tend to think that you are not going to die soon - not this year, not this week, not today, not now. Because of this, you postpone your practice of Dharma.

Even if you practice Dharma, if you don't think about impermanence and death, it does not become pure Dharma. If

you don't think about impermanence and death, you don't practice Dharma, which means protecting karma by abandoning non-virtue and practicing virtue; you constantly create negative karma instead.

And

Then

at the time of death you become very upset and fearful, which means you are already experiencing the signs of going to the lower realms. Many terrifying appearances can come to you at the time of death. -- Remembering Impermanence and Death by Lama Zopa Rinpoche

The advantages of remembering death and impermanence:


If

you remember impermanence and death, you lead a highly meaningful life. You are able to practice the paths of three levels of capability and achieve the three great purposes: the happiness of future lives, liberation, and enlightenment. Remembering impermanence and death is also a very easy way to control delusions. can overpower your delusions.

You

Remembering

impermanence and death is very meaningful. It is very important at the beginning of Dharma practice, as it helps you to actually begin your practice, and then again to continue it so that you succeed in your attempt to achieve enlightenment. one to begin to practice Dharma, and to continue and complete the practice.)

(It leads

Then when

death happens, you can die happily.

--Remembering Impermanence and Death by Lama Zopa Rinpoche

Contemplation and meditation on death and impermanence are regarded as very important in Buddhism for two reasons:
It is

only by recognizing how precious and how short life is that we are most likely to make it meaningful and to live it fully and understanding the death process and familiarizing ourselves with it, we can remove fear at the time of death and ensure a good rebirth. Although understanding impermanence yields these immediate benefits here and now, it is particularly effective as an aid to our practice of the Dharma.

By

The understanding It is

of impermanence is an antidote to attachment and ill-will.

also an encouragement to our practice of the Dharma. it is a key to understanding the ultimate nature of things, the way things

And, finally,

really are. Contemplation on death and on other forms of sorrow such as old age, and disease, constitutes a convenient starting point for the long line of investigation and meditation that will ultimately lead to Reality. This is exactly what happened in the case of the Buddha.
It is

the key that unlocks the seeming mystery of life. It is by understanding death that we understand life understanding the purpose of death we also understand the purpose of life

By

It softens

the hardest of hearts, binds one to another with cords of love and compassion, and destroys the barriers of caste, creed and race among the peoples of this earth to destroy the infatuation of sense pleasure vanity

It helps

It destroys It gives

balance and a healthy sense of proportion to our highly over- wrought minds with their misguided sense of values. strength and steadiness and direction to the erratic human mind, now wandering in one direction, now in another, without an aim, without a purpose himself to this contemplation of death is always vigilant,

It gives

"The disciple who devotes

He takes He gives

no delight in any form of existence, up hankering after life, censures evil doing, as regards the requisites of life,

He is free from craving His perception He realizes And

of impermanence becomes established,

the painful and soulless nature of existence

at the moment of death he is devoid of fear, and remains mindful and selfpossessed. Finally, if in this present life he fails to attain to Liberation, upon the dissolution of the body he is bound for a happy destiny." The ine-Point Meditation On Death (from the Lam Rim tradition)

The nine points comprise three main points, each of which has three reasons: 1. Death is definite (i.e. life is a terminal disease) Everyone has to die Our lifespan is decreasing continuously The amount of time we devote to Dharma is very small (death will come whether we practice or not) 2. The time of death is uncertain Human life-expectancy is uncertain There are many causes of death The human body is very fragile 3. Only Dharma or spiritual insight can help us at the time of death Our possessions and enjoyments cannot help Our family and friends cannot help Our body cannot help -- Preparing for Death and Helping the Dying, Amitabha Buddhist Center

Conclusion:

I need to practice the Dharma I will certainly die, and then there is rebirth depending on karma I need to practice the Dharma now I don't know when I will die, I don't know if I have enough time, And then there is the state of mind at the moment of death I need to practice pure Dharma Without mixing it with the eight worldly concerns Without developing attachment to the Dharma or its fruits, or using it to hurt people E. Dedicating the merit. (i.e. The cause of suffering is the belief in inherent existence, in permanence, fixating and grasping. Knowing the real nature of everything there is no more fixating, grasping, suffering.) ow the merits of well composing this are taught as a way for beings to attain blessings: Thus by the amrita of this auspicious news From the resounding drums of the thunder-clouds of Dharma, By the deep, melodious speech of beneficial instructions, May the weary nature of the minds of beings Unhinged by the kleshas and fixated thoughts of permanence, Be released this very day from all its weariness. In benefit-producing white light, to the sound of divine drums, from the swelling ocean of good teachings, emerge water dragons of instruction with gaping mouths. For beings exhausted by samsara, the turbulent extremes of ever-grasping mind are completely pacified. By the primordial lord who draws breath in enjoyment of bliss and happiness in his excellent house adorned by the rays of the sun, may all weariness be eased. Beings are distracted, as if they were in a dream. Gathering and dispersing, dharmas are hollow and empty. Though traveling to a market, companions match our path; They like impermanent dharmas soon will go their own way. Like an flash of lightning among the autumn clouds, The life of beings hurtles by like a waterfall. Dharmas are impermanent with no stability. From today let us realize that with certainty. Things and property and much collected wealth, Along with any fame and glory we possess,

Are fickle dharmas. Mind can never rely on them. Let us know their nature of the four extremes.

Om Tare Tuttare Ture Mama Aryu Puni Gyanya Punding Guruye Soha
[White Tara's Long Life Mantra]

Summery of Chapter Two


The Truth: All Dharmas Are Impermanent, Unsatisfactory, o-Self How impermanent are all compounded things! Anything that is born is going to be destroyed. Since having once been born, all will be destroyed
All

composite things are impermanent. Do not rely on them. they die. Compounded, they are destroyed. all dharmas to be like that.

Born, Know

There is

no liberation from the Lord of Death. All is impermanent, changing, and essence-less. ot lasting for even a moment. hear, and remember has the nature of impermanence, and the marks

Whatever we see,

of impermanence.
Gathering Dharmas

and dispersing, dharmas are hollow and empty.

are impermanent with no stability.

The external

vessel and contents are destructible. The inner vessel and contents too are taught to be impermanent. transference and change, there is impermanence.

Because there is

o Reliance At All In All Of These Dharmas; We Are Wasting Our Time With Them
This

body of ours is like a momentary reflection.

Therefore,

though it is certain that we are going to die, of where and when and how there is no certainty. as above, whoever lives will die. Only when and how are uncertain.

Moreover, Death

is inevitable. It is certain that we shall quickly die. Death comes without warning. The time of death too is uncertain. There is no provision against the gleaming staff of the Lord of Death; there is no protector, no refuge, no friendly forces, no friends and relatives. This tiny moment of life, Has no reliance at all. We have to leave alone, abandoning them all. At the time of death, none of the appearances of this life will be of any use to us. Our karma will take over, and we shall pass into the control of samsaric existence. What refuge will there be then but Dharma? Only the Dharma will be our refuge from the execution of the karma of our virtue and vice. Generosity, penance, and Dharma will be our only friends. There will be no refuge but Dharma. The three jewels and the virtue of Dharma are a refuge.

ow We Have This Great Opportunity, But It Will ot Last


Life has

no time to waste, so keep right to the point. From today onwards, what makes sense is to work with Dharma. exertion day and night is the Dharma.

What is worth Therefore,

abandoning the dharmas of this world, Let us turn to genuine practice from the heart, attaining the Dharma teaching of impermanence and death. auspicious time of completely attaining the free and well-favored human body, we should liberate ourselves from samsara. This is because if we do not try, we will not be liberated. that this life is impermanent, like a borrowed moment or instant, we should try to practice the Dharma.

At this

Thinking

If

we meditate day and night only on impermanence and death, in a short time we will accumulate a measureless accumulation of virtues.

Quotes
Guru

Puja - Reviewing the Stages of the Path

Realizing how this body of liberties and endowments Is found but once, is difficult to obtain and is easily lost, We seek your blessings to partake of its essence, make it worthwhile And not be distracted by the meaningless affairs of this life.
The Mountain

of Blessings, by Lama Tsong Khapa

My body and the life in it Are fleeting as the bubbles In the sea froth of a wave. Bless me thus to recall The death that will destroy me soon; And help me find sure knowledge That after I have died The things I've done, the white or black, And what these deeds will bring me, Follow always close behind, As certain as my shadow.

Songs

About Impermanence, Milarepa

1. Suffering of Birth In the Bardo state the wanderer Is the Alaya. It stays nowhere, Driven by one's own sorrow, It enters a womb unknown. Therein it feels like a fish Caught into crevice of rock, Sleeping in blood red and pus yellow, In all discharges it must pillow. Crammed in filth, it suffers pain, From bad karma one is to gain, Though remembering past lives, It cannot count four or five. ow scorched by heat, ow cold it does meet. For nine months it remains, In the womb with all pains, From womb by pliers as if pulled out, Head is squeezed but safety is nought, Like being thrown into a bramble, When it bears all of a-tremble, Its body on mother's lap with sorrow, It feels gripped by a hawk like a sparrow. When his body blood and dirt is cleansed,

Like flayed alive its pains increased, When umbilical cord is being cut, It feels as if the spine does jut, When wrapped in the cradle, It feels bound by a girdle. He who realizes not the truth of non-born ever can escape from birth to be grown. 2. Suffering of Old-Age When one's body has been brought To be frail and all worn out, It dislikes old-age, There is of this no doubt. One's straight body becomes bent, Steps are not firm and patent. Black hairs turn white Arms have no might. One's eyes grow dim Ears are not keen. The headshakes Pale are cheeks. Blood becomes dry one feels to die. One's nose will sink in, Teeth can't chew anything. Losing control of tongue, Sweet sugar isn't fun. One gathers foods and wine, But one can't keep them fine. Trying not to suffer anymore, One only gets suffering in store. When one is told the Truth, But one's faith is not growth, Though one has some kinsmen, They all his foes become. Though he hears some teaching, But nothing is changing, Unless one realizes the Truth of non-decay, He has to suffer old-age and not be gay. 3. Suffering of Sickness Besides sickness old man has nothing to gain. From three main kinds of illness one suffers pain. The blood pressure does so increase, Troubles of organs can not release, In a safe easy bed, day and night, The sick person feels no comfort nor might, But toss's about and groans in lament, Through all the karma of defilement. Though of some best food he eats, All that he takes he vomits. When you lay him in a cool place

His heat still does not balance. When you wrap him in some warm clothes, He feels to an icy land close. Though friends and kinsmen gather round, o one sharing his pain can be found. Though physicians are present at home, o one can free him from harm. He who learns not the truth of the sick, For the holy Dharma he has to seek. 4. Suffering of Death To repay the compound debts, One must suffer by one's death. Yama's guards catch the one Whose death-time comes so soon. Rich cannot buy it off with gold, Hero cannot cut it off with sword, either can the clever woman outwit it by a strike or can learned scholar refuse it by a teaching stick. When all the big nerves converge, One is crushed when two hills merge. All visions become dim, One remains with only sin. either physician nor gurus can Prolong the life of the dying man. Gods and devas vanish into nought, Breath has no inhalation but out. One can but smell the dead flesh, Like a lump of coal in ash. When dying some still count the dates, Others blubber about their bad fate, Some think of losing their health, Others of their remaining wealth, One loves the dead no matter how long, He can but let the dead be alone. To throw him in water or in the fire to burn, Or buried under land, the dead will not return. He who realizes not the Truth of Death, Should prepare the Western-travel wealth. 5. Eight Similes When painting fades, where is the Padma (Lotus) This shows all things are like the Drama, It proves their transient nature. Think, then, you will practice Dharma. The blue flower vanished fast In the winter time of the frost. It proves its transient nature.

Think, then, in Dharma you trust. The flood sweeps down from the vale above, When reaching plain it no more does rove. It proves its transient nature. Think, then, you will the Dharma love. Did we not see the green rice grow? ow their hull is in vale below. It proves its transient nature. Think, then, you will believe the Law. And see the elegant silk cloth, When a knife can cut it across, It proves its transient nature. Think, then, you learn of Bodhi-Class. When you cherish the most rare gem, Soon to others it will belong. It proves its transient nature. Think, then, to practice Dharma alone. See the full moon so bright and round, Few days after it will not be found. It proves its transient nature. Think, then to find the law profound. Did you not here have a son born, Who to final rest has long gone. It proves the transient nature. Think, then, you'll practice very soon. 6. Six Realizations Facing Death From extreme one is liberating Like the gallant lion is lying, In the snow at ease displaying. Without fear of any kind of falling. In this View I am so trusting. To the final goal, death is so leading. Joy to him who views thus, death brings The very mild and genial big deer. Horns having "many points in one taste mere" He sleeps the plan of blissing near In the practice do I trust so dear. Death leads to the path of liberation, Death brings joy to him who is practicing. The fish occupies virtues ten, With bright eyes in color golden, Swims in the river of active ken, In his action do I trust often. Death leads to the Path of Liberation. Death brings joy to him who is in action. The Tigress of self-mind training, With nice stripes she is adorning, The altruism is her great glory.

In the woods she is straight walking. I do trust in her discipline. Death leads to the Path of Liberation. Death brings joy to him who is training. On the paper of forms positive and negative, I write a long essay with my mind meditative. In the state of non-duality I watch myself and contemplate. In such a Dharma do I trust. Death leads me to Liberate, Death brings me the delight. The purified essence of moving Energy is like an eagle flying. On its wings of skill and wisdom To the holy cause of non-being. To such attainment I am trusting. Death leads me to the Liberation. Death brings joy to meditation. 7. Yogi's Realization Against Death Those who practice merely with mouth Talk much, seem to know more teachings, When times comes for passing away, To the space are thrown their preachings. When the clear light naturally shines, It is cloaked by blindness of sin. The chance to see the Dharmakaya, At death is lost through one's confusion. Even though one spends his life In learning holy scripture, It helps not at the moment When mind takes its departure. And those yogis have not sufficient meditation Mistake psychic light as sacred illumination, Cannot unify the light of mother and of son, They're still in danger of rebirth in lower station. When your body is rightly posed, Mind absorbed in meditation, You feel that here is no more mind, Yet it's only concentration. Like starling fly unto the vast, empty sky, Awareness as pure flower, bright lamp shining, Though, it is void, transparent and vivid, Yet it's only a Dhyana feeling. He who is with these good foundations Penetrates Truth with contemplation, And prays earnestly to the Three Gems The non-ego wisdom he will win. With the life rope of deep concentration

With the power of kindness and compassion, With altruistic vow of Bodhi-heart, He can directly get the clear vision, The Truth of the Great Enlightened Path. othing can be seen yet seen all things, He sees how wrong were the fears and hopes, All were in his own mind yet nothing. He reaches the pure land without arrival, Sees the Dharmakaya without seeing. Without effort naturally sees all things, Dear son, in your mind keep all my sayings. 8. On Bardo to Gampopa The sentient beings are Samsara. All are Buddhas in irvana. In nature all are equal, It's Bardo-View, Gampopa! The all manifesting red and white Wonderful mind essence how to write. All but a true non-dualistic state, It is Bardo practice it's quite right. The myriad forms of illusion, The self mind has no arising, Both are in the innate-born-state. This is the right Bardo-action. The dream through habitual thought of last evening And knowledge of non-entity of this morning They are the same in the light of Maya. This is the Bardo when you are dreaming. The five sorrows and the five Buddhas Identify in the two Karmas, Glowing and perfecting in one-ness. This is the path of Bardo-Dharma. From the skill comes the Father-Tantra, From wisdom comes the Mother-Tantra, They unite in Third Initiation Of the nature 'tis Bardo extra. Self benefit is in Dharmakaya. While other's are in the other two kayas. Primordially there is but only one ot three, this is the Bardo Trikaya. From the womb gate is born the impure body, From pure form is born the pure Buddha body, They are but one in the light of the Bardo. This attainment of Bardo already.
Songs

about Renunciation, Milarepa

9. Worldly Arbitrations The advisor, meditator and go-between These three persons always cause discord and pain. The free man should be like mute taking no side And on the silent mountain he should remain. Property, kinsmen and native-land, These three make one fall into Saha-realm. One who would cross the river of sin, Should cut off the long attachment-chain. Self-conceit, pretense, and tricks, These three make one's falling quick. He who would ascend upward, Should keep his mind straightforward. Scholarship, talk and discussion, Derive from pride-causation. He who would practice the Dharma Should be humble and next to nothing. Householder, work and career, These three disturb Samadhi. He who would gain the wisdom. Should keep only his Bodhi. Master, disciple, and learning, These three may cause the more pride. He who would like the Dharma Should be humble and kiss the Rod. Sorcery, magic and To Tze, Draw a yogi to evil deeds. He who would like the Dharma Think of the sound of Jolmo birds. 10. Four Similes: To Rechungpa Like white lion living on mountain You should not go to the valley Lest your nice mane become sullied. To keep it in good order you should Remain in snowy hill as you could. Like great eagle flying above mountain It never falls into a hole Lest your wings be broken as a whole. To keep it in good order you should Remain in snowy mountain as you could. Like the tigress passes the mountain And stays only in deep forest But on plain you'd have no rest. To keep in good order you should Remain in snowy hill as you could. Like the nice and golden-eyed fish

Swims only in the central sea, Lest it let the fisherman to see. To keep it in good order you should Remain in snowy hill as you could. 11. Things Should Be Renounced An action without meaning, Fearless and empty talking, And the profane pretension, These three things reject the Lore: I have renounced them before. You should have these three no more. The place that's not fixed to pray, The group that quarrels too much, The status where hypocrites stay, These three things reject the Lore. I have renounced them before. You should have these three no more. The guru with tiny learning, The pupil with poor devotion, The friend who has no discipline, These three things reject the Lore. I have renounced them before. You should have these three no more. The wife who frequently complains, The son who needs strike and blame, The servant ever needs more to explain, These three things reject the Lore, I have renounced them before, You should have these three no more. 12. To Gampopa When you think of delicious meal, Eat the food of Samadhi Ideal, Realize that all food is only delusion, Hold to the Dharmakaya's meditation. When you think of your native land, Dwell on the true home being at hand. Realize that all places are only delusion Hold to the Dharmakaya meditation. When you think of jewels and corn, Compare them with the heavenly gems. Realize that money is only delusion, Hold to the Dharmakaya meditation. When you think of some companions Take wisdom as your concubines. Realize that all loves are delusions, Hold to the Dharmakaya meditation.

13. To Rechungpa: Things Should be Renounced. A son, a wife, and flame to extreme, Are three great fetters for a yogi. The practitioner should leave them. Prestige, enjoyment and goods like gems, Are three great hindrances to a yogi, The practitioner should renounce them. Relatives, disciples, and rich patrons, Are three great obstacles to a yogi. The practitioner should forsake them. Fatigue, sleep, and spirits like gin, Are three great robbers of a yogi. The practitioner should forswear them. To chat, to joke, to entertain, Are three distractions to a yogi, The practitioner should renounce them. 14. Refuses to Help Home Affairs On the pasture of great blessing, Immortal sheep I am herding. I have no more time to watch Animals of just blood and flesh. I leave them, Lesembum, for you. Like mother of love and blessing, The wisdom child I am tending. So I have no other learning To tend the nose of your offspring. I leave them, Lesebum, for you! On the rock hill of non-moving Stupa of mindfulness I'm making. I have no time to manage For you to mold those clay images. I leave them, Lesebum, for you. In the prayer room of my body I am lighting my lamp of Bodhi. I have no time to get a flagstaff For hanging the printed sutras thereof. I leave them, Lesebum, for yourself. In my Maya body, I clean my thoughts untidy, I have no time to give To clean your room and cave. I leave them all for you. Among all the worlds form and way, I am watching the Maya's play. I have no time to wash Your bowl, cup, tray and dish. I leave them all for you.

15. Six Deceptions Temples are like stations for driftwood, Divine life! Though priests have such mood, But it is deceptive to me. Therefore leave such companions I would. (To talk and debate without meditation Is like womens quarrel and agitation.) I'm a man who cherishes peace of mind, Abhors all gossip and accusation. (The above two lines in parentheses of the second quatrain are written by myself -- Paul K. Seaton? --as a supplement to the next two lines which were printed in the English translation as an incomplete quatrain.) When Tomo is kindled within, Woolen clothes are of nothing, I have no need of the long robe, All house works are disheartening. When renunciation grows within, All possessions are of nothing, Of business I have no need, All wealth to me has no meaning. When perseverance grows within, Son and disciples are of nothing, I have no need of any meeting, They would reduce my devotion. When the pithy methods are working Why would one need any preaching, For it only incites one's pride. I've no need of books and learning. 16. Refuse the Offering of a Horse My big horse is the mind prana, It has a silk scarf of Dhyana. Its spine is the true magic stage, Its gem-saddle is the seat of sage. Its crupper is the secret teaching, My spurs are the three inspecting. Head-stall is the life prana fine, Forelock curl is shown as the three times, Quiet within is its adornment, Its rein shows boldly movement, Bridle is the flowing allurement, Gallops along the middle path - the spine. This yogic horse, this stead of mind, Riding it one escapes the world, Reaches to Buddha Land the same kind.

I have no need of your black horse, Go your way with any joy you find.

17. Refuse the Offering of a Boat This land of blind view and darkness Is part of three realms of heavens, Full of thorns in craving meadow, Full of mud is jealous morass, Savage is the furious hatred, While pride is the sloping steepness. I have crossed the river four, And reach the Buddha Pure Land shore, I've used the leather of Bodhi And made my boat hidden no more. I am a craftsman of deep faith, Use the dye of non-lust for form With thread and rope of devotion And three bindings as the anchor. Your boat I have no desire for, Dear patron, please leave me and go. 18. Refuse the Offering of a Wife The lust-free Sunyata is the woman, Her compassionate face is so clement, The deep loving kindness is in her smile, Her dress is of red and white elements, Uses non-discrimination as her girdle, The non-duality as her ornament. Her white necklace shows the many-in-one, And the four blisss are her adornments. She is such a beautiful Dakini. Her real cause is the true accomplishment. This is my lovely holy companion I have no interest in your woman. 19. Refuse the Offering of Temple Unborn-mind is the Temple I dwell with; Its top is the prana without moving. I create the pillars of reality, On the base of immutability. The crescent symbolizes growing yoga, While the great sun denotes perfect yoga, On the ground of my warm meditation, I draw an altar of observation. All the lovely flowers in my garden Are my practices of illumination.

Encircling the pagoda of Virtues Is the ditch of Sunyata absorption. This is my great yogic monastery; Your worldly temple to me is of nothing. 20. Yogic ecessity Because I fear the great rain, I seek for house to remain in, Sunyata is my good house, I find joy where I maintain. Because I fear the cold, I seek for clothes to hold, The inner fire is my dress, I find warm enough and bold. Because I fear being poor, I seek money out of doors, But find gems within, Myself is the donor. Because I fear great hunger, I seek for some food and beg, Samadhi is a good food, I feel hungry no longer. Because I fear the thirst, I seek for something to drink. Mindfulness is a good wine, I need nothing else to think. Because I fear being lonesome, I seek for a friend handsome. The void-bliss is the best one, I need no sweet friend to come. Because I fear going astray, I seek path, which will not betray. I find the short path is two-in-one, I am not afraid to lose my way. 21. Yogic Possessions The Alaya is my good earth, The secret teaching is the seed, Merits of Samadhi do sprout, The Buddha is the fruit indeed. These four are my holy formings, Your worldly ones are deceiving. You are only a slave laborer, I discard it without thinking. Sunyata is the warehouse, Supra-mundane is the gem, Virtues are the act and service, From non-outflow one is to gain.

These four gems are property, Your worldly ones are empty, By magic spell you are cheated, I dislike and discard it. Buddha and Dakini are my parents, The immaculate Dharma is my face, The Sangha assembly is my kinsmen, And protectors all are of the same race. All these four are my holy family; Your worldly kinsmen are not like my grace. They all are deceitful and delusive, Without hesitation I do displace. The blissful brightness is my background, The blissful passing is my father, The two-in-one feeling is my skin, The experiences are my shirt and garter. All these four are my holy wives. Your worldly companions are delusive, They always are inclined to quarrel, I leave them who are so aggressive. The mindfulness is my newborn baby, Merits of Dhyana are my infants, Comprehension is my lovely child Law-keeper is my youth-like pendant, These four are my holy good sons. Your worldly offspring are of nothing They are deceitful and delusive, Without delay I leave them as sin. (Some additional songs of the above two classifications, Impermanence and Renunciation, were selected and translated by me -- Paul K. Seaton? -- and may be found in my booklet ew o. 95, "Milarepa: His Personal Teaching of Renunciation ")

Vimalakirti

irdesa Sutra - The Body

"Friends, this body is so impermanent, fragile, unworthy of confidence, and feeble. It is so insubstantial, perishable, short-lived, painful, filled with diseases, and subject to changes. Thus, my friends, as this body is only a vessel of many sicknesses, wise men do not rely on it. This body is like a ball of foam, unable to bear any pressure. It is like a water bubble, not remaining very long. It is like a mirage, born from the appetites of the passions. It is like the trunk of the plantain tree, having no core. Alas! This body is like a machine, a nexus of bones and tendons. It is like a magical illusion, consisting of falsifications.

It is like a dream, being an unreal vision. It is like a reflection, being the image of former actions. It is like an echo, being dependent on conditioning. It is like a cloud, being characterized by turbulence and dissolution. It is like a flash of lightning, being unstable, and decaying every moment. The body is ownerless, being the product of a variety of conditions. "This body is inert, like the earth; selfless, like water; lifeless, like fire; impersonal, like the wind; and non-substantial, like space. This body is unreal, being a collocation of the four main elements. It is void, not existing as self or as self-possessed. It is inanimate, being like grass, trees, walls, clods of earth, and hallucinations. It is insensate, being driven like a windmill. It is filthy, being an agglomeration of pus and excrement. It is false, being fated to be broken and destroyed, in spite of being anointed and massaged. It is afflicted by the four hundred and four diseases. It is like an ancient well, constantly overwhelmed by old age. Its duration is never certain - certain only is its end in death. This body is a combination of aggregates, elements, and sense-media, which are comparable to murderers, poisonous snakes, and an empty town, respectively. Therefore, you should be revulsed by such a body. You should despair of it and should arouse your admiration for the body of the Tathgata. "Friends, the body of a Tathgata is the body of Dharma, born of gnosis. The body of a Tathgata is born of the stores of merit and wisdom. (Two accumulations) It is born of morality, of meditation, of wisdom (three superior trainings), of the liberations, and of the knowledge and vision of liberation. It is born of love, compassion, joy, and impartiality. (Four immeasurables) (Six Paramitas) It is born of charity, discipline, and self-control. It is born of the path of ten virtues. (Abandoning the ten non-virtues) It is born of patience and gentleness. It is born of the roots of virtue planted by solid efforts. It is born of the concentrations, the liberations, the meditations, and the absorptions. It is born of learning, wisdom, and liberative technique. It is born of the thirty-seven aids to enlightenment. (The same as the seven sets of the Wings of Awakening) It is born of mental quiescence and transcendental analysis. It is born of the ten powers, the four fearlessnesses, and the eighteen special qualities. (i.e. 32 distinctive qualities) It is born of transcendences. (The six transcendences / paramitas) It is born from sciences and super-knowledges. It is born of the abandonment of all evil qualities, and of the collection of all good qualities. It is born of truth. It is born of reality. It is born of conscious awareness.

"Friends, the body of a Tathgata is born of innumerable good works. Toward such a body you should turn your aspirations, and, in order to eliminate the sicknesses of the passions of all living beings, you should conceive the spirit of unexcelled, perfect enlightenment."
Vimalakirti

irdesa Sutra - Teaching the meaning of impermanence, suffering, selflessness, peace 'Reverend Maha Katyayana, do not teach an ultimate reality endowed with activity, production, and destruction! Reverend Maha Katyayana, nothing was ever destroyed, is destroyed, or will ever be destroyed. Such is the meaning of "impermanence." (Emptiness in the first place, no birth leads to no death) The meaning of the realization of birthlessness, through the realization of the void-ness of the five aggregates, is the meaning of "suffering." ( o birth leads to no mistreatment of the ego, no suffering) The fact of the non-duality of self and selflessness is the meaning of "selflessness." ( o independence / absolute distinction between the self and the rest - the world, others ...) That which has no intrinsic substance and no other sort of substance does not burn, and what does not burn is not extinguished; such lack of extinction is the meaning of "peace."' ( o need for fear about the ego)

Old Reflections on the Subject


Contemplation

and meditation on death and impermanence are regarded as very important in Buddhism for two reasons: (1) It is only by recognizing how precious and how short life is that we are most likely to make it meaningful and to live it fully and (2) By understanding the death process and familiarizing ourselves with it, we can remove fear at the time of death and ensure a good rebirth.

Contemplation

on death and on other forms of sorrow such as old age, and disease, constitutes a convenient starting point for the long line of investigation and meditation that will ultimately lead to Reality. This is exactly what happened in the case of the Buddha. to value the necessity to face facts. Safety always lies in truth.

We must learn There is

a task to be done, and that task is not -- as many people believe -- to readjust self, society, or world to fit our blind desires. Rather it is to train ourselves to the point where we know reality for what it is and free ourselves of the burdens of passion that now oppress us.

Thinking

about it because of what follows after the death is important;

Is the key that unlocks the seeming mystery of life. It is by understanding death that we understand life By understanding the purpose of death we also understand the purpose of life Softens the hardest of hearts, binds one to another with cords of love and compassion, and destroys the barriers of caste, creed and race among the peoples of this earth Helps to destroy the infatuation of sense-pleasure Destroys vanity Gives balance and a healthy sense of proportion to our highly over- wrought minds with their misguided sense of values. Gives strength and steadiness and direction to the erratic human mind, now wandering in one direction, now in another, without an aim, without a purpose
Also:

"The disciple who devotes himself to this contemplation of death is always vigilant, Takes no delight in any form of existence, Gives up hankering after life, censures evil doing, Is free from craving as regards the requisites of life, His perception of impermanence becomes established, He realizes the painful and soulless nature of existence And at the moment of death he is devoid of fear, and remains mindful and selfpossessed. Finally, if in this present life he fails to attain to Liberation, upon the dissolution of the body he is bound for a happy destiny."
All life is just a process (i.e. and merely a name given to some dependent quasiregularity) Change is

of the very essence of the things (like the surface of the ocean -- a flow without chunks in it - swirls at the surface of the water) othing is, but is becoming. the world as void (like space)

View

Time is

one continuous process

There is

no death, just a continuous process -- we think there is death because we think there are "things"; and those "particular things" exist only from our particular point of view. the meditation on the precious human life is a an introduction to causality, dependent origination, then this meditation on death and impermanence is an introduction to emptiness. Each one act as an antidote to its opposite. o absolute, only adapted skillful means in order to stay away from all extremes. are not really impermanent since they are not really existing in the first

If

But things

place.
To

say that things exist and change is an oxymoron.

But that doesn't mean

that things are completely non-existent, or that nothing is changing, or that there is no causality at all, no dependent origination at all. nature of everything is beyond all description, all conceptualization, all dualities, beyond causality space and time. But it is still described as the inseparability of appearances (dependent origination) and emptiness, or as the Union of The Two Truths.

The real

The Third Chapter of the commentary on The Great Perfection: The ature Of Mind, The Easer Of Weariness called the Great Chariot
Om Tare Tuttare Ture Soha (Green Tara Mantra) Helpfulness over obstacles

Chapter Three: The Sufferings of Samsara


There are four parts:
A.

The general explanation of the nature of suffering

B. C. D.

The extended explanation of the particulars The appropriateness of thinking about the sufferings of samsara The dedication of merit

A. The general explanation of the nature of suffering (i.e. All problems and solutions come from the mind. The root cause of all suffering is the ignorance of the real nature of our own mind and of everything. Because of this ignorance we are continually attracted to the very causes of our own suffering: fixation, grasping, discrimination, analysis, intellectualization, control, investments in the five aggregates - in short accumulating karma. Everything that is caused is necessarily impermanent, unreliable, and unsatisfactory. There is no objects in the three worlds, no state of existence / being / becoming, that is safe. Even the best situation turns to the worst after a while because of ignorance. The more we suffer, the more we try to control everything and the worst it gets. The more we get happy, the more we want of the same or better, and are afraid of loosing it, the more we try to control everything, the worst it get. It goes round and round endlessly.) There are eight parts.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

The brief teaching of suffering (The three kinds of suffering) The examples of suffering (Suffering of suffering) The example of being seduced by desire How beings are tormented in successive births within the six realms of beings How enemies, friends, and relatives are uncertain How we suffer in countless births How, even if we attain the fruition of Brahma and so forth, we will ultimately suffer Suffering due to the nature of change (Suffering of change) 1. The brief teaching of suffering [The three kinds of suffering]

(i.e. The three kinds of suffering: physical, mental, cosmic / universal.) After realizing the impermanence of dharmas, is the teaching of the suffering intrinsic to samsara. Anything one says about it falls short of the truth. For those among the dharmas of the three realms of samsara, Unremittingly changeable, there are the extremist sufferings. With sufferings of suffering, change, and composite nature, All beings of its six habitations live in extreme anxiety

The Sutra of Instructions to the King says: O great king, this samsara is change. This samsara is impermanence. This samsara is suffering.

i.e. The Three Kinds Of Suffering Are


The suffering of suffering,
Dukkha

as ordinary suffering as bodily or mental pain. Physical pain, external causes.

Govinda: One of

the lowest stage suffering is only bodily: physical pain, privation, and discomfort. -- In the most primitive form of Consciousness (animals, undeveloped human beings) suffering appears mostly as physical pain and bodily want and occasionally only in its mental aspect. -- Birth, old age, and death - the first group - are the symptoms of bodily suffering.

HHDL: Suffering

of suffering. This refers to things such as headaches and so forth. Even animals can recognize this kind of suffering and, like us, want to be free from it. Because beings have fear of and experience discomfort from these kinds of suffering, they engage in various activities to eliminate them.

Geshe Rabten: Suffering caused by suffering - This type of suffering includes the pain, sadness and everyday suffering recognized by all beings. Even the smallest insect can recognize it. o creatures want this suffering. The reason why all creatures are so busy and active is that they are trying to avoid this type of suffering. Ants, for instance, are busy all day and night to avoid suffering from hunger; countries fight each other for fear of suffering from domination (even though this method creates more suffering).

of suffering is physical and mental pain (sickness, depression, etc.) -the suffering of physical and mental pain brings about anguish -- The body composed of the five skandhas causes the suffering of physical and mental pain, for the moment we enter into it we experience suffering which brings about the feeling of pain. The suffering of change,
Dukkha

KKGR: Suffering

due to change.

Govinda: On

the next higher stage it is mainly mental: the discrepancy between our illusions (possession, stability, control, permanent self) and reality (impermanence, noself, no absolute control), the disappointments of life, the impossibility to satisfy our desires. The average human being will be mainly afflicted with mental suffering (the second stage), though bodily suffering may be frequent and the refined form of the third stage may be attained occasionally. -- ot to obtain what one desires characterizes the second stage: mental suffering

HHDL: Suffering of change. This refers to situations where, for example, we are sitting very comfortably relaxed and at first everything is all right, but after a while we lose that feeling and get restless and uncomfortable...but as soon as we have solved certain problems, new ones arise. We have plenty of money, plenty of food and good shelter, but

by over-estimating the value of these things we render them worthless. This sort of experience is the suffering of change.
Lama

Thubten Yeshe: When Lord Buddha talked so much about suffering he was not referring primarily to physical illness and pain but to dissatisfaction. Dissatisfaction is the real suffering. o matter how much you get, your desires do not abate; you always want more. That is suffering; that is deluded frustration. ... Buddhist psychology enumerates six fundamental delusions, which frustrate and disturb the peace of the human mind and cause it to become restless: attachment, anger, ignorance, pride, deluded doubt and holding distorted views. These are mental, not external phenomena. Those fundamental delusions come from the ego, they make the mind restless. ... If you do not know the nature of attachment and its object it's impossible for you to have loving kindness for your friends, parents and country...Our problem is that we lack intensive knowledge-wisdom, or awareness, or consciousness...it doesn't matter what you call itwhen you understand your mind's view, or perception of things, you realize that all along you have been grasping at the sense world -- and at an imaginary, idealistic future that is simply a projection of your mind and has not the slightest physical reality-you have been completely unconscious of the present

Geshe Rabten: Suffering

caused by change - This type starts as happiness and then changes into suffering. Most beings do not recognize this as suffering. Worldly happiness looks like happiness, but in time it too changes into suffering. If we are hot and immerse ourselves in cold water it is very pleasant to start with, but after a while it becomes painfully cold. If we are cold and stay in the sun to get warm we will, after some time, suffer from being burnt. When friends meet after a long time they are delighted, but if they then remain continually together they may quarrel and grow tired of each other. This type of suffering includes anything that appears to be happiness and changes into suffering. If a person wants to become wealthy, works very hard and becomes rich, suffering is produced from the need for maintaining the wealth, fear of losing it, and desire for more. If one country wants to take over another, the oppressed country reacts, and mutual suffering is caused. The first of these two types of suffering is easily removable. The second is not, because it is not easily recognized. Thus, it is more deeply harmful. Even small insects can stop the suffering caused by suffering, and so can human beings, who, when they are ill, for example, can get treatment. But most people and animals think that the suffering caused by change is real happiness and spend their whole lives trying to achieve it; for example, people in business who devote their lives to making money and people who fight each other in wars, all in search of happiness.

of change (impermanence of peace and happiness) is like eating food mixed with poison -- the suffering of change brings about a false sense of euphoria -- The joys of samsara are ultimately the cause of the suffering of change. It is written in the Karma sutra, "The kingdom of the gods and the kingdom of humans are the cause of suffering." o matter how high the rank you achieve in samsara, you will eventually fall, for you are fundamentally attached to temporary enjoyments, which cause the suffering of hope and fear. And the sufferings of the composite.
The Dukkha

KKGR: Suffering

of Conditioned Formations. The five aggregates of clinging are dukkha.

Govinda: On

the third stage suffering is no more concerned with the petty cares of our own person and of our momentary life, it becomes more and more universal and essential. We are taking part in the suffering of others, and instead of regarding our personality as the highest value; we understand that by clinging to it, it has become a hindrance, bondage, a symbol of limitation and imperfection. -- One who is on his way to enlightenment will be rather concerned with the essential form of suffering (the third stage). -- The five aggregates of existence (lit. 'clinging'), i.e. our personality, represent the essential form of suffering, its third stage. -- Birth, decay and death, which originally were felt as symptoms of bodily suffering, become objects of mental suffering as well and finally the symbols of the essential laws of individual life to which we bind ourselves. This is indicated in the third part of the above-cited quotation, where the five Khandas themselves are designated as objects of suffering and described as aggregates of 'clinging' (upadanakkhanda). -- The Suffering which Buddhism is essentially concerned with is - I might almost say - cosmic suffering, the suffering implicit in the cosmic law which chains us to our deeds, good as well as bad, and drives us incessantly round in a restless circle from form to form. In short, it is the suffering of bondage. The experience of this suffering in its essential form can only be born of a higher state of consciousness. - Suffering is no longer felt as coming from outside, from a hostile world, but as coming from within. It is no longer something foreign or accidental, but a part of one's own selfcreated being.

HHDL: All-pervasive sufferings.

Because it acts as the basis of the first two categories of suffering, the third is called, in Tibetan, kyab.pa.du.ched.kyi.dug.ngel (literally: the suffering of pervasive compounding). suffering caused by mental formations - This type is even more difficult to recognize than the suffering caused by change. It is the suffering inherent in samsara (the whole round of existence) and the cause of the previous two kinds of suffering. It covers, or embraces, all beings in samsara. As the earth is the foundation of our life, so this type of suffering is the foundation of the other two. If someone cuts us we automatically feel pain simply because we have bodies; our very existence is the root cause of this suffering. Because all beings exist in a state of causality, all are liable to suffering. This kind of suffering (duhkha) is produced from a harmful cause and all other suffering comes from it. All beings recognize the first kind of suffering; some recognize the second. But this third kind of suffering is very, very difficult to recognize. Without recognizing it, escape from samsara is impossible. This suffering is like a wound that does not give pain until it is touched. It is the ground containing all sufferings. When we remove this suffering we attain nirvana, or liberation. suffering: the aggregates themselves, the conditioning, are suffering - it we cling to them - because impermanent: The body itself constitutes the pervasive suffering of conditioning. Without recognizing that the contaminated psychophysical aggregates themselves are the subtlest form of suffering, we cannot develop the genuine wish to free ourselves from the cycle of birth and death. Understanding the other two kinds of suffering (physical and mental) leads toward an understanding of this. that is impermanent is said to be suffering."

Geshe Rabten: All-embracing

400: The subtle form of

Aryadeva: "Therefore all

KKGR:

Pervasive suffering (root cause of all suffering-impermanence of the unenlightened body) is the nature of samsara. o matter what kind of conditions we enjoy, sooner or later suffering will pervade our worldly state, where our afflicted ordinary bodies are a source of pain. -- The five ordinary skandhas are the cause of pervasive suffering, but ordinary people do not recognize them as suffering, just as when stuck by plague, they do not notice minor illness. However, those noble beings entering the path recognize this as suffering, just as, when the plague abates, one notices the pain of a lesser injury. Birth is suffering.) By these the six kinds of sentient beings struggle and sink in the ocean of samsara.

2. The examples of suffering. (i.e. Because they don't know the law of karma and its consequences, or the way out of samsara, beings create more and more causes for suffering. That is why it is so hard and rare to get out of the three lower realms and gain a precious human life.) By these verses the examples of how the kleshas are produced are explained:

Like some person who is thrown into a fire, Or attacked by a ravening horde of savage men or beasts, Or imprisoned by some king, just like an animal, With successive waves of suffering (1) like the Unremitting Hell And having no chance of escape, our sorrows only increase. Thus as the assembled faculties of sentient beings are not purified of former suffering, it will oppress them later. Unbearable, it is without measure or limit. The Jewel Mala says: Space in all the directions, earth, water, fire, and air, Just as they are limitless, so are beings' sufferings. They rise again and again, as waves rise in the ocean. They are like always having to live in terror and fear With vicious beasts of prey and cruel savages. Like the dungeon of a king, getting free is difficult. 3. The example of being seduced by desire. (i.e. All beings are subject to suffering and want to escape suffering. But because of their ignorance of the real nature of everything they are attracted to the causes of their own suffering. The more they desire to escape it, the more they discriminate, the more they

try to control everything, the more they accumulate the causes of their own suffering. While doing this, they cultivate the three poisons [passion, aversion, delusion], the five poisons [one for each realm: anger, greed, ignorance, attachment, jealousy, pride].) Though all sentient beings want to find happiness and be free from suffering:

One may wish to find bliss, and be separated from suffering. But suffering strikes us, acting as both cause and effect. Like a moth who is attracted by the flame of a lamp Enticed by grasping, desirous of his wished-for object, Or like deer, bees, and elephants, Enticed by sound or smell or else by taste, or touch, Beings are seduced by desire for the five objects of sense. See how they never find bliss, but only suffering. By the obscuring power of accepting and rejecting, though we may want powerful means of entering into the fruition, we do not produce the cause. How can we be free from accepting and rejecting? Those who want happiness should practice the cause, the virtuous path. We want to leave suffering behind, yet wholeheartedly enter into its cause, non-virtue. We practice all the causes of suffering, the five klesha-poisons, and the three chief kleshas. We are rushing to practice the source of all suffering, whose fruition is suffering itself, and experience of its different varieties. Still we just accept this and cannot even be ashamed of it. This is like a thief who is punished by having his hands cut of, but still robs us again. This time his punishment is having his head cut off. The Bodhicharyavatara says: We think we have the intention of getting rid of suffering, Instead we run right to that very suffering. Though we want happiness, because of ignorance, We conquer our own happiness like an enemy (i.e. In the Bodhisattvacharyavatara, the great yogi and bodhisattva Shantideva wrote, "We all seek happiness, but turn our backs on it. We all wish to avoid misery, but race to collect its causes." What we want and what we're doing are in contradiction. Our activities aimed at bringing happiness just cause suffering, misery and trouble. Shantideva goes on to explain how even if we desire to obtain happiness, because of ignorance we usually destroy its cause. We treat the causes of happiness like we would an enemy. -- Tsenshab Serkong Rinpoche, Renunciation) How do we conquer it? By the force of desire and attachment to the five desirables, the power of the kleshas increases, and we enter into suffering. A moth desiring the form of a lamp's light, is burned when it is reached. Deer are killed because they listen to the sound of a flute. Bees who suck flowers, which are the source of nectar, get tangled when they close to them. Fishermen entice fish by the taste of food on the point of a hook. Elephants wanting to feel cool go into lakes and die.

A song in the Dohakosha: By the mudra of samsara all beings are seduced. Also it says there: Kye ho! The stupid are wounded by arrows it is said. View them as having been enticed like gullible deer. They are like fish and butterflies, elephants and bees, The kleshas arise from the five sense-objects, and by their force we wander endlessly in samsara. This is more to be feared than poison, it is taught. The Letter to Students says: Objects and poison alike are pleasant when first experienced. Objects and poison alike are unbearably harsh when ripe. Objects and poison alike are imbibed because of ignorance. Objects and poison alike are potent and hard to reverse. Poison and objects, imputed with certainty by the mind, Both do harm, but poison may simply be avoided But injuries by objects are not so easily shunned. Poison is only poisonous in a sentient being Our feelings regarding objects are poisonous anywhere. Poison when mixed with other poison is neutralized. Thus supreme secret mantra is properly used as a cure. Poison skillfully used is of benefit to man. However, the great poison, objects, never will be so. 4. How beings are tormented in successive births within the six realms of beings (i.e. So they just go round and round: suffering because of their past actions and creating more causes for future suffering. All of this while being totally ignorant of it. Depending on the major cause [poisons: anger, greed, ignorance, attachment, jealousy, pride] and the predominant types of suffering, they are associated with one of the six realms of this wheel of samsara [Hell beings, hungry ghosts, animals, humans, demigods, gods].) These samsaric beings whirl about with each other and suffer: For gods, asuras, Hell beings, and the hungry ghosts, For humans and animals, all beings of the six realms, Like the chain of buckets on a water wheel, Limitless sufferings follow each other in train. The Precious Mala says: Its three paths have no beginning, no middle and no end. Like the circle that is made by whirling a firebrand. Mutual causes become the mandala of samsara. (i.e. The Wheel of Life)

5. How enemies, friends, and relatives are uncertain (i.e. Because they desire to escape suffering, and because of their ignorance, they tend to discriminate: liking some, hating others, being indifferent to most. But those are only relative, circumstantial feelings. They forget the impermanence of such feelings. And it is because of such discrimination that they create more and more causes for suffering in the future.) Thus when we are whirled within samsara: In the course of the generations, every sentient being Has carried the burden of being our friend and our enemy. Also they have been neither, or something between the two. The number of times that they have done us right or wrong Or benefit and harm transcends enumeration. Often a father becomes a mother and she a sister, And she again a brother, lost in uncertainty. We can never be sure if our friends will change to enemies In all the generations from beginning-less time a particular sentient being will have been the father of all the sentient beings in the three realms, and so forth. The number of times that it will have been their father, mother, and intimate cannot be counted. The Spiritual Letter says: By desiring what is fine, deprivation, and death Sickness, age, and so forth, are sources of many sufferings, Samsara indeed is a treasury of every sorrow. 6. How we suffer in countless births: (i.e. It has always been like that, suffering because of past actions, and creating more and more cause for future suffering. They have been in each of the six realms countless times. -- All discriminations, all choices, all actions, all investments (material and immaterial, bodily, emotional, concepts, knowledge, control) are based on this ignorance of the real non-dual nature of everything. They assume there are absolute objective characteristics, inherently existing dharmas, and that they can objectively perceive them, understand them, make impartial decision about them, and control them. They forget that everything is relative, that everything is interdependent. They believe in absolutes, and necessarily have to suffer the consequences of these mistakes in the future.) If thus we think of the karmic succession in this world, Our sorrow should increase to its ultimate extreme. If all our previous bodies, when we were born as ants, Were gathered up together and piled into a heap, Its height would surpass Mount Meru, with its four precious slopes. The tears we have wept would surpass the four oceans in their volume.

When we have been a Hell being or a hungry ghost, The amount of molten copper that we have had to drink, And the foul volume of pus and blood and excrement, Is unmatched by the flowing rivers to the limits of the directions. Our other sufferings were as limitless as the sky. The number of time our head and limbs have been cut off, Because of desire, is unmatched by the atoms of the world. The Resting in Closely-attentive Mindfulness, says: O monks, be sorrowful within the realm of samsara. Why? While we were being whirled about in beginning-less samsara, we were born as ants. If their discarded bodies were brought together in one place, and made into a heap, it would be taller than Mount Meru. We have wept more tears than there is water in the four oceans. The countless immeasurable number of times we have become Hell beings and pretas, we have drunk more seething molten copper, blood, urine, pus, and mucus than there is water in the four great rivers that flow down to the ocean. [1] Because of desires, the number of times that our head, eyes, and major and minor limbs have been cut off equals the number of atoms of earth, water, air, and fire in as many worlds as there are grains of sand of the river Ganges. The Spiritual Letter says: More than the four oceans is the milk that we have drunk. More than the retinue of existing individuals, The heap of all our bones would be bigger than a mountain If juniper berries were as many as our mothers, The earth would not suffice for such a number of them. 7. How, even if we attain the fruition of Brahma and so forth, we will ultimately suffer. (i.e. While being ignorant of the real nature of everything, there is no way, even from the most ideal situation, that they will not end up in the worst situation (realms) after a while. There is no way to escape it; they will necessarily desire more, pile up mistakes and have to suffer the consequences. There is nothing they can do to control it, not even as a god, not even escaping in the most perfect Dhyanas. All of those ideal states are all impermanent because they are produced, because they are dependent on causes and conditions, because they are all based on ignorance (the belief in inherent existence). It is the very fact that they are desiring something more, trying to discriminate and to control the situation that is the cause of their downfall. To desire something, and to discriminate, is to believe in something inherently existing, some absolute; and that is the mistake, the cause of future suffering. -- The only way out is to follow the Dharma (morality, concentration, wisdom) until they realize the real nature of their own mind, and of everything. Only then will they be able to transcend this cycle of conditioning.) Moreover, when we course within samsara, here is what happens: Charnel vampire-ghouls, and demonic mountain spirits, Beasts and snakes, and various things that creep and crawl

Experience the countless pains and pleasures of this realm. Brahma and Indra, and adepts of Dhyanas formed and formless Defending their territory and seven precious possessions [2] Human rulers, whatever splendor and wealth they gained, Fell to the lower realms, suffering more and more. In this time of samsaric succession, there are no realms of earth, water, mountains, islands, and space, where we have not been. Countless times we have been gods, nagas, rakshasas, gandharvas, kimbhandas, [3] persons who experienced the sufferings of all the six lokas at once, [4] Brahma, and Indra, and world-ruling kings. There is no joy and sorrow of any of these that we have not experienced. Again, we have been whirled down to the lower realms and lived among their extreme sorrows. The Letter to Students says: What being exists that we have not been a hundred times? What joy is there that we have not savored many times? What glories, like splendid white yak tails, have we not obtained? Yet whatever we have gained, our desires only increase. There is no river upon whose banks we never lived. There is no country's region where we have never lived. There is no direction where we have never lived. And yet the difficult power of our desire increases. There is no sorrow that was not ours formerly many times. othing could satisfy beings that we have not desired. There is no sentient being that we have not engendered But whatever we have in samsara, we are not free of desire. Completely grasping at birth these widely meandering beings Are rolling on the ground in ecstasy and sorrow. There is no being with whom we have not been intimate. 8. Suffering due to the nature of change. (i.e. Everything in the three worlds is unsatisfactory because impermanent, because dependently arisen / caused / assembled. All eventually go from good to worst, round and round like on a wheel. Even the most perfect situation is dependent on causes and conditions, thus impermanent, and thus unsatisfactory. There is no absolute causes that can be controlled perfectly all the time. Trying, with this ignorance, will only make things worst. It is because they forget that everything is dependent on a multitude of endless causes and conditions, continually changing, totally impermanent, not staying the same even for an infinitesimal moment, that they get attached to them, try to control them, and suffer when they change. Ignoring this, they just try harder to control everything, and hold on to them even more, creating more and more suffering. So is it because everything is in the nature of change, or because of our own ignorance, that we suffer? A better solution would be to renounce desire for Samsras pleasure and aim for Enlightenment by relying on the Dharma and removing this ignorance. Then, after realizing the inseparability of appearances and emptiness or the Union of the Two

Truths, everything would be seen as pure, perfect as they are. The problem is not with the dharmas, but with our own mind.) These others who did badly in the mouth of samsara are worthy of further thought:

Having enjoyed unlimited wealth within this life These beings of exalted station, after they departed, Were stricken with poverty or even made to be servants. As wealth in a dream is gone as soon as we awake, If we thoroughly think of the sufferings of change (2), Arising from the impermanence of all our joy and sorrow, Our sorrow increases, building ever more and more. Therefore beings within the three realms' habitations, Without desire for Samsras pleasures, should get enlightened. (i.e. If you suffer, it is not because things are impermanent. It is because you believe things are permanent. When a flower dies, you don't suffer much, because you understand that flowers are impermanent. But you cannot accept the impermanence of your beloved one, and you suffer deeply when she passes away. -- Thich hat Hanh, Impermanence) (i.e. We hold on to objects, people / beings, relation, status, way of life, feelings, ideas, religion, views, consciousnesses, memories, Dhyanas...to anything in the three worlds.) So it is for Indra, the king of the gods, and Brahma, the paranimitavashavartin gods, and those who have attained happiness among human beings. When they exhaust the fruition of their former virtuous karma Brahma, Indra, chakravartins, gods, including samdhi gods and formless gods, and ordinary people who had a great fruition, by the power of former karma, death, and transmigration, must experience many afflictions, going to the lower realms and so forth. The Sutra on Renunciation says: When from their joyful and excellent existences Lion-like lords of beings have to die and transmigrate. The gods will speak to them, saying words like these: This carefree life must be completely left behind. The joys of the gods, however many they may be, All of these arose from the cause of our good karma. ow by these pleasant actions that you have in mind All your collected virtue is totally exhausted. ow, experiencing suffering from non-virtue that you have, You will fall into the suffering of the lower realms. Extensive manifestations of this kind will arise. Also the Sutra on Teachings that are the Bases of Discipline says:

Wealth in a dream with houses and abundant enjoyments, Dreaming that one has been made a lord of gods and men Becomes quite non-existent as soon as we awake. It is like that. The Bodhicaryavatara says: Like the experiences that we have in our dreams Whatever may be the sorts of things that one enjoys These become nothing more than objects of memory. They all are gone. We do not see them any more. When one transfers between lives, this also happens. The Spiritual Letter: [5] Indra who is worthy of homage from the world, By power of his karma, falls back upon the earth. Even after becoming universal monarchs, Lords of the world are born again as others' servants. Breasts and buttocks of celestial courtesans, Are delightful to fondle, but after time has past, Destined to be sausage in the Lord of Hell's machines, Such lovers will be attended by knowledge hard to bear. The touch of their shapely legs, is happily endured, But having lived with tremendous joy for a very long time Again in Hells of biting flames and rotten corpses An equal result of unbearable pain will be produced. After the joyful attentions of celestial maidens, After this life of pleasure in exquisite groves, By a forest of trees, with leaves like swords and daggers Ones arms and legs and nose and ears will be cut to pieces. Having lived in a place with divine girls free to hand, All with pretty faces and golden lotuses, Again we shall be helpless in the rivers of Hell Forced into scalding water, as hot gates block return. Desire for the realm of the gods will be very great But having attained the desire-less bliss of Brahma again, Once more we will fuel the fires of the Avici Hell. We shall be thrown into constant suffering with no gaps. Attaining the sun and moon, the light of our personal bodies Will shine with brilliance to the limits of the world. Then again we shall come into dismal murky darkness, Unable to see so much as our own hands and feet. Thus, as for the merit of those who were criminals, After the triple lamp of the Buddha's teaching appears,

They will go where the sun and moon have never shone, They will pass into chaos, limitless endless darkness. The three realms of desire, form, and the formless, are the cities of appearance, halfappearance, and non-appearance. This is because they have coarse appearance, subtle appearance, and none at all. Those who are happy, not desiring the path at all, are instructed to establish unsurpassable enlightenment. But being without the leisure to establish merit, they must make an effort. The same text says: If our hair or garments suddenly burst into flame The first thing we would do is put them out again. Then we would try to keep it from happening again. There would be no priority that would be higher than that. (i.e. Here we are talking about the objects of consciousness / the various phenomena/beings in the three worlds.
Body /

Coarse: The Sense-World (including the Six Realms) is designated as purely the domain of sensuous desires, since its objects are bounded, 'I'-conditioned, in their individual-ness set in contrast with the subject, incapable of union with the subject, and hence beget that state of tension (dualism) which we call craving. -- Material objects, which are limited. Perceivable through the senses.

Speech

/ Subtle: The Realm of Pure Form is intermediary between the two other realms inasmuch as it has something in common with each of the two - with the sensedomain, the property of form-ness; with the formless domain, the property of abstraction, namely, from the egocentricity of the lower domain of the senses filled with desires. That this is no mere artificial, intellectual abstraction follows from the intuitive character of these two domains. The properties of each domain are not something added to their particular character, but only modifications of the same. -- Immaterial objects, which are limited. ot perceptible to the lower senses, but certainly to the higher senses, when free from 'I', and therefore able to merge completely into the object, to become one with it, to experience it from within -- The consciousness in the realm of Pure Form: the five jhanas. Very Subtle: The objects belonging to the Realm of on-Form possess no limiting boundaries, are beyond all multiplicity and every kind of isolation or 'I'entanglement. With this is excluded all possibility of tension, of craving. -- Immaterial objects, which are unlimited. Perceivable by the mind. -- The consciousness in the realm of on-Form: the fifth jhana. - ex. of objects: space, the infinity of space, the infinity of consciousness, nothingness, emptiness of consciousness.

Mind /

From Govinda) (i.e. Survey of Buddhist Cosmology, Beyond the et: Buddhism divides the whole of sentient existence into three basic realms:

I. The sense sphere realm II The realm of fine materiality III The immaterial or formless realm I. The sense sphere realm This is the lowest realm. There are six planes of existence under this category. (a) The hells, states of intense torment and suffering. (b) The sphere of the 'pretas', the afflicted spirits (sometimes called the hungry ghosts). These are beings with strong, tormenting desires, insatiable hunger and thirst; they are always on the look out for food and drink. (c) The animal kingdom. The dominant characteristic of the animals is dullness of mind and strong brutal desire. (d) Sphere of the asuras Titanic beings dominated by the desire for power, by ambition and competitiveness. The hells, spheres of pretas, asuras and the animal kingdom are called the 'plane of misery'. These are unfortunate and undesirable states of rebirth. In the sense sphere there are two fortunate planes of rebirth: (e) The human world. The Buddha points out that of all the planes of existence, the most fortunate for one seeking liberation is the human world, for it has a good balance between opposing factors of life. On the one hand, human life is not filled with unbearable suffering. It allows enough leisure, ease and comfort for us to reflect on the nature of existence so that we can develop our understanding. On the other hand, the human world is not so intensely pleasant and enjoyable that we become deceived by pleasures and enjoyment. The lifespan is not so long that it deceives us into thinking that our lives are eternal. It is short enough for us to become aware of the truth of impermanence. (f) The world of the devas (heavenly world). Devas are beings inhabiting the heavenly worlds, enjoying long life, beauty, happiness and power. But the life in the heavens is also impermanent, subject to pass away, and therefore heaven is not the ultimate goal for those following Buddha's path to liberation.

II Realm of Fine Materiality This is a realm of subtle matter. These states of existence are much purer than even the heavens of the sense-sphere realm. There the mind becomes bright and luminous. The lifespan is incredibly long, lasting for many aeons. And the gross forms of matter are

absent. These realms, however, are also impermanent. Life there eventually comes to an end and the person will be reborn elsewhere as determined by his kamma.

III Immaterial or Formless Realm These states of existence are entirely mental. The mind subsides without any material base, absorbed in pure peace, pure equanimity, for thousands of aeons. In these spheres too life finally comes to an end and the stream of consciousness takes rebirth elsewhere as determined by kamma.) B. The extended explanation of the particulars (i.e. All the suffering from the six realms come from the mind with ignorance. All of it appear like that just because we don't know the real nature of our own mind, and of everything. Because we think there is a real independent world out there, and an inherently existing self perceiving it opposite to the world. -- The cycle of the conditioning by present five aggregates, the conditioned actual perception and actions, and their conditioning effect on the next set of five aggregates. We are creating our conditioning because of this ignorance. -- But everything can become pure if appearances are united with the realization of their real nature as they arise. The whole cycle is empty of inherent existence and can be transcended by realizing its real nature.) There are three parts:
1.

The basis of confusion (How does confusion arise? The root: ignorance) a. The basis of confusion in the three worlds b. The basis of confusion in the eight consciousnesses

2.

The manner of confusion

a. By knowing or not knowing what we are there are liberation or confusion (three great doctrines of the Yogacara tradition) b. The suffering of wandering in samsara because of ego-grasping
3.

The Divisions of Confusion (The six poisons and their consequences) a. The Hells b. The suffering of the hungry ghosts c. The Animal Realm d. The human realm e. The suffering of the asuras

f. The suffering of the gods 1. The basis of confusion There are two parts.
a. b.

The basis of confusion in the three worlds The basis of confusion in the eight consciousnesses

a. The basis of confusion in the three worlds. Mind (i.e. There is the three levels of dharmas (the 3 worlds): the objects of the senses (material and limited), the abstract objects (immaterial and limited), and the unlimited objects like space (immaterial and unlimited). They are associated with the three impure gates: body, speech and mind. All of these objects are appearances naturally arisen in dependence on the mind (depending on past karma), thus impermanent, relative, conventionally named, empty of inherent existence. That is natural. It is only when there is ignorance of this, fixation and grasping, that they become impure and the causes of suffering, otherwise they are naturally arising wisdom, pure. So they can all be causes of suffering if hold on to. -- The purification of the body, speech and mind is accomplished by directly seeing the non-dual nature of the objects of those three levels, and their inseparability. Then there is no more belief in a real impartial observer seeing and being conscious of an independent separate / different world (nor are they thought to be the same). The fruit of this purification is seeing the four mandalas (outer, inner, secret, such-ness), the pure Buddha-fields, the four non-dual kayas, and the two wisdoms.) Whatever sufferings exist, their basis of dependence is the inner three realms. These are body, speech, and mind; or desire, form, and the formless: (i.e. See C2-B-4 "The impermanence of the Vessel and Essence" for an introduction to the three levels: Impermanence of all the levels of worlds and beings: A universe based on many interdependent levels from gross to very subtle: This flow of interdependence, and of impermanent objects and beings, is operating on an infinite number of levels, like a fractal that operates in the three worlds simultaneously (their distinction is only another artificial discrimination from the mind). But usually it is resumed with four levels: outer, inner, secret and such-ness mandalas -- related to body, speech, mind, and inseparability of the three, also related to the four kayas, the four empowerments, the four offerings ... The message in this section is that everything is impermanent in any of those levels. And also that these levels arise and ceased in a particular order, from gross to subtle and then very subtle; that will be explained later with the Bardo.) (i.e. Unskillful karma of mind is the worst kind of karma because actions of body and speech arise from mind. ... All the sufferings of all beings in samsara are produced by mind. ... Body and speech are only servants of the mind. -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation) (i.e. When all sentient beings become enlightened, there will be no samsara, no six realms, no three lower realms with hell, preta and animal beings. There will be the omniscient mind of enlightenment. The stream of our consciousness - actually, we are

talking here about the subtle mind - never ceases. Since the continuation of this subtle mind never ceases, there is always the Dharmakaya. When everyone has removed the two obscurations, there will be no such thing as samsara, or even the lower nirvana, which is mere release from the bondage of karma and disturbing thoughts. You can understand from this that enlightenment and samsara exist by depending on the mind. To use a simple example: while I might see someone as very ugly and undesirable, another person may see him as very enchanting and desirable. We are both seeing the same person at the same time. This simple example shows that the way things appear to me comes from my mind, according to my karma; and how things appear to the other person comes from his own mind and karma. This way of thinking is very useful in controlling the dissatisfied mind of attachment. While an object is appearing to you as beautiful, try to be aware that you have created this beauty you have made it up. Your view, in which you believe one hundred percent, is that this object exists from its own side as beautiful. You believe that it is permanently beautiful. At the same time as this object is appearing beautiful to you, however, others may see it as ugly. Try to be aware that there are different views of the object. This makes it clear that your view of an object comes from your own mind. How an object appears to you depends on your mind. This helps you to understand generally your own karma and also different karmas. If the way of making commentary on an object, such as someone's face, were not dependent on the mind and karma of the individual observer, there would be no reason at all for the same object to appear differently to different people. -- Lama Zopa Rinpoche, Everything comes from the mind) In the cities of appearance, half-appearance and non-appearance Tormented by composition, pain, and change, The compositions of senses, mind, and consciousness Are remorselessly turning mills of the objects of joy and sorrow, Body composed of coarse things is the city of appearance. Speech, as appearance that is non-existent like an echo, is the city of half-appearance. Mind, without the phenomena of the five gates and completely without things, is the city of non-appearance. These are also called the realms of desire, form, and the formless. The Entering the Intention says: Body is the coarse, the desire realm. (i.e. the realm of sense objects) Speech is the subtle, the form realm. (i.e. the realm of abstract objects; immaterial and limited) Mind is the very subtle, the formless realm. (i.e. the realm of immaterial and unlimited objects, like space, the infinity of space, the infinity of consciousness, nothingness, emptiness of consciousness) Within these three cities lives the child of apparent true existence. (i.e. All appearances of the three worlds are dependently arisen and functional; but impermanent, empty of inherent existence. And that is perfect as it is. -- It is only when there is ignorance, fixation and grasping, that they become impure and the causes of suffering, otherwise they are naturally arising wisdom, pure. When they are with ignorance we talk about the impure body, speech and mind of ordinary beings, and of

the wheel of samsara. When they are pure, without ignorance, we talk about the inseparable unborn non-dual Trikaya, the wisdoms, the pure Buddha-fields, and the Buddha activities.) That child is explained as naturally arising wisdom. The three gates are tormented by the three sufferings. By the condition of conceptualizing everything, arising becomes experience of one confusion after another. How does confusion arise? The objects of the six senses individually come forth by means of the powers of the six senseconsciousnesses. By fixating these objects, there is continuous attachment to them as happiness, suffering, and neutrality. These individually arising phenomena of form and so forth are called "consciousness." The first, coarse, general phenomenal process of conscious is insight, Rigpa, or mind, sem. When we analyze the particular kinds, there are passion, aggression, and ignorance, a continual series of mental contents of one or another of these three kinds, comprising "content-mind," yid. The Bodhisattvabhumi says: The appearance of objects is known as consciousness the first conceptualization of these is known as mind. Subsequent particular analysis of these deals with the mental contents. This is contentmind. Mental contents are also established by mind as having universal relationships, similarities or classes that exist among mental contents. When objects are evaluated by insight, at first there is a generalized perception of nature. The aspect that does this is mind. Then, by discriminating particular aspects, mental contents are individually designated conventionally. Because this is our real object understanding, and except for such analysis, there is no other. (i.e. Ordinary beings, with ignorance of the real nature of all dharmas, think things are inherently existing independently of the mind, that there is a real objective perception of those objects, that there is real consciousness of those independently existing objects and characteristics, and thus that there is a real independent separate perceiver, a real stable self perceiving and being conscious. So they have feelings, desire, attachments, for the objects. They try to control them and suffer when they change.) The Precious Mala says: If you ask about the objects that are seen by mind, They are what is conventionally expressible. Without the mental contents, mind cannot arise. ot to maintain them as co-emergent is meaningless. At the level of a Sugata and the completely non-conceptual natural state, apparent objects are individually discriminated by insight, but there is no mind, content mind, or consciousness. This is because there is no grasping of dualistic appearance, or awareness of a grasped object by a fixating mind.

(i.e. For a Buddha there is no belief in the inherent existence of characteristics and objects (dharmas), because there is no more ignorance of the real nature of everything. Appearances are seen for what they really are: dependently arisen and empty of inherent existence. So there is no belief in objective perception of real dharmas, or consciousness of real dharmas, and no belief in a real impartial observer either. The Buddha doesn't believe in this duality of two separated independent observer and object observer meeting with the action of perception and consciousness.) The Praise of Vajra of Mind says: Sentient beings, who have mind, content-mind, and consciousness, since they are accustomed to grasping and fixation, conceptualize them. Therefore, they do not have non-conceptual wisdom. Supreme wisdom is the mind, lo, [6] that sees reality. (i.e. Corruption: Because of this ignorance, what would normally be pure wisdoms is turned into poisons causing suffering. aturally arisen appearances empty of inherent existence are fixated, conceptualized, analyzed, classified, discriminated, ... because they are thought to be inherently existing.) The Structure of the Three Jewels says: either mind, content-mind, consciousness; nor samdhi, which is free from these, are discarded. The secret mind of the Sugata is incomprehensible by thought. (i.e. Purification: Saying that appearances are empty of inherent existence doesn't mean that they are completely non-existent, or from the mind-only. Their real nature is beyond any description, beyond any conceptualization. So this is not saying here that we should not discriminate, or drop everything, reject all conceptualization. It just means that we should combine the dynamic of the appearances with the wisdom of knowing their real nature, their emptiness of inherent existence. -- The Buddha, having realized the Union of The Two Truths, see the real nature of everything as they arise. Thus he is not fooled by the appearances, doesn't develop fixation, attachment, defilements on their account. There is no more new uncontrolled karma formation, and no more of their consequences: future suffering. -- So the Middle Way is: not accepting objects of the three worlds as inherently existing, not rejecting them as completely non-existent, or from the mind-only.) When form, sound, and so forth arise as the corresponding external phenomena, and the mind's insight apprehends them, it is called consciousness, literally nampar phenomenal awareness shepa. Since these mental productions appear to be objective phenomena, they are called nampar shepa. At the first time when we know objects, the aspect of insight, that apprehends, "this," is mind. The analyzer of the distinctions that arise continuously connected to that is content mind. After the instant of clarity when individual things first present themselves, the knowledge that discriminates object awareness analyzes them. If it is attached to them as pleasant there is desire or passion. if as painful, there is aggression. If there is neither, but attachment to "this," that is ignorance. [7] Examples are, seeing a good woman we once knew; seeing an enemy that once conquered us; and seeing a wall, water, a highway, a tree, and ordinary people, toward which we have neither joy or sorrow.

(i.e. Appearances, and perceptions are natural phenomenon arisen from emptiness. The problem is not seeing their real nature as they arise. The problem is to believe that they are inherently existing, independently of the mind, and to pursue the analysis, the conceptualization, the trying to control everything. There is no absolute need to analyze, conceptualize, discriminate, control. Because there is no absolute basis for that. There is no absolute distinction between wholesome and unwholesome, between object and subject, between objects / dharmas. Everything is non-dual. There is nothing to accept or do, nothing to reject or not-do or drop. It is just a matter of directly seeing the real nature of our own mind, and thus the real nature of everything: not existent, not nonexistent, not both, not neither; inseparability of appearances and emptiness; inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness; inseparability of The Two Truths; inseparability of the Trikaya. -- ote: It is important to realize that this doesn't mean that there is absolutely no possibility for any impartiality or control at all. That would be totally contrary to everything we see around us. It is not because there is no absolute (inherently existing) causes, effects, and causality, that effect are without causes, that causes have no effect, or that there is no possible control at all. That doesn't mean that everything is meaningless, and that we should drop everything. That would be falling for one extreme: nihilism. The Middle Way is to stay away from all extremes. The efficiency of sciences should be a proof enough of the possibility of "some control". It is just not "absolute". -- So, again, it means that, although everything is impermanent, unsatisfactory (empty of inherent existence), we have to consider the law of karma and its consequences (causality, interdependence, dependent origination). We cannot talk about impermanence (or emptiness) without talking about karma (dependent origination); or vice versa. One without the other is only half of an introduction to the Two Truths. A good understanding consist of the Union of the Two: impermanence (or emptiness) and karma (dependent origination). They may look contradictory at the conceptual level, but this Union of The Two Truths is beyond all conceptualization. Until then we have to use both together, all the time.) The Sutra on Teachings that are the Basis of Discipline says: If we see amicable people, then we feel desire. If harmful ones are present, our minds become aggressive. For intermediate ones, our ignorance will increase, In any case the gates of our faculties have been bound. b. The basis of confusion in the eight consciousnesses (i.e. Because of ignorance all present perception, consciousness, actions are conditioned by past karma, filtered by the actual five aggregates. The five aggregates represent the expectations, the investments done in the past, all based on the belief in the inherent existence of something (some actions, ideas, fabrications that probably brought some success in the past). They represent the crystallization of past karma. The present actions, in their turn, are going to condition future perception and actions, by being investments themselves. They are done while thinking that they are right, thus discriminating on the basis of a belief of something inherently existent. So conditioning perpetuates itself until there is a major failure, until the expectations based on ignorance are confronted with an unpredictable ever changing reality. All fabrications, material or immaterial, are born to fail at one point or another, because everything that is caused is

dependent on those infinite number of causes and conditions, and thus impermanent, thus unsatisfactory. It is not knowing this, and having unrealistic hope based on ignorance, that cause karma formation (investing in the five aggregates) and its consequences: suffering.) ow the ground of arising and divisions of these are extensively taught as follows:

Alaya consciousness, content mind, and then the five gates, Gradually proliferate, one upon the other. From that arise the cause and effect of samsaric suffering. The root of samsara and suffering is ignorance, Having the confusion of grasping and fixation. By objects, conceptualization, and mind's habitual patterns, By fixating "me" and "mine," samsara is established. (i.e. Desire and aversion are both produced by ignorance. We experience them because we do not know the real nature of things. The reason for practicing meditation is to overcome suffering; to overcome suffering we must overcome karma; to overcome karma we must overcome desire and aversion; to overcome desire and aversion we must overcome ignorance. Meditation overcomes ignorance. o beings want suffering; they all want to remove it. Most do not know how to, and some even create suffering in their efforts to remove it. People take medicines that cure sickness temporarily but cannot remove it forever. To remove suffering permanently, we must find its cause -- karma; we must remove the cause of the cause -- desire and aversion; we must remove the cause of these -- ignorance. Ignorance is the deepest root of all suffering. If ignorance is removed, all that stems from it will automatically disappear. Escape from samsara is impossible unless ignorance is removed. If we sit in meditation without understanding the real reason for doing so we will achieve only limited results. If we want to remove ignorance, we must first discover its nature and that of its opposite, shunyata (emptiness). Then, through meditation on emptiness, we have to remove ignorance. There are two different kinds of ignorance: ignorance regarding the ego and ignorance regarding external phenomena. ... This twofold ignorance about the ego and outer phenomena is the root of all defilements, karma and suffering. To remove suffering we must remove this ignorance completely. The only way to do this is to meditate on emptiness. There are many other objects of meditation, but emptiness is the most important.-- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation) Here to distinguishes the different aspects, at the very time when awareness [8] of individual objects [9] arises, without divisions of their vividness, mind [10] which has insight of this is called the alaya-consciousness (8). Then the mind that fixates that, that peacefully saves it, with much analysis of objects at its leisure and so forth, is contentmind (7). The Sutra of the Ornament of Manjushri's wisdom says: Mind is the alaya consciousness (8). The "I" fixator is content-mind (7).

The eye-consciousness sees, when forms are seen, depending on the eye. Similarly depending on the ear there is sound, depending on the nose there is smell, depending on the tongue taste, depending on the body touchables. These are the five consciousnesses (1-5) The arising of later knowledge from such former phenomena is called the ayatana (6). In Tibetan this is kyeche, meaning increase or proliferation of what has arisen. The objects and awareness of these have immeasurable conditions, and since these many and extensive aspects are not put aside, but "retained" this is called kham or in Sanskrit dhatu. From the object there is the arising of the seemingly supported perceiver-mind. [11] From what is former, a connection to the later arises, and dharmin, the realm of dharmas, and dharmata, their nature, occur. This is interdependent arising. When the two minds of object and perceiver are combined, pleasure and such like phenomena are felt and included in insight. By the condition of contact, this is called feeling. The particulars of these and other aspects are beyond describing. In brief, by the three poisons, arising from the three collections of objects, the senses, and the actions of concept mind, come all motivating karmas. These karmas are unhappiness. (i.e. Desire and aversion [discrimination] are both produced by ignorance. We experience them because we do not know the real nature of things. -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation) (i.e. The Ratnavali of argarjuna says, "Every action arising from desire, aversion and ignorance produces suffering; every action arising from the absence of desire, aversion and ignorance produces happiness." -- Interview with Sakya Trizin) (i.e. With regard to the six consciousnesses, the first five of these are what are called the consciousnesses of the five gates, the five gates referring to the five senses. 1) The first of these is the eye consciousness. The eye consciousness is that which experiences as its object visual form, various shapes and colors and so on, on the basis of or relying upon the organic support of the physical eye. And that is the eye consciousness. 2) The second is the ear consciousness, which in much the same way experiences its objects, which are the various sounds, pleasant and unpleasant and neutral and so on, through the medium of relying upon its organic support, which is the ear. 3) The third consciousness is called the nose consciousness, and it experiences various smells as objects, through the organic support, or relying upon the organic support, of the nose. 4) The fourth is the tongue consciousness, which experiences various tastes " sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and so on " relying upon the organic support of the tongue. 5) The fifth consciousness is called the body consciousness or tactile consciousness, and the objects of this consciousness are all forms of tactile sensation. Whereas the other four organic supports were specific sense organs, which primarily perform their specific functions, here the organic support is the entire body, all of which can detect or feel a

tactile sensation. So the fifth consciousness is called either the body consciousness or the tactile consciousness. 6) The sixth consciousness is the mental consciousness, and its always enumerated by the learned as the sixth because in the case of any of the first five consciousnesses, it will ensue after them or follow upon them. In general, the object of the sixth consciousness is all things, anything that can be thought of, because it is this consciousness that thinks about the past, thinks about the future, thinks about the present. But also this consciousness experiences all of the objects of the five senses: forms, sounds, smells, tastes, and tactile sensations. However, it does not experience them in the direct and clear manner of the five sense consciousnesses themselves. What happens is that following the generation of one of the sense consciousnesses; a mental replica or image of that particular sense consciousness is generated, which is called a mental consciousness. This mental replica is not a direct experience, but has been called a vague approximation. And this vague approximation forms the basis for the subsequent conceptuality of recognizing it as such and such, or good and bad and so on, which ensues. Therefore, while it does base some of its content upon the five sense consciousnesses, the sixth consciousness itself does not rely upon a particular organic support like a sense organ. Its generated following any of the five and can also arise under other circumstances. It relies essentially upon cognition, or cognitive capacity itself, as its support. ow, the five sense consciousnesses are non-conceptual, which means that they can only perform their specific function of mere experience. So the eye consciousness sees forms and the ear consciousness hears sounds and so on. Therefore, they can only experience the present, and only directly. ow, the present and the past and the future are important concepts, which are discussed a great deal in the study of Buddhism. The present, of course, ceases immediately, and by ceasing, it becomes the past. The future, which does not yet exist while it is the future, occurs, at which point, once it has occurred, it is not the future any more but is the present. So the present, this term "the present," or "now," really refers to an instant in between the past and the future. And this is all the five sense consciousnesses can experience. Your eyes, for example, can only see the present. Your eyes cannot see what is past nor can they see what is the future. And not only that, but your eyes cannot estimate or evaluate the present. Your eye consciousness only sees shapes and colors. It does not, in itself, recognize these various shapes and colors as some "thing" or another, does not conceptualize about them. ow, all of the five sense consciousnesses are, in the same way, non-conceptual. The sixth consciousness, however, is conceptual, because it recognizes things, it brings concepts to bear upon experience and thereby confuses the experiences with the concepts about those experiences, including the confusion of a present experience with a past experience of something similar or apparently the same. So the sixth consciousness, which is conceptual, not only experiences the present but brings the concepts of the past and the future to bear upon this present experience. Those six consciousnesses are called unstable or fluctuating, which means that they are suddenly generated by the presence of various causes and conditions, and then they cease when those causes and conditions are no longer present.

The other two consciousnesses in the list of eight, which are the consciousness which is the mental afflictions and the all-basis consciousness, are by contrast referred to as constant consciousnesses, which means that they are not suddenly generated and then suddenly ceasing; they are always present. However, while they are always there, they are not clear or manifest or obvious, like the first six. They are always there, but they are very hard to detect. 7) The first of these two, the seventh consciousness or the consciousness which is the mental afflictions, or klesha consciousness, is the innate fixation on a self that we all possess or that afflicts all of us. Its this innate assumption of "I." ow, this is present whether we recollect it or not, whether we think of it or not, whether were conscious or not, whether were walking or sitting. o matter what were doing, this persists. ow, sometimes, when we think "I," we generate a literally conscious fixation on a self. That is not the seventh consciousness. That is the sixth consciousnesss version of fixation on a self, because that is sometimes there and sometimes not. The seventh consciousness, this fundamental fixation on a self, is always there, and in fact it will be there until you attain the eighth level of bodhisattva realization. 8) The eighth consciousness is called the all-basis consciousness, and it is the mere cognitive lucidity, which is the fundamental basis for the rest of the functionings of mind. And because it is the basis for all of the rest of the mental functionings or activities, its called the all-basis. ow, it is on this basis that all of the habits of samsara are piled: habits of karma, of kleshas, and so on. And through variations in ones habituation - the habits that you accumulate - then various results arise. Through various types of habituation, then you tend to cultivate more virtuous and fewer unvirtuous states of mind, or the other way around; and through all of these variations and habituation which produce habits that are laid onto or piled onto the all-basis, then you experience the world in your own particular way. Various appearances arise, and you experience the fluctuations; and to the extent you experience fluctuations in the degree of mental affliction, you experience fluctuations in your intelligence and your compassion, and so on. ow, the all-basis, together with the other seven - all of these - are what are called the eight consciousnesses. And through the practice of meditation in particular and the practice of dharma in general, gradually these are transformed into what are called the five wisdoms, which means that their basic nature is revealed. And the full revelation of these, the full transformation of the manifestation of these from the samsaric manifestation of the eight consciousnesses into the pure manifestation, is the five wisdoms. The full and final extent of this is Buddhahood. Transforming Samsaric Consciousness Into the Five Wisdoms, The V. V. Thrangu Rinpoche, Shenpen Osel

The Eight Consciousnesses


I will name the eight consciousnesses for people who don't know them. The first five are the eye consciousness, ear consciousness, tongue, nose and body consciousness. These

five consciousnesses function through the organs to perceive the five external objects of sense. In themselves, these five are very partial and limited. The eye consciousness is only for form. It cannot taste or hear sounds or smell. Similarly, the ear is only for sound, not for seeing, tasting and so forth. ow how can these scattered consciousnesses be brought together into one united state? That is the function of the sixth consciousness, which is like the driver or a judge who makes decisions. It receives and organizes the input of the five external consciousnesses and gives meaning to our experience. The sixth combines and integrates the sense consciousnesses into one. It is known as mind consciousness. The first five consciousnesses are very immediate. They have no continuity. They only refer to the present. They cannot sense the past or the future. They only communicate directly with the present. They are very exclusive and one-sided. The sixth consciousness not only unites these five, it can also refer to the events and activities of the past and future. It is actually structuring our sense of time. A closer look reveals that the mind has two sides. One, which we have called the sixth consciousness, is dealing with the business of the past, present and future; making decisions based on the information received from the first five consciousnesses. It is very neutral and rational. There is another side to this mind, the seventh consciousness, which is basically very emotional and gives rise to ego clinging. On the basis of ego clinging, ignorance, anger, attachment, jealousy, pride and doubt develop. All this arises in that singular aggregate we call the mind. All seven of these minds are based upon an eighth consciousness, which is known a 'kungzhi' in Tibetan, the ground of mind. It is sometimes translated as 'subconscious storehouse'. In Sanskrit, it is called 'alaya'. The nature of the eighth consciousness is neither positive nor negative; it is neutral. Alaya retains every basic habit-pattern of individuals. Everything is stored there; our good karma, bad karma, and neutral karma. All kinds of habits and whatever actions we perform during our lifetimes are registered there. This is why it is known as a 'storehouse'. Alaya is a consciousness, but it is very subtle. When these eight consciousnesses are transmuted or transformed, they become the Five Wisdoms. The Five Wisdoms are symbolized by the five Dhyani Buddhas. They are the radiant spectrum of clarity qualifying the Dharmakaya. The central Buddha of Dharmadhatu Wisdom is Vairocana. The eastern Buddha of Mirror-like Wisdom is Akshobya. The Wisdom of Equality is embodied in the Buddha of the southern direction, Ratnasambhava or Rinchen Jungnay in Tibetan. The western Buddha of Discriminating Awareness Wisdom is Amitabha or Opagme in Tibetan and the northern Buddha of All Accomplishing Wisdom is known as Amogha Siddhi. These are the principle Buddhas of the Sambhogakaya. -- The Three Kayas, Khenpo Palden Sherab

The Two Paths, The Two Accumulations


[Mahayana] From patience and so forth freedom from the three poisons arises. This is the great happiness, the great bliss.

[Hinayana] On the path of the ten virtues and so forth, praja and compassion are not fully accomplished. This is the path of the lesser happiness. Accumulated by ignorant earthly beings, after the fruition of samsaric happiness is produced, it is exhausted. This is happiness proportional to merit. The enlightened happiness produced by completely finishing the path is happiness proportional to liberation. [Dark Path] By the three poisons there is universally arising unhappiness. The lower realms and whatever suffering there may be are produced by this cause. Happiness proportional to merit grasps the glorious highlights of divine and human happiness. The happiness proportional to liberation is produced both by incidental highlights and ultimate true goodness. (i.e. There are three types of karma, and their results. Unwholesome karma lead to unhappiness. Wholesome karma lead to happiness. And neutral actions lead to neutral effect. The result is in relation to the cause, and proportional to the cause. All actions (wholesome or unwholesome) based on ignorance lead ultimately to suffering because there is karma formation, investment in the form of the five aggregates, construction of something impermanent, unsatisfactory. The Hinayana path, because it is based on such discrimination, cannot lead to total Enlightenment beyond all dualities. There will always remain a subtle form of karma, the basis of the discrimination between a self to be liberated and the rest of the world. There remains this duality. The Mahayana Path, because it combines both method and wisdom, not accepting and not rejecting, can lead to total Enlightenment, Buddhahood. It uses the first five paramitas to accumulate merit, and the sixth to accumulate wisdom. Because it is in accord with the non-dual nature of everything (not existence, not non-existence...) it can lead to complete transcendence of all conditioning.) The Precious Mala says: As for passion, aggression, and ignorance The karma produced by them is unhappiness. As for non-passion, -aggression, and -ignorance, The karma produced by them is happiness. Unhappy karma is all suffering. Happy karma is all the higher realms And all the happiness of sentient beings 'Externally appearing things are like the things that appear to be other in a dream.' This means that grasping involves habitual patterns of objects. These various appearances of pure and impure are confused existence. Habitual patterns of reality are produced by the karma of bodily arising and also by the inner condition of not knowing such-ness. These are the skandhas (i.e. Five aggregates), dhatus (i.e. Irreducible Elements),

ayatanas (i.e. spheres of sense and sense objects), and so forth. From them arise all the kleshas, and the suffering that is their fruition, the support of the confusions of fixation. (i.e. All perception and consciousnesses are filtered by the actual five aggregates which are the result of accumulated karma. They develop in a cycle: perception / action, karma, five aggregates, perception / action, ... Past success build up unrealistic expectations; the wheel turns until there is a big failure. While we forget the real nature of everything, we invest in a particular set of the five aggregates by accumulating more and more karma, until the consequences of karma formation manifest. It is because everything constructed, caused, is impermanent, unsatisfactory, empty, that one day we have to be deceived by our unrealistic expectations. So all of our perception and actions are conditioned by our actual five aggregates, and they produce more karma that will cause the next set of the five aggregates. All of this at the scale of every infinitesimal moment, and at the scale of lives.) Luminous, naturally arisen wisdom is in essence empty, and by nature luminous. It is the source of the unobstructed arising of various kinds of radiance. (i.e. This is a description of the three aspects of the real nature of the mind: empty, luminous, unobstructed) (i.e. It is natural that appearances arise from emptiness. It is ok to discriminate, to act, and to help all other sentient beings. The problem is to do it while having unrealistic expectations based on the belief in inherent existence. Discriminating with ignorance is a poison leading to karma formation and suffering, discriminating without ignorance is a wisdom, the basis for Buddha activities, and there is no karma formation (investment in the five aggregates, expectation). When we become attached to this as the individualizing characteristics of grasping and fixation, insight arises as the habitual patterns of mind. The five or the three poisons arise. The root of confusion is fixating on the "I" and ego. Because of that, the confused appearances of samsara arise like reflections, dreams, or hairs drifting before the eyes. Moreover, fixation is fixated as "I", and grasped objects are fixated as "mine" with an attitude like that of the owner of a house. (i.e. "The path to freedom is only to be found, by removing the ignorance which apprehends essence where there is no essence". -- Geshe Yeshe Tobten, Praise of Dependent Origination) (i.e. "Ignorance is itself conditioned by the actual mind and body (the five aggregates). A cycle of self-reinforcing bad habits, samsara." -- ) (i.e. "So miss-knowledge as he translates it, or ignorance or bewilderment (it's in the next line here) means a positive apprehension of something being independently there. The opposite to something that comes about dependentlythis ignorance or apprehension of essences in a universe which is in fact totally dependent-arisen..." -Geshe Yeshe Tobten, Praise of Dependent Origination) (i.e. " irvana the cessation of accepting everything [as real]." -- argarjuna, Karikas) 2. The manner of confusion, There are two sections:

a.

By knowing or not knowing what we are there are liberation or confusion (three great doctrines of the Yogacara tradition) The suffering of wandering in samsara because of ego-grasping

b.

a) By knowing or not knowing what we are [13] there are liberation or confusion (three great doctrines of the Yogacara tradition) By knowing or not knowing what we are there are liberation or confusion. ow the basis and way of confusion are extensively taught, as follows: The changeless nature of mind, perfection, Dharmakaya, By ignorant fixation, takes on habits of false conception. Involving confused appearance of impure relativity, Dualistic appearance of objects as self and other, Then come to be grasped as really being two. Intrinsically this presents itself as limitless suffering. When we have realized the ever-changeless nature of mind, By the path of meditation on this unerring perfection, We will properly reach the field of pure relativity. Easing the weariness of the village of samsara. (i.e. So appearances, luminosity, are naturally arisen from emptiness. They are not impure, to be dropped, to be purified, to be changed. The natural function of the mind is to create those appearances, like reflections in a mirror. The problem is when those appearances are not seen for what they are, when there is ignorance of their real nondual nature. Then there is fixation, grasping, discrimination, conceptualization, analysis, etc. Then everything turns into poison. All of this because there is the belief in an inherent existent world and in the inherent existence of a self in opposition to it. -- But once we directly realize the real nature of our own mind, and the real nature of everything, then there is no more problem; everything is then seen as pure; the three gates are then purified and united. -- Everything has always been pure and perfect. The mind is the same before or after; there is nothing to add, nothing to reject, nothing to control, nothing to do, nothing to not-do. Trying to control was the problem. Samsara and irvana are not separate or different, but still not the same. -- Even relativity (the theory of dependent origination, the Wheel of Life) (or even emptiness) can turn into a poison if it is seen as something inherently existing, as an absolute. This might be the problem in some Hinayana sects where there is so much attachment in discrimination between wholesome and unwholesome. But when dependent origination is combined with emptiness (and vice versa), as in the Mahayana, uniting both method and wisdom, then there is no more problem. There is no danger to fall into one extreme or another. -- The perfection of the meditation on the suffering of the six realms, the Wheel of Life, is to do it while remembering that all elements are empty of inherent existence, that all suffering of the six realms are caused by our own mind, by our own investment, by our own karma. Dependent origination is not the real nature of everything. It is just a

skillful means. The same for emptiness. The real nature of everything is called the Union of those Two Truths. It is beyond any description, beyond any conceptualization.) Here three great doctrines of the Yogacara [14] tradition are taught. These are 1. False conceptions, 2. Relativity, 3. And the perfectly established, in Sanskrit, parikalpita, paratantra, and parinishpanna.

i.e. Cittamatra's The Three Aspects--Trisvabhava


Cittamatra is a complex and sophisticated tradition, much less studied in the West than Madhyamaka. It certainly should not be presupposed that all or even most of the Cittamatra masters and texts teach exactly the same doctrine. evertheless, they do have some teachings in common, and central to Cittamatra thought is that of the Three Aspects. The teaching of the Three Aspects is for the Samdhinirmocana Sutra the final correct doctrine, requiring no interpretation or adaptation, the antidote to thy nihilistic interpretation of emptiness. All things, which can be known, can be subsumed under these Three Aspects. The first Aspect is called the constructed or conceptualized aspect (parikalpitasvabhava). The SamdhinirmocanaSutra connects it with the falsifying activity of language. It is the realm of words which attribute inherent existence to things. More informatively, the Mahayanasamgraha and its commentaries explain that the conceptualized or constructed aspect is appearance as an object when really there are only perceptions (vijnaptimatra). By 'object' here is meant both poles of an experience, both experiencer and that which is experienced, referred to in Cittamatra terminology as 'grasped and 'grasped' (grahaka/grahya; Mahayanasamgraha). The conceptualized aspect is the world as it is experienced by everyday unenlightened folk the world of really existing subjects confronting really existing and separate objects. It is how things appear to us, the realm of subject-object duality. These things do not actually exist at all (Trimsika v.20), things are not really like that. The second Aspect, the dependent aspect (paratantrasvabhava), is, according to the SamdhinirmocanaSutra, the dependent origination of dharmas, that is, the causal flow. According to the Trisvabhavanirdesa it is that which appears, in opposition to the way in which it appears, which is the first Aspect, the conceptualized aspect. In other words, it is the substratum for the erroneous partition into inherently existing subjects and objects which marks the conceptualized aspect. In order to understand what is being said here, one should try and imagine all things, objects of experience and oneself, the one who is experiencing, as just a flow of perceptions. We do not know that there is something 'out there'. We have only

experiences of colors, shapes, tactile data, and so on. We also do not know that we ourselves are anything other than a further series of experiences. Taken together, there is only an ever-changing flow of perceptions - Vijnaptimatra. Due to our beginning-less ignorance we construct these perceptions into enduring subjects and objects confronting each other. This is irrational, things are not really like that, and it leads to suffering and frustration. The constructed objects are the conceptualized aspect. The flow of perceptions, which forms the basis for our mistaken constructions, is the dependent aspect. In itself the dependent aspect is, of course, beyond language, since language is the realm of the conceptualized aspect - language necessarily falsifies, constructs inherently existing entities. Indicating its nature, we might say that the dependent aspect is the flow of experience, which is erroneously partitioned. The Mahayanasamgraha describes it as the support for the manifestation of non-existent and fictive things (2: 2). ote, however, that for the Cittamatra falsification (pace the Madhyamaka) requires a really existing substratum. This point is strongly made in the very earliest phase of Yogacara thought, in the Yogacarabhumi. One has to avoid both under- and over-negation. Under-negation is to take for inherently existing realities entities, which are merely the creation of language, in other words, the conceptualized aspect. Over-negation is to deny the substratum which really, ultimately (paramartha) exists albeit inexpressibly, and to say that nothing exists at all. Both these faults are ruinous to religious practice. There must be a real substratum, for without a real substratum erroneous construction, the conceptualized aspect, could never take placed. Moreover, if the dependent aspect as substratum did not exist, then likewise liberation, seeing things the way key really are, could also not occur. There would be simply universal nonexistence (Mahayanasamgraha). The final Aspect is called the perfected aspect (parinispannasvabhava). According to the Samdhinirmocana Sutra it is the 'Such-ness' or "Thus-ness' (tathata), the true nature of things, which is discovered in meditation. It is said to be the complete absence, in the dependent aspect, of objects - that is, the objects of the conceptualized aspect (Mahayanasamgraha). This is not as difficult as it sounds. What it amounts to is that through meditation we come to know that our flow of perceptions, of experiences, really lacks the fixed enduring subjects and objects, which we have constructed out of it. There is only the flow of experiences. The perfected aspect is, therefore, the fact of non-duality; there is neither subject nor object but only a single flow. It is also emptiness explained for this tradition as meaning that one thing is empty of another. That is, the flow of perceptions - the dependent aspect - is empty of enduring entities - the conceptualized aspect. What remains, the substratum, which is empty of those enduring entities, the flow of perceptions themselves, nevertheless does exist (Willis 1979: 163 Thurman 1984: 214). One of the commentaries to the Mahayanasamgraha explains all the Three Aspects with reference to the example of water seen in a mirage.
The water as

perception rather than real water is the dependent aspect.

The water considered

by a person hallucinating to be real water is the conceptualized

aspect,
While the complete absence of

real water in the water as image is the perfected aspect

(on 2: 4). Were there to be no dependent aspect there could likewise be no liberation, for without a flow of perceptions there would be nothing at all! According to the Mahayanasamgraha, no dependent aspect, no perfected aspect. Elsewhere it is explained that the dependent aspect is conceptualized aspect in one part, and perfected aspect in another. The first part is samsara, the second irvana. That is, the dependent aspect, the flow of perceptions, experiences, as substratum for erroneous construction, the conceptualized aspect, is the substratum for samsara; as substratum for realizing the true nature of things it is the substratum for nirvana. In everyday life we deluded people do as a matter of fact hypostatize our experiences, which in reality are all there is, and construct them into enduring objects and enduring selves. This is samsara, the round of rebirth, frustration, and suffering. It is based on a fundamentally wrong understanding of what is really there. Through realizing this in meditation, coming to understand that objects and the Self are just a flow of experiences with no enduring elements set in opposition to each other (no duality), we attain enlightenment. This very same flow of experiences can be a basis for suffering in the unenlightened man, but also a basis for liberation in the saint. It becomes possible, therefore, to talk of two types of dependent aspect.
The tainted

dependent aspect is those phenomena, those perceptions, which are then projected, as it were, into 'really existing' subjects and objects. the post-meditational experience of the saint who has seen in his meditation the way things really are. It is a flow of purified perceptions, perceptions without the ignorance of construction into enduring entities.5

Pure dependent aspect is

Mahayana Buddhism, Paul Williams, Chapter 4 - Cittamatra) There are two kinds of false conceptions, characteristics, and accountable false conceptions. [15]
By

characteristics, from someone's viewpoint something is conceptually imputed, though it is non-existent, such as the horns of a rabbit or the alleged ego. This includes any bad doctrines and all the names and meanings of this and that established from that that may be presented by such a mind. What is this like? Some search for the real bodily existence of that to which the name "lion" is imputed, but do not find it. Though the phenomenal meaning has been presented as "this," from mere arrogance, giving individual characteristics without any real remembered mental object, they may say it is like "fire." (i.e. Appearances from the mind-only, pure illusions with no valid basis.) are various aspects of the environment and inhabitants of the phenomenal world arising from the viewpoint of confusion--joy and sorrow, the skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas. Because they really do not exist, but only appear like a dream from the confused viewpoint of mind, they are called accountable false conceptions. (i.e. Appearances dependent on the mind, but not from the mind-only. There is a valid basis.)

Accountable false conceptions

Though all these things are nature-less, they appear from the viewpoint of confusion. Since they are exaggerations, they are called parikalpita, or false conceptions, in Tibetan kun tak, [16] literally all-imputation or all-labeling. The Bodhisattvabhumi says:

As for the false conceptions of parikalpita Though non-existent, are produced by the mind of confusion. There are also two kinds of relativity, pure and impure. is the pure fields and the objects of the pure seeing of the Buddhas, appearances that arise of Buddha fields, the seven precious things [17] and divine palaces of pure light. Some say that the relativity of Yogacara tradition is unacceptable, since all such things are classified as personal appearance. [18] Such disputatious people have not seen this properly. This sort of relativity is not established by oneself from personal habitual patterns of awareness. It is not like the phenomena reflected in a mirror, which are produced by conditions. (i.e. Maybe pure relativity is dependent origination united with emptiness. The Union of The Two Truths as realized only by the Buddhas. Something that is beyond description, beyond any conceptualization. It is seeing things and phenomenon as not existent, but still not completely non-existent either, not from the mind-only. It is seeing thins as dependently arisen but not with inherently existing causes, effect, causality.) Whether everything is included within personal appearance should be analyzed. Either mind is included within mere appearance, or appearance is included within mind. If it is like the first, at the time of mere appearance, there is no discernible boundary between phenomena that are included and those that are not included. Therefore "included" is a mere word, having nothing to do with real phenomena. [19] If it is like the second, how can this be suitable? Someone might say, "Since appearance arises from mind, it too is mind." Then a boy child that comes from a woman would also be a woman, but this is not so. Excrement comes from the body, so it would be the body. This is clearly not the case. Someone also might say, "Appearance is mind because it appears in mind." Then form would be visual consciousness, because it appears in visual consciousness. Buddhas that appear to erroneous sentient beings would be the minds of those beings. Fallaciously, these sentient beings with their erroneous minds would be Buddhas. Since sentient beings also appear to these Buddhas, the whole realm of sentient beings would all be Buddhas. Moreover, this fault that spotless Buddhas are also defiled sentient beings could never be abandoned. This is because if Buddhas were not mind, they could not arise at all. [20] If someone says, "Phenomena are mind," then what is really cause and fruition would be a single thing. If this did not exist, neither could arise at all. Thus, an enemy and one's anger at the enemy would be the same single thing. Therefore, without the enemy, there could be no anger at the enemy. Also it is not proper to say, "phenomena are mind because they are produced by mind." Then the details of a painting would be the painter, because the painter
Pure relativity

produced them. How is it proper to maintain that external earth, stones, mountains, and rocks are mind? Admit that their arising from the habitual patterns of mind is confused appearance. If this were not so, when a hundred people look at one vase, the vase that is seen by them all would be their awareness, and all the hundred beings would be a single awareness. If this is maintained, it would be proper reasoning that if one of them gets enlightened, they would all be enlightened. If one went to the lower realms, they would all go there. If it is like these notions, sentient beings in the world like you and me would not exist at all, since all that appears like that would be other than one's own mind. Moreover, it would not be suitable that there were any other Buddhas besides the single one Shakyamuni. This is because all objects seen by him would be his awareness. If one maintains that, clearly he is us. These days many people fixate such traditions and completely obscure the Mahayana. [21] From what they say it would follow that a huge body could be covered by one the size of a lotus. A flower could have earrings. A gold face would be more than a mere ornament. An elephant would be just the sound of trumpeting.

If you ask what are pure appearances, when it is proclaimed within proper reasoning that completely false phenomena that are spotless are mind-only, that tradition says: These appearances of oneself to oneself are one's own mind appearing to itself, but the apparent object is not mind. (i.e. Appearances are not different or separate from the mind, but still not the same.) Many Yogacara texts say: As many things that appear, that many are mind. But that is not so for apparent objects themselves. Having habitual patterns from beginning-less time, We are shaggy, as it were, with hairs before the eyes. Appearance and the apparent object are distinguished. Others may think, "The apparent object of a mountain is a mountain!" but the clear appearances of fixation of mind arise in dependence on the faculty of sight. The objects we directly encounter, the phenomena fixated by our minds, are private, personal appearances. [22] Then when others encounter the same mountain, that their apparent objects are the same as ours does not follow. Apparent objects are fixations of what appears in sense perception in terms of the habitual patterns of former eye consciousness. A mere abstraction, [23] a mental object, a luminous appearance of what does not exist, vividly appears in the mental sense. Therefore, even if appearances apprehended by the mind and the fixator of them, appearances of others and the fixator of them are all mind, the object, which arises for and is perceived by the mind is classified as an apparent object. All the objects of the five gates appear even though they do not exist, like shaggy hairs before the eyes, because of beginning-less habitual patterns. Thus they become dualized. It may be asked, "Do you therefore establish appearance and apparent object as different?

For you also they are two. This is because they exist externally to apparent mind, and because this is maintained within the fixating mind. [24] These are one within the mind, but are called "two." [25] It may be asked, "according to proper reasoning are they one? Here the apparent object caused by confused habitual patterns and the appearance ascertained by fixation, while both do not exist, [26] neither differs conventionally from the phenomena confused by habitual patterns. Moreover, since there are not really two such objects, they are established to be not two in nature. For we who profess Madhyamika, if we analyze, not only the thing which is the apparent object, but the appearance too is maintained not to be mind. This is because mind is inner and does just so, not exist externally and external appearance that arises within the individual senses is analyzed as being within the mind. If appearances had an external aspect too, then peoples' consciousness would be two or more at the same time, or one's consciousness would be a material thing. [27] There would be many such fallacies. Therefore, the fixator of appearance and non-appearance is mind, but appearance itself is not established as mind. What is or is not the word "tail" is grasped by the listening consciousness, but listening consciousness itself is not established as the word, "tail." In brief, one's own mind, though seemingly externally projected does not really go outward, and therefore, external phenomena really appear inwardly. However, external appearance is never internal mind. Why? Because what appears does not exist. A variety of such things, white and red, arise. [28] For one who has diseased eyes due to a disorder of the phlegm objects which are completely non-existent nevertheless appear, externally, internally and between. These are said to be nature-less or empty of essence. either what is established as mind and what is established as other than mind are liberated from attachment to truly existent self-nature. In that respect they are indistinguishable. Some one may say, "Isn't this assertion that there are external objects-things which are not directly known, like that of the Shravaka Vaibhashika School? It is not the same. The vaibhashikas proclaim that these objects are established to have individual characteristics of material things. We, on the other hand, say that habitual patterns of confused appearance appear to mind even though what seems to be there is non-existent like a dream. This approach is not refuted by Madhyamika, and so it is suitable. Someone may ask why what has been proclaimed by us is not refuted by the prasangika Madhyamaka School. Mere appearance is not refuted, but attachment to true existence is refuted. The teacher argarjuna says: Thus though appearance itself is not to be refuted, Eliminate thoughts that conceptualize this as truly existent.

(i.e. True Emptiness doesn't deny dependent origination; and vice versa. In fact they are interdependent. One implies the other. They are not different, not the same. The real nature of everything is seen when this duality of dependent origination (or causality) and emptiness of inherent existence is transcended, when the two are "united". The real nature of everything is not dependent origination, not emptiness, not both, not neither. Transcending doesn't mean rejecting the duality, nor accepting it. The Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting the world. There is no absolute causality, but no complete absence of causality either. The real nature of everything is beyond all description, beyond all conceptualization, beyond all dualities. But we call it the inseparability of appearances and emptiness, or the Union of The Two Truths.) The Yogacara true-aspectarians proclaim that phenomena are mind. Both the true and false aspectarians assert the refuted tenet that the absolute is truly established as selfinsight, [29] so how will they deny that confused appearances of habitual patterns arise while they are non-existent and that classifications of existents are really entered into? This is because these would be made into the classification of the relative at the same time. [30] Thus outer relativity and the relativity of mind or insight, [31] arising after the former, its appearance depending on other previous objects, must be analyzed in terms of inner patterns. If seeming appearance of before and after is imputed, the name alone is the meaning, and they accord. If it is maintained to be other and different from what is present, one's own insight cannot be established as a characteristic of something other, because the very assertion is contradictory. This is not good reasoning. The former text says: Thus all these various different kinds of appearances, Because they seem to be phenomena that are other, Are the impure relativity of grasping and fixation. The pure is also said to be relativity, But what becomes through external power is not pure. This too is explained as appearing to be something other. The perfectly established is changeless and true. This changeless, completely established nature without confusion is the emptiness of dharmata, by nature intrinsically pure, without distinction of earlier and later. This changeless perfectly established is the quintessential natural state. The empowerment of this is established as empty or as threefold. (i.e. dharmin, the realm of dharmas, and dharmata, their real nature) It is naturally empty of itself, other, and both.
As

for emptiness of itself, it appears as non-existence, like the moon in water. Individual characteristics are abandoned, and divided aspects of self and other do not exist; but spontaneously present dharmas are not put aside, there are both imputations of these and of the emptiness of their self- nature. is the other emptiness of not having or the other emptiness of

Other emptiness

accountables.

Emptiness

of both self and other has both emptiness of accountables and emptiness of the individual characteristics denoted by the words.

This luminous nature of mind, the nature, the dhatu, the essence, is empty of all fallacious things. It has the characteristics of the Buddha qualities. Its purity of essence is beyond faults and virtues, and establishing or clearing away. Various defiled dharmas of confused appearance, red and white, arise. These false conceptions, the eight consciousnesses, are nature-less. Their self-nature is empty. Accountable like a pillar or a vase, they are empty and fallacious. The pure nature is beyond faults and virtues, establishing or clearing away. The paths too are empty of themselves and have some virtuous and some faulty aspects. But the pure essence is beyond faults and virtues. At the time of the ultimate purity, all injurious faults together with their habitual patterns are obscured in emptiness. This is the absolute itself. Whatever qualities of the absolute dhatu exist are also ultimate manifestations and are not empty. [32] The pure essence is beyond faults and virtues, establishing and clearing away.
In brief,

as for self-emptiness, the nature of dharmas of this and that has no true existence. From the two divisions, as for characteristics being empty of their own essence, whatever characteristic is described is non-existent like the horns of a rabbit. Though appearing from the viewpoint of confusion, it is without nature or reality, empty like the moon in water. Emptiness of self-nature of imputation, is emptiness of what is imputed by names, words, and letters. Except as mere mental constructions, the individual characteristics of these objects do not exist, as for small children what is imputed by the name "lion" really has a turquoise mane. What is actually denoted by the word used by this small child has a body without such a mane, but since the understanding producing name can have an understood symbolic meaning even when it is empty, all impute to it an effect-producing power.

In

emptiness of other, a dharma is imputed to be empty of another dharma. From the two divisions, in other emptiness of not having the sun is said to be empty by not having darkness, a pillar, a blanket, and so forth. Here, dharmas that are non-existent within the sun are other real individual natures. [33]

for emptiness of accountable others, "the sun" and "light-producer," and "the one with seven horses" are general accountable imputations. Since the natures [34] and particular included examples [35] expressed do not touch the individuating characteristics which are the meaning of the sun, it is empty of them.
What is

As

empty of both self and other is a dharma that has neither. From the two divisions. There are accountable imputations and real individual characteristics. Within the one involving accountable imputations, are the skandhas, dhatus, and ayatanas and so forth, which are imputed by samsaric confusions. All such things are also empty of the individual characteristics of the three realms, since they are constructions of conventional mind in names. They have both empty individual characteristics, like the water in a mirage, and no individual characteristics, like the

child of a barren woman. Though they are empty of any truly any existing nature, they un-obstructedly appear, vividly luminous, with an emptiness like that of relativity. The Third Chapter of the commentary on The Great Perfection: The ature Of Mind, The Easer Of Weariness called the Great Chariot

Summery
Om Tare Tuttare Ture Mama Aryu Puni Gyanya Punding Guruye Soha White Tara's Long Life Mantra

Quotes
Guru

Puja - Reviewing the Stages of the Path

86. Aghast at the searing blaze of suffering in the lower realms, We take heartfelt refuge in the Three Precious Gems and seek Your blessings that we may eagerly endeavor to practice the various means For abandoning what is bound to misfortune and accumulating virtuous deeds. 87. Violently tossed amidst waves of delusions and karma, Plagued by hordes of watery denizensthe three kinds of suffering We seek your blessings to develop an intense longing to be free From this monstrous ocean of boundless and vicious existence. 88. Having abandoned the mind that views this unbearable prison of cyclic existence as a pleasure grove, We seek your blessings to partake of the treasure Of Aryas' jewels and the three higher trainings, And thereby to uphold liberation's banner.
The Mountain

of Blessings, by Lama Tsong Khapa

Bless me to perceive All that's wrong With the seemingly good things Of this life. I can never get enough of them. They cannot be trusted. They are the door

To every pain I have. Grant me then To strive instead For the happiness of freedom.
By

knowing or not knowing what we are there are liberation or confusion.

Thus

though appearance itself is not to be refuted, Eliminate thoughts that conceptualize this as truly existent.

Correct perfect

establishment is the path of true liberation. In realizing the natural state as it is, since the phenomena of appearance are not put aside, in the relative, merit can be accumulated. The nature of emptiness, which is contemplated, is the accumulation of wisdom within the absolute. Earnestly produce this dharmata like the sky free from one and many. (i.e. dharmin, the realm of dharmas, and dharmata, their real nature) common to all realms and specific to each realm. of suffering: sufferings of suffering, change, and composite nature of [human] suffering that always grasp us in samsara

The suffering

The three kinds The eight kinds The mandala How

of samsara. (i.e. The Wheel of Life)

does confusion arise? The objects of the six senses individually come forth by means of the powers of the six sense- consciousnesses. By fixating these objects, there is continuous attachment to them as happiness, suffering, and neutrality. samsara and suffering is ignorance, having the confusion of grasping and

The root of

fixation.
'Externally

appearing things are like the things that appear to be other in a dream.' This means that grasping involves habitual patterns of objects. These various appearances of pure and impure are confused existence. Habitual patterns of reality are produced by the karma of bodily arising and also by the inner condition of not knowing such-ness. These are the skandhas, dhatus, ayatanas, and so forth. From them arise all the kleshas, and the suffering that is their fruition, the support of the confusions of fixation. confusion is fixating on the "I" and ego. Because of that, the confused appearances of samsara arise like reflections, dreams, or hairs drifting before the eyes. Moreover, fixation is fixated as "I", and grasped objects are fixated as "mine" with an attitude like that of the owner of a house.

The root of

The changeless nature of mind, perfection, Dharmakaya, By ignorant fixation, takes on habits of false conception. Involving confused appearance of impure relativity, Dualistic appearance of objects as self and other, Then come to be grasped as really being two.

Intrinsically this presents itself as limitless suffering. When we have realized the ever-changeless nature of mind, By the path of meditation on this unerring perfection, We will properly reach the field of pure relativity. Easing the weariness of the village of samsara.
Three great doctrines

of the Yogacara tradition: false conceptions, relativity, and the

perfectly established,
About the six

realms:

Hot Hells: If someone in the Hells remains un-terrified, But knows the nature of these endless samsaric torments, Then that person will have the means of passing beyond them. Cold hells: Beings with minds should then arouse their strength of effort To conquer these merely mental worlds of Hell. Hungry ghosts: Having seen this saddening nature of how things are, Accordingly, persons, to gain their liberation, Should distance themselves from Samsras hedonic calculus. By that the true peace of holy Dharma will be established. Animals: Having thought about this, those who want liberation from the world of animals, to benefit themselves, Should customarily travel the path of accurate vision. Striving day and night to be absorbed in the wholesome. Humans: Thus within the limits of this human world, with suffering as cause and effect, there is no happiness. To be liberated from this, think of the excellent Dharma. That offers the means of liberation from samsara. Asuras: Therefore, those who are going to happiness and peace should quickly practice the Dharma that leads to liberation. Gods: You yourself must gird yourself in the armor of effort. ow is the time to ascend the path of liberation. / Being liberated from the lower realms and from samsara depends on our own efforts. / Therefore having come to recognize our faults, Mindful in our hearts of the suffering of samsara, So that we and beings may be liberated from samsara, Let us truly embark upon the path of peace.

Conclusion
The nature of samsara is suffering. The fruition of suffering is the five skandhas. There is no reliance in any of the six realms; all are impermanent, suffering. ot even the four Dhyanas are bringing lasting happiness. -Samsara is a valley of unbearable suffering. Knowing mind as the source of many different kleshas,

Kleshas and sub-kleshas, and those that are universal, who would want this state of samsara to increase further? So let us quickly be victorious over samsara.
Strong

desire to escape completely the whole samsara; renunciation; strong desire to practice the dharma.

The Fourth Chapter of the commentary on The Great Perfection: The ature Of Mind, The Easer Of Weariness called the Great Chariot
"This flow of interdependence, and of impermanent objects and beings, is operating on an infinite number of levels, like a fractal that operates in the three worlds simultaneously (their distinction is only another artificial discrimination from the mind). But usually it is resumed with four levels: outer, inner, secret and such-ness mandalas -related to body, speech, mind, and inseparability of the three." "Karma is about a self-conditioning loop based on ignorance; it works on all levels of organization simultaneously. And the only way to stop it is by directly seeing the real nature of this conditioning loop. Karma and its consequences are acting across all levels simultaneously. The division into particular levels is purely arbitrary."-- Gileht

IV. "Karma, Cause, and Effect." The fourth chapter, "Karma, Cause, and Effect," has four parts: A. The brief teaching of the essence B. The extensive explanation of the nature C. The final summary D. The dedication of merit

A. The brief teaching of the essence. (i.e. All happiness and suffering come from the mind, from self-conditioning, from accumulating good or bad karma. The message here is that we are conditioned by our past choices, but still have enough freedom to see through it. o total freedom, no total determinism. That is the introductory model; and its problem is "How is individual karma transmitted between lives? What is the support? Is karma individual, or universal?") Why do these lives of wandering in the sufferings of samsara, each with its own appearances of joy and sorrow appear? They occur because of karma: Thus, Samsras heights and depths of pleasure and pain Arise from former accumulations of our karma. That is how it has been taught by the Sage, the Buddha. (i.e. Our conditions, our happiness and suffering are not causeless, or the fruits of chance, or decided by an omnipotent god. There is a reason why some people are happy, while some others are suffering a lot. If we observe carefully our actions and their effects we will understand that there is logic of cause and effect. Then we will understand that our own happiness and suffering are caused by our own past actions.) (i.e. Saleyyaka Sutta - The Brahmins of Sala, M 41: 4. When they were seated, they said to the Blessed One: "Master Gotama, what is the reason, what is the condition, why some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell; and what is the reason, what is the condition, why some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world?" 5. "Householders, it is by reason of conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of unrighteous conduct, that beings here on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. It is by reason of conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of righteous conduct, that some beings here on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world.") From the different conditions of beings, different fruitions of their associated karma exist. Many kinds of connection with their happiness and sorrow ripen. The Hundred Actions says: E ma ho! Karma comes from the world. Joy and sorrow are a painting produced by karma. The assembly of conditions arises karmically. Happiness and suffering are produced by karma. Also it says:

Karmas over the time a hundred kalpas Do not dissipate, but accumulate. Once embodied beings have acquired them The ripening of their fruition is assured. The White Lotus says: Karma, like a painter, produces everything. Karmic patterns are choreography of a dance. The Gathering the Accumulations of Enlightenment says: Having as well as being without the three-fold kleshas Are established according to merit and karma of liberation. Because of mind, karma, and the causes of beings, Many karmas are gathered up, and then remain like seeds. B. The extensive explanation of the nature of karma (i.e. On one hand, we should not accept karma as absolute, individual, inherently existing, or think that we can produce Liberation through specifically doing something, or not doing something else, or think that we can cause liberation by accumulating merit alone, or think that dependent origination is absolute, that there is absolute causality. On the other hand, we should not think that there is no karma at all, no causality at all, or think that we can produce Liberation by developing wisdom alone, or by rejecting everything as if non-existent meaningless or non-functional, by dropping all thoughts, or by accepting emptiness as the absolute. The real nature of everything is not total determinism, nor total chaos. -- So we cannot ignore karma, nor get obsessed about it, otherwise, in both case, we create more karma and end up in the three lower realms. So, wholesomeness is preferable to unwholesome actions, but these virtuous skillful means have to be gradually "perfected". The path has to be in accord with the real nature of everything, with its two inseparable aspects: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. So, we need both method and wisdom together on the path until they are perfectly united, until the Two Truths are permanently united (not none, not two). Because of our actual strong conditioning, we need a progressive path, a gradual deconditioning, to get closer and closer to our real non-dual Buddha-nature under all this conditioning, to the real non-dual nature of everything. Once we directly see the real nature of our own mind and of everything, the real nature of conditioning / samsara, then we are free from all conditioning and its consequences; then everything is purified, and we see the inseparable Trikaya, the wisdoms, the Buddha-fields, the Buddha activities. -- The Buddha nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. The real nature of everything is not changed by our ignorance of it, and our errors because of this. Seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything is seeing the Buddha.-- The real nature of everything is not dependent origination alone, not emptiness alone, not both together, not neither or something else. It is the Union of The Two: not one, not two. They are not different or separate, not the same. -- Everything is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. The two, dependent origination and emptiness, are not contradictory, but interdependent. o absolute cause, effect or causality; but still no no-causality. The luminous space. -Karma is about a self-conditioning loop based on ignorance; it works on all levels of

organization simultaneously. And the only way to stop it is by directly seeing the real nature of this conditioning loop. Everything in the path is aimed at this goal. But it has to be done directly without conceptualization, it has to be done progressively; it has to be adapted to the actual state of each person. Otherwise there is much misinterpretation or rejection, making things much worst.) Has two sections: 1. The establishment of samsara (The conditioning (mostly unwholesome), the causes and effects, and the support for this conditioning. How wholesome actions and conditioning might help to transcend all conditioning by producing this precious human life with its freedoms and endowments. So it is not about an external god, external laws and judgments, but all from the mind itself. Taking responsibility for everything.) 2. The second section of the extended explanation of karma and being joined to peace (The progressive path, more virtues beyond the ten wholesome actions: the nine Dhyanas, the four immeasurables, bodhicitta, the six paramitas, the generation and completion stage of Vajrayna, Mahamudra, the Union of The Two Truths. Always using both method and wisdom together; then it is in accord with Liberation, with the real nature of our own mind, and of everything. The two aspects in everything: the two accumulations, the two kayas, the two gotras, the two truths -- inseparability, nonduality everywhere. Wholesomeness is taking into consideration those two aspects of the real nature of everything that is already present in us, and in everything. Discovering our own very subtle nature, Buddha-nature, is seeing the real nature of everything, with those two inseparable aspects, as the very subtle nature of our own mind. We are already perfect and pure; everything is already perfect and pure; it is just a matter of directly seeing this non-dual nature. We do not cause Liberation; it is not a fabrication. The Buddha nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. The real nature of everything is not changed by our ignorance of it, and our errors because of this. Seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything is seeing the Buddha. Once we have directly seen the real nature of our own mind and of everything, then everything is pure inseparable Trikaya and wisdoms, Buddha-fields, and Buddha activities: inseparable compassion and emptiness. -- After refuting the view thinking that one can produce Liberation with specific methods through accumulating merit alone, here are refuted various forms of nihilism: rejection of karma, rejection of the path, rejection of thoughts, thinking emptiness is an absolute truth. We need both method and wisdom together. Only this is accord with Liberation, with the real nature of everything: not existent, not non-existent, not both, and not either. The real nature of everything is not dependent origination alone, not emptiness alone, not both together, not either or something else. It is the Union of The Two: not one, not two. Everything is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. The two, dependent origination and emptiness, are not contradictory, but interdependent. They are not different or separate, not the same. o absolute cause, effect or causality; but still no no-causality. The luminous space.) 1. The establishment of samsara.

(i.e. The conditioning, the causes and effects, and the support for this conditioning. How wholesome actions and conditioning might help to transcend all conditioning by producing this precious human life with its freedoms and endowments. Seeking the real nature of the mind, the real nature of samsara, in order to transcend it. So karma is not about an external god, external laws and judgments, but all from the mind itself. Taking responsibility for everything.) There are three sections
a.

The brief teaching

(Even though everything is impermanent [empty of inherent existence], there is some causality, karma, conditioning [dependent origination]. Causes and effects of the two paths: By unwholesome ones we gain suffering and the lower realms -- staying in samsara for long, by wholesome ones there is happiness and the higher realms -- and the possibility of Liberation. -- othing is outside of causality: without causes or random, without effect or consequences. There is a causal relation in terms of quality and quantity. There is these two paths. The dark path: unwholesome actions lead to unhappiness and the lower realms. The light path: wholesome actions lead to happiness and the higher realms. Even though everything is relative, it is not complete chaos, there is a direction. And this direction is given by the real nature of everything. In short, one cannot get true happiness from acting badly, egoistically, hurting others. The effects are related to the causes, proportional and cumulative.)
b.

The extended explanation

(Causes and effect on the dark path. And a model of the mind that explains the conditioning superposed on an unborn basis-of-all, and the possibility of a gradual purification until the very subtle nature of the mind can be directly seen. Liberation form karma is gained by directly seeing its real nature, the real nature of the mind: luminous space. What makes an action unwholesome is its divergence with the real nature of everything, the fact that it is an investment based on an error, based on ignorance.)
c.

How to eliminate the unwholesome

(By adopting an attitude more in accord with the real non-dual nature of everything. By not basing all actions of egoism and the belief in inherently existing objects and characteristics. By seeing the relativity of everything, by thinking from others point of view before acting. By not ignoring the consequences of our actions on ourselves and on the society.) a. The brief teaching (i.e. Even though everything is impermanent [empty of inherent existence], there is some causality, karma, conditioning [dependent origination]. Causes and effects of the two paths: By unwholesome ones we gain suffering and the lower realms -- staying in samsara for long, by wholesome ones there is happiness and the higher realms -- and the possibility of Liberation. -- othing is outside of causality: without causes or random, without effect or consequences. There is a causal relation in terms of quality and

quantity. There is these two paths. The dark path: unwholesome actions lead to unhappiness and the lower realms. The light path: wholesome actions lead to happiness and the higher realms. Even though everything is relative, it is not complete chaos there is a direction. And this direction is given by the real nature of everything. In short, one cannot get true happiness from acting badly, egoistically, hurting others. The effects are related to the causes, proportional and cumulative.) From the establishment of the samsaric world, and being connected to peace, this is the first subject: The black and white actions that are the formations of samsara Have the nature of the ten wholesome and unwholesome actions. The ten unwholesome action and the ten wholesome ones that accord with merit establish samsara. What are they? The Precious Mala says: ot cutting off life, and giving up thievery; Leaving alone the spouses of other people; With no talk that is frivolous, wrong and rough, Keeping our speech both true and genuine. Without the attitudes of desire and anger, Having completely abandoned the view of ego, These ten actions are the white karmic path. The opposites are the path of unwholesome blackness. These unwholesome actions produce suffering and the lower realms. By the wholesome ones, we attain happiness and the higher realms. The Objects of Mindfulness says: (i.e. cause and effect of the two paths) By unwholesome ones we gain suffering and the lower realms, By wholesome ones there is happiness and the higher realms. The Sutra on Production of Karmic Phenomena says: The Householder Toutaputra, the Brahmins son, asked, Kye Gautama, by what cause and conditions are sentient beings short or tall, have many illnesses or few illnesses, have a pleasant or unpleasant color, great or small powers, exalted or low caste, great or small activities, and great or small praja? The Buddha spoke saying, "O Brahmins son, sentient beings are as they are because of karma. Their karmic roles are performed. They have their karmic birthplaces. They depend on karma. Low, high, and middle, exalted, degraded, bad, and good ones develop. The karma of sentient beings is various. Their views are various. Their actions are various. By black karma sentient beings are born among hell beings, pretas, or animals. By white karma they are born among gods and human beings.

(i.e. Culakammavibhanga Sutta - The Shorter Exposition of Kamma; M 135 2. "Master Gotama, what is the reason, what is the condition, why inferiority and superiority are met with among human beings, among mankind? For one meets with short-lived and long-lived people, sick and healthy people, ugly and handsome people, insignificant and influential people, poor and rich people, lowborn and high-born people, stupid and wise people. What is the reason, what is the condition, why superiority and inferiority are met with among human beings, among mankind?" 3. "Student, beings are owners of kammas, heirs of kammas, they have kammas as their progenitor, kammas as their kin, kammas as their homing-place. It is kammas that differentiate beings according to inferiority and superiority...") (i.e. Saleyyaka Sutta - The Brahmins of Sala, M 41: "Householders,
There are three kinds of

bodily conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma,

unrighteous conduct.
There are four kinds

of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma,

unrighteous conduct.
There are three kinds of

mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma,

unrighteous conduct. "And how are there three kinds of bodily conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct?
Here someone is

a killer of living beings: he is murderous, bloody-handed, given to blows and violence, and merciless to all living beings.

He is

a taker of what is not given: he takes as a thief another's chattels and property in the village or in the forest. given over to misconduct in sexual desires: he has intercourse with such (women) as are protected by the mother, father, (mother and father), brother, sister, relatives, as have a husband, as entail a penalty, and also with those that are garlanded in token of betrothal. That is how there are three kinds of bodily conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. "And how are there four kinds of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct?

He is

Here someone speaks

falsehood: when summoned to a court or to a meeting, or to his relatives' presence, or to his guild, or to the royal family's presence, and questioned as a witness thus, 'So, good man, tell what you know,' then, not knowing, he says 'I know,' or knowing, he says 'I do not know,' not seeing, he says 'I see,' or seeing, he says 'I do not

see'; in full awareness he speaks falsehood for his own ends or for another's ends or for some trifling worldly end.
He speaks

maliciously: he is a repeater elsewhere of what is heard here for the purpose of causing division from these, or he is a repeater to these of what is heard elsewhere for the purpose of causing division from those, and he is thus a divider of the united, a creator of divisions, who enjoys discord, rejoices in discord, delights in discord, he is a speaker of words that create discord. harshly: he utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, censorious of others, bordering on anger and un-conductive to concentration. a gossip: as one who tells that which is unseasonable, that which is not fact, that which is not good, that which is not the Dhamma, that which is not the Discipline, and he speaks out of season speech not worth recording, which is unreasoned, indefinite, and unconnected with good. That is how there are four kinds of verbal conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. "And how are there three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct?

He speaks

He is

Here someone is

covetous: he is a coveter of another's chattels and property thus: 'Oh, that what is another's were mine!'

Or he has

a mind of ill-will, with the intention of a mind affected by hate thus: 'May these beings be slain and slaughtered, may they be cut off, perish, or be annihilated!'

Or he has wrong

view, distorted vision, thus: 'There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed, no fruit and ripening of good and bad kammas, no this world, no other world, no mother, no father, no spontaneously (born) beings, no good and virtuous monks and Brahmins that have themselves realized by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.' That is how there are three kinds of mental conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct. "So, householders, it is by reason of conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of unrighteous conduct, that some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. "Householders, there are

Three kinds

of bodily conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. of verbal conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous

There are four kinds

conduct.
There are three kinds of

mental conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous

conduct.

"And how are there three kinds of bodily conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct?
Here someone,

abandoning the killing of living beings, becomes one who abstains from killing living beings; with rod and weapon laid aside, gentle and kindly, he abides compassionate to all living beings.

the taking of what is not given, he becomes one who abstains from taking what is not given; he does not take as a thief another's chattels and property in the village or in the forest.
Abandoning

Abandoning

misconduct in sexual desires, he becomes one who abstains from misconduct in sexual desires: he does not have intercourse with such women as are protected by mother, father, (father and mother), brother, sister, relatives, as have a husband, as entail a penalty, and also those that are garlanded in token of betrothal. That is how there are three kinds of bodily conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. "And how are there four of verbal conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct?

Here someone,

abandoning false speech, becomes one who abstains from false speech: when summoned to a court or to a meeting or to his relatives' presence or to his guild or to the royal family's presence, and questioned as a witness thus, 'So, good man, tell what you know,' not knowing, he says 'I do not know,' or knowing, he says 'I know,' not seeing he says 'I do not see,' or seeing, he says 'I see'; he does not in full awareness speak falsehood for his own ends or for another's ends or for some trifling worldly end. malicious speech, he becomes one who abstains from malicious speech: as one who is neither a repeater elsewhere of what is heard here for the purpose of causing division from these, nor a repeater to these of what is heard elsewhere for the purpose of causing division from those, who is thus a reuniter of the divided, a promoter of friendships, enjoying concord, rejoicing in concord, delighting in concord, he becomes a speaker of words that promote concord. harsh speech, he becomes one who abstains from harsh speech: he becomes a speaker of such words as are innocent, pleasing to the ear and lovable, as go to the heart, are civil, desired of many and dear to many.

Abandoning

Abandoning

Abandoning

gossip, he becomes one who abstains from gossip: as one who tells that which is seasonable, that which is factual, that which is good, that which is the Dhamma, that which is the Discipline, he speaks in season speech worth recording, which is reasoned, definite and connected with good. That is how there are four kinds of verbal conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. "And how are there three kinds of mental conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct?

Here someone is

not covetous: he is not a coveter of another's chattels and property thus: 'Oh, that what is another's were mine!' no mind of ill-will, with the intention of a mind unaffected by hate thus: 'May these beings be free from enmity, affliction and anxiety, may they live happily!' right view, undistorted vision, thus: 'There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed, and there is fruit and ripening of good and bad kammas, and there is this world and the other world and mother and father and spontaneously (born) beings, and good and virtuous monks and Brahmins that have themselves realized by direct knowledge and declared this world and the other world.' That is how there are three kinds of mental conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, righteous conduct. "So, householders, it is by reason of conduct in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of righteous conduct, that some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in a happy destination, even in the heavenly world.) b. The extended explanation (i.e. unwholesomeness) (i.e. Causes and effect on the dark path. And a model of the mind that explains the conditioning superposed on an unborn basis-of-all, and the possibility of a gradual purification until the very subtle nature of the mind can be directly seen. Liberation form karma is gained by directly seeing its real nature, the real nature of the mind: luminous space. What makes an action unwholesome is its divergence with the real nature of everything, the fact that it is an investment based on an error, based on ignorance.) There are three parts

He has

He has

1) The support [the neutral

alaya]

(Seeking the real nature of the mind under all conditioning, the support of all consciousnesses and appearances. Like a gradual process of purification of the mind that can be done in meditation with the Dhyanas, or observed while falling asleep, or while dying, or simulating it with Vajrayna techniques. -- Both unwholesome and wholesome actions produce karma, but wholesomeness is preferable because it is closer to the real nature of everything by combining upaya and praja, it produce better conditions favorable to be able to directly see the real nature of our own mind and to transcend all conditioning definitively. -- Everything, all objects of the three worlds, are merely imputed by the mind in dependence of accumulated karma. All appearances are not different or separate, nor the same, as the mind. -- Dhyanas (Shamatha) are not enough to produce Enlightenment; they have to be combined with the wisdom gained with Vipashyana.)
2) The supported

[karma]

(The root cause ignorance. The ten unwholesome actions of body, speech and mind.)
3) The fruition

[of unwholesome actions]

(The fruit depends on object, motivation, preparation, application of the unwholesome action. It is in accord with the causes and the dominant nature or power. In short selfconditioning: they are like bad habits, the more we do them, the more we will be attached to them and do them again. They are like poison; they necessarily bring great suffering and unhappiness. They have to be abandoned.) 1) The support (i.e. Seeking the real nature of the mind under all conditioning, the support of all consciousnesses and appearances. Like a gradual process of purification of the mind that can be done in meditation with the Dhyanas, or observed while falling asleep, or while dying, or simulating it with Vajrayna techniques. -- Both unwholesome and wholesome actions produce karma, but wholesomeness is preferable because it is closer to the real nature of everything by combining upaya and praja, it produce better conditions favorable to be able to directly see the real nature of our own mind and to transcend all conditioning definitively. -- Everything, all objects of the three worlds, are merely imputed by the mind in dependence of accumulated karma. All appearances are not different or separate, nor the same, as the mind. -- Dhyanas (Shamatha) are not enough to produce Enlightenment, they have to be combined with the wisdom gained with Vipashyana.) There are ten sections,
a) The explanation

of alaya and consciousness,

(Seeking the real nature of the mind under all the conditioning. The three aspects of the mind corresponding to the three realms: the neutral alaya, the alaya Vijnana with its seeds, and the seven consciousnesses (with its illusions, and actions). And the natural state, the true nature of the mind, Dharmadhatu: inseparability of space and luminosity of the kayas and wisdoms (inseparability of emptiness and dependent origination). Like a process of purification or separation: the ground (the essence, the pure mind), the cause (eliminating defilements superposed on that with the wholesome path), the fruit (sugatagarbha free from all defilements), the separated (the eight consciousnesses, the conditioning). -- So here is the difference between wholesome and unwholesome, even though everything is relative. Wholesomeness are methods based on the real nature of everything that help in purifying the original awareness from its superposed conditioning based on ignorance. They are relatively more wholesome than the so called unwholesome because they are closer to his non-dual real nature, because they always combine upaya and praja. ot hurting others, not acting out of egoism, [and bodhicitta] are antidotes to the illusions of separated-ness, individuality, ego, inherent existence. So this model explains the two paths, wholesomeness and unwholesomeness, how conditioning is supported and how it can be transcended. It explains what was unclear with the simpler model of karma.)
b) How

consciousness accumulates karma

(The origin of the three worlds. Which precise causes result in a rebirth in each of the three worlds. But any rebirth in any of these three worlds is still a rebirth in samsara. They are all impermanent, unsatisfactory, based on ignorance of the real nature of everything. The only way to transcend permanently all existing conditioning and to

produce no more is to seek and directly see the real nature of our own mind, and thus the real nature of everything. -- The three worlds are three occasions of the mind: with conditioning and producing conditioning, with conditioning without producing more conditioning, without the influence of conditioning and without producing more conditioning. Or as exemplified by body, speech / abstractions and pure mind. They correspond to three stages of purification of the mind with the practice of the eight Dhyanas, or going to sleep, or dying. But they are conditioned, impermanent; there is rebirth in a lower realms after. The first stage being the ordinary mind of every day as a sentient being. The first stage being the ordinary mind of every day as a sentient being. The last stage being to see their real nature and inseparability.)
c) The occasion

of awareness

(Seeking the very subtle nature of our own mind under all the conditioning using the eight Dhyanas to put it into a state where there is no actual production of karma, and where it is out of the influence of the already accumulated karma. The mind is then temporarily / artificially purified, by cutting off all involvement with the world, thus cutting off the potential role of the conditioning. But that is still a (forced / artificial) conditioned state, thus impermanent and unsatisfactory. What is gradually observed goes from the gross mind of every day, to its more subtle nature not producing more karma in Dhyanas, to its very subtle nature outside of the influence of already acquired karma in formless Dhyanas. Then, around this state of high concentration (Shamatha, samdhi), we can investigate (Vipashyana) and directly see its real non-dual nature in action, and the real nature of everything. -- The three occasions are three states where we can observe the mind while seeking its real nature under all the added conditioning. The usual every day state is when it is under the influence of accumulated conditioning and producing more karma (much fermentation); then there is the eight consciousnesses (assimilation, accommodation, becoming). As a result of the first four Dhyanas, the mind is not producing any more new karma (no action, no-thought), and what can be observed is the alaya Vijnana, the subtle mind, which is still under the influence of already accumulated karma (still filtering, assimilating on acquired schema). As a result of the formless Dhyanas, the mind is also temporarily free from the influence of accumulated karma (no objects), while still not producing any more new karma (no action, no thought). Then the mind that is directly seen is the alaya, the essence. -- But these three occasions are still within samsara. Only the union of upaya and praja will permit to transcend all conditioning definitively, thus escaping all karma influence and formation.)
d) Knowing

the occasions:

(The union of Shamatha and Vipashyana, union of upaya and praja: So the temporary purification of the mind using the eight Dhyanas permit us to reach a state where the very subtle nature of the mind (alaya) can be directly seen beyond conceptualization. But that is still a conditioned and thus impermanent state. We should not get attached to this state. It is a skillful means (upaya) used to study the real nature of the mind under all conditioning, and the real nature of everything (praja). Coming slowly out of this high concentration state we can observe the arising of thoughts creating the three worlds and directly see their real nature. We can then see through all the conditioning, see their real nature and become free from its influence. -- The perfection of the Dhyanas (upaya) is to combine them with Vipashyana (praja); staying away from the two extremes: not

rejecting the world as if completely non-existent or falling for a mind that is suppose to be without any thought, not accepting the world as inherently existing or being slave of the conditioning; not meditating, not non-meditating. Only then is it in accord with the goal, with the real nature of the mind and of everything: Dharmadhatu, luminous space.) ( ote: About the purification of the body, speech and mind corresponding to the three worlds: The purification of the body permits to go beyond ordinary realism, and to see the alaya Vijnana, the mind interpreting the world without actually producing more karma. The purification of the speech permits to go beyond simple idealism, beyond the acquired karma, the scheme of assimilation, by creating an artificial situation where there is nothing concrete to assimilate, or to filter using the karma seeds. What is seen then is the alaya, the very subtle mind without the influence of the karma seeds. The purification of the mind is to go beyond this artificial state of pure mind; not thinking there is this duality of an impure mind, and a pure mind; and thinking that one is preferable than the other. Purifying the three together is to see their inseparability, not falling into monism either. This is done while perfecting Dhyanas by combining them with Vipashyana. It is then seen that a mind with or without thoughts is not different, not the same; that appearances and mind are inseparable; that appearances and emptiness are inseparable; that mind and body are inseparable. So the real nature of everything is gradually seen as being: not existence / realism (empty), not non-existence / idealism / nihilism (still dependently arisen and functions), not both / dualism (inseparability), not neither / monism (non-dual: not one, not two). Those are the stages of the progressive purification along the path.)
e) What predominates

in the three chief realms

(What are the conditions in each of the three worlds? Which of the three occasions predominates? What kind of objects predominates? Which stage of purification of the mind is mostly seen? -- Of course these three realms are pure abstractions, nothing is that clearly separated. Karma operated simultaneously on an infinite number of levels. The distinction between levels is purely arbitrary and relative to our own egoistic point of view. And each of these levels can be said to have three realms depending on the conditioning that seems to be efficient / apparent at that level. -- The three stages are defined by considering the influence and the production of conditioning or karma. It could apply to what we call individual sentient beings, or to a group, or a society, or any level higher or lower. At one level there is apparent assimilation, suffering, accommodation, adaptation, complexification. An the next level there is only assimilation, with no acting or thinking. At the next not assimilation or accommodation, like conditioned death or a perfect state with no need. There is also the state of Buddhahood where everything is compassion activities and wisdom.)
f) How

consciousness dissolves

(Conditions and opportunity in the desire realm to directly observe the very subtle nature of the mind and possibly its real nature. The gradual stages of purification of the mind (as explained above) are similar to the stages of the death process, or when going to sleep. The mind then withdraws, abandons all activities, then all conditioned appearances, all defilements and becomes more and more purified. With practice, the various stages of the mind can be directly observed there also. So this can also be used to "directly see the real nature of the mind" and of everything, and thus become totally

Enlightened. [Assuming this is not just a conceptual artifact of this particular model.] -It is also compared to the withdrawal of the winds into the central channel as practiced in Tantra yana.)
g) If

one divides dharmas individually

(Conditions and opportunity in the form realm to directly observe the subtle nature of the mind, the alaya Vijnana. That would be the result of practicing the first four Dhyanas. Objects are still seen due to already accumulated karma, but there is usually no new karma formation since the mind is artificially maintained in a forced state of noaction, no-thought. But since this state is forced, conditioned, it is thus impermanent, unsatisfactory, and still subject to already accumulated karma. -- Appearances are still conditioned by the actual assimilation schema; there is still filtering by the actual five aggregates. But there is no action, no analysis, no conceptualization, no further fermentation, no emotional involvement, no attachment, no repulsion, no fears; just bliss due to the absence of suffering.)
h) How

continuity of mind depends on the four formless skandhas of name

(Conditions and opportunity in the formless realm to directly observe the very subtle nature of the mind, the alaya. That would be the result of practicing the four formless Dhyanas, some Tantra yana practices like the tsumo fire, or by observing it in the process of death. o objects of the senses are usually seen; the mind is almost completely out of the influence of previously accumulated karma. Also there is usually no new karma formation since the mind is maintained in a state of no-action, no-thought. o new karma good or bad, but ignorance increases. Also, since this Dhyana state is forced, conditioned, it is thus impermanent, unsatisfactory. Also, at the moment of death, if there is ignorance, the mind is not totally purified; there remain the conditioning (stored in the four mental aggregates). They have not disappear, they have just been temporarily disabled by this deep concentration on objects like infinite space and so forth. So there is no real discontinuity, the conditioning continue. There will be rebirth in samsara based on the state of the mind at the last moment which is dependent on all past actions, and on the level of wisdom.)
i) How

to comprehend the mind of the four formless Dhyanas

(So even the best formless Dhyanas are not Liberation. They are just impermanent state. Ignorance is not removed; it is increased. The real nature of conditioning, of the mind, of everything, is not directly seen. It is just a temporary rejection of everything, like nihilism. Because of this ignorance the cycle of samsara will continue after coming out of this state. There is still the high probability of ending up in the three lower realms with its suffering for an eternity. -- To be efficient this high state of concentration (Shamatha) has to be combined with an investigation of the real nature of everything (Vipashyana). The perfection of these Dhyanas is to unite them with the wisdom realizing the real nature of everything, even these Dhyanas states.)
j) In

particular, how the three-fold awareness of the desire realm of same and different, by becoming familiar to the mind of desire, also produces the cause of liberation.

(Both form of karma, wholesome and unwholesome, are conditioning leading to a rebirth in samsara. But wholesome is preferable since it leads to the higher realms, to the precious human life with its freedoms and endowments, and to the possibility of seeing through all conditioning, of transcending all conditioning. It is preferable because it is closer to the real nature of everything, because it permits to acquired peace of body and mind through morality and renunciation, to develop the high concentration of the Dhyanas and have the opportunity to purify the mind and see its real nature, to develop wisdom with the Vipashyana, to unite upaya and praja and reach complete Enlightenment. -- Knowing the real nature of the mind, the three occasions: In the desire realm, we can produce bad karma leading to the three lower realms, or good karma leading temporarily to the three higher realms. We also have the opportunity to transcend all karma formation with this precious human life by becoming a vessel of practicing the Dharma. What we have to do is to directly see the real nature of our own mind (how the various consciousnesses, appearances, the three poisons...are arisen; the wholes process of conditioning), to observe it in action in the present, and to see that everything is dependent on the mind. We should become aware of the three aspects all the time: the aspect of non-thought, the luminous aspect, the klesha-mind. Meaning: we should always be aware of the two truths (dependent origination and emptiness; or luminous space; or inseparability of appearances and emptiness; or inseparability of upaya and praja), and that appearances taken as inherently existing are mere illusions created by conditioning, explained by the working of karma and of the eight consciousnesses. This is the equivalent of the three aspects of the Yogacara.) i) What consciousness predominates during the day (It is important to become familiar with the dynamic of the three aspects of the mind: the alaya, the alaya Vijnana, the seven consciousnesses. If we can see how the consciousness of an object is dependent on past karma (conditioning) superposed onto the untouched very subtle nature of our mind, then we can become free from the illusion.) ii) The way in which these are the same and different (The gradual stages of purification of the mind (as explained above) are similar to the stages of the death process, or when going to sleep. The mind then withdraw, abandon all activities, then all conditioned appearances, all defilements and becomes more and more purified. With practice, the various stages of the mind can be directly observed there also. So this can also be used to "directly see the real nature of the mind" and of everything, and thus become totally Enlightened. The reverse process is similar to rebirth, or while waking up from one-pointed sleep, or while coming out of deep formless concentration. Becoming familiar with this is becoming familiar with the real nature of the mind, with its two inseparable aspects of space and luminosity. It is directly seeing that everything is dependent on the mind; not different or separated, not the same. With practice one can become aware while those two processes occur: withdrawal and emanation.) (The meaning summarized: Everything come from the non-dual unborn mind. The various consciousnesses are not separate or different, not the same from the original awareness. A mind with or without

defilements is not different, not the same. Samsara and irvana are not different, not the same. They are both dependent on the mind, both empty of inherent existence. But one is with ignorance, the other without. One is impermanent, the other permanent. The basis-of-all, the support of all, is the unborn Buddha-nature. There is nothing to do, nothing to not do; nothing to accept, nothing to reject; it is just a matter of directly seeing the real nature of our own mind. -- When there is ignorance there is dependence on conditioning and production of more conditioning. When there is the Union of The Two Truths, one is not fooled by the conditioning, and doesn't produce any more conditioning. In both case it is the same essence and luminosity.) a) The explanation of alaya and consciousness, (i.e. Seeking the real nature of the mind under all the conditioning. The three aspects of the mind corresponding to the three realms: the neutral alaya, the alaya Vijnana with its seeds, and the seven consciousnesses (with its illusions, and actions). And the natural state, the true nature of the mind, Dharmadhatu: inseparability of space and luminosity of the kayas and wisdoms (inseparability of emptiness and dependent origination). Like a process of purification or separation: the ground (the essence, the pure mind), the cause (eliminating defilements superposed on that with the wholesome path), the fruit (sugatagarbha free from all defilements) the separated (the eight consciousnesses, the conditioning). -- So here is the difference between wholesome and unwholesome, even though everything is relative. Wholesomeness are methods based on the real nature of everything that help in purifying the original awareness from its superposed conditioning based on ignorance. They are relatively more wholesome than the so called unwholesome because they are closer to his non-dual real nature, because they always combine upaya and praja. ot hurting others, not acting out of egoism, [and bodhicitta] are antidotes to the illusions of separated-ness, individuality, ego, inherent existence. So this model explains the two paths, wholesomeness and unwholesomeness, how conditioning is supported and how it can be transcended. It explains what was unclear with the simpler model of karma.)

Seeking the real nature of the mind under all conditioning:


The supporting ground of these is the neutral alaya (i). As if on the surface of a mirror without reflections, (i.e. The aspect of non-thought is alaya itself, the such-ness of space. -- The mind in the highest formless Dhyana, not producing karma, not subject to karma seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limitless objects, associated with the mind.) Luminous awareness, without conceptual [1] objects (ii), Produces a ground for such reflections to arise, It is like the luminous clarity of a mirror. (i.e. The luminous aspect, free from thought, is alaya-consciousness. -- The mind in the four Dhyanas, not producing karma, but still subject to karma seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limited objects, associated with the speech.)

From that comes the consciousness of the five sense faculties (iii 1-5). As the five senses fixate their objects, such as form, In its own nature this is not conceptual; Rather they are like reflections in a mirror. (i.e. The five sense consciousnesses are non-conceptual. They only communicate directly with the present.) After that occurs, there rise the awarenesss Of the divided objects of grasping and fixation. Within successive moments, as these are fixated or not, There may be conceptualization, or there may not. The former is klesha-mind (iii-7), and mental consciousness (iii-6). (i.e. The mental consciousness is the process of analyzing former objects of these or saying, "These are the apparent objects of the five gates," when these first arise. It is conceptual. Klesha-mind occurs after that, when desire, hatred or indifference (the three poisons) arise simultaneously with experience. The kleshas are the emotional conditioning based on the belief of inherent existence. -- The mind under the influence of conditioning, and producing more conditioning. -- The objects of meditation are material and limited objects, objects of the senses, associated with the body.) [The natural state / Dharmadhatu (iv)] (i.e. The mind fully Liberated, transcending all conditioning. The real nature of the mind: inseparability of space (emptiness) and luminosity (dependent origination).) (i.e. This is the teachings of the Chittamatra / Yogachara. Its goal is to answer the question: how is individual karma transmitted between lives if there is no permanent self. The answer is very complex, but still just a conceptual model. The idea seems that there is a real mind stream, a flow of causality, but with no inherently existing entity in it. The flow itself is thought as being inherently existing, but nothing else. So the karma seeds are part of this mind stream and are having effects in subsequent lives. So within this model, the goal is to see the real nature of this very subtle mind and the conditioning that is superposed on it. These teachings, with the alaya Vijnana and the Buddhanature, put the emphasis on the fact that the mind is "not non-existent", that there is "some causality", that there is "dependent origination". But, I think, the perfection is to ultimately see that all of these are also "not existent", or "empty of inherent existence" without exception.) (i.e. The support of karma (or conditioning) is beyond the conditioning itself; beyond everything that is caused, fabricated, impermanent, conceptualized. It is not existent, not non-existent, not both, and not either. It is beyond any description, beyond all conceptualization, all discrimination, all dualities, all objects, all consciousnesses of objects. It is beyond causality space and time. All of these are like illusions arisen on top of this real nature, this basis-of-all, this alaya. But still, since it is not complete nonexistence, we give it a name, alaya, and use it as anything else, as a relative truth in a context of causes and effects. So it is used as the non-conceptual basis from where emerge the reflections of objects, the consciousnesses, the conceptualization, the

appearances. It is used as an image, a concept that is supposed to explain how karma is transmitted between lives. Some characteristics of this alaya is that it is not "individual"; not discriminative, not conceptual, not caused. So it is not an individual storehouse of karma; there is no absolute individuality at this level. Some might jump to the conclusion that it is "a cosmic transcendental mind -- the big-Oneness"; but it is not none, not many. Also it is not different or separate from the world, and not the same. So it is not a big One mind existing independently of the worlds. The Middle Way is still to stay away from the extremes of realism, nihilism, dualism and also "monism." Although, monism is used here as a skillful means.) Karma and all the resulting appearance of phenomena depend on what is within alaya as its seeds. The Sutra of the Immaculate Wisdom of Manjushri says: Alaya (i) is the ground of everything, The ground of both samsara and nirvana, And all the appearances of phenomena. (i.e. The question is : what is the support of everything that is caused, impermanent, empty of inherent existence? And what is the support of the path, of the Buddha qualities...What is the support of all the conditioning (karma), the de-conditioning (the path), and the fruit (Buddhahood)? It has to be itself not caused, not impermanent, not imperfect, but still explain samsara and irvana. It is a support that doesn't have the defaults of the supported (all fabrications of the body, speech and mind). It is called, the pure alaya, the non-dual original awareness, the unborn Buddha-nature, ... When it knows its real nature is without ignorance ( irvana), otherwise it is the basis of all appearances, the support of karma and suffering (samsara).) (i.e. There is a vicious circle here. There is no absolute causality, but some causality. There are no inherently existing causes, effects, and causality; but still there is no effect without a cause, and no cause without an effect. There is no fist cause, no final effect. But here we are talking about a first cause, a basis-of-all, and a final effect, irvana. It should obviously be understood as merely skillful means. The goal is to point out why the wholesome actions are preferable to unwholesome actions, and what distinguishes them apart. The answer is that wholesome actions are more in accord with the real nature of everything: empty but still functional.)
The such-ness

of space is called the neutral alaya (i) (i.e. Its essence is being empty of inherent existence.). The ground of all that is divided it is completely neutral and undistinguished. top of this, or within it, connected to and supporting the spontaneously present, primordially uncompounded nature of insight is the alaya of reality (ii-a). (i.e. Its nature is being the source of luminosity, appearances) This is made into a ground (ii-b) by ignorance. (i.e. The variable is: does it know its own real nature? Or is it ignorant of this?)

On

The support of the dharmas of samsara, the collections of the eight consciousnesses, with their habitual patterns, is called the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c). (i.e. When it is ignorant of its own real nature, then all appearances are seen as inherently existing. There is thus formation of karma, and its consequences.) Within this are supported all things of the compounded nature of good and evil, arising as various joys and sorrows. (i.e. All objects of discrimination are generated in dependence of this. All causes, effect, relations, views, methods...) Here all causes and fruitions in accord with merit and all goodness according with liberation are also supported. These are naturally supported by the fruition free from defilement. As for the extended explanation of these, on top of the neutral alaya (i) are lower wholesome and unwholesome samsaric causes and effects; the aspects according with liberation, the separable cause of nirvana; and the karma of phenomenal appearances. [2] As many as are perceived are supported. Wholesome things according with liberation, included in the true path are incidental and compounded. Therefore, they are supported as separable causes within the alaya of various habitual patterns (ii-c). They are supported on the gotra (i.e. Buddha ature -- also: teachings and commentaries on Maitreya/Asanga's Buddha ature root texts) as fruitions of separation. Such a fruition is dependent in something like the way that the revealed sun depends on the sun behind obscuring clouds which is yet to be revealed. (i.e. There seems to be a distinction in the quality of the wholesome and unwholesome appearances. They are not at the same level. Wholesome actions, the methods of the path, are more based on the real nature of everything: not existence, not non-existence, not both, not either. That is why they always combine both method and wisdom; they always not based on selfishness, and never result in hurting others. They usually consist of the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting. ) The Uttaratantra says: Earth is in water, water in wind, [3] and wind in space. But space is not in the dhatus of wind and water and earth. Thus the skandhas (i.e. five aggregates) and dhatus [4] (i.e. irreducible elements), and the powers of sense, Are supported in existence by karma and the kleshas. Karma and the kleshas are not as they should be. They always exist in the form of mental artifacts. As for these mental artifacts that are not proper entities, They exist completely in the purity of mind. But the true nature of the mind does not exist in these. (i.e. The support, and the supported. The container and contained. The pure alaya and the stains of defilements. It is said that it is by directly seeing the real nature of our own mind, or our own unborn Buddha-nature, that we become liberated from all the defilement, from all karma formation and its consequences. This pure alaya is this unborn Buddha-nature. It is

covered by defilements because it ignores its own nature and thinks objects of the three worlds are inherently existing, independently of itself. Once all appearances are seen for what they really are, thus purifying the mind from them, and once the mind is completely purified and can see itself directly, then it is irvana. So it is like purifying the gold, the container, the already perfect support. It is like directly seeing the real nature of this container, this pure alaya without all of its conditioning that has accumulated because of ignorance. But, let's remember, that, although one may seek the very subtle nature of its own mind, the support, what is found is that there is nothing under all the conditioning. There is no permanent self, no individual ego, no cosmic ego.) In this case we speak of: [Like a process of purification or separation] 1). The ground of separation 2). The cause of separation 3). The fruition of separation 4). The separated. The ground of separation is the element or essence. The cause of separation, eliminating defilements superimposed on that, is the aspect in accord with liberation, possessed by the wholesome path. The fruition of separation is that when sugatagarbha has been freed from all defilements, the Buddha qualities manifest. The separated is the eight consciousnesses, with their various habitual patterns, which depend on the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c). These, according to secret mantra, are known as the basis, producer, and fruition of purification and that, which is to be purified. The words are different, but the meaning is the same. Within that state, without dependence, is the nature of ignorance, the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c). It is the cause of impure samsara and its consciousness. That compounded wholesome entities are associated with the level joined to liberation has been taught for a long time. The alaya of reality (ii-b) is associated with the Buddha qualities of nirvana, which depend on it. These arise because of the essence, emptiness; the nature, luminosity; and all pervading compassion. The jewel-like qualities of the alaya of reality (ii-b), neither defiled nor free from defilement, are spontaneously present as realization of the primordially luminous kayas and wisdoms. (i.e. This comparison with a process of purification is necessarily imperfect; just a dependently arisen adapted skillful means. The luminosities, the defilements, the poisons, are not extracted and discarded (rejected) (nor are they accepted as they appear); they are "transmuted" into wisdoms, Trikaya and Buddha-fields by seeing their real nature. Everything has always been pure, perfect, and self-liberating.) The atural State (i.e. after alaya)

(i.e. From bellow: Some teachers of the new transmission say that alaya Vijnana dissolves entirely into the impermanent alaya. Alaya dissolves into Dharmadhatu. On the subsiding of coarse and subtle grasping, the simplicity of empty and luminous dharmata arises and, if it is recognized, confusion is eliminated. After the seven consciousnesses dissolve into alaya. Alaya dissolves in the purity of space. Then there is the primordial state of co-emergence, the natural state of wisdom, emptiness/luminosity.) The natural state is natural, complete purity, like space. Though described by the names mark-less, emptiness, completely uncompounded, and so forth, it is not nihilistic empty nothingness; rather, it is realization of spontaneous presence, the luminosity of the kayas and wisdoms. It is empty in the sense of being completely liberated from all dharmas of samsara. (i.e. The Union of the Two Truths: emptiness and dependent origination; inseparability of appearances and emptiness. Beyond existence and non-existence, and both or neither. Beyond all description, all conceptualization. We cannot describe it, but just use skillful means against one extreme or another.) The Continuous Display of Beauty says: The disk of the moon immaculate and pure, Always undefiled, is completely full. (i.e. Absolute truth of emptiness of inherent existence) By the power of time within this world, The moon is thought to wax and wane in phases. (i.e. Relative truths: appearances) Likewise, the alaya of reality (ii-b)(i.e. relative: appearances) Always is or possesses sugatagarbha. (i.e. absolute: emptiness) Alaya here is another word for the essence As it was taught by the Tathgatas. For individuals who do not understand this Alaya, by the power of habitual patterns, Is seen as various karmic joys and sorrows, The Universal affliction of the kleshas. (i.e. With the ignorance of these two inseparable aspects of the real nature of everything, the appearances are seen as inherently existing. From this comes discrimination, conceptualization, grasping, the three poisons, and all the 84,000 defilements.) With a nature pure and undefiled, With qualities like a wish-fulfilling gem, Without transmigration, and without change, It is the perfect awareness of liberation. (i.e. The basis-of-all is beyond all discrimination, beyond all conceptualization, beyond samsara and irvana. The support of karma is beyond all karma formations.)

Maitreya says: There is nothing to be illumined, There is nothing to be improved. The real looks at the real. (i.e. One may seek the real nature of the mind, but finding it is finding that there is nothing under all of this. There is no inherently existing subtle self under all of this. It is beyond existence and non-existence; not both, not neither. It is the Union of the two.) In accountable names, this is called the associated alaya of reality (ii-b), the beginningless goodness of the element of dharmas, sugatagarbha, the dhatu (i.e. irreducible element), the luminous nature of mind, Dharmadhatu, the such-ness of the natural state, the natural purity of such-ness, the perfection of praja, the supporting ground, the source of arising, and the producer of the cause of separation. However, what is being named cannot be truly encompassed by thought. In addition to the nature of mind there is the support of habitual patterns of samsara, called the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c). What is it like? It is primordially without the karmic natures of wholesome and unwholesome, liberation and apparent phenomena. That is because it is the support and producer of all such incidental productions. Since the arising of both good and evil depends on it, and because its essence is ignorance, it is neutral. Some say that ignorance rather than the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c) is the support and producer of the five poisons and phenomenal arising. That is just a change of labels. Why? Though it is not the same as the ignorance that discriminates the five poisons, co-emergent ignorance at the time of first being confused by samsara is also called ignorance. The support and producer of phenomenal appearance should be examined further. It is not the support and producer of the wisdom of Buddhahood, possessing the two purities, primordial purity and purity from incidental defilements. That kind of alaya must remain unchanged. (i.e. This is about the difference in terms of level about the wholesome and the unwholesome. One is based on the alaya of reality (ii-b), the other is based on the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c). One is more close to the real non-dual nature of everything. That is why wholesome actions for the benefit of helping all sentient beings without discrimination are done by both Bodhisattva and Buddhas (the difference is the wisdom associated with them.) Unwholesome actions are not in accord with the real nature of everything. -- In short, this model is defining the difference between unwholesomeness and wholesomeness, by comparing it to the real nature of everything. Everything is relative, but not totally arbitrary, the more something is close to the non-dual real nature of everything, the more it is wholesome or appropriate as a path. But of course we have to take into consideration the actual mental state of the student. if the wholesome action is too much different than his actual model then he will simply reject it. So it is a gradual path, using more and more wholesome actions.)

The Holy Golden Light says: The alaya that remains is Dharmakaya, the essence. The Tantra on Exhausting the Basis of the Elements says: The pure alaya is the same as Dharmadhatu. Pure alaya is not the cause of the dhatu separate from defilement, and they are not related as support and supported. It does not produce compounded merit and actions of meditation on the path of the accumulation of wisdom, except in the sense of being the support of their phenomenal appearance. Since these are included in the true path, though classified as deceptive and impermanent, it is therefore accepted that they are dependent on the alaya of various habitual patterns (ii-c). If so, how is it reasonable that it also destroys such things? This has been said, but it really is like that. It is like a lamp dependent on a wick or a fire dependent on fuel burning until they burn themselves out. Though they depend on alaya, habitual patterns of samsara are self- purified by the path of the two accumulations. In that way defilements of the gotra (i.e. Buddha ature -- also: teachings and commentaries on Maitreya/Asanga's Buddha ature root texts), or of Dharmadhatu, are purified. Then the phenomenal exists as it did at first, as the manifested luminosity of enlightenment. What produces this manifestation is called the condition of purification. Subsequently the antidotes that produce purification destroy even themselves. This is because they are good false conceptions imputed by mind. The commentary on the Uttaratantra says: The beginning [5] of the manifestation of enlightenment occurs because all truths of the path are eliminated. The Madhyamakavatara says: By burning all the dry kindling of every knowable object There is the Dharmakaya of the victorious ones. If so, what about the kind of emptiness that throws nothing away or the thirty seven factors of enlightenment? Things are gathered into the level of Buddhahood without being thrown away, and there are the thirty- seven factors of enlightenment; but neither of these are included in the path, since at that point the path is over. The list of names of the great darkness is co-emergent ignorance, the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c), obscuration without beginning or end, primordially existing unawareness and so forth. The nature of mind like the sky, besides existing as the beginning-less space of the dhatu, depending on liberation is yogic union, and depending on samsara is the various habitual patterns. These are the joys and sorrows of the different appearances of

samsara and nirvana and the arising of their faults and virtues. The commentary to the Uttaratantra says: The dhatu of time without beginning and end Is the true state of all the various dharmas. Since this exists, all beings are in nirvana.

The Divisions Of Alaya And The Eight Consciousnesses


The neutral alaya of the various habitual patterns is like a mirror. The alaya-consciousness is like the luminous clarity of the mirror. The consciousnesses of the five gates are like reflections in the mirror. The mental consciousness is the process of analyzing former objects of these or saying, "These are the apparent objects of the five gates," when these first arise. Klesha-mind occurs after that, when desire, hatred or indifference arise simultaneously with experience. If there is no such appraisal by klesha-mind, there is no formation of any of the three poisons, and no karma is accumulated by the six sense-awarenesss. This is how the former teachers say it should be analyzed. When the nature of all dharmas is known, the situation of the view, meditation, and action, is like that. Ignorant beings who make biased assertions about such a mind accumulate bad karma. Thus, the gate of accumulating karma is the mental sense and the five senses along with their supports. The actual accumulator is mind possessing the kleshas and wishing for goodness, and the one who knows such a mind. When these are collected, they are collected on top of alaya. The developer, proliferator and collector, diminisher and so forth, is alaya Vijnana. Master Lodro Tenpa in his great commentary on the Mahayanasutralankara says: The mind-sense and the five senses, the eye and so forth, are the gates of karma, and supports of its entering. The mind that thinks of good, bad, and indifferent is the producer. The six objects, form and so forth, are what is produced. Alaya Vijnana is the developer. Alaya is their support and place, like a house. Alaya Vijnana is clear and vivid awareness with no fixation of grasper and grasped. Proliferating from that are the awarenesss of the five senses. The eye consciousness has insight of form. It does not arise conceptually, but as consciousness.

Similarly the ears hear, the nose smells, the tongue tastes, and things that the body can touch are sensed. They do not arise conceptually, but as consciousness. The apparent objects that seem to arise as likenesses in the five gates are dharmas. They are also the mind consciousness and the dharmas of the object aspect. These phenomena, arising as apprehensions, [6] are known as consciousness. The same text says: As for mind-consciousness, traces like former objects arise, or inferences of nonmanifest objects, but these too are objects of consciousness. Also the awarenesss of the five gates and alaya Vijnana, as soon as they have ceased, as former objects or phenomena of the individual six awarenesss, are also mental. The Abhidharmakosha says: As soon as the six have ceased, Their consciousness becomes mind. When there is apparent form, the vivid, luminous object without a grasper is alaya Vijnana. The arising awareness that apprehends a form-phenomena is the eyeconsciousness. When presentation of both has ceased, the instantly arising aspect that thinks and makes the imputation, "this is form," is mind or concept mind. [7] Moreover, entering that same instant, labeling that non-conceptuality quickly and precisely as non-conceptual, the object first intuited is labeled in "grasping conception." [8] Detailed analysis that arises after that is "fixating conception." [9] If there is not this continuation of the apprehension of mind at the first instant, karma does not accumulate. So it is maintained by all the lords of yoga. The Doha of the Peak of Knowing says: The consciousness of the objects of the six senses, Is not defiled by simply being grasped. Without karma, it is also without its ripening. It is seen without defilement, like space. b. How consciousness accumulates karma (i.e. The origin of the three worlds. Which precise causes result in a rebirth in each of the three worlds. But any rebirth in any of these three worlds is still a rebirth in samsara. They are all impermanent, unsatisfactory, based on ignorance of the real nature of everything. The only way to transcend permanently all existing conditioning and to produce no more is to seek and directly see the real nature of our own mind, and thus the real nature of everything. -- The three worlds are three occasions of the mind: with conditioning and producing conditioning, with conditioning without producing more conditioning, without the influence of conditioning and without producing more conditioning. Or as exemplified by body, speech / abstractions and pure mind. They correspond to three stages of purification of the mind with the practice of the eight Dhyanas, or going to sleep, or dying. But they are conditioned, impermanent; there is rebirth in a lower realms after. The first stage being the ordinary mind of every day as a

sentient being. The first stage being the ordinary mind of every day as a sentient being. The last stage being to see their real nature and inseparability.) ow, as for how these consciousnesses accumulate karma: By the coarsened vice and virtue of conceptual desire Alaya supports the seeds [10]of constructing what is desired. (i.e. The five sense consciousnesses are non-conceptual. They only communicate directly with the present.) The mental consciousness is the process of analyzing former objects of these or saying, "These are the apparent objects of the five gates," when these first arise. It is conceptual. Klesha-mind occurs after that, when desire, hatred or indifference (the three poisons) arise simultaneously with experience. The kleshas are the emotional conditioning based on the belief of inherent existence. -- The mind under the influence of conditioning, and producing more conditioning. -- The objects of meditation are material and limited objects, objects of the senses, associated with the body.) Luminous non-thought is reconstructed as form. (i.e. The luminous aspect, free from thought, is alaya-consciousness. -- The mind in the four Dhyanas, not producing karma, but still subject to karma seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limited objects, associated with the speech.) Depending on these seeds there is one-pointed, formless non-thought. (i.e. The aspect of non-thought is alaya itself, the such-ness of space. -- The mind in the highest formless Dhyana, not producing karma, not subject to karma seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limitless objects, associated with the mind.) The removable two obscurations, the nature of samsara, Are an essential part of their environment. (i.e. But any rebirth in any of these three worlds is still a rebirth in samsara. They are all impermanent, unsatisfactory, based on ignorance of the real nature of everything.)
From the false conceptions

of the coarse grasping and fixation of mind, one falls into the good and bad karma of the desire realm. the natural state is not attained in samdhi, meditation in which conceptualization of apparent objects as appearances does not arise, karma collects on top of alaya in the realm of form.

If

By

meditating in complete non-thought, in the sense of blocking apparent objects, seeds of being born in formlessness are heaped up in alaya. The chapter on "ultimate samdhi" of the Edifice of the Three Jewels says: Whoever is afflicted by desire [11] produced by discursive thoughts, in turn produced by formations of good, bad, and indifferent, falls into the desire realm.

Whoever within this kind of mind has complete non-thought that does not discard objects, produces one-pointed yogic union. Separate from the essence of Dharma, this is conditioned formation of the form realm. Whoever is within either form or desire, not seeing the tracks of mind's objects, and becoming accustomed to this by looking at it a great deal, whirls in the formless realm. These will never be liberated from these three realms of samsara. Therefore, hearing with true hearing, one should earnestly meditate on that which should be meditated on. c) The occasion of awareness (i.e. Seeking the very subtle nature of our own mind under all the conditioning using the eight Dhyanas to put it into a state where there is no actual production of karma, and where it is out of the influence of the already accumulated karma. The mind is then temporarily / artificially purified, by cutting off all involvement with the world, thus cutting off the potential role of the conditioning. But that is still a (forced / artificial) conditioned state, thus impermanent and unsatisfactory. What is gradually observed goes from the gross mind of every day, to its more subtle nature not producing more karma in Dhyanas, to its very subtle nature outside of the influence of already acquired karma in formless Dhyanas. Then, around this state of high concentration (Shamatha, samdhi), we can investigate (Vipashyana) and directly see its real non-dual nature in action, and the real nature of everything. -- The three occasions are three states where we can observe the mind while seeking its real nature under all the added conditioning. The usual every day state is when it is under the influence of accumulated conditioning and producing more karma (much fermentation); then there is the eight consciousnesses (assimilation, accommodation, becoming). As a result of the first four Dhyanas, the mind is not producing any more new karma (no action, no-thought), and what can be observed is the alaya Vijnana, the subtle mind, which is still under the influence of already, accumulated karma (still filtering, assimilating on acquired schema). As a result of the formless Dhyanas, the mind is also temporarily free from the influence of accumulated karma (no objects), while still not producing any more new karma (no action, no thought). Then the mind that is directly seen is the alaya, the essence. -- But these three occasions are still within samsara. Only the union of upaya and praja will permit to transcend all conditioning definitively, thus escaping all karma influence and formation.) ow the occasion of awareness is taught: When awareness is undistracted, being without all thoughts, One pointed without the grasping of apparent objects, That is the time of apprehending the neutral alaya. (i.e. the such-ness of space, like a mirror) (i.e. The aspect of non-thought is alaya itself, the such-ness of space. -- The mind in the highest formless Dhyana, not producing karma, not subject to karma seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limitless objects, associated with the mind.) When there is no fixation of luminous appearance, That is the motionless, clear, and luminous alaya-consciousness.

(i.e. like the luminous clarity of the mirror) (i.e. The luminous aspect, free from thought, is alaya-consciousness. -- The mind in the four Dhyanas, not producing karma, but still subject to karma seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limited objects, associated with the speech.) When the five objects are grasped and fixated, affirmed and denied, And objects are coarsely conceived in the seven consciousnesses, That is what is called the seven consciousnesses. (i.e. like reflections in the mirror) (i.e. The five sense consciousnesses are non-conceptual. They only communicate directly with the present.) The mental consciousness is the process of analyzing former objects of these or saying, "These are the apparent objects of the five gates," when these first arise. It is conceptual. Klesha-mind occurs after that, when desire, hatred or indifference (the three poisons) arise simultaneously with experience. The kleshas are the emotional conditioning based on the belief of inherent existence. -- The mind under the influence of conditioning, and producing more conditioning. -- The objects of meditation are material and limited objects, objects of the senses, associated with the body.)
Unwavering

one-pointed-ness without any thoughts at all is alaya. (i.e. without giving chance to the conditioning to manifest, and without producing any more new conditioning) apparent objects are lucidly seen, with still attention and without any thoughts at all, this is alaya Vijnana (i.e. the conditioned perceptions, without producing any more new conditioning)

When

Then, when

phenomenal objects arise clearly and distinctly this is awareness of the five gates. (i.e. the conditioned awareness) any object that arises is grasped at the first instant, and then is adulterated by kleshas produced by secondary apprehensions, this fixated arising is klesha mind and the mental consciousness. (i.e. the actions of the conditioned mind creating more karma) consciousnesses.

When

Those are the seven

The Level of the Awakening of Bodhicitta says: on-thought unconnected to objects is the occasion of alaya. on-thought connected to objects is the occasion of alaya Vijnana. Individual apprehension of phenomenal objects is the five gates. With subsequent analysis of the first conception of objects as for grasping and fixation arising, this is mind-consciousness and the occasion of klesha-mind. [12] d) Knowing the occasions:

(i.e. The union of Shamatha and Vipashyana, union of upaya and praja: So the temporary purification of the mind using the eight Dhyanas permit to reach a state where the very subtle nature of the mind (alaya) can be directly seen beyond conceptualization. But that is still a conditioned and thus impermanent state. We should not get attached to this state. It is a skillful means (upaya) used to study the real nature of the mind under all conditioning, and the real nature of everything (praja). Coming slowly out of this high concentration state we can observe the arising of thoughts creating the three worlds and directly see their real nature. We can then see through all the conditioning, see their real nature and become free from its influence. -- The perfection of the Dhyanas (upaya) is to combine them with Vipashyana (praja); staying away from the two extremes: not rejecting the world as if completely non-existent or falling for a mind that is suppose to be without any thought, not accepting the world as inherently existing or being slave of the conditioning; not meditating, not nonmeditating. Only then is it in accord with the goal, with the real nature of the mind and of everything: Dharmadhatu, luminous space.) ( ote: About the purification of the body, speech and mind corresponding to the three worlds: The purification of the body permits to go beyond ordinary realism, and to see the alaya Vijnana, the mind interpreting the world without actually producing more karma. The purification of the speech permits to go beyond simple idealism, beyond the acquired karma, the scheme of assimilation, by creating an artificial situation where there is nothing concrete to assimilate, or to filter using the karma seeds. What is seen then is the alaya, the very subtle mind without the influence of the karma seeds. The purification of the mind is to go beyond this artificial state of pure mind; not thinking there is this duality of an impure mind, and a pure mind; and thinking that one is preferable than the other. Purifying the three together is to see their inseparability, not falling into monism either. This is done while perfecting Dhyanas by combining them with Vipashyana. It is then seen that a mind with or without thoughts is not different, not the same; that appearances and mind are inseparable; that appearances and emptiness are inseparable; that mind and body are inseparable. So the real nature of everything is gradually seen as being: not existence / realism (empty), not non-existence / idealism / nihilism (still dependently arisen and functions), not both / dualism (inseparability), not neither / monism (non-dual: not one, not two). Those are the stages of the progressive purification along the path.) When becoming familiar with these, in the three realms of samsara, There is formation of the three gates and of suffering. Knowledge of alaya unconnected with the path of liberation is the stable samdhi of onepointed resting, and the stable conception-less luminosity of Vipashyana. Subsequent arising of objects, with the predominant condition of the six senses, in their accumulated coarse awareness of good and evil are the formless, form, and desire realms. The reason is that liberation is not accomplished, and grasping and fixation are not transcended. Also, grasping this samdhi of non-thought, and resting in it one pointedly without distraction involves fixation. Pure Dhyana is meditation in the style of skillful means, the great compassion, and praja without phenomenal complexities of subject and object [13] that does not abide in the two extremes. The state described, with no one-sided nihilistic meditation, is connected with the natural state incomprehensible by thought, and the happiness and

bliss attained with it. Though miracles and higher perceptions are attained, there is no haughty delight and pride in them and no fixation of marks. Since one has to come out again from nihilistic meditation, it does not go beyond samsara. It is obvious that today's meditation has strayed into the common-path meditation of the extremists etc. or is it seen to have the intrinsic Buddha qualities. e) What predominates in the three chief realms (i.e. What are the conditions in each of the three worlds? Which of the three occasions predominates? What kind of objects predominates? Which stage of purification of the mind is mostly seen? -- Of course these three realms are pure abstractions, nothing is that clearly separated. Karma operated simultaneously on an infinite number of levels. The distinction between levels is purely arbitrary and relative to our own egoistic point of view. And each of these levels can be said to have three realms depending on the conditioning that seems to be efficient / apparent at that level. -- The three stages are defined by considering the influence and the production of conditioning or karma. It could apply to what we call individual sentient beings, or to a group, or a society, or any level higher or lower. At one level there is apparent assimilation, suffering, accommodation, adaptation, complexification. An the next level there is only assimilation, with no acting or thinking. At the next not assimilation or accommodation, like conditioned death or a perfect state with no need. There is also the state of Buddhahood where everything is compassion activities and wisdom.) As for these consciousnesses in their own place and as chief factors of other places, and contemplating the ways of samsara: In the realm of desire the seven consciousnesses dominate. (i.e. The five sense consciousnesses are non-conceptual. They only communicate directly with the present.) The mental consciousness is the process of analyzing former objects of these or saying, "These are the apparent objects of the five gates," when these first arise. It is conceptual. Klesha-mind occurs after that, when desire, hatred or indifference (the three poisons) arise simultaneously with experience. The kleshas are the emotional conditioning based on the belief of inherent existence. -- The mind under the influence of conditioning, and producing more conditioning. -- The objects of meditation are material and limited objects, objects of the senses, associated with the body.) In the realm of pure form it is the alaya-consciousness. (i.e. The luminous aspect, free from thought, is alaya-consciousness. -- The mind in the four Dhyanas, not producing karma, but still subject to karma seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limited objects, associated with the speech.) In the formless realm there is only the non-thought of alaya. The other two samsaric styles are merely latent. (i.e. The aspect of non-thought is alaya itself, the such-ness of space. -- The mind in the highest formless Dhyana, not producing karma, not subject to karma

seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limitless objects, associated with the mind.) Each of the levels should be known like that. In his commentary examining alaya and wisdom, Loppon Sanje Sangwa says: Within the desire realm, the seven consciousnesses, the eye-consciousness and so forth are the principal ones, and the others exist as their retinue. In the realm of form, the alaya Vijnana, and object-engaging consciousness [14] are principal, and the others are their retinue. In the formless realm, alaya is the principle one the others exist only as latencies. f) How consciousness dissolves (i.e. Conditions and opportunity in the desire realm to directly observe the very subtle nature of the mind and possibly its real nature. The gradual stages of purification of the mind (as explained above) are similar to the stages of the death process, or when going to sleep. The mind then withdraw, abandon all activities, then all conditioned appearances, all defilements and becomes more and more purified. With practice, the various stages of the mind can be directly observed there also. So this can also be used to "directly see the real nature of the mind" and of everything, and thus become totally Enlightened. [Assuming this is not just a conceptual artifact of this particular model.] -It is also compared to the withdrawal of the winds into the central channel as practiced in Tantra yana.) Here are the extensive divisions of the subject: Thus when we go to sleep, within the desire realm, Awareness of the five objects (iii 1-5) by stages dissolves into mind [15] [consciousness] (iii-6). (i.e. Cutting off the inputs from the five senses, and abiding in thoughts. -- The mind under the influence of conditioning, and producing more conditioning. -- The objects of meditation are material and limited objects, objects of the senses, associated with the body.) This dissolves within the non-thought of alaya (i). This is a one-pointed state without apparent objects [alaya]. (i.e. Then even thoughts are abandoned. -- on-thought connected to objects is the occasion of alaya Vijnana. -- on-thought unconnected to objects is the occasion of alaya. The luminous aspect, free from thought, is alaya-consciousness. -- The mind in the four Dhyanas, not producing karma, but still subject to karma seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limited objects, associated with the speech. The aspect of non-thought is alaya itself, the such-ness of space. -- The mind in the highest formless Dhyana, not producing karma, not subject to karma

seeds. -- The objects of meditation are immaterial, limitless objects, associated with the mind.) This too dissolves in Dharmadhatu, simplicity. (i.e. Then the mind goes back to its original non-dual state. Dharmadhatu, the primordial state of co-emergence, the natural state of wisdom, emptiness/luminosity.) When it develops again, from the alaya consciousness (ii), There is isolated mind, known as the mind of dreaming. What is really nothing appears. We affirm and negate its variety. This develops further and we awake from sleep. By entering into the objects and consciousness of the six senses (iii 1-6), Various karmic formations come to be engendered. This is how things appear throughout the day and night. When beings of the desire realm go to sleep,
The awareness

of the five gates of the senses and klesha mind gradually dissolve into the mental consciousness.

As

the mental consciousness dissolves into alaya Vijnana, luminous non-thought arises for a little while. recognize this and rest within it course without dreaming in the luminosity of dharmata. (i.e. dharmin, the realm of dharmas, and dharmata, their real nature) of the new transmission say that alaya Vijnana dissolves entirely into the impermanent alaya. dissolves into Dharmadhatu.

Those who

Some teachers

Alaya On

the subsiding of coarse and subtle grasping, the simplicity of empty and luminous dharmata arises and, if it is recognized, confusion is eliminated. Sangwa Yeshe says in the Compendium of the Precious Tantras says: After the seven consciousnesses dissolve into alaya Alaya dissolves in the purity of space. Then there is the primordial state of co-emergence, The natural state of wisdom, emptiness/luminosity. That is something that every yogin ought to know. Then these unfold from wisdom again: there is alaya Vijnana, and by that, from the rising of the mental consciousness alone, various dreams arise. At this time, objects of habitual mind are grasped as dharmas having their own individual nature. Also the conceptually activated pranas and the pranas in the nadis that depend on the seven consciousnesses enter into the side nadis roma and kyangma, and then the central channel. Then they are known as the consciousness that is not equalized with alaya. That

is because they are united with nadi and prana and equalized with them. Then they enter into the central channel in one taste. This is the time of alaya. One goes into deep sleep without dreams. Some directly experience the characteristics of dreamlessness, and rest there. Then as for alaya dissolving into Dharmadhatu, in the center of the central channel there is the supreme luminosity. The elements of the coarse nadis do not become this, and the unmoving prana has the nature of its clear light. The All-illuminator says: The nadi that exists in the center of the central channel Does not become supreme luminosity. The clear space of luminosity without solidity Is spontaneously present wisdom, the true state of everything. The essence of prana in the central channel is said to be awareness itself. At the time of its entry there luminosity arises. At that time the bindus of apparent luminosity, radiance, rainbows, and so forth arise. Empty luminosity, mind itself free from all complexity arises. The luminosity of union, the great wisdom that experiences luminous insight arises. Then, when alaya, its consciousness and mind consciousness unfold again, within the life-nadi the mind prana that depends completely on memory proliferates. Then by the entry of prana into the nadis that support the individual senses, we wake from sleep. The objects that appear by day arise in the usual unreflective grasping and fixation. Then if an object that seems to be form is conceptually apprehended, [16] its individual divisions will be nothingness. g) If one divides dharmas individually (i.e. Conditions and opportunity in the form realm to directly observe the subtle nature of the mind, the alaya Vijnana. That would be the result of practicing the first four Dhyanas. Objects are still seen due to already accumulated karma, but there is usually no new karma formation since the mind is artificially maintained in a forced state of noaction, no-thought. But since this state is forced, conditioned, it is thus impermanent, unsatisfactory, and still subject to already accumulated karma. -- Appearances are still conditioned by the actual assimilation schema; there is still filtering by the actual five aggregates. But there is no action, no analysis, no conceptualization, no further fermentation, no emotional involvement, no attachment, no repulsion, no fears; just bliss due to the absence of suffering.) In the level of pure form, there are the four Dhyana states. These remain within the alaya consciousness. (i.e. on-thought connected to objects is the occasion of alaya Vijnana.) Though sometimes a subtle consciousness may grasp at objects, By training in samdhi, this mostly does not occur. At the time of the actual Dhyanas, each one has its own non-thought as the principal thing. Conceptions of objects are dormant and exist as a retinue. The first second, and third Dhyanas have the faults of concept, analysis, and a feeling of concentrated joy. [17] Up to the fourth some exist there with the three bases of sentient beings, death, transmigration, and the chance to listen to the dharma. [18]

h) How continuity of mind depends on the four formless skandhas of name: (i.e. Conditions and opportunity in the formless realm to directly observe the very subtle nature of the mind, the alaya. That would be the result of practicing the four formless Dhyanas; some Tantra yana practices like the tsumo fire, or by observing it in the process of death. o objects of the senses are usually seen; the mind is almost completely out of the influence of previously accumulated karma. Also there is usually no new karma formation since the mind is maintained in a state of no-action, no-thought. o new karma good or bad, but ignorance increases. Also, since this Dhyana state is forced, conditioned, it is thus impermanent, unsatisfactory. Also, at the moment of death, if there is ignorance, the mind is not totally purified; there remain the conditioning (stored in the four mental aggregates). They have not disappeared; they have just been temporarily disabled by this deep concentration on objects like infinite space and so forth. So there is no real discontinuity, the conditioning continue. There will be rebirth in samsara based on the state of the mind at the last moment which is dependent on all past actions, and on the level of wisdom.)

Consciousness of the formless level is alaya. (i.e. on-thought unconnected to objects is the occasion of alaya.) In its four one pointed Shamathas, those on space and the rest, Are very subtle feelings, perceptions, formations, and consciousness, On these four skandhas of name, depends mind's continuity. We may not awake from one-pointed samdhi for a kalpa. When this is examined, no virtuous seeds are planted at all. Before death, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness dissolve into alaya. These four are known as the skandhas of name. The mental body, depending on the continuity of mind, goes into the samdhi of one-pointed Shamatha, resting in the four states of limitless space, time, consciousness, and of neither perception nor nonperception. Even after an entire kalpa, like lapsing into deep sleep, no good karma will have been produced. Though no actual bad karma will have been produced either, intrinsic karmic ignorance is activated, and one's natural ignorance increases. i) How to comprehend the mind of the four formless Dhyanas: (i.e. So even the best formless Dhyanas are not Liberation. They are just impermanent state. Ignorance is not removed; it is increased. The real nature of conditioning, of the mind, of everything, is not directly seen. It is just a temporary rejection of everything, like nihilism. Because of this ignorance the cycle of samsara will continue after coming out of this state. There is still the high probability of ending up in the three lower realms with its suffering for an eternity. To be efficient this high state of concentration (Shamatha) has to be combined with an investigation of the real nature of everything (Vipashyana). The perfection of these Dhyanas is to unite them with the wisdom realizing the real nature of everything, even these Dhyanas states.)

Therefore, even this, the mind of the formless Dhyanas, Is left on exhausting the karma of which it is the fruit. Because it is ignorance, its nature is neutral. Because it produces repeated errors of cause and effect, Therefore we need to be liberated from it. The Sutra on Being Without Suffering says: By the productive power of former collection of virtue, Fine houses of the celestial gods are reached and relinquished. From the formless samdhis too, when their karma is exhausted, Again one goes with those who are on or under the earth. j) In particular, how the three-fold awareness of the desire realm of same and different, by becoming familiar to the mind of desire, also produces the cause of liberation. (i.e. Both form of karma, wholesome and unwholesome, are conditioning leading to a rebirth in samsara. But wholesome is preferable since it leads to the higher realms, to the precious human life with its freedoms and endowments, and to the possibility of seeing through all conditioning, of transcending all conditioning. It is preferable because it is closer to the real nature of everything, because it permits to acquired peace of body and mind through morality and renunciation, to develop the high concentration of the Dhyanas and have the opportunity to purify the mind and see its real nature, to develop wisdom with the Vipashyana, to unite upaya and praja and reach complete Enlightenment. -- Knowing the real nature of the mind, the three occasions: In the desire realm, we can produce bad karma leading to the three lower realms, or good karma leading temporarily to the three higher realms. We also have the opportunity to transcend all karma formation with this precious human life by becoming a vessel of practicing the Dharma. What we have to do is to directly see the real nature of our own mind (how the various consciousnesses, appearances, the three poisons...are arisen; the wholes process of conditioning), to observe it in action in the present, and to see that everything is dependent on the mind. We should become aware of the three aspects all the time: the aspect of non-thought, the luminous aspect, the klesha-mind. Meaning: we should always be aware of the two truths (dependent origination and emptiness; or luminous space; or inseparability of appearances and emptiness; or inseparability of upaya and praja), and that appearances taken, as inherently existing are mere illusions created by conditioning, explained by the working of karma and of the eight consciousnesses. This is the equivalent of the three aspects of the Yogacara.) As the mind of desire becomes what it is accustomed to, It also produces the cause of being freed from its highs and lows. Both the coarse and celestial levels are levels of karma. In particular, since one can become a vessel of practicing the Dharma, the Objects of Mindfulness says: In the desire realm mind becomes coarsened by planting seeds of good and bad. Therefore, in particular, we should try to work with good dharmas. i) What consciousness predominates during the day:

(i.e. It is important to become familiar with the dynamic of the three aspects of the mind: the alaya, the alaya Vijnana, the seven consciousnesses. If we can see how the consciousness of an object is dependent on past karma (conditioning) superposed onto the untouched very subtle nature of our mind, then we can become free from the illusion.) By day the seven consciousnesses usually dominate. The other two natures are then the retinue of these. [Ex.] Thus the grasping of form by visual consciousness The luminous aspect, free from thought, is alaya-consciousness. The aspect of non-thought is alaya itself. All the other six should be known in a similar way.
The eye seeing

form is the eye-consciousness. of luminosity and non-thought is alaya Vijnana.

Clear awareness

on-thought is alaya itself. for sound, smell, taste, and touch,

Similarly,

and when the mind apprehends a remembered object, the consciousnesses apprehend their respective individual objects.
Luminous

awareness is alaya Vijnana.

on-thought is alaya.

When there is the motionless, vivid luminosity of alaya Vijnana, individual objects are not hindered, and there is also awareness of them.
The luminosity And Also

is alaya Vijnana,

the non-thought is alaya.

one-pointed entering and dissolving into real alaya exist as latencies, just as the stars exist as latencies when the sun rises. Here is how the Commentary Examining Mind and Wisdom explains the armor of Buddhahood: Completely non-conceptual awareness rests in alaya. Its mere clarity/luminosity is alaya Vijnana. Apprehension of individual objects is the six consciousnesses. Entering, dissolving, and non-thought are the situations of alaya. ii) The way in which these are the same and different

(i.e. The gradual stages of purification of the mind (as explained above) are similar to the stages of the death process, or when going to sleep. The mind then withdraw, abandon all activities, then all conditioned appearances, all defilements and becomes more and more purified. With practice, the various stages of the mind can be directly observed there also. So this can also be used to "directly see the real nature of the mind" and of everything, and thus become totally Enlightened. The reverse process is similar to rebirth, or while waking up from one-pointed sleep, or while coming out of deep formless concentration. Becoming familiar with this is becoming familiar with the real nature of the mind, with its two inseparable aspects of space and luminosity. It is directly seeing that everything is dependent on the mind; not different or separated, not the same. With practice one can become aware while those two processes occur: withdrawal and emanation.) Here is the explanation of how they are the same and different: Sleep is one-pointed, and when we awake from out of our dreams, Alaya, the alaya consciousness, and the mind, And then the six senses also should be known As successively one and two in one and all in one. In one-pointed sleep, all awareness is one in alaya. It never fails to be outwardly reemanated. When we dream, from within that come alaya Vijnana and superimposed on that, the mind consciousness arises alone. At this time of no external emanation, alaya is of one essence with the consciousness rising from it, and the mind consciousness. When we wake from sleep, there is a great deal of external emanation from within alaya, but alaya and all of the eight consciousnesses are still of one nature. As for these, the Secret Commentary says that the four elements are displayed. ow if the meaning is summarized very clearly, Luminous mind is the support or source of all that arises. Within it, samsara and nirvana are completely undivided and undifferentiated. This natural state of changeless unity is sugatagarbha, the source of samsara and nirvana. (i.e. Everything come from the non-dual unborn mind. The various consciousnesses are not separate or different, not the same from the original awareness. A mind with or without defilements is not different, not the same. Samsara and irvana are not different, not the same. They are both dependent on the mind, both empty of inherent existence. But one is with ignorance, the other without. One is impermanent, the other permanent. The basis-of-all, the support of all, is the unborn Buddha-nature. There is nothing to do, nothing to not do; nothing to accept, nothing to reject; it is just a matter of directly seeing the real nature of our own mind. -- When there is ignorance there is dependence on conditioning and production of more conditioning. When there is the Union of The Two Truths, one is not fooled by the conditioning, and doesn't produce any more conditioning. In both case it is the same essence and luminosity.) The Dohakosha says:

Solitary mind itself is the seed of all. Whatever emanates as samsara and nirvana. It bestows the fruition of whatever is desired. I prostrate to mind, which is like a wish-fulfilling gem. The Gandavyuha Sutra says: To describe the special cause, from which arising occurs, It is not without causation. It is also not without action, ot different from appearance; not different from alaya. If phenomenal appearances were different from it, In that case, alaya would not be something eternal. Un-manifested, undestroyed, and permanent, Alaya completely excludes the four extremes Existing as the purity of sugatagarbha, It is said to be the emanation of wisdom. It and the essence are mutually not different It is like a finger, pointing to the essence. The various levels and alaya are also sugatagarbha. Alaya is that essence, the Sugata has taught. Though the essence thus is known as alaya. Those whose minds are weak have no knowledge of this. The nature pure of causation, the kayas and wisdoms and so forth, is known as the undefiled, true alaya. (i.e. When there is Union of the Two Truths.) When it is made into the support of samsara, it is designated as the defiled alaya of the various habitual patterns. (i.e. When there is no Union of The Two Truths; when there is ignorance.) The different kinds of supported dharmas are of one nature with the supporting ground.. (i.e. Inseparability of appearances and the mind. Inseparability of appearances and emptiness.) The Abhisamayalankara [19] says: By particular kinds of supported dharmas Its divisions are completely to be expressed. That is the same approach. When there is defilement, it also exists by a different name as our enlightened family nature or essence, in itself pure of every defilement, but needing to be purified of separable stains. (i.e. Enlightenment is not caused, produced, thus not impermanent. We already have the potential, the Buddha-nature. it is just a matter of directly seeing the real nature of our own mind, and of everything.) The above text says: Just as in the conception of those who do not know The moon is thought to wax to fullness and wane away. Though actually the moon neither grows nor diminishes, That is how it seems to people in the world.

Similarly within the alaya Vijnana, Foolish, ignorant beings who do not know how things are Think that things are always growing and diminishing. ot thinking in this way is known as Buddhahood. (i.e. o real origination, duration, cessation. Everything is merely imputed by the mind. Arisen in dependence of the mind. ot existent, not non-existent, not both, not either.) Alaya as the ground of all the various dharmas, Has habitual patterns of pride and all the rest And so is disturbed by concepts and discursive thoughts. (i.e. There is a real flow of interdependence (a mind stream), but no inherently existing entities of beings in it. The ignorance of this make us think that the appearances are inherently existing, independently of the mind. So we develop fixation, grasping and all the other defilements.) If it becomes otherwise, it is undefiled. If it ever attains its natural non-defilement, Since this is eternal, it will always have it. (i.e. But its real nature, a flow of dependence without any inherently existing entities (inseparability of appearances and emptiness; the Union of the Two Truths) is always present. It is just a matter of seeing it. -- Seems to mean that the Buddha is the flow that knows its real non-dual unborn non-conceptual nature.) The actual moon neither waxes nor wanes; but by the power of time it appears do so. The luminous nature of mind itself is Buddhahood. It does not have the characteristics of joy and sorrow. Yet samsaric beings see the celestial realms, the lower realms, and so forth. If the real nature is purified, one reaches the real alaya. That is what is being said. (i.e. In short, there is no real being that is taking rebirth in real six realms. All of this is merely imputed by the mind. There is no real wholesome and unwholesome. The real nature of everything, including the mind, is beyond all discrimination, beyond all dualities, beyond any description, any conceptualization. The path consists of gradually removing those wrong views from gross to very subtle by seeing though the illusions, seeing their real nature without falling into any extreme (like total rejection or nihilism). This is compared to a gradual purification process. The defilements are purified not by rejecting something, but by looking at them directly, seeing their real nature. The result is still, as it has always been, the union of dependent origination and emptiness, the inseparability of appearances and emptiness, the unimpeded luminous space.) That completes the explanation of the arising of alaya Vijnana and the eight consciousnesses from alaya. These are included within the ignorant confusion of the mind-consciousness. The Sutras say: Mind, the chief, is very quick. It precedes all the dharmas. (i.e. The "mind" itself is the chief of all appearances.) When we do not know the changeless nature, the perfectly established, there is false conception. Various kinds of impure, confused appearance arise, produced within

relativity. When these dreamlike confusions of samsara are eliminated, there is the perfectly established, mind itself. By meditation on the true path of upaya and praja in the developing and perfecting stages; the primordial ground, the essence, is made to manifest and is realized as it is. That completes the explanation of the ground, the support of karma. 2) The explanation of the supported, karma,
a) The root,

ignorance

(It is because the luminous space (mind) doesn't know its own nature that it thinks objects are inherently existing, independently of itself, separate from itself, that there is fixation, grasping, the three poisons, the six poisons, the cycle of samsara, and all the defilements. Everything, all actions, are based on the belief of something inherently existing. The errors pile up, multiplying, complexifying and perpetuating themselves until they fail and cause suffering.)
b) The producer,

unwholesomeness

(What created conditioning (karma) are the actions based on this ignorance; discriminating while thinking that something is inherently existing (an object, a characteristic, a being, a feeling, an idea, a concept...); acting under the influence of already accumulated conditioning while ignoring its real nature. And while acting there is creation of more conditioning or the reinforcement of already existing conditioning. There are the actions of body, speech and mind; the ten unwholesome actions. What makes them unwholesome and the causes of much suffering is their contradiction with the real non-dual nature of everything. They are like bad habits contrary to reality. They are like bad investments.)
c) The divisions

(Unwholesome actions of body, speech and mind) a) The root [cause of all karma, of samsara]: ignorance (i.e. It is because the luminous space (mind) doesn't know its own nature that it thinks objects are inherently existing, independently of itself, separate from itself, that there is fixation, grasping, the three poisons, the six poisons, the cycle of samsara, and all the defilements. Everything, all actions, are based on the belief of something inherently existing. The errors pile up, multiplying, complexifying and perpetuating themselves until they fail and cause suffering.) The root of karma, dependent dharmas, is ignorance. Its threefold essence is passion, aggression, and ignorance. These produce the board of samsara, black and white. Primordially luminous mind-itself, by not apprehending its own nature, propagates confusions of grasping and fixation all over the ground, so that all the sentient beings of samsara are confused.

(i.e. The Root Cause Of Suffering, And The Three Poisons : ote: It is not about a universal law, or god, that brings punishment or happiness depending on our actions. Everything is empty of inherent existence. It is about the mind, the way it fools itself and then later suffer the natural consequences of its mistake in believing in its own creations as if external and independent. The causes and effects are necessarily related and proportional because they are all coming from the mind. Karma and the five aggregates are not separate or different, not the same. The truth of universal origination is an English translation of the name Buddha himself gave to this noble truth. It means, "that which is the cause or origin of absolutely everything." The truth of universal origination indicates that the root cause of suffering is karma and the kleshas. Karma is a Sanskrit word which means "activity" and klesha in Sanskrit means "mental defilement" or "mental poison." If one does not understand the Buddhas teachings, one would most likely attribute all happiness and suffering to some external cause. One might think that happiness and suffering come from the environment, or from the gods, and that everything that happens originates in some source outside of ones control. If one believes this, then it is extremely hard, if not impossible, to eliminate suffering and its causes. On the other hand, when one realizes that the experience of suffering is a product of what one has done, that is, a result of ones karma, eliminating suffering becomes possible. Once one is aware of how suffering takes place, then one can begin to remove the causes of suffering. First one must realize that what one experiences is not dependent on external forces, but on what one has done previously. This is the understanding of karma. Karma produces suffering and is driven by the defilements. The term "defilement" refers mainly to ones negative motivation and negative thoughts, which produce negative actions. -- The Four oble Truths: A Teaching by Thrangu Rinpoche Unskillful karma of mind is the worst kind of karma because actions of body and speech arise from mind. ... All the sufferings of all beings in samsara are produced by mind. ... Body and speech are only servants of the mind. ... Karma results from klesha -- mental defilement. ... In the scriptures, kleshavarana is said to have eighty-four thousand different forms. They can be simplified into three main categories, from which the others come or in which the others are included: desire, aversion, and ignorance. ... Desire and aversion [discrimination] are both produced by ignorance. We experience them because we do not know the real nature of things. The reason for practicing meditation is to overcome suffering; to overcome suffering we must overcome karma; to overcome karma we must overcome desire and aversion; to overcome desire and aversion we must overcome ignorance. Meditation overcomes ignorance. o beings want suffering; they all want to remove it. Most do not know how to, and some even create suffering in their efforts to remove it. People take medicines that cure sickness temporarily but cannot remove it forever. To remove suffering permanently, we must find its cause -- karma; we must remove the cause of the cause -- desire and aversion; we must remove the cause of these -- ignorance. Ignorance is the deepest root of all suffering. If ignorance is removed, all that stems

from it will automatically disappear. Escape from samsara is impossible unless ignorance is removed. If we sit in meditation without understanding the real reason for doing so we will achieve only limited results. -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation This twofold ignorance about the ego and outer phenomena is the root of all defilements, karma and suffering. To remove suffering we must remove this ignorance completely. The only way to do this is to meditate on emptiness. There are many other objects of meditation, but emptiness is the most important. -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation The appearances of mind are like those of a dream. Arising merely from the viewpoint of confused mind, the variety of inner and outer arises as nothing at all. Such appearances arise from the seeds of confused habitual patterns. In reality they do not truly exist; but because they appear in the mind as if they did, mind is the root of all dharmas. Though mountains and so forth appear externally projected from the viewpoint of confused mind, there are really no mountains. They exist only in the mind. ... Since all that is wholesome and unwholesome within samsara has arisen from mind, working to tame the mind is the root of all Dharmas. Mind is the root of all our joys and sorrows. Our only effort should be to tame the mind. In brief, by the three poisons, arising from the three collections of objects, the senses, and the actions of concept mind, come all motivating karmas. These karmas are unhappiness. ... By the three poisons there is universally arising unhappiness. The lower realms and whatever suffering there may be are produced by this cause. The Ratnavali of argarjuna says, "Every action arising from desire, aversion and ignorance produces suffering; every action arising from the absence of desire, aversion and ignorance produces happiness." -- Interview with Sakya Trizin The root of samsara and suffering is ignorance, Having the confusion of grasping and fixation. By objects, conceptualization, and mind's habitual patterns, By fixating "me" and "mine," samsara is established. 'Externally appearing things are like the things that appear to be other in a dream.' This means that grasping involves habitual patterns of objects. These various appearances of pure and impure are confused existence. Habitual patterns of reality are produced by the karma of bodily arising and also by the inner condition of not knowing such-ness. These are the skandhas (i.e. Five aggregates), dhatus (i.e. irreducible Elements), ayatanas (i.e. spheres of sense and sense objects), and so forth. From them arise all the kleshas, and the suffering that is their fruition, the support of the confusions of fixation. ... When we become attached to this as the individualizing characteristics of grasping and fixation, insight arises as the habitual patterns of mind. The five or the three poisons arise. The root of confusion is fixating on the "I" and ego. Because of that, the confused appearances of samsara arise like reflections, dreams, or hairs drifting before the eyes. Moreover, fixation is fixated as "I", and grasped objects are fixated as "mine" with an attitude like that of the owner of a house.

"Ignorance is itself conditioned by the actual mind and body (the five aggregates). A cycle of self-reinforcing bad habits, samsara." -" irvana the cessation of accepting everything [as real]." -- argarjuna, Karikas With the support of the three gates, the three poisons, and the three kayas there are the three realms. The root of confusion is not knowing what we are. Though karmas and kleshas are nature-less, they ceaselessly appear. Therefore, they depend on ignorance as their root. The condition is the arising of objects. The cause is connection with the three poisons. Lets go back to just how did it happen that I rose up, as it were, in this form of flesh and blood. One finds the causes to be, mentally speaking, these kankas or afflicted emotions (skt. klesha) in ones mind, and the actions that they motivated. If I didn't have these, I wouldn't be always getting stuck in these heaps of flesh and bone. In a word, I wasn't born miraculously; there were causes for my birth. The causes for birth are actions that one performed and actions, which were motivated by particular kankas in the mental state, particularly the afflicted emotions. It is through getting rid of these kankas in one's mental make-up that one gets rid of the causes to be in a state such as we now find ourselves. It is easy to say kankas or kleshas, there are so many of these mental afflicted emotions. But really, if you boil it all down to the main ones, what one identifies is attachment and hatred and confusion. These are the main kankas. One has then, particular kleshas or kankas stuck in one's mind, and you can't burn them off, you can't cut them out and you can't rub them away. You can't just rid of the mind of them in this way. One has to somehow have a method to get these things out of one's mental world; one needs some kind of antidote. The main klesha is confusion, which consists of an apprehension of truth. Say one is looking at a stone pillar off at a distance, but somehow it looks as if it is a person is over there. It really appears as a person even though there is no person, there's just a stone pillar but we believe in a person standing there. Similarly with everything that we're aware of in the universe. Every time we become aware of anything we think, 'hey, that's real, isn't it? Yeah that's real and it's truly what it seams to be, yes, that's how it is'. In exactly that same way we accept something as real or true by the way it seems to be, even if it is not real or true. It is the same as if you see something in the dark and think 'watch out, it is a snake', but in fact it is a coiled up rope. All of a sudden one feels tremendous animosity towards it. Better get rid of it! Better kill it! When you turn on the lights you suddenly see all of the grounds for one's animosity and fear are not there at all. But as for ourselves we had no doubt, it was really a snake, we were totally settled on it, totally certain about it. It was reality. We apprehend something, we hold on to it, we believe in it; 'But as for me, don't be silly, of course I am here, absolutely exactly as I seem to be. That person who hurt me is most certainly there, trying to get at me and I don't like them. The person who is helping me is definitely there helping me, and yes indeed, I like them very much.' Thus, based on

this confusion comes hatreds and attachments. Since one is so sure that indeed 'I' am here and indeed that person hurts me or helps me is there, then that person who's so certainly there should immediately turn up once one searches for them analytically. Something appearing as so real, one should obviously be able to find. Something so real should become clearer and clearer when one's goes looking analytically for it. Through that analytical search, one begins to chip away at this ascent, the belief in a reality that is in fact not there. With the awareness that the reality I always believed in has never been there, one begins to get insight into emptiness and begins to find an anti-dote to the problems. As it's said, when one gets rid of the confusion about the truth all the other kleshas are just blown away. But one might say, 'what about all those wrong things I did in the past, do they just disappear?' o, they all remain as things one did. In other words one's karma remains, but with the absence of this belief in truth, there is no longer conditions for the results, which one would have otherwise experienced to come forth. So this is a method to remove these afflicted emotions or kleshas from one's mental world and thereby to free one from suffering. On the historical level then, it was the Buddha who sat near the iranjana river under the Bodhi Tree and found Enlightenment there, having struggled for so long to understand. Then, after going to Sarnath He taught this:
'Know

this to be suffering and know these to be the causes of suffering, having this samsara and these kleshas in ones mind. the enemy of the Dharma. the enemy of the Truth, the enemy of the Way, the enemy of spiritual life'.

That's That's

These kankas or these things which stick to our inner state of mind, these afflicted emotions, these hatreds, attachments and this basic confusion which allows us to believe in realities which are not real. And it's the fight, as it were, against these inner enemies which is the fight to be fought when one is attempting to pursue a spiritual life. And this is in essence what Buddhism comes down to,
That one sees

or one faces up to the problems one is caught in, the problem, which is

here now.
One identifies

the causes of it, in essence these psychological afflicted emotions or

kleshas.
And

one seeks to free oneself from suffering by removing from one's mind those kleshas. a person has got strong kankas or kleshas, that person will be agitated and upset. If one doesn't have a way to bring oneself to peace, to a feeling of well being, how can one lead others to well being.)

When

What's the cause of suffering that one is to get rid of? That's these klesas or kankas in ones mind. So one works then to get rid of these kankas within oneself. We properly need and properly want that state of freedom in which suffering has cooled down. That state of freedom is to be actualized, and to have that come about we have to follow and meditate on the path that leads to it. If you've got some disease, you have in your mind a state of health and you want to be healthy. So like that, by knowing suffering one wants freedom. You can see health in this sense as the cooling down of the disease. When a disease that afflicts one cools down or is cured, one is in a state of freedom from disease. And to get to this state of health, one has to get rid of the cause of the disease. To get rid of what's causing the sickness one relies on medicine, but you don't just go and take any prescription, no, the medicine has to be a prescription by a knowledgeable doctor. One therefore needs a prescription of spiritual practice, which will cure these klesas or kankas. And such a prescription is written out, as it were, by a doctor who is knowledgeable about the medicine or spiritual practice, which gets rid of klesas or kankas. Thus one needs to have good Spiritual Friends or Gurus. Like the great hermitmeditator Milarepa said, 'If you just break your back trying, without any access to spiritual advice, all you do is break your back and get nowhere'. These things then,
To To To

know suffering to be suffering, get rid of what causes that suffering, bring into being a state of freedom to meditate on that path that brings that freedom into being,

And

were uttered by the Buddha from within understanding. It could not be that they are statements, which will lead us stray, since they came forth from within understanding. Like I said yesterday, having this in mind, it's this ignorance or bewilderment that we have to get rid of. I'm not sure whether it was argarjuna or his disciple Arideva that said the Bhagawan uses the word ignorance in reference to the belief in an absolute being in things, when in actual fact things come into being through causes and conditions. may be, the seed, which ripens into this stream of existence, is settling on that phenomenon as truly being the way it looks.
Thus, when Whatever the phenomena

one sees the emptiness of that phenomenon, the seed, which ripens into this stream of existence, is destroyed.

As

the great Dharmakirti said, 'If you don't punch a hole through the thing which you believe in but which is not there in reality, you can never get rid of the thing which is causing all the problems. Even love, even compassion cannot function within the mind to make the breakthrough'.

In

other words, whatever you take as your spiritual practice or meditation, you'll never find freedom from an ongoing stream of existence until included in that meditation or spiritual practice is the meditation of absorbing oneself on emptiness. It's not just intellectual understanding of emptiness; one has to ingrain it into one's way of seeing things. that knowledge directed towards one particular focus, into which one finds a capacity to absorb oneself for long periods of time, that adsorption is what is meant by Samadhi. -- Geshe Yeshe Tobten, Praise of Dependent Origination) Karikas 26 - An Analysis of the Twelve Components (dvadasanga) "What is hidden by ignorance (1)" (avidyanivrta) has caused the three kinds of conditioned things (samskara) to be made for rebirth By those actions it [i.e., " what is hidden by ignorance"] goes forward. ... 10.Thus the ignorant people construct the conditioned things (samskara); [that is] the source for existence-in-flux. The one who constructs is ignorant; the wise person is not [one who constructs] because he perceives true reality. 11.When ignorance ceases, the constructed phenomena do not come into existence. A person's cessation of ignorance proceeds on the basis of "becoming" [enlightened] through knowledge. 12.Through cessation of every [component] none functions; That single mass of sorrow (dukkha) is thus completely destroyed. Karikas 17 - An Analysis of Action (karma) and Its Product (phala) 33. Desires, actions, bodies, producers, and products Are like a fairy castle, resembling a mirage, a dream. ) The Prajnaparamitasamgatha [20] says: As many sentient beings as there are, low, middle, and high, They have arisen from ignorance. So the Sugata taught. The lower ones are those in the lower realms. The middle ones are human beings. The higher ones are the gods. Each experiences the joys and sorrows of their own particular kind of karma. The root of this is ignorance. They all equally possess the three poisons. They all equally possess unwholesomeness. In accord with their virtues and merits, they all produce fruitions of happiness. The section on the producer, the wholesome or virtuous, has two divisions, the ground and divisions of wholesomeness. As for the explanation of the ground: by the wholesome, happiness and the higher realms are established. By the unwholesome, suffering and the lower realms are produced. b) The producer, unwholesomeness [unwholesome actions based on ignorance]

So

(i.e. What created conditioning (karma) are the actions based on this ignorance; discriminating while thinking that something is inherently existing (an object, a characteristic, a being, a feeling, an idea, a concept, ...); acting under the influence of already accumulated conditioning while ignoring its real nature. And while acting there is creation of more conditioning or the reinforcement of already existing conditioning. There are the actions of body, speech and mind; the ten unwholesome actions. What makes them unwholesome and the causes of much suffering is their contradiction with the real non-dual nature of everything. They are like bad habits contrary to reality. They are like bad investments.) As for the explanation of the unwholesome:

Since we can fall from high to low within samsara There are the un-virtuous actions, divided into ten. There are three of body, four of speech, and three of mind. The ten unwholesome actions that produce falling from the higher realms into the lower ones, and nothing but suffering are as follows: The three unwholesome actions of body 1. Cutting off life. 2. Taking what is not given. 3. Sexual transgression. The four unwholesome actions of speech 1. Lying. 2. Divisive speech. 3. Sophistic speech. [21] 4. Harsh words. The three unwholesome actions of mind 1. Covetousness. 2. Ill-will. 3. Wrong view.

(i.e. JA: Can you explain how the other mental afflictions stem, or come out of innate ignorance? DL: As I said, there are two types of ignorance. The first is a mere obscuration with respect to the status of phenomena. The other is ignorance, which misconceives the nature of phenomena. The latter one conceives that phenomena inherently exist, which they don't. Within this misconception of inherent existence, there are again two types: conceptions of persons as inherently existent and conceptions of other phenomena as also such. This division is made by way of a consideration of users of objects and objects used. Within the conception of persons as inherently existent, there are cases of conceiving both one's own self and other selves to truly exist. Viewing the transitory collection of body and mind as a real "I" is a case of viewing your own self as inherently existent. With respect to this view, there are two further types. One is a conception that observes the transitory collection, which gives rise to the thought of "I" and conceives it to inherently exist. Another observes "mine" and conceives it to exist in the same way. ow, first of all, one generates a conception of the inherent existence of those phenomena-the mental and physical aggregates-which serve as the basis of designation of the "I." After that thought, the "I" which is designated in dependence on mind and body is conceived to exist in its own right. Then, with that view of the transitory as the cause, one conceives "mine" to inherently exist. As Chandrakirti says, "Initially there is attachment to the "I" - a self - and then attachment to mine." Once there is the class of self, there is the class of other. Once these two classes are distinguished, one becomes desirously attached to the class of self and hateful towards the class of other. From this, are generated all the other problems. For instance, due to the view of the transitory as an "I" which is inherently existent, one generates pride in oneself as superior to others. Then, even afflicted doubt-since it's a case of emphasizing the "I" which might not believe in something (the final reason being that 'I don't believe in such and such')depends on this. And jealousy. Also, induced by this view of the "I" as inherently existent, are extreme views: views of permanence and views of annihilation. For example, believing that former and later births don't exist or believing that once there is a self that this self will exist forever. So first a phenomenon appears to inherently exist and when it does, its qualities of good, bad and whatever also appear to exist in this way. The mind then assents to that appearance. Since this is an appearance based on a superimposition of goodness and of badness - beyond that which is actually there - one's mind falls into extreme conceptions of genuine goodness and badness and the operation of improper attitudes, which, in turn, generate the afflictive emotions. JA: Can you describe the mind of a Buddha? DL: That which prevents the mind from knowing all there is to be known, are called the obstructions to omniscience. With respect to the obstructions to omniscience, there are potencies which are established by the conception of inherent existence and which cause objects to appear as if they inherently or concretely exist. Even though primarily the false appearance of an object is the fault of the subject - the consciousness cognizing it there may be some fault with the object in that it itself is polluted by ignorance or the latencies of ignorance. From this appearance - that of objects as inherently existent there is the defilement which conceives the two truths to be different entities. Due to this defilement, when phenomena appear, they seem to exist in their own right, thus preventing the appearance of their reality. Similarly, when the reality of an object appears, the object cannot. We're talking about direct perception. When this

obstruction to omniscience is removed, however, then while knowing the object one can know its nature and while knowing its nature, one can know the object. One mind can then simultaneously and directly ascertain both an object and its nature. Thus an omniscient consciousness - from the point of view of knowing conventional objects - is a consciousness, which perceives the varieties of all phenomena. From the point of view of its knowing the nature of objects, it's a consciousness which knows the mode of being of objects, i.e., emptiness. But it is just one consciousness that knows both. This is a distinctive feature of the omniscient consciousness of a Buddha.

c) The divisions [of unwholesome actions],


i) The actions

of body: (Killing, stealing, sexual misconduct) of speech: (Lying, harsh words, divisive speech, idle talk) of mind: (Craving, ill will, wrong views)

ii) The four actions

iii) The three actions

i) The [unwholesome] actions of body: (Killing, stealing, sexual misconduct) Cutting off life is intentional killing of another Related is endangering life through beating and such. Taking what is not given is stealing another's goods. Related to this is getting them by using fraud. Transgressions in sex are with persons committed to others. Related are dharmas like improper sexual acts. Everything from maliciously killing worms and insects, knowingly cutting off their lives, and striking them, chopping them up, and so forth is included in cutting off life. Taking what is not given is stealing the wealth of others, and related is using fraud to have them given. Sexual transgression refers to another's spouse, those who are close relatives, or not in their right minds, or deliberately having sex at an improper place or time. Included are intercourse in forbidden parts of the body, such as the hands. The Abhidharmakosha [22] says: Cutting off life, as we rightly think, is killing others. Taking what is not given makes another's wealth one's own; Including acquisition of it through force or deceit. Forbidden desires, comprise the four kinds of wrongful sex. The commentary on the Drowa amje says: What is like the actual thing is related to it. Having arisen similarly, it is like it; like beating someone with a stick and relying on magical ceremonies to that end. ii) The four [unwholesome] actions of speech: (Lying, harsh words, divisive speech, idle talk)

Speaking false words is lying to change another's opinion. Related are devious words that others will receive falsely. Slander is speaking words that bring about dissention. Related is saying one thing here, another there. Idle talk is evil teachings and frivolous words. Related is disconnected or fallacious speech. Harsh language is abusive words that denigrate others. Related are gentle words that are displeasing to others. To make speech a gate of entering the Dharma, actions of speech are explained. To speak words that are not true to change the perceptions of others is false speech. Related to that is if one sees that another has been deceived by literally true words. Saying slanderous words that bring dissension to others is divisive speech. To say one thing to one person, and something else to another is related. To start, spread, and listen to gossip; and to talk disconnectedly and frivolously, saying various things that contradict dharma; is idle or sophistic speech. To say something inappropriate at the time is related. Harsh language is saying things unpleasant to the ears of others and insulting them. Related is saying things gently to make them unhappy. The Abhidharmakosha says: False words change the perception of another person By their understanding of their meaning of the words. Divisive words are those that bring dissent to others, These are the words of a mind that has the kleshas. Rough words are those that are not pleasant when they are heard. All that have the kleshas are words of idle talk. The commentary says: True words that are deceptive, to repeat such words, to speak at a time when one should not, and to speak pleasantly, but make others unhappy are the related actions. iii) The three [unwholesome] actions of mind: (Craving, ill will, wrong views)

Covetousness finds another's wealth unbearable. Therefore it makes an attempt to make it into one's own. Related is longing for others' glories, such as learning. Malice is the angry mind that harms another. Related is anger that does not want their benefit. Wrong views include Eternalism and nihilism, Or the view that says that cause and effect do not exist. Related are errors of glorification and denigration. Inappropriately wishing that another's belongings were one's own is covetousness. Getting angry at the learning and so forth of another and wishing it were one's own is related. Wishing to harm another is malice. Being unhappy and angry with their benefits is related. Denigrating karmic cause and effect and falling into the extremes of

Eternalism and nihilism are wrong views. Exaggeratedly glorifying and denigrating the true dharma, the spiritual friends who teach it, and others who are in accord with the dharma is related. The Abhidharmakosha says: Covetousness wrongly craves another's wealth Malice is hostility to beings. Wrong views say there is no good and evil The commentary on the Drowa amje says: To be angry at learning and so forth and covet it, to be angry and displeased at others' benefits, to disparage true spiritual friends and others according with dharma are the related actions. In this case, though it does not call denigration of the dharma and individuals a related action, the Prajpramit in Eight Thousand Lines says: Subhuti, those who accumulate the karma of depriving others of the Dharma will be born as beings of the lower realms or among those who have fallen into wrong views. They will suffer among the beings of the great hell, the Avici Hell. Having been contained in its fires for a kalpa, they will be born in the great hells of other world systems. There too, when they have been contained in fire for a kalpa, It is taught that they will go to another, and so forth beyond measure. The Sutra of the Miracle of Ascertaining Complete Peace says: For 500 kalpas they will have five hundred heads. Every one of these heads with not less than five hundred tongues, And every tongue with plows, five hundred and not less, Of hotly blazing iron, will be repeatedly plowed, And all because of the evil deed of denigration. The Examination of the three Jewels says: Kashyapa, If some individual says that I or one like me who has grasped the Dharma and grasped the measure of individual beings, has not grasped the measure of the dharma and grasped the measure of individual beings, that individual will fall. 3) The fruition [of unwholesome actions], There are three sections
a) The brief

teaching of the nature

(The fruit depends on object, motivation, preparation, application of the unwholesome action. It is in accord with the causes and the dominant nature or power.)
b) The four divisions

(The four categories of results from unwholesome actions)

c) The final

summary

(The unwholesome actions are like poison, they necessarily bring great suffering and unhappiness. They have to be abandoned. -- In short, their result is to loose this precious human life with its freedom, endowments and fragile conditions, thus loosing the opportunity to see through the whole cycle of samsara and to transcend it.) a) The brief teaching of the nature (i.e. The fruit depends on object, motivation, preparation, application of the unwholesome action. It is in accord with the causes and the dominant nature or power.) ow the fruition of these is explained: [23]

With bad object, motive, thoughts, and their application. As for the fruitions of the ten unwholesome actions, There are ripening, and according with their causes, power, and action. When these unwholesome actions are produced by an unwholesome object, motivation, thought, and application, a fruition ripens in accord with the causes and the dominant nature or power. So it is said in the great texts, and moreover, in the oral instructions, the fruition of action is explained additionally. (i.e. Each of the ten non-virtuous actions has four components or factors. For the action to be complete, i.e. to bring the full karmic result, all four components must be present. These four are:
The basis

or object of the action

The intention: the state of

mind of the person performing the action. This has 3 parts: recognition, motive and delusion performing the action

The deed: actually The final

step, or completion of the action

There are three different results of a complete karma (i.e. an action that has been committed with all four components/factors present):
Ripened

result - the future rebirth state you will experience as a result of having created a complete karma. [1] congruent with the cause

Results

Experiences congruent with the cause - once your karma to be born in the lower realms has been exhausted and you take rebirth in an upper realm, you will have experiences similar to your original actions.

Actions congruent with the cause - once your karma to be born in the lower realms has been exhausted and you take rebirth in an upper realm; you will have the instinctive tendency to commit the original action again and again.
Environmental

results - when born in the human realm, you will experience results of your actions in the form of environmental conditions.) (i.e. An unwholesome actions is like a bad investment based on an error of judgment. There is an expectation based on some interpretation of reality, planning, and the actual trying to control some causes in order to get a desired effect. So when the time comes to get the expected result, there is usually deception because things never happen the way we planned. Everything is always more complex; there is always other variables that can influence the outcome and demolish our simplistic model. So for the deception to be possible there has to have been some actual investment. The investment can be mental, emotional, conceptual, with our own body, or through external fabrications. The resulting deception is necessarily related in quality and quantity to the investment. All of this is possible because everything is dependent on the mind. Once we have started to invest in one direction, it is usually difficult to change. And the more we repeat it, the harder it gets. We have also the tendency to see everything with this model and to repeat it even more. We also interpret the actions of others in those terms and fear they might do what we have done. All of our actions and perception are filtered through this model that we have build. The whole world seems to be revolving around this obsession. The more we desire and get, the more we want. The more we act egoistically, the more we see everything in opposition to us. The more we try to control everything, the more we get obsessed with it. The more we try to understand everything, the more complex it gets. There is also the feedback from the society; it is as if we are generally treated the way we have acted. The more we go against the real nature of everything (and against the society), the harder the consequences. But the reverse is also true about wholesome actions and their happy results. The ability to see through this whole mess is the opportunity of this precious, hard to get, short, human life. ote: The society itself can be considered as a sentient being with its own level of karma and consequences. The same for any other level of organization above or bellow. Karma and its consequences are acting across all levels simultaneously. The division into particular levels is purely arbitrary. Our definitions of living, consciousness, karma, consequences, etc, are dependently arisen from our own egoistic point of view. This is like thinking that the earth is at the center of the universe and that man is the center of god's creations. Karma is not necessarily only an individualistic phenomenon; the karma seeds are not neatly packaged together so that only one reborn individual will get it all. Everything is non-dual: not one, not two.)

b) The four divisions (The four categories of results from unwholesome actions) i) The ripening of the fruition: (rebirth in one of the three lower realms) ii) Fruition according with the cause, (having experiences similar to the cause -- the unwholesome action) a)) Accord with the cause of action. (doing it again and again -- like a bad habit) b)) Accord with the cause of experience: (having it done to us again and again -- like being afraid that it will be done to us) iii) The fruition of power [the results of the ten non-virtues] (the specific dominant result for each) iv) The fruition of action (in short: they spread like bad habits, the more we do them, the more we will be attached to them and do them again equals the cycle of samsara) i) The ripening of the fruition: (rebirth in one of the three lower realms)

The lesser fruition of the ten actions is birth as an animal. The middle as a preta, and the great to suffer in hell. The Objects of Mindfulness says: Of these ripenings, the lesser is to be born as an animal. The intermediate is to be born as a preta. The great is to be born among the hell beings. ii) Fruition according with the cause, (having experiences similar to the cause -- the unwholesome action) There are two kinds
a)) Accord b)) Accord

with the cause of action with the cause of experience

a)) Accord with the cause of action. (doing it again and again -- like a bad habit)

According with the cause is said to be twofold. One is born in a situation like that of one's former action. Then there is the fruition of such a situation. The Hundred Actions says:

Those who have become accustomed to unwholesome conduct, will again be dependent on unwholesomeness and will act unwholesomely. They will continue in their unwholesomeness. b)) Accord with the cause of experience: (having it done to us again and again -- like being afraid that it will be done to us)

Even if such beings attain the higher realms, Their lives are short and they will suffer from many diseases. They will not be rich in possessions, and have to share them with enemies. Their spouses will be ugly, and still there will be rivals. They will be often slandered and cheated by other people. Their servants will always be intractable and bad. They will hear unpleasantness and quarrelsome words. o one will heed their words; their ventures will be uncertain Desire will grow. They will not know what is enough. ot acquiring benefits, they will harmed by others. Their views will be wrong, and therefore, they will be much deceived. The ten unwholesome actions have two stages of fruition The fruition fits the cause, then one experiences that. The Hundred Actions says: Those who cut off life can be among gods and humans, but their lives will be short with much sickness. Those who take what is not given will be anxious about possessions, impoverished, and have to share with enemies. Sexual transgressors will have an unpleasant spouse shared with others. Those who speak falsely will often be slandered and cheated. Divisive people will have bad servants and retinue with whom they cannot be reconciled. Those who speak harshly will hear unpleasant and quarrelsome words. Idle talkers will not have their words heeded and trusted. The desires of covetous persons will increase, and they will never know what is enough. Malicious people will get nothing beneficial and be objects of harm. Those with wrong views will have bad views and be much deceived. The Precious Mala says: For those who cut off life, their own lives will be short. By taking what is not given we are separated from wealth. Those who engage in imprudent sex will make enemies. Those who speak falsely thereafter will often be reviled. By divisiveness, we will never have companions. By harsh words, we will hear unpleasant things. By idle talk our speech will always go unheeded

By covetousness the hopes of mind will be destroyed By malice we will be given the gift of being destroyed. iii) The fruition of power [the results of the ten non-virtues] As for the dominant result [24]

The power of the effect ripens externally. Here with impure dependence on the power of other, Takers of life will live in a place that is very drab. Medicinal herbs and trees, leaves and fruits and flowers, Food and drink and are insipid with little potency. Also hard to digest, they make obstacles to life. From taking what is not given, crops will never ripen. We are born in a fearful region of cold, with hail and famine. Sexual transgressors are born in crowded places, Miry swamps that are full of urine and excrement, asty places of stinking filth and sticky defilement. They are cramped and depressed in places without joy. Liars are born in inhospitable, fearful places. Wealth soon shifts as one is cheated by all the others. Slanderers are blocked by impassible heights and depths, Cliffs and ravines, and deep defiles block all progress With a unpleasant variety of irregular surfaces. Those who use harsh language are born among stones and thorns. In places that are hot or otherwise unpleasant [25] By idle talk we are born where harvests do not ripen, Places where the flow of seasons is disrupted. We cannot stay anywhere long, as things are so unstable. By covetousness we see meager grain and copious chaff, Born where the better times of year are changeable. By malice we are born in places naturally harmful Crops and grain are pungent and bitter to the taste There are thieves and imperious rulers, savage natives and snakes. By wrong view we have no source of precious things. Medicinal herbs and trees, flowers, and grain are few. There is no refuge and we are without any friends or protection.

(i.e. There are three different results of a complete karma (i.e. an action that has been committed with all four components/factors present):
Ripened

result - the future rebirth state you will experience as a result of having created a complete karma. [1] congruent with the cause

Results

experiences congruent with the cause - once your karma to be born in the lower realms has been exhausted and you take rebirth in an upper realm, you will have experiences similar to your original actions. actions congruent with the cause - once your karma to be born in the lower realms has been exhausted and you take rebirth in an upper realm, you will have the instinctive tendency to commit the original action again and again.
Environmental

results - when born in the human realm, you will experience results of your actions in the form of environmental conditions. 1. Killing

Ripened Results

result - rebirth in one of the three lower realms.

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - later, in a human rebirth, one will have a short life, ill-health, many troubles, no success in your activities Actions congruent with the cause - you will have the habitual desire to kill and harm others
Environmental

results - being born in a place where there is much violence, war, many problems, etc. and where food, drink and medicine have little power 2. Stealing

Ripened Results

result - rebirth in one of the three lower realms

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - lack of wealth, possessions and resources; your things will be stolen or lost. Actions congruent with the cause - you will have an instinctive tendency to steal results - being born in a barren place, where crops do not grow or are destroyed and there are shortages of food, and bitter frosts, hail, etc., and your business ventures will fall. 3. Sexual Misconduct
Environmental

Ripened Results

result - rebirth in a lower realm

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - you will be unable to keep relationships with, and will have to quickly separate from, your spouse, family, friends, students, employees, etc. Actions congruent with the cause - having the tendency to be unfaithful
Environmental

results - having to live in a muddy or dirty place

4. Lying
Ripened Results

result - rebirth in a lower realm

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - others do not believe you, even when you tell the truth Actions congruent with the cause - having the tendency to lie and deceive others
Environmental

results - having to live amongst people who cheat, and you can't find anyone you can trust. 5. Divisive Speech

Ripened Results

result - rebirth in a lower realm

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - being lonely, having few friends, followers or employees; having difficulty developing good relationships Actions congruent with the cause - having the tendency to cause disunity
Environmental

results - having to live in a rugged, uneven, inhospitable environment where communication is difficult. 6. Insulting Words

Ripened Results

result - rebirth in a lower realm

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - others will abuse you, and even when you speak pleasantly, they will interpret it negatively Actions congruent with the cause - having the tendency to be critical and hurtful

Environmental

results - having to live in a place where there are many tree stumps, brambles, nettles, sharp rocks and thorns 7. Idle Gossip

Ripened Results

result- rebirth in a lower realm

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - others will not take your speech seriously or listen to what you have to say Actions congruent with the cause - having the tendency to talk continuously and fill any quiet moment with the sound of your voice
Environmental

results - having to live in a place where crops do not grow properly, rain falls at the wrong time and activates are not successful 8. Covetousness

Ripened Results

result - rebirth in a lower realm

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - you will be unable to achieve your aims and get what you want Actions congruent with the cause - being continuously dissatisfied and grasping; your attachment increases
Environmental

results - having to live in a place where the crops are poor and material resources are easily destroyed or lost 9. Harmful Intent

Ripened Results

result - rebirth in a lower realm

congruent with the cause

experiences congruent with the cause - you will be a person who easily becomes frightened and panicky actions congruent with the cause - having the tendency to hurt others, your anger and hatred increase
Environmental

results - having to live in a violent place where there is war and contagious diseases 10. Wrong Views

Ripened Results

result - rebirth in a lower realm

congruent with the cause

Experiences congruent with the cause - being ignorant of correct views, and finding it difficult to develop realizations and correct understanding Actions congruent with the cause - having the tendency to draw wrong conclusions again and again, your ignorance will increase
Environmental

results - having to live in a place where water dries up in the wells,

crops fail, etc.) The resolution is as presented. The Commentary on the Center and Limit says: By the power of being a vessel, virtue predominates iv) The fruition of action: (i.e. in short: they are like bad habits, the more we do them, the more we will be attached to them and do them again)

Whatever people may do, there is an unhappy result. Whatever is done, by its spreading, suffering is produced. (i.e. All actions are investments based on some discrimination. All discrimination are based on ignorance. They are all mistakes if thought in the context of absolute right or wrong because everything is relative, empty of inherent existence. All actions have the result of reinforcing the belief in discrimination, and thus reinforcing the basis for their repetition. The more we do them, the more we will do them, or see them in other's actions. They are all like self-reinforcing bad habits. That is the nature of the samsara, the Wheel of Life. Actions are conditioned by the [old] five aggregates, which are the results of past actions. The result of the investments are in the form of the [new] five aggregates and their conditioning effect. So the five aggregates and actions are not different, not the same. A beginning-less, and endless, cycle of conditioning. All of which is based on the belief in inherent existence, the root cause of samsara.) The Objects of Mindfulness says tersely: Ignorant ones who do evil deeds will do them again. Evil deeds proliferate, and there is tremendous suffering. c. The final summary: (i.e. The unwholesome actions are like poison, they necessarily bring great suffering and unhappiness. They have to be abandoned. In short, their result is to loose this precious human life with its freedom, endowments and fragile conditions, thus loosing the opportunity to see through the whole cycle of samsara and to transcend it.)

In short these ten actions by their nature are unwholesome. They are like poison and anyone who ever performs them Heavy, light, or medium, will make great suffering. Therefore we should try to avoid them like enemies. The instructions to the noble one Gyebu or [26] in the Dulwa Lung say: The unwholesome is like poison, because a little produces great suffering. It is like a wild man, because it destroys the assembly of wholesomeness. Therefore it should be abandoned and one should try to do what is wholesome. The Precious Mala says: What is unwholesome in body, speech, and mind Should entirely be eliminated. What is wholesome should always be pursued. By that the above two dharmas are explained. c. How to eliminate the unwholesome (i.e. wholesomeness) (i.e. By adopting an attitude more in accord with the real non-dual nature of everything. By not basing all actions of egoism and the belief in inherently existing objects and characteristics. By seeing the relativity of everything, by thinking from others point of view before acting. By not ignoring the consequences of our actions on ourselves and on the society.) There are three sections
1) Producing

the benefits of the higher realms

(First, they consist of avoiding the ten non-virtues, and thus avoiding a rebirth in one of the lower realms and being stuck there for an eternity. It is avoiding the biggest mistakes contrary to the real nature of everything. This will lead to the precious human life with its freedom and endowments, to the possibility of practicing more virtuous actions in accord with the real nature of everything, and to the opportunity to see through the whole conditioning cycle and to transcend it definitively.)
2) The ripening

of their fruition

(Four categories of results from wholesome actions - same logic as for the unwholesome above: rebirth in one of the three higher realms; having experiences similar to the cause; their cumulative effect of increasing good conditions and virtues. -- They permits to be reborn with the precious human life, to have more and more peace of body and mind, more and more happiness, to practice Dhyanas and develop wisdom, and to have the opportunity to see through and transcend all conditioning definitively.)
3) How we should

choose what to accept and reject

(The Middle Way: We should discriminate between wholesome and unwholesome otherwise we will be stuck in the lower realms for long, with no chance to work for liberation. But we should not get attached to those wholesome actions, or to a higher rebirth either. They are also dependently arisen, impermanent and unsatisfactory. We should aim at transcending the whole samsara. This is done by seeing the relativity of everything, even those wholesome actions, and by not taking them as absolutes either. o absolute, only adapted skillful means. -- They are mere tools, relatively more wholesome because more "in accordance with the goal, in accord with liberation" because they gradually combine method and wisdom. More specifically, the ten wholesome actions tend to not perpetuate the strong attachments to an independent permanent self, and the belief in inherently existing objects of desire, hate, and indifference. They are like temporary antidotes to the unwholesome illusions based on ignorance. And because they are more close to reality, there is no harsh suffering consequences like with the mistaken investments of the ten unwholesome actions. As we progress along the path, these wholesome actions will need to be "perfected" by combining more wisdom to those methods, and thus getting closer and closer to the real nature of our own mind, and of everything.) 1) Producing the benefits of the higher realms: (i.e. First, they consist of avoiding the ten non-virtues, and thus avoiding a rebirth in one of the lower realms and being stuck there for an eternity. It is avoiding the biggest mistakes contrary to the real nature of everything. This will lead to the precious human life with its freedom and endowments, to the possibility of practicing more virtuous actions in accord with the real nature of everything, and to the opportunity to see through the whole conditioning cycle and to transcend it definitively.) The ten kinds of wholesome actions lead to the higher realms. Their wholesome intention avoids the ten unwholesome ones. Cutting off life is avoided, and taking what is not given. Wrongful sex is avoided, and also lies and slander. Speech is not harsh or frivolous. Thoughts are not covetous. We keep far away from malice and wrong views. Merely by abandoning the unwholesome actions, the ten wholesome ones will occur. This is because they are related as opposites. Therefore, the attitude that abandons the ten unwholesome actions is that of the ten wholesome ones, the Middle Length Prajpramit says: "I have abandoned the taking of life," and so forth. These ten are said. 2) The ripening of their fruition: (i.e. Four categories of results from wholesome actions - same logic as for the unwholesome above: rebirth in one of the three higher realms; having experiences similar to the cause; their cumulative effect of increasing good conditions and virtues. -They permits to be reborn with the precious human life, to have more and more peace of body and mind, more and more happiness, to practice Dhyanas and develop wisdom, and to have the opportunity to see through and transcend all conditioning definitively.)

If these actions are small, we are born in the human realm. If more, we are born among the gods of the realm of desire. Great ones connect us to the samdhi of formless Dhyanas. Thus, we can grasp the pleasures of the two higher realms. The four results are the opposite of the previous ones. The fruition should be known to be birth in the higher realms. By lesser wholesome conduct, we are born among the human beings and gods of the desire realm. If it is great, we are born in the samdhi realms. These are the two higher realms the realm of pure form, and the formless realm. The higher realms are attained, and entrance into the lower realms is cut off. The Precious Mala says: By these dharmas we are completely liberated From being a being in hell, a preta, or animal. After birth among gods or else among human beings Increasing glory and happiness is easily attained. One experiences the bliss of Brahma and so forth Or the measureless samdhis of the formless realm. 3) How we should choose what to accept and reject: (i.e. The Middle Way: We should discriminate between wholesome and unwholesome otherwise we will be stuck in the lower realms for long, with no chance to work for liberation. But we should not get attached to those wholesome actions, or to a higher rebirth either. They are also dependently arisen, impermanent and unsatisfactory. We should aim at transcending the whole samsara. This is done by seeing the relativity of everything, even those wholesome actions, and by not taking them as absolutes either. o absolute, only adapted skillful means. They are mere tools, relatively more wholesome because more "in accordance with the goal, in accord with liberation" because they gradually combine method and wisdom. More specifically, the ten wholesome actions tend to not perpetuate the strong attachments to an independent permanent self, and the belief in inherently existing objects of desire, hate, and indifference. They are like temporary antidotes to the unwholesome illusions based on ignorance. And because they are more close to reality, there is no harsh suffering consequences like with the mistaken investments of the ten unwholesome actions. As we progress along the path, these wholesome actions will need to be "perfected" by combining more wisdom to those methods, and thus getting closer and closer to the real nature of our own mind, and of everything.)

Thus, by the merit of these ten wholesome actions We are led to happiness, but the ten of unwholesome nature Lead instead to falling into the lower realms. Accept the white cause and effect, and likewise reject the black. This will be the path to worldly happiness, Taught to be the fine vehicle of divine and human birth.

By establishing subsequent lives in happy forms, We truly lay a foundation for our liberation. Therefore, fortunate beings should depend on doing so. i.e. Understanding Suffering and Controlling the Mind, Lama Zopa Rinpoche There is no one type of action that constitutes the practice of dharma. Dharma is not something that has a definite form. Although people may meditate with legs crossed and eyes closed, these external postures themselves are not the essential dharma. An action is considered to be a part of dharma practice solely on the criterion of its effect on the mind. If delusions are eradicated and sufferings diminished by what we do then this is dharma. Thus even if we spend most of our time working inside an office in a crowded city or doing menial labor and the like, we can still be practicing dharma. The essential thing is that our delusions decrease in strength. Any type of action can be transformed into a dharma practice if it is done with the proper motivation. If we keep in mind the importance of working to eliminate our ignorance so that we can more effectively help others overcome their suffering, then whatever we do is dharma. Buddhism, as one of the great world religions, teaches many methods for purifying our motivation.) (i.e. Thinking that unwholesome and wholesome actions are absolute laws is not the message here. This kind of obsession is not healthy either. There is no real action, no real karma, no real retribution. There is no absolute cause, effect or causality; nor is anything arisen without a cause or any cause without an effect. Everything is empty of inherent existence, merely imputed by the mind.) (i.e. See how to transmute the five poisons into the five wisdoms by seeing their real nature, how to transmute the impure three gates into the Buddha Trikaya, how to transform everything into pure Buddha-fields, how to transform our actions into pure Buddha activities.) (i.e. If one totally rejects the discrimination between wholesome and unwholesome on the basis that the distinction is completely non-existent because everything is empty of inherent existence, then there is no place to go but the Vajra hells. If everything is not existent, it is also not non-existent, not both, and not either.) (i.e. So, as a path. as a skillful means, we should discriminate between wholesome and unwholesome otherwise we will be stuck in the lower realms for long) with no chance to work for liberation. But we still need to see the relativity of those wholesome actions and not take them as absolutes either, otherwise the benefits will be impermanent.

o absolute, only adapted skillful means.

The basis

to choose what to accept and reject is the criteria of gaining freedom from all conditioning and all suffering: peace of body and mind, development of concentration and insight. So we need to be careful in observing what brings peace, and what doesn't bring peace.

So

the criteria is to be "in accordance with the goal, in accord with liberation"

Freedom from samsara and suffering is gained by seeing their real nature. And to be able to do this we need the precious human life, morality, concentration, insights, ... even if they are all empty -- mere temporary raft.) The Middle Length Prajpramit says: Subhuti, by accepting the true path of these ten wholesome actions, we are born in the higher realms. By remaining on the path of the ten unwholesome actions, we are born in the lower realms. The White Lotus of Holy Dharma says: The vehicle of gods and human beings has the ten virtues. The Supreme Essence says: The vehicle of gods is the four Dhyanas and the four formless attainments. The vehicle of human beings is the ten virtues. The latter depends on good dharmas. Yana means vehicle, mount, or means of conveyance. When we ride them, each one brings us to its particular fruition. The Prajnaparamitasamgatha says 304.3 Riding them does away with the sufferings of beings. These vehicles are a great house, immeasurable as space. The highest yana produces joy, happiness, and well-being. Depending on different levels of mind, different vehicles are taught. For example, one is taught for those who aim at complete peace. The White Lotus says: That one vehicle does not have the three vehicles. It is taught as provisional skillful means. Two are also taught. the Immaculate Space Sutra says: In accord with the affinities of sentient beings, I have bestowed the teachings of the two vehicles. These are the Mahayana and Hinayana. Three are also taught. The White Lotus says: Teaching how to tame the kleshas the gates of Dharma Are said to be eighty-four thousand, but the true intent of the Buddhas Is the one inseparable essence. That I have taught three vehicles Is explained by different capacities of sentient beings. In brief, the levels of mind are limitless, and not all of them perceive the true meaning. The Lankavatara Sutra [27] says:

ot all the minds as enter finish the vehicle. Once mind has done that, there is no mind nor vehicle. In this case the vehicle of gods and men is being discussed. The same text says: Likewise I explained all the different vehicles. The vehicle of the Sravakas, and that of the Pratyekabuddhas. Within the vehicle of gods and human beings Samsaric suffering can be eliminated. However, what comes later is not seen at all. 2. The second section of the extended explanation of karma and being joined to peace (i.e. The progressive path, more virtues beyond the ten wholesome actions: the nine Dhyanas, the four immeasurables, bodhicitta, the six paramitas, the generation and completion stage of Vajrayna, Mahamudra, the Union of The Two Truths. Always using both method and wisdom together; then it is in accord with Liberation, with the real nature of our own mind, and of everything. The two aspects in everything: the two accumulations, the two kayas, the two gotras, the two truths -- inseparability, nonduality everywhere. Wholesomeness is taking into consideration those two aspects of the real nature of everything that is already present in us, and in everything. Discovering our own very subtle nature, Buddha-nature, is seeing the real nature of everything, with those two inseparable aspects, as the very subtle nature of our own mind. We are already perfect and pure; everything is already perfect and pure; it is just a matter of directly seeing this non-dual nature. We do not cause Liberation; it is not a fabrication. The Buddha nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. The real nature of everything is not changed by our ignorance of it, and our errors because of this. Seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything is seeing the Buddha. Once we have directly seen the real nature of our own mind and of everything, then everything is pure inseparable trikaya and wisdoms, Buddha-fields, and Buddha activities: inseparable compassion and emptiness. -- After refuting the view thinking that one can produce Liberation with specific methods through accumulating merit alone, here are refuted various forms of nihilism: rejection of karma, rejection of the path, rejection of thoughts, thinking emptiness is an absolute truth. We need both method and wisdom together. Only this is accord with Liberation, with the real nature of everything: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. -- The real nature of everything is not dependent origination alone, not emptiness alone, not both together, not neither or something else. It is the Union of The Two: not one, not two. -- Everything is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. The two, dependent origination and emptiness, are not contradictory, but interdependent. They are not different or separate, not the same. o absolute cause, effect or causality; but still no no-causality. The luminous space.) There are six sections
a.

The general explanation of the wholesome being associated with liberation

(We need both method and wisdom together; the two accumulations. -- Perfecting the wholesomeness by using various progressive methods combined with wisdom permits ultimately to transcend all conditioning: There is no absolute methods, just adapted

skillful means. Using the methods alone is not enough; it might lead to getting attached to the methods. Using wisdom alone is not enough; it might lead to nihilism. We have to develop method and wisdom together. The path is more than just practicing morality by avoiding the ten unwholesome actions. The progressive path consist also of developing concentration with the eight dhyanas, bodhicitta and wisdom with the six paramitas, etc. All sort of progressive wholesome skillful means combining both method (upaya) and wisdom (prajna). Only then is it in accord with the goal, with the real nature of everything. Only then can it lead to total transcendence of the conditioning cycle.)
b.

Comprehending this: the goodness of liberation

(Ordinary merit is not enough; it has to be combined with wisdom. It is not enough to abandon all unwholesome actions, one has to purify all obstructions to knowledge and their remnants. Cleansing the obstructions to Liberation is not enough, one has to remove the obstacles to omniscience also. The perfection of merit is beyond conceptualization. Merit is something that grows exponentially as it is combined with wisdom. It is not like something fabricated, or like acquiring ordinary knowledge. It is not about doing something, or not doing something else. The first five paramitas are perfected by combining them with wisdom. -- Everything has the two inseparable aspects: the two unborn causes / gotras, the two aspects of the luminous mind, the wisdom of non-thought, the perfection of the path with the two accumulations, the two truths (dependent origination and emptiness), the resulting two kayas.)
c.

How the cause of liberation is produced

(Liberation is not really caused by our own wholesome actions, as if fabricated or assembled, thus it is not impermanent. We already have the Buddha-nature, the unborn potential, with its two aspects of space and luminosity as the two inseparable gotras. That is the real cause of our Enlightenment. The luminosity and the right paths are naturally emanating from this. What makes an action wholesome and efficient is that it is in accord with this unborn nature with its two aspects. Wholesomeness, compassion and wisdoms are already there; they are not wholesomeness separated from our originary awareness; they are not artificially added in order to produce something. Samsara is transcended by realizing the real non-dual nature of our own mind, and of everything; by realizing that we already have this Buddha-nature; by directly seeing the very subtle nature of our own mind. -- So following the wholesome path is getting closer and closer to our already existing Buddha-nature, it is bringing the result into the path. Realizing the path is realizing our own real nature after removing all the obscurations. - The Buddha nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. The real nature of everything is not changed by our ignorance of it, and our errors because of this. Seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything is seeing the Buddha. Wholesomeness is being in accord with this real non-dual nature. The full proof of the path is seen only at the end; until then we need faith.)
d.

How by awakening the gotras liberation is attained

(The progressive Vajrayana Path: Mapping the stages of Vajrayna on the previously explained concepts. -- Once we have purified it, or have directly seen our own Buddhanature, then poisons are transmuted into wisdoms, everything becomes pure, happiness, the two kayas are seen.)

e.

The related explanation of the virtues

[including the three developments, bodhicitta, the six paramitas, the four immeasurables, the two truths, the ten wholesome actions, dependent origination, ... -This is in accord with the real nature of everything: empty but still dependently arisen and functional, beyond the two extremes of existence and non-existence.) 1) How the unification of the two accumulations is perfected (We need both methods (the morality of the ten wholesome actions, the concentration of the Dhyanas, bodhicitta) and wisdom (seeing impermanence, relativity, emptiness) together. Then it is in accord with Liberation, with the real nature of the mind and of everything, with its two aspects. The path has been designed by someone who has directly seen the real nature of everything and thus is in accord with it. That is why it is efficient, but beyond our actual understanding.) 2) How one does not dwell in samsara or nirvana (Even though virtues and wholesome actions are also karma formation, conditioning, they are preferable and required because they are gradually creating the conditions necessary to be able to see through all conditioning and to transcend it all definitively. But those virtues and wholesome actions should not be grasped as absolute. Liberation is not caused by them. -- The Middle Way: not accepting methods as absolutes, not rejecting everything because of emptiness. ot accepting karma as absolute, not rejecting karma completely. ot accepting the world as it appears, not rejecting the world completely with no compassion at all and aiming at personal liberation. Knowing samsara to be impermanent, unsatisfactory, empty of inherent existence, but still having compassion for all sentient beings. Staying away from both extremes. It is not a matter of accepting or rejecting something; it is a matter of directly seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything. -- Even though everything is relative, it is not total chaos and free for all. There is a real nature of everything and actions that are relatively more in accord with it or not, and their consequences. And hiding from everything by dropping all is not a permanent solution; it only increases ignorance.) 3) The explanation of the fruition [of the ten virtues, and of all other wholesome skillful means of the Mahayana] (The goal of developing virtues, of accumulating merit, is to be in a position out of the influence of conditioning, in order then to be able to see its real nature, and be able to transcend it definitively. This is done gradually from gross to subtle, to very subtle. That is like a gradual purification of the body, speech and mind. It is working because while doing it we get closer and closer to the real nature of our own mind and or everything, thus not going against it and suffering the consequences. That is like a gradual deconditioning, deprogramming, from a very bad habit based on eons of ignorance and accumulation of errors.) a) The brief teachings (same logic as with the unwholesome actions : the fruit of the ten wholesome actions depends on object, motivation, preparation, application of the wholesome action)

b) The extensive explanation i) Ripening [of the fruition] (rebirth in one of the higher realms) ii) Karmic fruition that accords with the cause (having experiences similar to the cause -- the wholesome action) iii) The fruition of its power [the results of the ten virtues] iv) The fruition of action (In short: they are like good habits, the more we do them, the more we will do them again with even more ease -- like developing a skill. So happiness will come more and more. So we have more freedom and conditions to be able to develop concentration and insight, and more opportunity to use this precious human life in order to transcend all conditioning / directly see our real Buddha-nature.) v) The fruition of the six perfections [, of kindness, of actions motivated by bodhicitta: Enlightenment] vi) The fruition of the Four Immeasurables: [gradual progression closer and closer to perfection with its two aspects] vii) The fruition of the Two Truths (The real nature of samsara: everything is empty because dependently arisen; everything is merely imputed by the mind; empty of inherent existence, but still appearing; non-dual -- not one, not two; not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. It is the Union of the Two. The Two Truths are not separate or different, not the same; not one, not two. All of our actions and perceptions are conditioned by our five aggregates, which are the results of past choices and actions; but this conditioning is empty of inherent existence. Karma and its consequences are not permanent, not nothingness. Seeing the real non-dual nature of samsara, of everything, with its two inseparable aspects, we can transcend all karma formation, all conditioning, and be free from all obstructions.) viii) The individual fruitions of virtue and evil deeds (The real nature of karma: everything, even karmas and kleshas [even the flow of interdependence], is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. Everything is described by these two aspects: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. But the real nature of everything is beyond description, beyond conceptualization. Because of ignorance as the root we produce appearances of karma and its consequences. They are empty, but we cannot ignore them, hope to die without paying the consequences, or hide from them in the higher dhyanas. That would be only a conditioned and temporary solution. o cause are without an effect; no effect are without a cause; no karma is ever lost. It is only by seeing through the conditioning, seeing its real non-dual nature, that we can transcend it all.) ix) The fruition of profound interdependent arising (The real nature of karma, and samsara: karma is empty but still dependently arisen and functional, beyond the two extremes of existence and non-existence, non-dual. It is by seeing its real non-dual nature, with its two inseparable aspects, that we become liberated. -- The perfection of

dependent origination is its perfect Union with the emptiness of everything: not one, not two; not different or separate, not the same.)
f.

Refuting other wrong conceptions

(After refuting the view thinking that one can produce Liberation with specific methods through accumulating merit alone, here are refuted various forms of nihilism: rejection of karma, rejection of the path, rejection of thoughts, thinking emptiness is an absolute truth. We need both method and wisdom together. Only this is is accord with Liberation, with the real nature of everything: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. -- The real nature of everything is not dependent origination alone, not emptiness alone, not both together, not neither or something else. It is the Union of The Two: not one, not two. -- Everything is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. The two, dependent origination and emptiness, are not contradictory, but interdependent. They are not different or separate, not the same. o absolute cause, effect or causality; but still no no-causality. The luminous space.) 1) Eliminating denial of cause and effect (Those who deny both cause and effect. Proud nihilists rejecting karma, conditioning, dependent origination, and virtues, accepting emptiness as an absolute rebirth in hot hells) 2) Refuting the view of emptiness (Those who deny the cause and affirm the effect. Saying that the practice is to reject everything, even virtues, because everything is empty, and thinking that this will still produce Liberation. Again, accepting emptiness as an absolute. Developing only wisdom without method. Trying to accumulate only wisdom, without accumulating merit. This ends up in misunderstanding emptiness, accepting emptiness as an absolute truth meaning nothingness. Thinking that dropping all is the meaning of Liberation. Rebirth in hell. -- ote: This is what is done in the Dhyanas, but those are just temporary skillful means used to set the conditions for Vipashyana. The perfect Samadhi, the perfect Union of Shamatha and Vipashyana is not rejecting everything, not accepting everything. It is Buddha activities while knowing the real nature of everything. It is the perfect Union of compassion and emptiness; the Union of The Two Truths. The two inseparable aspects are part of the real nature of everything in samsara and irvana. Everything has always been like that; it doesn't change. That is the meaning of nonduality.) 3) Refuting those having the mind of the summit of samsara (Those who claim "it is like space", who think Liberation is attained by meditating on nothingness alone --> rebirth as stupid animal) 4) The true explanation of cause and effect (So, we cannot adopt just one aspect as the real nature of everything; we need both in perfect non-dual union, otherwise we fall into one of the extremes: realism, nihilism, dualism, or monism. Everything has the two inseparable aspects: the real nature of the

mind and of everything, the cause of both samsara and irvana, karma and conditioning, the gradual path with its two accumulations, the meditation consisting of the Union of Shamatha and Vipashyana, the fruit with its inseparable trikaya, wisdoms and Buddha activities. That is the meaning of the perfection of wholesomeness and merit, the perfection of bodhicitta, the perfection of dependent origination, the perfection of emptiness, the perfection of the Union of The Two Truths, Buddhahood. -The Middle Way: not accepting karma, or the path, as absolute [determinism] (rejecting emptiness, accepting dependent origination as an absolute), not rejecting them completely as if completely non-existent [chaos] (rejecting dependent origination, accepting emptiness as an absolute truth). Perfecting the wholesomeness by getting closer and closer to the real nature of everything: inseparability of appearances and emptiness, inseparability of appearances and natural-less-ness. The real nature of everything is not dependent origination alone, not emptiness alone, not both together, not neither or something else. It is the Union of The Two: not one, not two. -- Everything is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. The two, dependent origination and emptiness, are not contradictory, but interdependent. They are not different or separate, not the same. o absolute cause, effect or causality; but still no no-causality. The luminous space. -- So the path, the Middle Way, is designed in accord with this, "in accordance with the goal, in accord with liberation", in accord with the transcendence of the four extremes: existence, non-existence, both, neither. As for the real nature of everything, it is beyond description, beyond any conceptualization.) a. The general explanation of the wholesome being associated with liberation. [the two accumulations] (i.e. We need both method and wisdom together, the two accumulations. -- Perfecting the wholesomeness by using various progressive methods combined with wisdom permits ultimately to transcend all conditioning: There is no absolute methods, just adapted skillful means. Using the methods alone is not enough; it might lead to getting attached to the methods. Using wisdom alone is not enough; it might lead to nihilism. We have to develop method and wisdom together. The path is more than just practicing morality by avoiding the ten unwholesome actions. The progressive path consist also of developing concentration with the eight Dhyanas, bodhicitta and wisdom with the six paramitas, etc. All sort of progressive wholesome skillful means combining both method (upaya) and wisdom (praja). Only then is it in accord with the goal, with the real nature of everything. Only then can it lead to total transcendence of the conditioning cycle.) ow, as for the wholesome being associated with liberation, good is certainly established. If the details are explained: The happiness of freedom puts samsara far away. It leads to peace beyond the game of black and white, Forming the array of the heights and depths of samsara. Included within the five paths that lead to this liberation Are the ten wholesome actions, and the four Dhyana states of form, The five formless Dhyana attainments, the six perfections and so on.

Realizing that persons and dharmas have no self, By the happy combination of praja and upaya, Dwelling neither in samsara or nirvana, We shall produce great benefits for all sentient beings. Attaining the limitless state of the Victorious One, By the wholesomeness of yoga we pass beyond all worlds. The previously taught merit completely transcends both the good and evil associated with it. As for the good which completely liberates us from defilement, the cause of being born in the cycles of samsara,
the phenomenal

accumulation of merit , the ten virtues, the first five paramitas, and so

forth are relative.


The non- phenomenal

accumulation of wisdom , praja, does not dwell in the two

extremes.
When,

by the stages of the five paths, these are united, we apprehend the level of Buddhahood beyond the world's goodness. goodness is grasped in terms of things and characteristics.

Worldly This

is beyond things and characteristics. time the good action is done, it is liberated from the mind of merit and

From the very

non-merit. (i.e. What makes a perfect wholesome action really wholesome is that it combines both method and wisdom. This is in accord with the real nature of everything: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither; or the inseparability of appearances and emptiness; or the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness; the non-dual nature: not one , not two . ... So is not like an ordinary action based on ignorance and producing karma. It is self-liberating because it is mixed with the wisdom of realizing its real nature as it is used. It is free from all extremes like realism, idealism or nihilism, dualism, or monism. It transcends all dualities, all conceptualization, all worlds. It is the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting. The union of method (like compassion, bodhicitta, Dhyanas, the first five paramitas) and wisdom (emptiness).) It is awareness of the empty, compassionate essence. (i.e. From a Bodhisattva perspective, the two aspects of the real nature of everything, the luminous mind, the luminous space, the union of upaya and praja, the Union of The Two Truths, the inseparability of appearances and emptiness, is called "the empty compassionate essence". It is so because compassion is the principal method used by the Bodhisattva. He uses it while knowing the emptiness of the three elements: subject, object, actions.) As to the details, the Prajnaparamitasamgatha says:

If they are able to carve a well-formed woman's image, Wood-workers who are skilled can make anything else as well. Likewise, bodhisattvas skillfully trained in praja Can do whatever is done by the wisdom of non-thought. (i.e. The wisdom of non-thought consist of uniting the method of Shamatha (from the first Dhyana and up) to the wisdom of Vipashyana. Its characteristics is that it brings total freedom from confusion. "union of Shamatha and Vipashyana is the wisdom of complete non-thought." "In the union of Shamatha and Vipashyana It is equal whether awareness rests or proliferates. Both are primarily the wisdom of non-thought. The encompassing style of this unification is its freedom from all the complexities of existence and non-existence. " The Precious Mala says: Whoever pacifies having knowledge and being without it, thereby has gone beyond both merit and evil deeds. Liberation from the higher and lower realms, is what is explained as being truly liberated. Also it says there: Having the essence of emptiness and compassion, One has been established in enlightenment. With the mind of truth, in apparent goodness without entangling attachments, like emanations and illusions, we acts for the benefit of others. However, if the space-like goodness established by praja does not establish the path of liberation, this will not take place. (i.e. Methods alone are not enough. We also need wisdom gain Enlightenment. We need to use wholesome methods, without getting attached to them. They are just skillful means, dependently arisen impermanent rafts.) The Prajnaparamitasamgatha says: If a billion blind persons with no one to lead them Tried to get to a city, though they did not know the way, Attaining the first five perfections of the Victorious One, Without attaining the eye of praja is like that. The Essence of the Eight Instructions says: The time when the five first paramitas (upaya) are completed by the perfection of praja is the time of entering into the city of omniscience. Thus, since all dharmas are nature-less, the good too is nature-less, and in this way beginners and those of inferior mind abandon it. (i.e. Wisdom alone is not enough. We also need methods to gain enlightenment. Emptiness doesn't mean that everything is completely non-existent, a-causal, not functional, useless, meaningless, or from the mind only. Emptiness doesn't deny dependent origination. Those who do not understand emptiness correctly fall into nihilism and reject all methods.)

The Precious Mala says: Though these dharmas are truly good and very wholesome, With the air of being profound and subtle beings Childish individuals who are without true learning Will try to avoid them, so the Victorious One has said. The Instruction on Prajna says: Subhuti, All dharmas are without essence. The six perfections are also without essence. either examined or the examiner are found. They are not perceived. They are not really seen. That is how it should be known. This should not be told to those of the families of those who have newly entered into the vehicle, of Sravakas, and of Pratyekabuddhas. Why? They will be so fearful and terrified that their hair stands on end. By this being said, for this reason, they will abandon this perfection of Praja. (i.e. The path is a progressive path. The methods used have to be adapted to the level of ignorance of the students; otherwise he might reject the path, or fall into nihilism. There is no absolute wholesomeness. What is wholesome is what can be used to gradually become free from all the conditioning, by gradually using antidotes, and skillful means that are more and more in accord with the real nature of everything. The methods get more and more subtle as the student progress on the path.) b. Comprehending this: the goodness of liberation: [the two kayas] (i.e. Ordinary merit is not enough; it has to be combined with wisdom. It is not enough to abandon all unwholesome actions; one has to purify all obstructions to knowledge and their remnants. Cleansing the obstructions to Liberation is not enough; one has to remove the obstacles to omniscience also. The perfection of merit is beyond conceptualization. Merit is something that grows exponentially as it is combined with wisdom. It is not like something fabricated, or like acquiring ordinary knowledge. It is not about doing something, or not doing something else. The first five paramitas are perfected by combining them with wisdom. Everything has the two inseparable aspects: the two unborn causes / gotras, the two aspects of the luminous mind, the wisdom of non-thought, the perfection of the path with the two accumulations, the two truths (dependent origination and emptiness), the resulting two kayas.) If it is asked what is the goodness of liberation:

The accumulation of merit is involved with particular objects. The accumulation of wisdom is not. By these combined, Cleansed of the two obscurations, the two kayas manifest.

The stages of meditation and post-meditation are practiced. These are corruptible in ordinary beings, (i.e. ordinary paramitas) But in the noble ones they are immutable (i.e. perfecting the paramitas) In meditation and the state that follows it By such a pattern of practice liberation will be attained.

(i.e. The two obscurations: (the two ignorances) -- It is not enough to abandon all unwholesome actions; one has to purify all obstructions to knowledge and their remnants. -- "A Buddha is someone who has abandoned all unwholesome action, all obstructions to knowledge and their remnants. ... From the point of view of experience, the Dharma is ultimately the abandonment of afflictions and obstructions to knowledge in a being's mental continuum." - from Tibet Exile Site -- All caused by the mind with ignorance [of the real nature of itself and of everything] -- This twofold ignorance about the ego (The five skandhas together support the concept of ego) and outer phenomena is the root of all defilements, karma and suffering.. ... ultimately we will understand that there is no difference between the ego and outer phenomena -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation -- the two types of obstructions: the delusion-obstructions and the obstructions to omniscience -- delusion-obstructions and the nine levels of obstructions to omniscience -- obstructions to Liberation / to cessation... -- "In the secret mantra, it is maintained that clearing away the two obscurations of the kayas occurs through practicing the two accumulations as upaya and Praja, and therefore this is proclaimed to be a condition." -- "The two-fold obscurations Of kleshas and of knowable's (obscurations to omniscience)" -- "the universal and incidental, obscurations of kleshas and knowable's," -- The brief explanation contains an explanation of the remedy that clears away the mental-emotional afflictions - which is the praja, the intelligence, the wisdom that realizes the selflessness of the individual and a description of the remedy that clears away the cognitive obscurations, the obscurations to omniscience, which is the praja that realizes the selflessness or emptiness of phenomena. Finally, there is a description of the remedy for both of these, which again is the praja that realizes the selflessness of all phenomena. ... And finally, in order to inspire and enable sentient beings to begin to purify the two types of obscurations and to gather and complete in an authentic way the two accumulations - the accumulation of merit and the accumulation of wisdom - the basis for purifying the obscurations and for gathering the two accumulations, which is the primordial awareness of the Dharmadhatu, is taught. Primordial awareness is the base

from which these activities are accomplished. And this primordial awareness - the inherent, original wisdom of the Dharmadhatu - is present equally at the time of the ground, at the time of the path, and at the time of the fruition. ... However, when the kleshas and the cognitive obscurations are all completely cleared away and primordial awareness manifests openly, un-obstructedly, when primordial awareness is directly and perfectly realized, then the Dharmadhatu is called Buddhahood. - From Osel 7. There are thus two kinds of obscuration-obstacles. One is the obscuration-obstacle just specified, which prevents the experiencer from seeing the whole, because he becomes ever more engrossed in the abstract models of a world he has created from a specific ("subjective") point of view. The other obscuration-obstacle is the one presented by the pollutants (Tib. nyon-sgrib, Skt. klesavarana). It prevents the experiencer from ever attaining the status of being free, because the pollutants lead him deeper and deeper into the morass of samsara. The way of seeing has to cope with both kinds of obscuration-obstacles. Maitreya expresses this in the following words: There are two kinds of obscuration-obstacles: One by pollutants, one by the objectifiable. Here (on the way of seeing), all obscuration-obstacles are intended; Once they have been done away with, (the resulting state of affairs) is claimed to be one of freedom. - from Guenther 9) (i.e. Everything has the two inseparable aspects of luminosity and space: inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness. It is true for the causes (the two gotras), the two accumulations (merit and wisdom), the two truths, the result (the two kayas). All of these reflect the fact that everything is not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. It is the Union of the two. It is the non-dual nature: not one, not two; not separate or different, not the same. Everything is like that.

The five first perfections, generosity, discipline, patience, exertion, and meditation, are the accumulation of merit. Prajna is the accumulation of wisdom. By their unification, the two kayas, Dharmakaya and Rupakaya will manifest.) (i.e. But it is still not produced, not caused. Buddhahood is beyond causality, thus not impermanent. The real basis, causes, of the two kayas are the "two gotras": the Buddha-nature in its two aspects.) The Precious Mala says:

As for the Rupakaya possessed by all the Buddhas, It arises from the accumulation of merit. Dharmakaya is born, to give a brief summary, From accumulating the wisdom of the conquerors. By these two accumulations, Buddhahood is attained If this is what we want, we should always rely On these two accumulations, those of merit and of wisdom. The major and minor marks of the Buddha's Rupakaya are established by these two accumulations in a way that is highly exalted. As much merit as ordinary beings, Sravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas may have, a single body hair of the Buddhas has ten times more. A hundred times as much as exists in such a hair exists in the minor marks. A hundred times the amount in each of the eighty minor marks is that of one of the major marks. The merit of each of the thirty-two major marks increased by a thousand is that of the tuft between the eyebrows. A hundred thousand times the collective merit of the tuft between the eyebrows is that of the ushnisha tuft at the top of the Buddha's head. A thousand times the merit of the hair-tuft is taught to be that established by the conch of spoken dharma. The same text says: As merit is beyond the scope of thought, So the major marks of the Buddha rise. The great scriptural treasury of the Mahayana Says he is a great being like a king. All the merit of the Pratyekabuddhas, All merit in the world without remainder That of both the learned and non-learned If it should be increased to ten times more, Would be as much as in one of the Buddha's pores. The hair-pores of a Buddha are all like that. As for all the merit of these hair-pores, That amount increased a hundred times, Would be the merit of one of the minor marks. That many times that same degree of merit Is that of each of the royal major marks. These merits of the thirty two major marks, If they are multiplied a thousand times, Are those of the brow-tuft like the sun and moon. The merits of the brow, increased by a hundred Would not appear as much as the tuft of the head. As much as is produced at the crown of the head, If that were made hundred times as much, That of the conch of dharma would still be ten times more. Below the supreme dharma, is the defiled, worldly dharma. Above that is the worldtranscending, undefiled dharma. The border is between what is corruptible and what is

immutable. The wisdom of meditation is undefiled, while that of post-meditation is defiled. They are the corruptible and immutable paths. The first five paramitas, generosity and so forth, are defiled, [28] and praja is undefiled. They are corruptible and immutable goodness. c. How the cause of liberation is produced: (i.e. Liberation is not really caused by our own wholesome actions, as if fabricated or assembled, thus it is not impermanent. We already have the Buddha-nature, the unborn potential, with its two aspects of space and luminosity as the two inseparable gotras. That is the real cause of our Enlightenment. The luminosity and the right paths are naturally emanating from this. What makes an action wholesome and efficient is that it is in accord with this unborn nature with its two aspects. Wholesomeness, compassion and wisdoms are already there; they are not wholesomeness separated from our original awareness; they are not artificially added in order to produce something. Samsara is transcended by realizing the real non-dual nature of our own mind, and of everything; by realizing that we already have this Buddha-nature; by directly seeing the very subtle nature of our own mind. -- So following the wholesome path is getting closer and closer to our already existing Buddha-nature, it is bringing the result into the path. Realizing the path is realizing our own real nature after removing all the obscurations. -- The Buddha nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. The real nature of everything is not changed by our ignorance of it, and our errors because of this. Seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything is seeing the Buddha. Wholesomeness is being in accord with this real non-dual nature. The full proof of the path is seen only at the end; until then we need faith.) If it is asked on what these goodnesss depend, and from what they are produced, the real goodness in accord with liberation, the true path, is accumulated as a cause of separation. (i.e. The cause of separation, eliminating defilements superimposed on that [the ground, the essence], is the aspect in accord with liberation, possessed by the wholesome path. -- C4) Therefore, it depends on the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c). The fruition of separation attained by this cause of separation, depends on the gotra or the essence, which therefore, is the true cause of changeless liberation. That is the main point: (i.e. The fruition of separation is that when sugatagarbha has been freed from all defilements, the Buddha qualities manifest.)

The gotra (i.e. the unborn Buddha potential) is the support of the goodness of liberation. In having this we have the luminous nature of mind. Spotless Dharmadhatu is the naturally present gotra. In its apparent aspect this is the two Rupakaya. These are described by the Uttaratantra's nine examples. This nature of compassion exists eternally. The Sugata has said that this is the "grow-able" gotra: Its root is the luminosity of insight-wisdom. Its essence is wholesomeness that does not have the three poisons.

(i.e. The real basis, causes, of the two kayas are the "two gotras": the Buddha-nature in its two aspects.) See below: The established gotra, superimposed on the primordial gotra is the incidental upaya and praja of the four paths of learning, produced by mind and so forth. Purification occurs through the activities of the two accumulations of merit and wisdom. Arising from these two gotras, The trikaya of the Buddha is attained. All the splendor of svabhavikakaya, Like the precious statue of the Buddha. Is self-arising and therefore un-produced. It is a mine of precious qualities. Though the two kayas exist as if they were produced effect and producing cause, there is no actual causation. The nature and the vast extent of its blossoming; That these exist as support and what is supported; Their existence and non-existence; their Buddha qualities. Are what should be known as the meaning of liberation. (i.e. Their so called two aspects are pointers to the need to transcend both existence and non-existence. Their meaning is the Union of the Two Truths: dependent origination and emptiness. Their interdependence, inseparability.) (i.e. Gotra equals Buddha ature -- also: teachings and commentaries on Maitreya/Asanga's Buddha ature root texts) This is taught as it is in final word of the true meaning sutras, the great teaching of all the Buddhas.
These are The Sutra

of the Questions of King Dharantsvara, The Glorious Mala of the Lion's Roar Sutra, The Sutra Requested by the Girl Precious One, The Sutra Requested by the Goddess Immaculate One, The Sutra of the Dwarf Angulamala, The oble Complete, Great irvana Sutra, The Sutra requested by Maitreya, The Tathagatagarbha Sutra, The Sutra of the Wheel Curing Sickness. [29] that within all sentient beings is the primordially existing Dharmadhatu, the naturally pure space that is the nature of mind. This is Tathagata-garbha. It exists primordially. It is changeless. Its apparent aspect is Rupakaya, the source of the major and minor marks.

These say

Its aspect of emptiness is Dharmakaya, free from all the extremes of complexity, primordially and spontaneously present.

Its qualities, in their spontaneous presence are exemplified by a jewel; in their changelessness, by space; In moistening and pervading all sentient beings, it is exemplified by pure water. (i.e. The Buddha nature with its two inseparable aspects, like inseparability of the Two Truths, inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness, inseparability of appearances and emptiness, inseparability of body and mind.) The Uttaratantra says: Like a jewel, space, or pure water; Its nature has never had the kleshas. At the very time it is obscured by defilements, its essence is undefiled such-ness. The nature of mind is primordial luminosity. The Gyu Tongpa [30] says: Mind is not mind. The nature of mind is luminosity. That is the dhatu of Buddhahood, the gotra or enlightened family, which all sentient beings possess. The Uttaratantra says: Because the perfect Buddha kaya radiates Because of such-ness being inseparable, And because of possessing the dhatu every sentient being Always possesses the very essence of Buddhahood. (i.e. Possessing the Buddha potential, but not being realized Buddha yet.) This should be known to be the good dhatu of the Dharma. It is fundamentally enlightened from the beginning. (i.e. The Dharma is not something invented. The wholesome actions are not artificially created. Their basis is the real nature of everything. They seem separate because of our obscurations.) The Expressor of Marks says: Buddhahood is without beginning and end. The primordial Buddha is without any bias. (i.e. We are not creating a new state, or reaching another shore. We are just realizing our own nature by removing the obstructions (the conditioning) that have been added because of ignorance. Wholesomeness is more in accord with this real non-dual nature than unwholesomeness. Perfecting this wholesomeness is acting like a Buddha.) The Two Examinations says: Sentient beings are Buddhas, in actuality. But they are obscured by incidental obscurations. When these are cleared away, then they are Buddhas. (i.e. When we fully realize our own nature, we will be like a Buddha. When we directly see the real nature of our own mind, and of everything; when we see through all conditioning, see the real nature of samsara and irvana, then we are Buddha.)

[Definitions Of: The Two Kayas, The Dhatu / Buddhaature, Buddhahood / Enlightenment:]
Even

at the time of being a sentient being, the nature of mind has the apparent Buddha qualities of Rupakaya and the Buddha qualities of the emptiness aspect as Dharmakaya; (i.e. The two inseparable aspects of the real nature of everything, are called the two kayas in the fruition.) are obscured by un-removed defilements, this is called the dhatu or enlightened family. (i.e. the potential, the Buddha-nature) Buddhahood, since mind is free from all defilements, it is called enlightenment. (i.e. the potential realized: Buddha. One cannot be called a Buddha until it is fully realized. But still, nothing change. It is the same in both case.)

But since they

At the time of

This

occurs merely by the appearance or non-appearance of the perfected power of the nature, mind itself. It is not maintained that first, at the time of being a sentient being, the qualities are non-existent, and later they are newly produced. This is because they are changeless. (i.e. There is nothing added or removed. Sentient beings in samsara and Buddhas are not different or separate, not the same. ot one, not two. irvana, or Enlightenment, is not produced, not caused, thus not impermanent.) (i.e. The mind is not existent, not non-existent. It is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. That is the complementarity expressed with the Two Truths, and the need to use both method and wisdom. The Rupakaya is the equivalent of affirming conventional truths, dependent origination, causality, space and time. Dharmakaya is the equivalent of affirming the ultimate / sacred truth, the emptiness of inherent existence of all of this. Those two aspects are inseparable, that it the real nature of the mind, that is the Svabhavikakaya. Everything has always been like that, that is their unborn Buddha-nature. But because of ignorance, fixations and obscurations, we do not see this. -- The apparent Buddha qualities of Rupakaya and the Buddha qualities of the emptiness aspect as Dharmakaya) The Sutra of the Supreme Appearance of the Essence says: The dhatu has no temporal beginning. It exists as the true state of all dharmas. (i.e. The Buddha-nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything.) Since it exists, all beings have attained nirvana. As it was before, it will be later. This is the changelessness of such-ness. (i.e. This real nature of everything is not changing; it is just hidden by veils caused by ignorance.) The luminous nature of mind is not obscured by the kleshas. (i.e. This real nature of our mind, and of everything, is not changed by those veils covering it, by our ignorance. Like the sun is not touched by the clouds covering it from our sight.) The Uttaratantra says:

The nature of the mind is luminosity. It is just as changeless as the space of the sky. By the rising of false conceptions, desire and so forth obscure it, But its nature is not obscured by incidental defilements.

The Two Aspects Of The Buddha- ature:


The divisions are the primordial gotra and the removable gotra, whose arising depends on clearing away incidental defilements. As for their beginning-less existence as dharmin (i.e. the realm of dharmas) and dharmata (i.e. the real nature of the dharmas), the irvana Sutra says: O son of noble family, as for the nature of mind, naturally luminous and naturally essence-less, the way naturally pure mind appears is by participating in Buddha qualities that blaze with the major and minor marks, and not being separate from them. evertheless its empty and apparent natures are distinguished. (i.e. on-dual: not one, not two. ot separate or different, not the same. Inseparability of the two aspects: luminosity or appearances and emptiness.) The established gotra, superimposed on the primordial gotra is the incidental upaya and praja of the four paths of learning, produced by mind and so forth. Purification occurs through the activities of the two accumulations of merit and wisdom. (i.e. This purification, a skillful means consisting of using both method and wisdom (the two accumulations), although being empty itself, is building karma in accord with the goal: transcendence from all extremes. It is like as if producing something (good karma), but at the end even this is seen for what it really is: just a temporary raft, and this good karma formation is also transcended. The important point is to use any adapted skillful means (a progressive path) required to be able to ultimately directly see the real nature of our own mind, and thus of everything. So the gradual purification is the gradual removal of obstacles preventing one to be able to do this, and gradually seeing the real nature of everything. Those two accumulations are supporting each other along the path. One without the other would not go far.) The Gandavyuha Sutra says: Kye, sons of the Victorious One! This, which is called the gotra of enlightenment, is genuine [31] Dharmadhatu (i.e. The Buddha-nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. That is what has to be directly seen by gradually purifying the mind, by bringing the result into the path. That is why we need the two accumulations, because it is in accord with the non-dual nature of everything: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither; the Union of the Two.) It is vast like the sky. When its naturally luminous nature has been seen, training in accord with the great accumulations of merit and wisdom is purified. The Uttaratantra says:

Like the buried treasure and the fruit The two aspects of the gotra should be known They are the beginning-less natural presence And supremacy that has been truly received. (i.e. The Buddha-nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. Its two aspects are the two aspect of the real nature of our own mind and of everything. The Two Truths should be known. Both method and wisdom should be used, accumulating both merit and wisdom. The two kayas should be produced. The real nature of everything should be seen as both not existent, not non-existent; the Union of dependent origination and emptiness.) As is taught, arising from these two gotras, The Trikaya of the Buddha is attained. By the first arises the first of the kayas, [32] By the second arise the subsequent two. [33] (i.e. The two aspects of enlightenment, the union of dependent origination and emptiness, the union of the two truths, the inseparability of appearances and emptiness, the union of body and mind, have always been like that. This is not a mental fabrication. It is just a matter of directly seeing our real unborn mind nature, and thus the real nature of everything, to be free from all uncontrolled karmic formation and conditioning. The two kayas are the real nature of a being when directly seen without all the defilements. They are not produced they are always there. The two aspect of the potential are then called the two aspects of the Buddha.) All the splendor of svabhavikakaya, Like the precious statue of the Buddha. Is self-arising and therefore un-produced. It is a mine of precious qualities. (i.e. Since the real cause of Buddhahood is the Buddha-potential, nothing is produced. The wholesomeness of the path is already present in this Buddha-potential, in the real nature of everything. That is because wholesomeness is being in accord with the real nature of everything. It is in accord with Liberation because it combines both method and wisdom, because if is not based on egoism, not based on hurting other, not based on maintaining and amplifying the belief in inherent existence, in objects of desire or hate. It is wholesome because it is progressively perfected by getting closer and closer to this non-dual nature of everything, this Buddha-nature.) Because it has great dominion over the dharmin (i.e. the realm of dharmas) It is fully expressed, like a universal monarch. Its phenomenal nature is like a reflection, With emanation-bodies like forms of gold. (i.e. The Buddha-nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything.) Svabhavikakaya is mind itself, the naturally existing gotra. This is like a naturally existing jewel. From within it comes the gotra with the nature of the dharmin (i.e. the realm of dharmas). Here there are the universal monarch of Sambhogakaya, and its

reflected emanation, arising in dependence on it, irmanakaya, the supreme emanation for those who are to be tamed. At the time of existing as a sentient being, these do not appear, because defilement obscures them. (i.e. The real nature of our own mind is the real non-dual nature of everything, the inseparability of the two aspects. From the aspect of luminosity comes the appearances of the Sambhogakaya and irmanakaya. But they are not seen for what they are. -From this real nature of everything beyond existence and non-existence, come naturally the mind's function, the various mind's objects, and the illusions. The only problem is by not being aware that all of these colors / concepts and emanations / appearances are empty of inherent existence while being naturally produced.) accumulating merit through visualization and so forth, defilements that obscure Rupakaya are cleared away. (i.e. By purifying the body, speech and mind one generated the causes for the irmanakaya, the Sambhogakaya, and the Dharmakaya. Once the real nature of the impure body, speech and mind is directly seen, they are seen as pure kayas. Just acting as if they were pure the body and speech are the cause of the Rupakaya because then they are acting in accord with their real nature.)
By By

the accumulation of wisdom through emptiness meditation and so forth, obscurations are cleared away from the dharmata-svabhavikakaya, the body of the selfexisting-essence, the nature of dharmas. (i.e. By purifying the three as inseparable, one attains the Svabhavikakaya - the inseparability of the three kayas. But the real transmutation occurs only by directly seeing the whole picture, the real nature of our own mind and of everything.)

The support, Within

the naturally existing gotra, is like clear water.

it the supported, the established gotra, rises like a variety of reflections. exist primordially, like reflector and reflection.

The two

(i.e. Inseparability of emptiness and dependent origination. When correctly seen these two are seen as inseparable, unborn, primordial. Everything is dependently arisen because of emptiness. All the appearances of the mind, and the mind itself as the chief of appearance, naturally arise.)
Within

the gotra that exists as the ground,

as knowable objects, the incidentally established gotra exists as the phenomena of knowing mind. These are respectively The dharmin

support and supported.

(i.e. the realm of dharmas) exists separately from dharmata (i.e. the real nature of the dharmas), the naturally existing gotra.

As

a separable fruition, it is non-existent. The produced gotra is an antidote to purify defilements.

Though

the two kayas exist as if they were produced effect and producing cause, there is no actual causation.

That gotra makes the perfect Buddha qualities to be born as the realization of the paths of learning. This is their liberation or ripening as the level of Buddhahood.

The Mahayanasutralankara says: The nature and the vast extent of its blossoming; That these exist as support and what is supported; Their existence and non-existence; their Buddha qualities. Are what should be known as the meaning of liberation. (i.e. The essence of the teachings is the inseparable two aspects. The unimpeded manifestation of luminous space. Like the three aspects of the mind: empty, luminous, unimpeded wisdom; or essence, nature, compassionate energy. All of this meaning that the real nature of everything is not existence, not non-existence, not both, not neither.) Sugatagarbha pervades all sentient beings. By the nine examples it is taught to exist within the covering of the kleshas. The Uttaratantra says: A Buddha in a decaying lotus, bees and honey. Gold within a covering of an unclean nature. Treasure in the earth, the germ within a fruit, An image of the Buddha that is covered with rags. A king within the belly of a poor and ugly woman. Jewels in the earth, in such a form, Obscured by the incidental defilements of the kleshas, This dhatu exists within sentient beings. These nine examples are related to the obscured dhatu as it exists in ordinary individuals, Arhats among the shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas dwelling on the paths of seeing and meditation. Ordinary people are those who have not entered into the path; or those who have entered but their being is obscured by to the assembly of the four obscurations, passion, aggression, ignorance, and all of these together. From the four examples of the dhatu within them, First, as for the example of how the essence exists, when it is obscured by propensities of desire, the Uttaratantra says:

Existing in a lotus that is evil-colored, A Tathgata-statue, blazing with a thousand marks, Having been seen with the undefiled eye of the gods, The statue would be removed from its mud-born lotus cover. For Tathgatas dwelling in places without torment The intrinsic Buddha eye sees what will later be un-obscured. [34] Their intrinsic endless compassion will free them from obscuration. Second, the example of the dhatu existing in a covering characterized by propensities of aggression: Like honey that is surrounded by a swarm of bees, Capable persons have a wish that they could acquire it Having seen it is there, by using skillful means, They completely separate it from the swarm of insects, By the all-knowing eye of the great sage himself Having seen the honey of the dhatu or gotra, Having obscurations like the swarm of bees, He makes them be completely abandoned and disappear. Third, the example of the dhatu existing in a covering characterized by propensities of stupidity: Just as kernels of grain still covered by their husks Are not usable in that form by human beings, They remove the grain from out of the covering husk. Using the part they want for food and otherwise Just so, mixed with defiling kleshas of sentient beings, As many victorious ones as there are in the three worlds, If they are not liberated from being mixed with these kleshas, So many will not be made into victorious ones. Fourth, the example of the essence existing in a covering manifesting kleshas characterized by the arising of passion, aggression and stupidity all together: Just as on a journey someone's treasured gold In the confusion might fall into a filthy place, That dharmin (i.e. the realm of dharmas) by falling there, would not have been destroyed, Remaining there like that for many hundreds of years. By a god who had the pure eye of the gods, If the gold existing there was seen and found People would say the god established that precious thing, This supremely precious thing, that actually was abandoned, So the Buddha qualities of sentient beings. Have sunk and disappeared among the filth-like kleshas.

Having been seen by the Sage, to purify them that filth, For all beings he caused the dharma to arise. As for the example of the dhatu existing in a covering of habitual patterns of ignorance, in the Arhats of the shravakas and Pratyekabuddhas: Just as in the house of a poor man, under the floor, An inexhaustible treasure might be lying buried; But he would not know the existence of this treasure, or would the treasure say to him that it was there. So with the precious treasure that is within the mind, Spotless dharmata, with no adding or taking away, When it is not realized, we experience The poverties of suffering, continuously arising. (i.e. dharmin, the realm of dharmas, and dharmata, their real nature) if the covering is abandoned when seen, here is the first of the two examples of how the essence is: Just as in a mango or in other fruits There are undestroyed dharmas of seed and germination, And then if there should be plowed earth, and water and such, The stuff of a king of trees will gradually be established. So in the fruit of the ignorance of sentient beings, Inside the covering skin is the good dharma-element Which similarly depending on the condition of goodness Will gradually be the stuff of the King of Sages. As for the second example: As a precious statue of the Victorious One Might be covered up in dirty tattered rags, But still a divine one on the path might seen and uncover it, And then it would be said, "He really dwells on the path." So the Sugata nature, wrapped in beginning-less kleshas, Having once been seen, even within an animal, There would be a real means of by which it could be set free. From the two examples of how, within the covering of defilements that is to be abandoned by cultivation, there exists the splendor of the good dhatu of dharmas, as for the first: Just as an ugly woman with no one to protect her Staying in a shelter for the poor and homeless Might hold a splendid king in the confines her womb. And would not know this lord of men was in her belly.

In the refuge mission of life within this world, Impure sentient beings are like that pregnant woman. With only what she has, she will one day have a protector. Gestation of the spotless dhatu is similar. As for the second example: Just as gold ore that has a big nugget inside of it [35] Has a external nature that is very drab, Having seen it those who know it for what it is, In order to purify the gold that is inside, Undertake to remove the outer covering. Having seen the luminous nature that is within us, Although it has been covered up by the incidental; Likewise the source of seeing what is precious in sentient beings Removes the obscurations of supreme enlightenment. Though the obscurations to the pure ground are many, the same text says: Passion, aggression, and ignorance; active or as an imprint; That to be abandoned by seeing and meditation; The higher Bhumis relatively impure and pure, [36] Many defilements are taught by the covering lotus and so forth. Transcending all the divisions of closely-connecting kleshas, By these defilements fools and those with the learning of Arhats, Are meant by respectively four and one of these examples. Seeing and cultivation, and the pure and impure levels Have two and two comparisons of their impurities. Joining these examples of defilements and the essence to a determination of their meaning, the same text says: Just as when a lotus arises from the mud, When it first manifests the mind is very joyful, But afterward it decays and then there is no more joy. The joy arising from desire is like that. Just as delicious honey is completely crawling With irritated bees that sting like an army of spears; Just so, if aggression rises, and swarms within our minds Suffering will be produced within our hearts. Just as the essence, the kernels rice and other grain Is hidden by an external husk which covers it, So sight of the essential meaning Buddhahood Has been obscured within the egg of ignorance.

Just as filth is something that is unsuitable, So are those who have desire for these poisons That is because depending on the cause of their desire, What is like filth will be arising everywhere. Just as when wealth is hidden underneath the ground, One who does not know this will not attain the treasure, So the self-arising treasure of the nature Is hidden in the ground of habitual patterns of ignorance. Just as by gradual growing of the sprout and so forth The shell of the seed is cut apart and falls away, So by seeing the such-ness of the natural state What is to be abandoned by seeing is reversed. Those who conquer the essence of transitory collections Through being connected to the path of the noble ones, Make wisdom the thing to abandon on the path of meditation. This is taught to be like being wrapped in rags. [37] The defilements supported by the first seven Bhumis, Are like the defilement found in the covering of a womb. on-thought is like being free of the covering of the womb, This completes the ripening of the insight of wisdom. Defilements associated with the three highest Bhumis Should be known to like a covering of mud and clay. By a great being's having attained the vajra view, The vajra-like samdhi destroys that covering. Thus the many defilements of desire and so forth Are like the examples of a decaying lotus and so forth. The Enumeration of Dharmas of the Complete Passing Beyond Suffering of the oble Ones says: Then the Bhagavan spoke to Kashyapa. O son of noble family, It is, for example, like this. A wealthy king had on his forehead a vajra jewel. With other wealthy ones, radiating power, it touched the heads of those other wealthy ones. The jewel on the forehead sunk inside his flesh, and he did not know where it had gone. Because a wound arose, he asked a doctor, "Cure me." From this instruction, a very capable doctor would not treat him for that wound of the jewel going into his flesh, saying these words, "Kye most powerful one, why are you asking about your forehead-jewel? That wealthy one, from aversion, would say to the doctor, "Because my forehead jewel should not go anywhere." he would think, "Is it an illusion that it is not there?" This would produce much suffering. Then that doctor producing joy in that wealthy one would say, "Thus do not produce suffering. If you emanate power, the jewel will sink into your flesh, a mere reflection will appear externally. If you emanate power, hatred will arise. Though the power of the jewel has sunk into your flesh you did not feel it." ot believing these words that were said, the king would say, "Doctor don't lie. If it sinks into my flesh,

which is matter and blood that is very opaque, it is not reasonable that a reflection would appear." Then the doctor would say, "A mirror is likewise opaque, but the jewel will also clearly appear in it. When you have seen that this is like that, a wondrous, marvelous perception will arise. O son of noble family, all sentient beings are like that. Since they do not venerate the spiritual friend, though they have the Buddha nature they cannot see it. It is obscured by passion, aggression, and ignorance. Many different beings who have so been overcome are within samsara and suffering. From that nature, O son of noble family, within the bodies of all sentient beings there are the ten powers, the thirty-two major marks, and the eighty excellent minor marks. This has been taught in many ways. The Hevajra says: Within the body there exists the great wisdom The truth of this has abandoned all conceptions. Universal, it pervades all things. Embodied existence does not arise from the body. (i.e. The Buddha-nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. Seeing the real nature of our own mind is seeing the real nature of the world; and vice versa. The reason we seek the real nature of our own mind instead of seeking the truth outside is that we cannot directly see something outside of our own mind, but we can directly see the real nature of our own mind. Buddhists seek the truth inside; scientists seek the truth outside. It is all the same truth. There is no real distinction between the levels.) he Precious Mala says: I and limitless sentient beings are primordial Buddhas. By the power of discursive thoughts there is samsara. From that I shall produce the supreme mind of enlightenment. (i.e. A Buddha knows its real nature, the real nature of everything, and act accordingly in perfect harmony with this; we ignore our real nature and our actions are based on accumulated errors, conditioning.) The Wisdom of the Moment of Death says: Since whoever realizes mind is a Buddha, produce the supreme perception by not searching anywhere else. (i.e. The only thing we have to do to become a Buddha is to realize the real nature of our own mind, and of everything.) The Praise of the Vajra of Mind says: Water that exists within the earth Exists there pure without defilement. Just so, within the covering of the kleshas, Wisdom exists without defilement.

(i.e. The Buddha-nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. The real nature of everything is not changed by our ignorance of it, and our errors because of this.) The Secret Essence says: Throughout the ten directions and four times, Perfected Buddhas are nowhere to be found. Except for the perfect Buddha, the nature of mind, Do not look for any other Buddha. The victorious ones themselves, if they should search, Would never find it anywhere at all. (i.e. Buddhas are not something external, not something inherently existing somewhere. It is the real nature of our own mind and of everything: the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness, the unimpeded luminous space, the flow of interdependence without any entities in it, the purified mind stream. Becoming a Buddha is realizing our own real non-dual nature; it is the perfect and permanent Union of The Two Truths. It is like stopping to identify ourselves with impermanent objects or phenomena, and identifying ourselves with the whole non-dual flow.) So it is taught, there and elsewhere.

In brief, by the example of the great billion-fold expanse of the three-fold thousand worlds it should be known that within all sentient beings primordially exists the kayas and wisdoms of Buddhahood, without adding and subtracting, like the sun and its light. That dhatu is always naturally pure. Its self-nature does not change. Its defilements are false conceptions and temporary changes. (i.e. The Buddha-nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. We can study and directly see the real nature of everything, the truth, within us. And once we have removed this ignorance, there is no more illusions, no more obstructions. The everything we do is in accord with the real nature of everything; All Buddha activities are in perfect harmony with this because he is constantly aware of the real nature of everything as he acts. He has realized the perfect Union of the Two Truths, the inseparability of the two aspects of the real nature of everything. -- Meanwhile, the difference between unwholesome and wholesome is that wholesomeness is more in accord with this real non-dual nature. And these wholesome methods are not artificially invented, but the fruit of this real nature that is part of us. Compassion is inseparable with emptiness.) (i.e. So our real nature is not sinful, but Buddha-like. And wholesomeness, like acting for the benefit of others, instead of out of egoism, is more powerful, more efficient, bringing more happiness, because it is more in accord with the real nature of everything.) The commentary on the Uttaratantra says:

O great rishi, the kleshas are darkness (i.e. ignorance). Complete purity is light (i.e. wisdom, seeing the real nature of everything). The kleshas are weak (i.e. There is no real power in mistaken views). Clear seeing is powerful (i.e. Acting with knowledge of the real nature is surely more efficient). The kleshas are temporary. (i.e. All views are flawed, dependently arisen and impermanent.) atural purity is the root. (i.e. The real nature of everything is the unchanging basis-ofall.) So it is taught there and elsewhere. Since the dhatu is primordially without defilement, it is pure. Since it is changeless, it is the true self, since it always exists it is permanent. Though it falls into the sufferings of samsara, it is not overcome by them, and this is the perfection of bliss. (i.e. Everything is dependently arisen, impermanent, unsatisfactory, empty of inherent existence; but we imagine a support that is not. What this sentence should say is that it is not impure, not dependent and continually changing, not caused, not impermanent, not non-existent. But it is not their opposites either, nor both together, nor something else. -- With Chittamatra (Yogacara) there is the belief in something inherently existing, an absolute, a real flow. That is what it is all about here. But with Madhyamika there is no absolute, only adapted skillful means. Everything is empty of inherent existence because dependently arisen ... even this. The flow of interdependence is also a mental fabrication. There is no absolute causality anywhere. -- o absolute, only adapted skillful means, only relative truths. Everything is not existent, not non-existent, not both, not either. The real nature of everything is beyond any description, beyond any conceptualization, beyond causality space and time, beyond all dualities. But, still, we use concepts to say what it is not, and to point toward it. We use concepts like: Union of the Two Truths, inseparability of appearances and emptiness, inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness, unimpeded luminous space, original awareness, Buddha-nature, etc. We even used words like pure, permanent, changeless, unborn, irvana ... But it is really beyond those concepts. Those concepts are used only as pointers toward more and more wholesomeness, more and more in accord with the real non-dual nature of everything. They are all only adapted skillful means. -- We look for the subtle nature of the mind and we find it when we find nothing inherently existing, but still dependently arisen and functional. That is not complete non-existence. It is important to realize that, otherwise we might fall into nihilism. The concept of Buddha-nature, or of a dhatu covered by defilements, is an aid to remember that, a skillful means for those who cannot think about emptiness without falling into nihilism. But, on the other hand, thinking that this Buddha-nature, or this dhatu, is really existing as a permanent something is to fall into the other extreme. -- The real nature of our own mind and of everything, the real nature of Buddha, is beyond pure and impure, beyond change and immobility, beyond permanent and nonpermanent, beyond existence and non-existence. It is the Union of the Two.)

The Uttaratantra says: Purity, self-nature, bliss, and permanence Are the perfect qualities of the fruition. The dhatu of the Tathgata pervades all sentient beings...The Mahayanasutralankara says: Just as space is maintained as eternal and omnipresent, This too is maintained to be eternal and omnipresent. Just as space is an aspect found within all forms, This too is in all the assembly of sentient beings. (i.e. The support, the basis-of-all, the flow, is seen here as really existing and permanent. But as argarjuna pointed out, even space is a mental fabrication. There is no inherently existing dhatus. -- Karikas - Section 5 - An Analysis of the "irreducible Elements" (dhatus): "7.Therefore space is neither an existing thing, nor a non-existing thing, neither something to which a defining characteristic applies (i.e. separate from a defining characteristic), nor a defining characteristic. (i.e. the same as a defining characteristic) Also, the other five irreducible elements can be considered in the same way as space. " -- The important point is that the defilements covering it are "not permanent", "not really impure", "not really the self", and that there is a way to transcend them by directly seeing their real nature, thus becoming free from these obstructions.) When this essence is obscured by clouds, they do not stain it, any more than when the sun is obscured by clouds. At the time of primordial Buddhahood, the dhatu exists indestructibly and inseparably. (i.e. The Buddha-nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything. The real nature of everything is not changed by our ignorance of it, and our errors because of this.) The commentary to the Uttaratantra says The dhatu of the Tathgata existing in the three occasions is present within all beings. All their kleshas and phenomenal appearances are composed of this changeless reality. (i.e. Everything is necessarily in accord with the real nature of everything. Seems tautological, no? A mind without or with appearances is still following the real nature of everything. It is still perfect and pure. It is just a matter of seeing this. Thinking there is good and bad, self and others, this kind of discrimination is ignorance of the real nature of our own mind and of everything. When we see this, then we are automatically free from all obsessions, attachments, fears, obstructions. Free from our accumulated conditioning, and not producing any more conditioning.) As regards the three occasions, the Uttaratantra says: These are the three-fold stages of impurity, Both pure and impure, and being completely pure. They are said to be the stage of sentient beings, And those of bodhisattvas, and of Tathgatas.

The impure situation is that of sentient beings. That which is both pure and impure is that of bodhisattvas. Complete purity is the situation of the Buddhas. As nothing is like the gotra, it cannot be exemplified by anything at all. (i.e. The three occasions are three occasions to observe the nature of the mind: from gross, to subtle, to very subtle. They correspond to three stages of purification of the mind: within the influence of conditioning and producing conditioning, within the influence of conditioning without producing more conditioning, and outside of the influence of already accumulated conditioning without producing more conditioning. These three stages are seen while going asleep, dying, of while practicing the eight Dhyanas, or as a more permanent characteristic of a being who has gradually purified his mind. But the real nature of the mind is not the mind completely still. It is beyond any description, beyond a mind completely still or a mind completely wild. A mind with or without defilements is still following the real nature of everything. That real nature is what has to be directly seen.) The same text says: Since it is completely beyond the world o example is seen within the world. Therefore the Tathgata and the dhatu Are taught to be similar in this respect. (i.e. The Buddha nature is the real nature of our own mind and of everything in all occasions. Seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything is seeing the Buddha; and vice versa. This real nature of everything is beyond any description, beyond any conceptualization, beyond any duality, beyond causality space and time. It has to be directly seen by seeking and directly seeing the real (very-very subtle) non-dual nature of our own mind. That is the only way to fully convinced ourselves of this truth without using imperfect conceptualization.) As to how it is incomparable, it is essentially single. Therefore, to explain it by many examples from different situations would be merely partial characterization of it. It may be asked, "How can this gotra be seen as it is? Beings who do not see the natural state are accepted by the spiritual friend. Those who have devotion to the vehicles of the shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas; and also beings dwelling on the Bhumis realize it in a single way. This realization is one with that of the bodhisattvas dwelling on the tenth bhumi. As for this being the way it really is, it is not seen otherwise even by the Buddhas themselves. (i.e. And the way to be able to directly see this truth is by following the path. But the efficiency of this path cannot be proven conceptually, it becomes evident only when the truth becomes evident. They are both beyond description, beyond conceptualization. So there is a minimum of faith necessary. When one has seen the truth, one sees that the gradual wholesome methods of the paths are in accord with it and are causes (without being real causes) of it. Only then everything becomes perfectly united: not one, not two ... Only a fully realized Buddha can totally understand this truth and the path. Until

then we need to rely on some faith as for the ultimate explanation. But there is still much proof in the practice of the two accumulations and its gradual results.) The commentary to the Uttaratantra says: Seeing clouds and the sun, whether from here on the earth or from the sky above the clouds, we have a similar apprehension. The noble ones whose eye of the mind is pure also see all this very clearly. Bhagavan, your completely pure understanding of Dharmakaya sees all the limitless knowable objects pervading the space of the sky. The dhatu or essence is the Buddha field of the three kayas of one's own mind itself, along with their wisdoms, existing as the circle of the ornament. How is this seen? Since this is Buddhahood, it is properly explained in these texts. By having faith in the paths of learning it is entirely apprehended. The former text says: The absolute truth of the self-arisen ones Has to be realized by means of faith. The blazing light in the circle of the sun Is not seen by those who have no eyes. The Sutra on the Essence of Buddhahood says: o matter what they rely on, individual sentient beings, shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas do not see the essence of the Buddhas as it is. For example, a blind man cannot see what is painted by others in oil colors. When they say, "it is like this pillar, and he touches the pillar with his hands and grasps it as cold. They say, "It is like the wings of a swan." By hearing the sound of the wings of a swan the color of a pillar is grasped as a fluttering sound. He asks, "What is the color of those wings like?" "It is like a conch." By touching a smooth conch, he grasps it as smooth. Just as a blind person does not know colors as they are, seeing the highest nature of Buddhahood is very difficult. It is also very hard for sentient beings to realize it. The same text says: A king assembled many blind men, and having shown them an elephant. Asked to describe the characteristics of an elephant, those who had touched the trunk said, "It is like a hook." Those who touched the eye said, "It is like a bowl. Those who touched the ear said, "It is like a winnowing basket. Those who touched the back said, "It is like a tray. Those who touched the tail said, "It is like a rope." These blind men were not talking about anything other than an elephant, but they had not understood its totality. The Buddha nature is also like that. Those who have said different things, that it is emptiness, like illusion, luminous and so forth, have not realized its totality. (i.e. o absolute, only adapted skillful means. All views are necessarily dependently arisen, impermanent, flawed. The real nature of everything, and the full explanation of the path, is beyond description, beyond any conceptualization, beyond any extremes.

-- He who says he knows the truth, knows nothing. He who knows more, knows that he knows nothing.) Beings who are noble ones have a little realization of it, but not as it is. The irvana Sutra says: O son of noble family For example, it is like this. A blind man in order to have his eyes healed went to a capable physician. The physician holding a gold knife removed the hindrance. Having cut off the opaque part that obscured the eye. He lifted up a finger. When he showed it, the blind man said, "I do not see it." If he showed two or three fingers, the patient would say, "I see a little bit." O son of noble family, if this Sutra of Complete great irvana is not taught, as many are not among the bodhisattvas, even after they have perfected the ten paramitas, even when they exist on the tenth bhumi, they will not see the nature of Buddhahood. It is like that. When this is taught by the Tathgata, they will see it a little. The birds soaring in the sky above must examine where the pure sky is. If a swan is in the top of a tree it examines whether it is a tree or water, and thinking about the top of a ship on the ocean, or in space, also knowing the top of the second. Though by such examples the essence is not seen, it is taught to be the manner of non-ascertaining seeing. If it is asked, "what is the use of teaching this essence that is subtle and difficult to examine, not seen with certainty while one is a sentient being?" (i.e. o absolute truth, just another skillful means.)
By

teaching that the essence of Buddhahood exists within the being of oneself and others, having reversed one's own discouragement, knowing that establishing liberation is not difficult, we gain confidence. contempt for other sentient beings, we respect everyone equally with the teacher as Buddhas. eliminated not knowing that realization of the kayas and wisdoms exists within one as true reality, praja realizes the space of the absolute. Knowing the natural state like that, it eliminates glorifications and deprecations of is and is not, Eternalism and nihilism. true reality, and the supreme self. Having eliminated pride and desire for anything more, it sees self and other as equal. It is taught that these are the five necessities for the arising of the great kindness for others. The Uttaratantra says: Like clouds, dreams, and illusions, and the other examples All the dharmas of knowables are always emptiness. When this has been taught by victorious ones to sentient beings Why do they also teach them that they have the essence. To answer that question: [38]

Eliminating

Having

Then wisdom realizes

Contempt for lesser ones and dis-enheartened beings, Joining those who grasp untruth to the truth of dharma, For those who have abundant faults of ego-grasping It is taught so that those like that will abandon them. As for those who wrongly slight the body and are enslaved by the golden net of wrong view, or who support realization of the true meaning of the sutras and secret mantra with partialities, their "essential meanings" are really provisional. They teach the intention that, "If the cause occurs, the fruition will arise." It is not like that. This is like the eternal self of the Hindu extremists. "The two kayas of Buddhahood arise from the two accumulations. This should be stated as definitely true." O you with your lotus net of Eternalism, you truly do not know the intention of saying that there were three turnings to the wheel of dharma. You are truly grasping the extreme of emptiness. The first turning of the word, intended for beginners and those of weak mind, made the four noble truths and renunciation into an antidote. This was so that these beings could eliminate samsara as a means of complete liberation from what is to be abandoned. In the second turning, intended for them eventually when they had completely abandoned this and for those of intermediate capacity of mind, he taught the eight examples of illusion and emptiness like space. This was a means of liberating them from the bondage of grasping the antidote. For those who reached that goal and from the viewpoint of those of the highest powers, he taught the self-nature of knowables as it really is. This is not like the self of the heretics. Their impossible self is a nonexistent, exaggerated nature. They make measures of greater and lesser, and therefore they do not maintain the dharmas of the kayas and wisdoms. It is not the true meaning that self and non-emptiness were taught simply as an antidote for you who are attached to ego-less-ness and emptiness. The irvana Sutra says: O son of noble family, moreover it is like this. For example a woman was nursing her small child who was afflicted by mouth rot, [39] and when the child was struck by sickness, that woman too was tormented by suffering, and sought out a physician. The physician gave her as medicine, oil and milk and shakara. When the child was given this to drink, he instructed the woman with these words. "Because we are giving medicine to this child, for a little while until you, the mother, are cured, it shouldn't be given your milk to drink. So he would instruct her. Then so that it would not nurse, he put bile on the nipples; the child would have said that her nipple was smeared with poison and not suitable for sucking. The child, tormented by thirst, desired the breast, but having tasted it, would not take it. After being treated by the physician the woman would wash her breast clean. When the child cried she would go to it. " ow take the breast and nurse," she would say. That child, though tormented with thirst, because of the former taste it experienced, would not come when called. In this instance the mother would give these instructions. "You have drunk the medicine I gave you before. With this medicine, until the mother is cured, since it is not proper that the nipple be given for nursing, it was

smeared with bile. ow, even taking your medicine, the nipple will have no taste in your mouth." When she said that, gradually approaching as before, it would drink. Son of noble family, The Tathgata also, in order to liberate all sentient beings, is the persistent teacher of ego-less-ness to sentient beings. By his having persistently done that, the attitude of "ego" is non-existent. Suffering is completely eliminated. This is in order to clear away the bad views of the worldly charvakas. By meditating on the dharma of ego-less-ness, the body will become completely pure. Just as that woman, because of her son, smeared bile on her breast, the Tathgata too is like that. So that there will be emptiness meditation, he teaches that all dharmas are selfless. Just as that woman later washed off the bile and called her child, saying take the nipple and nurse, my teaching Tathagata-garbha is like that. O monks so that you will not be afraid, as the mother called the child, and it gradually drank her milk, O monks, you too should make a distinction. Tathagata-garbha should not be said to be non-existent. In my former sayings in the Prajpramit sutras, which taught emptiness, understand that the intention was merely nature-less-ness. Otherwise by meditating on the emptiness of nothing at all, the fruition produced would accord with the cause, and the kayas and wisdoms would not arise. (i.e. o absolute, only adapted skillful means. The real nature of everything is not existence, not non-existence, not both existence and non-existence, not neither existence nor non-existence. Emptiness is not the absolute truth; it is just another skillful means, an antidotes to too much realism. But still observing causality, regularity, is the antidote to too much emptiness, or nihilism.) Emptiness expresses the idea that the apparent dharmin (i.e. the realm of dharmas), from the time it appears, is empty of complexities grasped as one and many, and empty of individual existences, like the reflections in a mirror, that all extremes are completely non-existent, and that non-existent now and primordially, things are not like their confused appearance. The Heart Sutra says: Form is emptiness. Emptiness is form. Emptiness is nothing other than form. From is nothing other than emptiness. Similarly, feeling, perception, formations, and consciousness are empty. The Middle Length Prajpramit says: Every dharmin (i.e. the realm of dharmas) in its own turn is taught to be empty of essence. But if it is formless, how will there be the view that form is empty? (i.e. If there is no belief in inherent existence, there is no need for the antidote of emptiness.) The Uttaratantra says:

The emptiness that has the supreme of all aspects Is emptiness that is expressed as form. (i.e. Form and emptiness are inter-dependent, co-arisen: not different or separate, not the same.) And also: 39-40 Here there is nothing at all that is to be cleared away, And nothing that is to be added to what there is. Within reality the real is what is seen. If thus one sees the truth, one will be liberated. Of what has the characteristic of separate-ability The dhatu, pure of the incidental, is empty. Of that which has the characteristic of being inseparable, The unsurpassable dharmas, it is not empty. (i.e. The Middle Way: nothing to accept, nothing to reject; beyond existence and non existence; beyond all dualities) Its commentary says: Why is this taught here? For the reason that it is not contradictory with saying that this dhatu of the Tathgata is by nature completely pure from all the kleshas that are to be cleared away. It is free from incidental obscurations because it is its nature to be so. Within this there is nothing to be added for reasons of phenomenal appearance. Completely undivided dharmata is also its nature. Therefore, sugatagarbha having divisions and what is separable is empty of all the separable coverings of the kleshas. What is indivisible and inseparable from it is the Buddha dharmas beyond being encompassed by thought, surpassing the grains of sand in the Ganges. They are not empty. (i.e. dharmin, the realm of dharmas, and dharmata, their real nature) When something does not exist in something, the latter is said to be empty of the former but we must subsequently assert that whatever remains there eternally exists and is known truly as it is. Though obscurations of the two primordial kayas of Buddhahood, are cleared away by the two accumulations, they are not producing cause and produced effect. If they were, Dharmakaya and Sambhogakaya would be composite productions, and hence impermanent. However, Dharmakaya is changeless. (i.e. o absolute causality, no total absence of causality: irvana cannot be caused, otherwise it would be dependent on causes and conditions, and thus impermanent, and

thus not irvana. But if we reject completely all causality, then we are good for the worst hells. The best approach is The Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting. Buddhahood is beyond causality space and time, beyond all discrimination and nondiscrimination, beyond existence and non-existence, beyond all dualities. So the "result of the path" is not caused by our own actions (methods), but by directly seeing our unborn non-dual true nature. So it is taught that there is an unborn Buddha-nature in all of us so we would not get attached to the means and develop pride and sectarianism. Otherwise that would be counter-productive. The goal is to transcend all attachment, all-conditioning, not to get attached to a path. o absolute, only adapted skillful means.) The Madhyamakavatara says: The kaya of peace is like a wish fulfilling tree, Like a wish-fulfilling, gem it is inconceivable. Till beings are liberated, it is always in the world, And it will appear without complexity. The Uttaratantra says: The Mara of death has been conquered by the lord of Dharma. Being without essence, he is the permanent lord of the world. Contradicting this idea that it has cause and effect it also says: Uncompounded and self-existing, ot realized by other conditions, Having wise and compassionate power, Buddhahood has the two benefits. That refutes its having a producing cause and produced effect. Saying it is "ego-less," "emptiness," "non-dual," and so forth should be understood in this way. The Great irvana of the oble Ones says: The secret essence of the Tathgata is shown to be the completely pure Buddha nature that neither changes nor transmigrates. If it so exists, it is unreasonable for those who are skilled in praja not to maintain that. To say it is non-existent would be false speaking, and likewise that it has development or succession. Those of the race of fools espouse nihilism, not knowing the secret essence of the Tathgata. If it is said to suffer, the blissful nature could not be within the body. Stupid fools think, "All bodies are impermanent." This is like sending the freshness of awareness into clay. Those who are skilled in praja make distinctions. They do not say that everything is impermanent in every way. Why? Because within our bodies there exists the seed of Buddha nature. Stupid fools grasp the thought that all the dharmas of Buddhahood are selfless. For those skilled in praja, selflessness is just an abstract label. It should be discriminated as having no true existence. Knowing this, one will produce no doubts about the matter. When someone says that Tathagata-garbha is empty, stupid fools give rise to views of nihilism and non-existence. Those who are skilled in praja make a distinction. Within

human beings there is the single Tathgata. It is said to be eternally existent, unchanging, and does not transmigrate. If by the condition of ignorance, composite things are said to arise, stupid fools when they have heard this think that insight and ignorance are to be distinguished as two. Those who are skilled in praja realize that their natures are non-dual. That which is non-dual is reality. When someone says that by formations consciousness arises, stupid fools grasp formations and consciousness as two. Those who are skilled in praja realize their natures as non-dual. on-duality is purity. All dharmas have no self, and Tathagata-garbha also has no self. When this is said, stupid fools grasp it dualistically. Those who are skilled in Praja realize that their natures are non-dual. Self and selflessness are intrinsically non-dual. Tathagata-garbha has been supremely praised by the Buddha Bhagavats as immeasurable, beyond evaluation, and limitless. I too have taught this in all the sutras about the qualities it possesses. (i.e. The real nature of everything including the self is not existence, not non-existence, not both, not neither. So it would be wrong to say that it exists, or that it doesn't exist completely. o absolute, only adapted skillful means. Emptiness is an antidote to realism, and Buddha-nature is an antidote to nihilism from too much impermanence or emptiness. The real nature of everything is beyond any description, beyond any concepts, beyond any dualities.) So it should be known. The Sutra of Miraculous Display says: Those who have wrong craving have the characteristic of never transcending suffering. (i.e. never, or for a long time ?) When this is taught regarding these and those of the cut off family, we may think that not all beings are pervaded by the garbha; but it is not like that. The intention is that those with wrong craving who abandon the Mahayana dharma will not be liberated for a long time. Those who are reversed from the path are only temporarily cut off from the family of those in whom the path is established. They are not cut off from the dhatu, the luminous nature of mind. The commentary to the Uttaratantra says: "Those who have wrong craving have the characteristic of never transcending suffering." This teaches that wrong craving causes hostility towards the dharma of the Mahayana. This is said with the intention that this hostility to the Mahayana dharma will be reversed at another time. Because the dhatu exists with a nature that is completely pure, it is not proper to say that some will never become pure. Therefore the Bhagavats intention was that all sentient beings without distinction are capable of being completely purified. Though samsara is beginning-less, it does have an end. The naturally pure and eternal is obscured by a covering of beginning-less obscurations, and therefore not seen, just as gold might be hidden. Since within the dhatu of dharmas all goodness exists, it can always be purified. Though, samsara is beginning-less, it has an end. By that is it established. The reasons that the two gotras are awakened are two. As for the reason that Dharmakaya, the naturally- existing gotra, is awakened, the Madhyamakavatara says:

When someone hears about emptiness, as an ordinary person, The highest joy will arise within them again and again. Their eyes are wet with tears that flow because of this joy. The hairs of their body arise with wonder and stand on end. Within them the seed of attaining Buddhahood exists They have become the vessels of direct and straightforward teachings. ow the absolute truth has really been taught to them. As for the reason that the dharmin-gotra of Rupakaya is awakened, the Mahayanasutralankara says: As for why one becomes a connected vessel, Practicing compassion, and devotion, And dedication to what is truly good Is truly explained as being due to the gotra. Regarding the benefits of awakening the gotra, the same text says: The lower realms are far off, and liberation is quick. When that occurs, one experiences little suffering. By sadness sentient beings will then be quickly ripened. Once the gotra is awakened, from then on one is liberated from the lower realms like growing jasmine naturally falling to the ground. There is little suffering. By strong weariness sentient beings will be ripened. If there were no such gotra within sentient beings, no matter what sufferings arose, they would not be saddened. The attitude that aspires to nirvana and rejects samsara would not arise. The attitude of desiring liberation could also not arise. That in some, without being taught by anyone, compassion for the suffering of others arises, and that some who experience suffering develop renunciation and so forth is due to the power of goodness of the beginning-less dhatu of dharmas. The Uttaratantra says: If there were no dhatu of Buddhahood, Suffering would never make us sad. There would be no desire for nirvana, Or effort and aspiration to that goal. Being able to see the comparative attractiveness of samsara and nirvana, seeing their faults and virtues is therefore due to the existence of the gotra. If the gotra did not exist, neither would these.

Thus from the extensive teaching that by having the gotra the essence of Buddhahood exists within us, now some summary verses are interposed: Without exception all sentient beings have sugatagarbha. In the covering veil of incidental obscurations,

Exists the primordial lamp, the luminous dhatu of dharmas. This is the kayas and wisdoms this itself is the Dharma. Within it nothing is added, and nothing is taken away. Existing within us, this itself is self-existing. By devoting ourselves to this essence of emptiness and compassion, Having attained this dhatu, called by the name "enlightenment," We will benefit all the host of beings without remainder. Primordially self-arising, like the sun in space, When it is obscured by clouds, temporarily dimming the daylight, Then we experience the dreamlike sufferings of samsara. So make a powerful effort to clear away obscuration. Confused incidental appearance, appearances of the six realms, Are emanated like dreams, from habitual patterns and karma, Appearing as what never was, nor is, and shall not be. The spontaneous presence of wisdom primordially exists. It always exists, but nevertheless it is not seen. As what we perceive in sleep, is not seen to be within us. Dharmas defiled with false conceptions are vain and futile. Do not grasp them, but train in the luminous nature of mind. Grasp the two benefits, bringing wealth to oneself and others. "If this gotra exists in everyone, why, pray tell, are we wandering in samsara?" We exist this way, not knowing our own face, because of the futile grasping of a meaningless ego. As lineage-holders of our kleshas from earlier to later, we are in bad company. We have poverty-mentality. Conditioning is produced by relative reference point. [40] This is samsara. The Mahayanasutralankara says: Well-practiced in our kleshas, and in bad company. With impoverished attitude, and relative reference point; Briefly stated, these are the four that should be known. These are the degradations that have defiled the gotra. The Details of Light says: Primordial luminosity itself is ignorant. So-called "rising" of mind produces attachment to ego. By these objects having been grasped as so-called "others," Beings become confused, within the realm of samsara. Because of their karma of inappropriate joys and sorrows, They have the experience of individual beings. The All-Creating King says

This phenomenal play, which is wonderful and marvelous, Is action-less existence, like the space of the sky. Ignorance without apprehension of anything, Rises immediately from nothing but itself. This is the path that is alike for everyone. This is the nature as it is within all beings. Defiled by the removable, it therefore is confused. Also it says there: By gathering in the light that exists in all directions To the limits of the four directions, above and below, In an unpredictable rainbow whose colors are not fixed The different kinds of gotra will manifest in appearance. Suchness moves and particles never move at all. This is the principle one of all the five elements.

Mind
The primordial, luminous nature of mind, empty/luminous self-arising wisdom, is in essence emptiness like the sky. Its nature is luminosity like the sun and moon. The radiance of its compassion arises ceaselessly, like reflections in the surface of an untarnished mirror. The natures of Dharmakaya, Sambhogakaya, and irmanakaya come from within sugatagarbha, which is entirely without bias and partiality. The empty essence is also the accommodating space of arising. The luminous nature naturally abides as the five lights, and these naturally appear as objects. Arising as compassion, cognitive knowledge of insight-wisdom is maintained to be confusion. The Secret Essence says: E MA HO! From out of sugatagarbha, From out of our karmic relationships comes confusion. At this time, the aspect that does not know its intrinsic wisdom to be its own nature is co-emergent ignorance. [41] The aspect that fixates its own projections as other is the ignorance of false conception. [42] Because of not knowing that all this has arisen within the natural state, by the power of attachment of ego-fixation to its objects, habitual patterns of the vessel, the external world, ripen as body. Habitual patterns of the essence, sentient beings within the world, ripen as mind. This is confusion, the various phenomena of the five poisons. The All-Creating King says When the nature of me, the doer of all, is not realized, The dharmas created by me are imputed with fixed existence. By the power of desire and craving, apparent things exist.

And so their impermanent nature as illusion is destroyed. The part-less nature becomes like colors to the blind. The root of confusion is not knowing what we are. The Prajnapramitsamgatha says: As many sentient beings as there may be, Of lesser, middle, or of higher rank, All of these have arisen from ignorance. So it has been taught by the Sugata. The Prajpramit in Eight Thousand Lines teaches that confusion is conditioned by dualistic grasping: Grasping an I and a mine, beings whirl in samsara. The Prajpramit in Twenty Thousand Lines says: Childish sentient beings perceive the non-existence of skandhas as skandhas. They perceive the non-existence of ayatanas as ayatanas. They perceive the non-existence of things that arise interdependently as interdependent arising. Therefore, they are completely within the grasp of the ripening karma of all these dharmas that are wrongly perceived as interdependent arising. As to how these dharmas arise, from the two ignorances come samsaric formations. From that comes the succession of births of individual beings. ame and form are established. When the body has been established by the embryonic stages from an oval to birth, there are contact, perception, feeling, the six ayatanas, and old age and death. So with the twelve links of interdependent arising, we cycle in samsara. "The primordial natural state does not exist within samsara. It is not proper that sugatagarbha should be samsaric." ot so! It is like clear, un-muddied water becoming solid rock-like ice, in a transparent winter wind. From the primordial state, conditioned by the arising of grasping and fixation, confused appearance displays itself as a variety of solid things. A song from the Dohakosha says: When the wind gets into water and thereby stirs it up The softness of the water becomes as hard as rock. Having been stupefied through being disturbed by concepts, What was formless becomes completely hard and solid.

Sugatagarbha is the primordially pure, changeless essence, Dharmakaya, designated as the alaya of reality (ii-b). When this becomes confused, it and the connected wealth of the nature of mind, Rupakaya and the Buddha fields, the perfect entities of wisdom, are obscured through the confused grasping and fixation of ignorance. This is the due to the alaya of the various habitual patterns (ii-c). Within this, since beginning-less time, have been planted the various seeds or habitual patterns of confusion. Their great power becomes individual experiences of the higher and lower realms, and so forth. When we

are within dream-like samsara, fixating I and ego, experiencing desire, aggression, and the five poisons, collecting karma and kleshas, from meaningless confusion, we live with a variety of attachments to truly existing entities. Day and night the wheel of confused appearance continuously turns, and since its succession is groundless, we are never liberated from it. It is like the confusion of a dream. Wandering because of kleshas, because of good and evil, is like a prince wandering along a road, separated from his kingdom. It is intrinsically a time of suffering. Since he was born into a royal family, the happiness of true wealth is naturally within him; but now he suffers temporarily. As to what is taught by this example, the Song of the Oral Instruction of the Inexhaustible Treasury, says: Beings bound in samsara, as if they were tangled in vines, In the desert of ego-grasping are completely mad with thirst: Like a prince without a kingdom, separate from his father, Without a chance for happiness, he gives in to despair. As to the way that Tathagata-garbha exists at this time of wandering futilely on the plan of samsara, the Tathagata-garbha Sutra says: Kye, Son of the Victorious One, it is like this. For example, the measure of a three-fold thousand-world system is one billion. That billion perfectly records the number of all worlds of the three-fold great thousand-world system. Similarly the measure of the great surrounding wall of the world is written "the great surrounding wall of the world." The measure of characteristics is written "characteristics." The measure of the second or middle thousand world realms is "the second or middle thousand world realm." The measure a thousand world realms, is "a thousand world realms." The fourth thousand world realms are "the fourth thousand world realms." The measure of the great ocean is "the great ocean." The measure of Jambuling is "Jambuling." The measure of the eastern continent Videha is "Videha." The measure of the western continent, Aparagodaniya is "Aparagodaniya." The measure of the northern continent Kurava is "Kurava." The measure of mount Meru is "Mount Meru." The measure of the palaces of the gods of the terrestrial realm is written "the palaces of the gods of the terrestrial realm." The measure of the palaces of the gods of the desire realm is "the palaces of the gods of the desire realm." The measure of the palaces of the gods who course in the form-realm is written "the palaces of the gods who course in the form-realm." A billion is the measure of worlds in a threefold-thousand world system. A billion is also the measure of such worlds that enter into an atom. Just as an atom enters into those billion worlds, similarly all the particles of atoms without remainder enter into the measure of that billion. Then living, active beings are born on middle earth, learned and wise with clear minds. Their eye is the divine eye. Everything is completely pure and luminous. By their divine eye they view phenomena, seeing those billion within this small atom. Some sentient beings cannot fully understand that. They think, "Kye ma, by what mother, by great force of effort was this billion later put in this atom?" All such beings, thinking that, invented a powerful agent. They thought that atom particle had been opened by a subtle vajra to that billion-fold world system in which all sentient beings lived. From one like that, the rest did the same.

Kye Son of the Victorious One, like that the measureless wisdom of the Tathgata dwells within all sentient beings. Within the mind-continuum of all sentient beings it dwells without deception. These mental continuums of sentient beings do not have a measure like that of the wisdom of the Tathgata. Fools bound by grasping perception do not know the wisdom of the Tathgata. They do not know it at all. They have never experienced or manifested it. Seeing how each sentient being is within Dharmadhatu is the perception of a master, the desire-less wisdom of the Tathgata. Kye ma, these sentient beings do not know the wisdom of the Tathgata as it is. Those sentient beings in whom the Tathgatas wisdom continues to function were directly taught the path of the noble ones. All the perception-created bonds were cleared away. They were eliminated. d. How by awakening the gotras liberation is attained: (i.e. The progressive Vajrayana Path: Mapping the stages of Vajrayana on the previously explained concepts. -- Once we have purified it, or have directly seen our own Buddha-nature, then poisons are transmuted into wisdoms, everything becomes pure, happiness, the two kayas are seen.)

The Progressive Vajrayana Path


The wakening of these gotras arouses the two bodhicittas. Establishing the manifestations of compassion As accumulation of merit, within the relative. (i.e. relative / conventional truths) This is the three abhishekas (i.e. empowerments) of the pure developing [generation] stage. Establishing realization of the nature of emptiness Is accumulation of wisdom, within the absolute. (i.e. Absolute / sacred Truth) This is the fourth empowerment, fulfillment [completion stage], and Mahamudra. When we meditate well, by the growing of the two stages, Kleshas turn into wisdom. Happiness grows and grows. (i.e. The five poisons are transmuted into the five wisdoms, the sign being bliss) By this the obscurations of Dharmadhatu are cleansed. The sun of Dharmakaya and Rupakaya is seen. (i.e. The two Buddha kayas; then the Unions ...) In naturally pure and essentially spotless mind itself, the holy wisdom of Buddhahood,
The primordially

existing spontaneous presence of the luminous nature of mind, the apparent aspect, exists as the qualities of the Rupakaya of Buddhahood. This is taught by many examples.

The qualities

of the aspect of emptiness, Dharmakaya, are explained everywhere in the sutras and tantras by the example "being like space."

The inseparability

of these two is the good dhatu of dharmas (i.e. Svabhavikakaya). Since it is changeless it is the "naturally existing gotra." defilements are purified, by manifesting its full-blown Buddha qualities, it is called the "developed gotra." Its root, self-awareness wisdom, is luminosity.

After its

When

those two gotras are awakened, by the two accumulations being accumulated, defilements of the two gotras are purified. The Buddha qualities are made capable of appearing. Ultimate Rupakaya with its Buddha qualities is attained. Just as the six perfections are classified in terms of the two accumulations, so are the stages of development and fulfillment. The et of Illusion says: Development and fulfillment are the two accumulations, Those of merit and wisdom, as well as the three empowerments, Plus the fourth, which is the nature of such-ness itself. There are other ways of dividing beyond all measure.

The first three empowerments,

or abhishekas, are the vase, secret, and praja jnana abhishekas. Producing the purity of the developing stage, these are the accumulation of merit. The developing stage includes all meditations with complexity on the mandalas of deities and so forth. the precious word-empowerment, producing the purity of the fulfillment stage, is the accumulation of wisdom. The fulfillment stage includes all meditations on luminosity and so forth that are without complexity.

The fourth,

By

these purifying defilements of the gotra, as the sun emerges from dark clouds, selfexisting Buddhahood comes forth from the coverings of the kleshas.

As for the extensive explanation, the gotras were previously taught. The stages of secret mantra will be explained below, so we shall not deal with them here. (i.e. See Chapter IX. Unifying the developing stage and the perfecting stage) e. The related explanation of the virtues (i.e. We need both method and wisdom together. The Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting. We need to perfect the wholesome actions. It is by directly seeing the real nature of kleshas, karma, and samsara, with their two inseparable aspects, that we can transcend definitively the whole conditioning. Even though karma and everything is empty, we cannot ignore it as if non-existent. Everything is not existent, not non-existent, not both, not either. Understanding this is realizing the Union of The Two Truths.) There are three sections:
1) How

the unification of the two accumulations is perfected

(We need both methods (the morality of the ten wholesome actions, the concentration of the Dhyanas, bodhicitta) and wisdom (seeing impermanence, relativity, emptiness)

together. Then it is in accord with Liberation, with the real nature of the mind and of everything, with its two aspects. The path has been designed by someone who has directly seen the real nature of everything and thus is in accord with it. That is why it is efficient, but beyond our actual understanding.)
2) How

one does not dwell in samsara or nirvana

(Even though virtues and wholesome actions are also karma formation, conditioning, they are preferable and required because they are gradually creating the conditions necessary to be able to see through all conditioning and to transcend it all definitively. But those virtues and wholesome actions should not be grasped as absolute. Liberation is not caused by them. -- The Middle Way: not accepting methods as absolutes, not rejecting everything because of emptiness. ot accepting karma as absolute, not rejecting karma completely. ot accepting the world as it appears, not rejecting the world completely with no compassion at all and aiming at personal liberation. Knowing samsara to be impermanent, unsatisfactory, empty of inherent existence, but still having compassion for all sentient beings. Staying away from both extremes. It is not a matter of accepting or rejecting something; it is a matter of directly seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything. -- Even though everything is relative, it is not total chaos and free for all. There is a real nature of everything and actions that are relatively more in accord with it or not, and their consequences. And hiding from everything by dropping all is not a permanent solution; it only increases ignorance.)
3) The explanation

of the fruition [of the ten virtues, and of all other wholesome skillful means of the Mahayana] (The goal of developing virtues, of accumulating merit, is to be in a position out of the influence of conditioning, in order then to be able to see its real nature, and be able to transcend it definitively. This is done gradually from gross to subtle, to very subtle. That is like a gradual purification of the body, speech and mind. It is working because while doing it we get closer and closer to the real nature of our own mind and or everything, thus not going against it and suffering the consequences. That is like a gradual deconditioning, deprogramming, from a very bad habit based on eons of ignorance and accumulation of errors.) a) The brief teachings b) The extensive explanation 1) How the unification of the two accumulations is perfected (i.e. We need both methods (the morality of the ten wholesome actions, the concentration of the Dhyanas, bodhicitta) and wisdom (seeing impermanence, relativity, emptiness) together. Then it is in accord with Liberation, with the real nature of the mind and of everything, with its two aspects. The path has been designed by someone who has directly seen the real nature of everything and thus is in accord with it. That is why it is efficient, but beyond our actual understanding.)

The actions of the ten virtues are the best dharmas in the world The formed and formless Dhyanas are part of gathering merit, That is concerned with relativity and appearance. (i.e. relative / conventional truths) What is completely without the complexities of the world Is accumulation of wisdom, which is the absolute. (i.e. Absolute / sacred Truth) These are the objects of meditation and post-meditation. By practicing the unification of these two, (i.e. Using both method and wisdom; the two accumulations; Union of the Two Truths) Everything that is excellent will be established. (i.e. Transcendence of all conditioning, all dualities) As previously taught, the ten virtues, Dhyanas, and formless attainments are in accord with merit; but when a being has aroused bodhicitta and attained praja and upaya; the ten virtues, Dhyanas, formless attainments, and so forth become causes of liberation. The Middle Length Prajpramit says: O Subhuti, those who develop the conduct of the ten virtues, the four samdhis, and the four formless attainments, when they also arouse bodhicitta, aspiration to unsurpassable enlightenment, at that time, Since this is in accord with liberation, it becomes a cause of omniscience. This should be performed. By being mastered, this should be established. 2) How one does not dwell in samsara or nirvana: (i.e. Even though virtues and wholesome actions are also karma formation, conditioning, they are preferable and required because they are gradually creating the conditions necessary to be able to see through all conditioning and to transcend it all definitively. But those virtues and wholesome actions should not be grasped as absolute. Liberation is not caused by them. -- The Middle Way: not accepting methods as absolutes, not rejecting everything because of emptiness. ot accepting karma as absolute, not rejecting karma completely. ot accepting the world as it appears, not rejecting the world completely with no compassion at all and aiming at personal liberation. Knowing samsara to be impermanent, unsatisfactory, empty of inherent existence, but still having compassion for all sentient beings. Staying away from both extremes. It is not a matter of accepting or rejecting something; it is a matter of directly seeing the real nature of our own mind and of everything. -- Even though everything is relative, it is not total chaos and free for all. There is a real nature of everything and actions that are relatively more in accord with it or not, and their consequences. And hiding from everything by dropping all is not a permanent solution; it only increases ignorance.)

Just like wholesome actions that are samsaric formations, Formations of nirvana are explained as karmic actions. But since the latter are a means of transcending samsara, They are also a means of liberation from karma.

The ten wholesome actions that accord with merit are samsaric confusions. However, if one thinks that with these, we will become confused, it is not so. These activities lead to liberation when we know that karma is nature-less, as is taught by similar examples. Insofar as these activities are a means of being liberated from samsara, they do not produce samsaric formations. In any case, the great compassion by which we become saddened with samsara exists within samsara without being covered by its defects. While it knows all dharmas to be unborn, and by skillful means, the great compassion does not fall into one-sided peace. The Abhisamsayalankara says: By knowledge we do not dwell within samsara, By compassion we do not dwell in peace. (i.e. ot falling for any of the two extremes. The Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting.) The Precious Mala says: Exponents of nothingness go to the lower realms. Exponents of being will go to the higher ones. By knowing reality exactly as it is, Without dualistic dependence, we will be liberated. (i.e. Ignoring cause and effect, on goes to hell -- for an eternity. Following cause and effect, one goes to heaven -- for a while. Using the Middle Way, the union of both dependent origination and emptiness, one may transcend all conditioning, and be liberated from samsara.) And that is how it is. 3) The explanation of the fruition [of the ten virtues] (i.e. The goal of developing virtues, of accumulating merit, is to be in a position out of the influence of conditioning, in order then to be able to see its real nature, and be able to transcend it definitively. This is done gradually from gross to subtle, to very subtle. That is like a gradual purification of the body, speech and mind. It is working because while doing it we get closer and closer to the real nature of our own mind and or everything, thus not going against it and suffering the consequences. That is like a gradual de-conditioning, deprogramming, from a very bad habit based on eons of ignorance and accumulation of errors.) From the brief and extended teachings,
a) The brief

teachings (i.e. same logic as with the unwholesome actions)

b) The extensive explanation

a) The brief teachings (i.e. same logic as with the unwholesome actions)

ow the fruition of entering into the ten virtues of the path is explained: For those who are on the path, the fruit of the ten wholesome actions Has ripening, concordant cause, the power, and action. (i.e. same logic as with the unwholesome actions)

These are its four aspects. (i.e. Each of the ten virtuous actions has four components or factors. For the action to be complete, i.e. to bring the full karmic result, all four components must be present. These four are:
The basis

or object of the action

The intention: the state of

mind of the person performing the action. This has 3 parts: recognition, motive and delusion performing the action

The deed: actually The final

step, or completion of the action

There are 3 different results of a complete karma:


Ripened

result - the future rebirth state you will experience as a result of having created a complete karma. [1] congruent with the cause

Results

Experiences congruent with the cause - you will have experiences similar to your original actions. Actions congruent with the cause - you will have the instinctive tendency to commit the original action again and again.
Environmental

results - when born in the human realm, you will experience results of your actions in the form of environmental conditions.)

b) The extensive explanation, There are nine sections


i) Ripening

[of the fruition] (rebirth in one of the higher realms)

ii) Karmic fruition

that accords with the cause (having experiences similar to the cause -- the wholesome action) of its power [the results of the ten virtues]

iii) The fruition

iv) The fruition

of action (i.e. in short: they are like good habits, the more we do them, the more we will do them again with even more ease -- like developing a skill. So happiness will come more and more. So we have more freedom and conditions to be able to develop concentration and insight, and more opportunity to use this precious human life to transcend all conditioning.) of the six perfections [, of kindness, of actions motivated by bodhicitta:

v) The fruition

Enlightenment]
vi) The fruition

of the Four Immeasurables: [gradual progression closer and closer to perfection with its two aspects] of the Two Truths (The real nature of samsara: everything is empty because dependently arisen; everything is merely imputed by the mind; empty of inherent existence, but still appearing; non-dual -- not one, not two; not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. It is the Union of the Two. The Two Truths are not separate or different, not the same; not one, not two. All of our actions and perceptions are conditioned by our five aggregates, which are the results of past choices and actions; but this conditioning is empty of inherent existence. Karma and its consequences are not permanent, not nothingness. Seeing the real non-dual nature of samsara, of everything, with its two inseparable aspects, we can transcend all karma formation, allconditioning, and be free from all obstructions.) fruitions of virtue and evil deeds (The real nature of karma: everything, even karmas and kleshas [even the flow of interdependence], is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. Everything is described by these two aspects: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. But the real nature of everything is beyond description, beyond conceptualization. Because of ignorance as the root we produce appearances of karma and its consequences. They are empty, but we cannot ignore them, hope to die without paying the consequences, or hide from them in the higher Dhyanas. That would be only a conditioned and temporary solution. o cause is without an effect; no effect is without a cause; no karma is ever lost. It is only by seeing through the conditioning, seeing its real non-dual nature, that we can transcend it all.) of profound interdependent arising (The real nature of karma, and samsara: karma is empty but still dependently arisen and functional, beyond the two extremes of existence and non-existence, non-dual. It is by seeing its real non-dual nature, with its two inseparable aspects, that we become liberated. -- The perfection of dependent origination is its perfect Union with the emptiness of everything: not one, not two; not different or separate, not the same.)

vii) The fruition

viii) The individual

ix) The fruition

i) Ripening [of the fruition] (rebirth in one of the higher realms) As for the fruition of ripening:

Depending on whether such practice is small, between, or great, We will be born as human beings or as gods, Elsewhere we will attain to ultimate truth and goodness. The aspect according with merit is not exhausted. Temporally we experience the happiness of gods and human beings. Ultimately, we will attain the level of Buddhahood. The Prajpramit in Eight Thousand Lines says: O noble Shariputra, what is gained by virtuous roots is that after going among gods and human beings, we become un-surpass-ably enlightened. What are virtuous roots? There are the ten virtues, which possess the single arousal of bodhicitta, the aspiration to supreme enlightenment, the four Dhyanas, the four formless attainments, and the six paramitas. These never have any gaps and never become non-existent. ii) Karmic fruition that accords with the cause (having experiences similar to the cause - the wholesome action) As for the fruition according with the cause: Actions that have compatibility with the cause Are those of one who is by nature inclined to the wholesome. Experience of this is of long life and great enjoyment. We have a compatible consort and are without enemies. We are not reviled. Relationships are friendly. Our words are taken to heart, and people gladly hear them. Satisfied, we are kind to others, and have good views. The Sutra Teaching the Ten Purities says: Because of the karma of these ten virtues, the field is ennobled by our efforts. Our lives are lengthened. Our enjoyments are greater. We have compatible spouses and no enemies. We are not disparaged. Everyone is pleasant to us. Our words are considered worthy of being heeded. Everyone is glad to hear them. We become contented. There is mutual kindness. There are good views. iii) The fruition of its power [the results of the ten virtues] As for mastery or power: We are born by its power in rich and brilliant countries. Potent food, drink, and herbs are easily digested. We are born in clean places of medicinal herbs and such. The odor and atmosphere is good and agreeable. Others do not cheat us, and we are not in fear. There are no harmful obstacles or danger to our lives. People suit us and contact with them is very happy. The flow of the seasons is good, and grain is plentiful. We live in level places, adorned by lakes and ponds. The many flourishing flowers and fruits are very good.

Vegetables, fruits, and herbs are delicious with fine aromas. Everything grows well and there are friends and protectors. By giving up cutting off life, we are born in good and pleasant countries. By giving up taking what is not given, we are born in places where food and drink are good-tasting and easily digested and medicinal herbs are potently effective. By abandoning inappropriate sex, we are born in clean and good-smelling places. By abandoning false speaking, the places in which we are born are without danger of harm from enemies, thieves, and so on, and we are not deceived. By abandoning divisive speaking, we are born in places with many compatible people, with few rocks, stones, and thorns. By abandoning harsh language, we are born in a place where the seasons are regular, and grain ripens at a good time. By abandoning sophistic speech, we are born in level places ornamented with lakes and ponds. By abandoning covetousness we are born with places where many flowers and fruits and abundant good harvests are seen. We have excellent protectors, relatives, and friends. This is taught in the Sutra of the Ten Purities iv) The fruition of action: (i.e. in short: they are like good habits, the more we do them, the more we will do them again with even more ease -- like developing a skill. So happiness will come more and more. So we have more freedom and conditions to be able to develop concentration and insight, and more opportunity to use this precious human life to transcend all conditioning.) The actions of beings spread happiness on happiness. All good thoughts are established just as one desires. The Vast Play says: By good behavior one's stock of merit is increased. We are made holders of that which is excellent, The supreme accumulation of enlightenment. The Excellent Action says: These excellencies occur even within this human life.

v) The fruition of the six perfections [of kindness, of actions motivated by bodhicitta: Enlightenment] Generosity brings enjoyment and discipline happiness Patience brings beauty and diligence brilliant qualities Meditation beings peace of mind and praja liberation.

The accomplishments of bodhicitta are that possessiveness is renounced, harmful behavior is checked, anger is abandoned, we exert ourselves in what is wholesome, the mind is one-pointed in virtue, and the nature of the two truths is known. By good actions of the six paramitas, true fruition is attained. The Precious Mala says: Generosity, discipline, patience, and exertion Meditation and praja, and compassion are cultivated. Generosity completely bestows our intrinsic wealth. Discipline performs beneficial actions for others. Patience is the way that we abandon aggression. Exertion is enthusiastic, wholesome action. Meditation is one-pointed-ness, without the kleshas. Prajna is resolving the meaning of the truth. Compassion is a heartfelt noble identification With all other sentient beings as of one taste with ourselves. Generosity beings enjoyment, discipline happiness; Patience radiance and exertion brilliancy. Meditation brings peace, and praja liberation. Their essential kindness is the accomplishing of all goals. When all of these seven activities, without remainder, Have been brought to complete perfection all at once, There is the sphere of wisdom beyond the compass of thought. We have attained the being of a world-honored one. The six paramitas are essentially kindness. This is the accomplisher of the deeds of bodhicitta. The extensive explanation is below. (See chapter 8) vi) The fruition of the Four Immeasurables: [gradual progression, closer and closer to perfection with its two aspects] As for the benefits of the four immeasurables: Kindness makes us pleasant and compassion beneficial. Joy fulfills and equanimity makes us sublime. In short the ultimate fruit of the two accumulations Is that incidentally higher states are manifested. Ultimately truth and goodness are established. This excellent path is the chariot of the Mahayana. It establishes the perfection of the Buddhas of the three times. Through kindness, we are pleasant to everyone. Through compassion we perform limitless benefits. Joy brings perfect wealth. Equanimity makes the mind workable. The sutras say:

By having kindness mind is vast, the seven activities have been performed.[43] One's knowledge is certain. Shravakas, Pratyekabuddhas, and extraordinary ones will attain the pleasures of gods and human beings and be colorfully adorned. The Precious Mala says: Food of fish for three hundred Offered three times each day Cannot match the pure merit Of just a minute of kindness Kind ones will be gods and humans. They will be well-restrained. Unharmed by poison and weapons, Their minds will be good and happy. Born in the world of Brahma, Their success will be effortless, Even if not liberated, They will attain the eight qualities. [44] Beings will be made to produce The mind of bodhicitta. Having relied on that, They will become as solid As the lord of mountains. Within them bodhicitta Will be forever attained. It will never happen That they have no chance for faith. By custom becoming excellent, By emptiness and so forth, Without desiring dharmas, Carefully they will attain To everything that is wholesome. By their motionlessness, They will gain mindfulness. Producing discursive thoughts They will gain intellect. By offering and homage, they will realize the meaning. By carefully guarding Dharma They will develop praja. Those listeners to the Dharma Who have the gift of faith, By having no obscurations, Will accompany the Buddhas.

Everything they wish for Will quickly be obtained. Without even wanting to do so They will accomplish their goals. As they are not miserly, Enjoyments will increase. Since they have no pride, They will be principal ones. By patience in the Dharma, They will grasp its power. With essential generosity And fearless generosity Unharmed by all the Maras. They will gain the highest powers. Stupas strung with lamps, Lamps to those in darkness By these generous lamps and ships The divine eye will be gained. By offerings of stupas, Services, music, and bells, Excellent yak tails and conches, The divine ear will be gained. ot discussing confusions of others, ot mentioning injured limbs, Because they guard their minds, They know the minds of others. Giving boots and horses, Growing humble and reverent, Giving mounts to the guru, They gain miraculous power For the sake of Dharma and such They remember the meanings of texts. By spotless generous Dharma Remembering former lives. Knowing things as they are, They know that things are essence-less. They gain the six higher perceptions, Exhausting all defilements. To accomplish the liberation Of limitless sentient beings,

They possess equanimity, Knowing the nature of such-ness, Because their meditation Is moistened with compassion, Having the supreme aspects, They are victorious ones. By various pure aspirations, The Buddha field is purified. Giving precious things to the sages, They emanate limitless light With such pure karma and fruit, Always thinking of beings, They will always do benefit. That will benefit you. Just those are the realm means of crossing over to the level of Buddhahood. The Succession of Beings says: Of the two accumulations of merit and wisdom The highest fruit is entering holy liberation o other way of entering was ever known to exist. Descending from the gathering clouds of purity Make the cool rain of excellent dharmas now appear. vii) The fruition of the Two Truths: (i.e. The real nature of samsara: everything is empty because dependently arisen; everything is merely imputed by the mind; empty of inherent existence, but still appearing; non-dual -- not one, not two; not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. It is the Union of the Two. The Two Truths are not separate or different, not the same; not one, not two. All of our actions and perceptions are conditioned by our five aggregates, which are the results of past choices and actions; but this conditioning is empty of inherent existence. Karma and its consequences are not permanent, not nothingness. Seeing the real non-dual nature of samsara, of everything, with its two inseparable aspects, we can transcend all karma formation, all conditioning, and be free from all obstructions.) Thus the formative actions of samsara and nirvana Depend on mind whose nature is luminosity. Simplicity like the sky, it does not think of a doer, The meaning of both the two truths is dependent origination. (i.e. Here, following the Chittamatra tradition, Yogacara, the author is putting the emphasis on the real inherently existing flow of interdependence (dependent origination). This is part of the basis for Tantra yana practices. As if this one was inherently existing, and everything else was not. But according to argarjuna and the Madhyamika, the real nature of everything is not dependent origination, not emptiness,

not both, not either. It is the Union of the Two Truths, the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness.) (i.e. Everything is empty of inherent existence because dependently arisen. - There is a progression on the understanding of emptiness, the object of refutation goes more and more subtle as we progress. - Emptiness means dependently arisen. But the object to what it is dependent on is more and more subtle. The various (progressive) understanding of emptiness: - not permanent - dependent on its parts - dependent on causes and conditions - dependent on the collections of the base and the continuation of that - not a self-entity - dependent of our mind - dependent on the labeling of an un-defective mind or not existing from its own side - just merely labeled by the mind - leaving nothing that is "not merely labeled by the mind". ) All karma depends on mind; if we examine mind, it is essence-less and luminous. The supreme distinction of the relative and absolute truths, because of the nature of interdependent arising is completely pure. The Shri-Samadhiraja Sutra says: At that time without evil deeds, and with the ten powers, There is the supreme samdhi of the Victorious One. Beings in samsara are like beings in a dream. one of them is ever born or ever dies. Though in transmigration we go to other worlds, one our karmic actions is ever left behind. Within samsara their black and white fruitions ripen. They are not permanent, nor are they nothingness. Without any gathered karma, there would be no pure lands. Even if they were created, they could not be reached. If another produced them, they could not be seen. Without any transmigration, there is no rebirth. othing at all exists, and nothing is non-existent, Or it would not be pure to enter the natural state. There would be no entering perfect pacification Of all the activities of deluded sentient beings. The three worlds like a dream are utterly essence-less. Quickly vanishing, they are impermanent like illusion. Because there is no coming, there also is no going. Constant things, eternally empty, have no marks.

This is what is realized by the Sugatas-With the excellent Buddha qualities of the victorious ones, The mark-less natural state is the peace of the unborn. Its powers and strengths are powers of Buddha qualities. This itself is the Buddha, supreme among all leaders. By collecting the qualities of excellent white dharmas We attain the power of wisdom and Buddha qualities And the excellences of miracle and higher perception. viii) The individual fruitions of virtue and evil deeds (i.e. The real nature of karma: everything, even karmas and kleshas [even the flow of interdependence], is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. Everything is described by these two aspects: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. But the real nature of everything is beyond description, beyond conceptualization. Because of ignorance as the root we produce appearances of karma and its consequences. They are empty, but we cannot ignore them, hope to die without paying the consequences, or hide from them in the higher Dhyanas. That would be only a conditioned and temporary solution. o cause is without an effect; no effect is without a cause; no karma is ever lost. It is only by seeing through the conditioning, seeing its real non-dual nature, that we can transcend it all.) Appearing even while it is nothingness; karma is explained by the example of being like a dream: Primordial purity appearing as nothingness, Like a painter, karma produces everything. It follows us everywhere, as a shadow does the body. Like physical pleasure and pain, it never slips away. Like a waterfall, it is difficult to deflect. Making beings rise or fall, it is like the ruler of beings. It is extremely vast, like the endless space of the sky. Whether black or white, it never changes at all, Any more than the white kunda lotus becomes the blue utpala. (i.e. Empty and still functional. A flow of interdependence without any entities in it. Everything is arising, but nothing is essentially wholesome or unwholesome. Everything is pure in emptiness. -- Even though everything is empty of inherent existence, because we ignore this truth and believe in essence / inherent existence, we fixate things and suffer because of this. So karma is still functional in samsara.) Though karmas and kleshas are nature-less, they ceaselessly appear . Therefore, they depend on ignorance as their root. The condition is the arising of objects. The cause is connection with the three poisons. The Objects of Mindfulness says:

The ground of karma is ignorance, and if there is insight, one will not come into the power of karma. It is like a skilled and confident painter, who produces a variety of works. The condition is thoughts of objects. like a monkey, it is very active. Like a fish, it dwells in the ocean of samsara. Like a householder, it collects a variety of habitual patterns. Like illusion, something that does not exist still appears. Like a shadow, it always follows us. Like joy and sorrow, it does not transmigrate. Like a river, it is hard to turn back. Like a king, it can exchange happiness and unhappiness. Like the sky, it is vast. Like utpala and kumut lotuses, one does not become another. ix) The fruition of profound interdependent arising: (i.e. The real nature of karma, and samsara: karma is empty but still dependently arisen and functional, beyond the two extremes of existence and non-existence, non-dual. It is by seeing its real non-dual nature, with its two inseparable aspects, that we become liberated. -- The perfection of dependent origination is its perfect Union with the emptiness of everything: not one, not two; not different or separate, not the same.) Though examining karmas, they have no nature at all, Like dreams they are still creators of various joys and sorrows. Except as mere projections, they have no substance or quality. Profound dependent arising, infallible cause and effect, either existent nor nothing, they are non-duality. They ripen as something like the action that was done. This is the vision of things in their nature and extent. As it was well-taught by the Omniscient One. (i.e. Here, following the Chittamatra tradition, Yogacara, the author is putting the emphasis on the real inherently existing flow of interdependence (dependent origination). This is part of the basis for Tantra yana practices. As if this one was inherently existing, and everything else was not. But according to argarjuna and the Madhyamika, the real nature of everything is not dependent origination, not emptiness, not both, not either. It is the Union of the Two Truths, the inseparability of dependent origination and emptiness.) The inner and outer realms are false conceptions. If they are analyzed, even if we look for them, no karma and kleshas are found. The Bodhicaryavatara says: If the kleshas are not in objects, the senses, between, or elsewhere, Where are these harmers of beings? They are like illusion. Abandon the fear in your heart and try to rely on praja. In the absolute there is no karma; but here in the dream-like relative, there is happiness and unhappiness and joy and sorrow are distinguished. If it is discriminated and examined by the mind, karma, beyond existence and non-existence, is like space. Since there is no karma to be accumulated, do not accumulate karma by the mind being confused over and over again. That is the instruction. This presentation is known and taught only by the Omniscient One, and not by the traditions of others. The teacher Bhajya says in his Precious Lamp of Madhyamaka:

Karmas with non-deceptive cause and effect, As it has been taught, are like a dream. Bhagavan this is taught by you alone. Aside from that, it is not explained in treatises. f. Refuting other wrong conceptions [about karma], (i.e. After refuting the view thinking that one can produce Liberation with specific methods through accumulating merit alone, here are refuted various forms of nihilism: rejection of karma, rejection of the path, rejection of thoughts, thinking emptiness is an absolute truth. We need both method and wisdom together. Only this is in accord with Liberation, with the real nature of everything: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not either. -- The real nature of everything is not dependent origination alone, not emptiness alone, not both together, not either or something else. It is the Union of The Two: not one, not two. -- Everything is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. The two, dependent origination and emptiness, are not contradictory, but interdependent. They are not different or separate, not the same. o absolute cause, effect or causality; but still no no-causality. The luminous space.) There are four sections
1) Eliminating

denial of cause and effect

(Those who deny both cause and effect. Proud nihilists rejecting karma, conditioning, dependent origination, and virtues, accepting emptiness as an absolute --> rebirth in hot hells)
2) Refuting

the view of emptiness

(Those who deny the cause and affirm the effect. Saying that the practice is to reject everything, even virtues, because everything is empty, and thinking that this will still produce Liberation. Again, accepting emptiness as an absolute. Developing only wisdom without method. Trying to accumulate only wisdom, without accumulating merit. This ends up in misunderstanding emptiness, accepting emptiness as an absolute truth meaning nothingness. Thinking that dropping all is the meaning of Liberation leads to rebirth in hell. -- ote: This is what is done in the Dhyanas, but those are just temporary skillful means used to set the conditions for Vipashyana. The perfect Samadhi, the perfect Union of Shamatha and Vipashyana is not rejecting everything, not accepting everything. It is Buddha activities while knowing the real nature of everything. It is the perfect Union of compassion and emptiness; the Union of The Two Truths. The two inseparable aspects are part of the real nature of everything in samsara and irvana. Everything has always been like that; it doesn't change. That is the meaning of nonduality.)
3) Refuting

those having the mind of the summit of samsara

(Those who claim, "It is like space," who think Liberation is attained by meditating on nothingness alone leads to rebirth as a stupid animal)
4) The true explanation

of cause and effect

(So, we cannot adopt just one aspect as the real nature of everything; we need both in perfect non-dual union, otherwise we fall into one of the extremes: realism, nihilism, dualism, or monism. Everything has the two inseparable aspects: the real nature of the mind and of everything, the cause of both samsara and irvana, karma and conditioning, the gradual path with its two accumulations, the meditation consisting of the Union of Shamatha and Vipashyana, the fruit with its inseparable Trikaya, wisdoms and Buddha activities. That is the meaning of the perfection of wholesomeness and merit, the perfection of bodhicitta, the perfection of dependent origination, the perfection of emptiness, the perfection of the Union of The Two Truths, Buddhahood. -The Middle Way: not accepting karma, or the path, as absolute [determinism] (rejecting emptiness, accepting dependent origination as an absolute), not rejecting them completely as if completely non-existent [chaos] (rejecting dependent origination, accepting emptiness as an absolute truth). Perfecting the wholesomeness by getting closer and closer to the real nature of everything: inseparability of appearances and emptiness, inseparability of appearances and natural-essences. The real nature of everything is not dependent origination alone, not emptiness alone, not both together, not either or something else. It is the Union of The Two: not one, not two. -- Everything is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. The two, dependent origination and emptiness, are not contradictory, but interdependent. They are not different or separate, not the same. o absolute cause, effect or causality but still no no-causality. The luminous space--So the path, the Middle Way, is designed in accord with this, "in accordance with the goal, in accord with liberation," in accord with the transcendence of the four extremes: existence, non-existence, both, or neither. As for the real nature of everything, it is beyond description, beyond any conceptualization.) 1) Eliminating denial of cause and effect (i.e. Those who deny both cause and effect. Proud nihilists rejecting karma, conditioning, dependent origination, and virtues, accepting emptiness as an absolute leads to rebirth in hot hells) ow other sorts of wrong conceptions are eliminated: Those who deny the validity of cause and effect Are students of the heretics and the nihilists. Whoever has confidence merely in emptiness Falls into the extreme of the nihilistic view! These go lower and lower upon an evil path. ever liberated from the lower states of being, They are ever more distant from the happy ones. Such fools are conspicuous in their pride. Some who do not know the intent of the Dharma say there is no karma and no fruition of karma -- within such-ness like space they do not exist at all. Giving up virtue, they practice the evil deeds that are natural to them. The Good Army Sutra [45] says: Those who say there is no karma and no ripening of karma are fools who have only the literal meaning. Those who say this and rely on a great collection of unwholesomeness may promise this Dharma with their mouths, but are not within this Dharma. They rely

on the path of the worldly charvakas. They say, "It should be understood as a delusion of Mara." The Precious Mala says: In short, a view like this is nihilism. They say there is no such thing as fruition of karma. Having no merit, they go to the lower realms. They are said to be persons with wrong view. Also it says: ihilists like these will go to the lower realms. 2) Refuting the view of emptiness. (i.e. Those who deny the cause and affirm the effect. Saying that the practice is to reject everything, even virtues, because everything is empty, and thinking that this will still produce Liberation. Again, accepting emptiness as an absolute. Developing only wisdom without method. Trying to accumulate only wisdom, without accumulating merit. This ends up in misunderstanding emptiness, accepting emptiness as an absolute truth meaning nothingness. Thinking that dropping all is the meaning of Liberation leads to rebirth in hell. -- ote: This is what is done in the Dhyanas, but those are just temporary skillful means used to set the conditions for Vipashyana. The perfect Samadhi, the perfect Union of Shamatha and Vipashyana is not rejecting everything, not accepting everything. It is Buddha activities while knowing the real nature of everything. It is the perfect Union of compassion and emptiness, the Union of The Two Truths. The two inseparable aspects are part of the real nature of everything in samsara and irvana. Everything has always been like that; it doesn't change. That is the meaning of non-duality.) Some also say: "Cause, and effect, and compassion, and the gathering of merit. With these childish literal Dharmas one will never get enlightened." They do not speak the truth, whose meaning is like the sky. The story great yogins tell is "Go and do your practice!" As for those who say such words: Such a view is more nihilistic than nihilism. They are on a path that goes ever lower and lower. To deny the cause and affirm the effect is very strange! Even such outsider materialist extremists as the charvaka nihilists do not say that perceived appearances are without cause and effect; you deny a cause of liberation, but still maintain the effect. This is strange. You do this by maintaining that there is liberation because of action-less meditation.

3) Refuting those having the mind of the summit of samsara (i.e. Those who claim "it is like space", who think Liberation is attained by meditating on nothingness alone leads to rebirth as stupid animal) When people claim, "it is like space," we should say: If space is reality, why do we need to meditate? If not, then meditation is useless drudgery. If liberation is gained by meditating on nothingness, Those who have a vacuous mind will get enlightened. But proclaiming such meditation establishes cause and effect. Therefore, put aside this bad and inferior path. Some people claim, "It is like space." If so, and if it is already established, we do not need to meditate. If it is not established, meditation will be of no use. This non-existent thing will never become an existent thing, just as empty space will not later become something else. This is a reply to those who say, "Liberation from the kleshas is attainment of liberation altogether." Saying it is attained by this alone postulates that this occurs by cause and effect. Therefore, they cannot say that there is no cause and effect. If it is maintained that there is liberation by meditating on nothingness, even worldly hedonists could be liberated by doing that. The Dohakosha says: Someone who says, "I have been pierced by an arrow," Will never be liberated by having a mind like space. This refutes such a view; so do not think like that. 4) The true explanation of cause and effect. (i.e. So, we cannot adopt just one aspect as the real nature of everything; we need both in perfect non-dual union, otherwise we fall into one of the extremes: realism, nihilism, dualism, or monism. Everything has the two inseparable aspects: the real nature of the mind and of everything, the cause of both samsara and irvana, karma and conditioning, the gradual path with its two accumulations, the meditation consisting of the Union of Shamatha and Vipashyana, the fruit with its inseparable Trikaya, wisdoms and Buddha activities. That is the meaning of the perfection of wholesomeness and merit, the perfection of bodhicitta, the perfection of dependent origination, the perfection of emptiness, the perfection of the Union of The Two Truths, Buddhahood. -The Middle Way: not accepting karma, or the path, as absolute [determinism] (rejecting emptiness, accepting dependent origination as an absolute), not rejecting them completely as if completely non-existent [chaos] (rejecting dependent origination, accepting emptiness as an absolute truth). Perfecting the wholesomeness by getting closer and closer to the real nature of everything: inseparability of appearances and emptiness, inseparability of appearances and natural-essences. The real nature of everything is not dependent origination alone, not emptiness alone, not both together,

not either or something else. It is the Union of The Two: not one, not two. -- Everything is empty of inherent existence, but still dependently arisen and functional. The two, dependent origination and emptiness, are not contradictory, but interdependent. They are not different or separate, not the same. o absolute cause, effect or causality; but still no no-causality. The luminous space. -- So the path, the Middle Way, is designed in accord with this, "in accordance with the goal, in accord with liberation", in accord with the transcendence of the four extremes: existence, non-existence, both, either. As for the real nature of everything, it is beyond description, beyond any conceptualization.) ow the true meaning is explained: The genuine path has interdependence and cause and effect. This is spontaneous union of praja and upaya. Using the means of apparent but nature-less cause and effect, There is the apparent nature-less path of meditation. And thus the apparent nature-less fruit can be attained. Apparent but nature-less benefit for sentient beings Is produced in a way that is apparent but nature-less. This is pure cause and effect, profound in its interdependence. Therefore, the essence of sutras and tantras of the true meaning Is that by having united the two accumulations, And by the two stages of development and completion, Perfect Buddhahood will quickly be established. From the two accumulations, whose illusion-like appearance is nature-less, Buddhahood is established. The Knowledge of Illusion Sutra Requested by Supreme Goodness Lady says: By gathering the illusion-like accumulations, There will be illusion-like enlightenment. There will be a performance that is like illusion Of illusion-like benefits for the sake of sentient beings. The sutras of the true meaning and all the tantras explain it in the same way. In the tantras, the stages of development and fulfillment establish the two accumulations, and by that one becomes enlightened within the mandala.

C. The final summary (i.e. We need to renounce the whole samsara, aim at transcending all conditioning. We have to use the Middle Way: both method and wisdom, staying away from all extremes. -- To use a raft, without getting attached to it. A raft designed by someone who has seen the real nature of everything, the Buddha. But we won't be able to see the real nature of everything, and the ultimate validity of the skillful means / the path, until the very end. So we need some faith here, but not blind faith. -- We cannot drop everything and hope to transcend everything just like that; there is nothing to drop, nothing to accept. We need to use the freedom and opportunity of this precious human life while we can.)

Therefore, abandon all the aspects of cause and fruition That have a part in constructing formations of samsara. But then we should produce with wholehearted diligence The cause and fruition of the state of liberation. By that the highest truth and goodness will manifest, There will be the establishment of enlightenment. (i.e. Even though everything is empty of inherent existence, even though there is no absolute, to be able to transcend all conditioning and be free from samsara, we still need adapted skillful means, to practice the ten virtues and not practice the ten non-virtues, to practice the accumulation of merit in order to support the accumulation of wisdom, otherwise we will just lose the opportunity of this precious human life, get a rebirth in the lower realms, and be stuck there for a very long time. Enlightenment is not gained by dropping all method and adopting emptiness, nothingness, or meaninglessness as an absolute. The Middle Way is not accepting, not rejecting; and this applies to everything including the concepts of dependent origination, causality, emptiness, good and bad...dualities, discrimination... -- The virtuous actions are virtuous because they are in accord with liberation, compatible with three goal, which is to become free of all conditioning. They are so because they are practiced while remembering their real nature. And this is done by joining the two accumulations together. Otherwise any practice would just be another attachment.) (i.e. Upajjhatthana Sutta - Subjects for Contemplation:

There are these five facts that one should reflect on often, whether one is a woman or a man, lay or ordained. Which five?
"I

am subject to aging, have not gone beyond aging." This is the first fact that one should reflect on often, whether one is a woman or a man, lay or ordained. am subject to illness, have not gone beyond illness".... am subject to death, have not gone beyond death".... grow different, separate from all that is dear and appealing to me"....

"I "I

"I will "I

am the owner of my actions (kamma), heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and live dependent on my actions. Whatever I do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir".... Acintita Sutta Un-conjecturable:

"There are these four un-conjecturables that are not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness and vexation to anyone who conjectured about them. Which four?

"The Buddha-range of

the Buddhas [i.e., the range of powers a Buddha develops as a result of becoming a Buddha] is an un--conjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness and vexation to anyone who conjectured about it. a person in jhana [i.e., the range of powers that one may obtain while absorbed in jhana].... the] results of kamma....

"The jhana-range of

"The [precise working out of

"Conjecture about [the origin,

etc., of] the world is an un-conjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness and vexation to anyone who conjectured about it. "These are the four un-conjecturables that are not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness and vexation to anyone who conjectured about them.") All virtues are to be established. All evil deeds are to be left behind. The goal of life must be made to exist, since one should quickly go to it. The Spiritual Letter says: With many harms, this life is blown away on the wind. If even a river of water is impermanent, Exhaling and inhaling, when we go to sleep, That we ever awake is really miraculous. For that reason to do evil to oneself and others is not suitable. To go so far as to do evil deeds for the sake of khenpos, loppons, and the three jewels, is senseless, since by the evil ripening within us, we will not be able to participate in them. The same text says: Practice virtue. For the sake of Brahmins and gods For feasting, [46] fathers and mothers, queen and retinue, Even for their sake do not do evil deeds, You will get no reward but ripening in hell. As for doing any sort of evil deeds, If this is not cut off at once, as if with a weapon, When the time of death arrives, then there will manifest The karmic fruition of all these various evil deeds. Therefore, even with the elimination of evil actions, it also says: As for the seeds of these unwholesome activities, By purifying defilements of body, speech, and mind, We should earnestly strive with all our present skill. ot to create an atom of these for any reason, This cannot be established by anything other than our own powers, or by any association with others. Accepting good and rejecting evil must come from themselves alone. It is said:

As for liberation depending on oneself, It does not come from association with another, If we have learning, discipline, and meditation, A purified world will thus attain to happiness. Let us attain a happiness like that of the Brahma realms. Completely abandoning through practice of the four Dhyanas, The happiness and sorrow of desiring and acting, Let us make an effort in the four noble truths. As to how this should be done, it says: The proper noble master always day and night Transcends the ordinary kind of highs and lows. ot without fruition even in the womb, By being mindful, anything else will become weaker. One will always experience kindness, joy, and compassion. And always meditate in genuine absorption. Even if it does not please superior ones, May we attain the happiness of the Brahma realms. The happiness and sorrow of desiring and acting, Completely being abandoned through practice of the four Dhyanas, May purity, radiance, and happiness increase, And our fortune of fruition be equal to the gods. Without conception, without attachment and antidotes, Having the principal virtues of the four Dhyana states, As for the five great virtues and the five non-virtues, Let us strive to perform the ones that are virtuous. In a bit of water, a bit of salt will change its taste; But this is not the case with the stream of the river Ganges. Similarly, though our evil deeds are very few, They will be known within the scope of our virtuous roots. Wild discursiveness and sinking in sluggish depression Are states that will be harmful to dark and murky minds. Sleepiness and doubt and yearning with desire, These five obscurations are thieves of happiness. However as for faith, pure effort, and mindfulness The supreme dharmas of samdhi, and the five good praja We should make an effort to manifest all of these. Then there will be the highest powers and faculties. [47] In that way much that is to be transcended will be transcended, and good dharmas that are true and excellent will be established.

D. The dedication of the merit of this extensive explanation of the aspects of the meaning and what is proper Thus with the cooling Dharma rain of mahasukha May the two accumulations, merit and wisdom, Grow and flourish widely within the fertile soil, Of well-manured minds of limitless sentient beings. Here in samsara, completely filled with karma and kleshas, May the weary nature of mind today find ease from fatigue. That is the good aspiration. By the cooling dharma rain of words and meaning, in the field of the minds of sentient beings, by the increase of the good harvest of happiness, may whatever kleshas there may be cleared away, removing the impoverishment of those who have been deprived with accumulating happiness. By the wealth of the skytreasury of Buddha qualities, may our weariness be eased. By these present teachings the gates of Dharma are opened. The profound and precious meaning is there to be received. With the thought that they would benefit others, this was composed. By them may all sentient beings encounter supreme enlightenment. Within the sky of mind, the planets and stars of the kleshas, Improper mental creations, produce the white glow or appearance. By merit overcoming their luminous/empty nature, May there come the daylight of the dawn of wisdom. May the wishes of beings for joy and happiness be fulfilled. May we cross over the ocean of karma and the kleshas. May there be effortless increase of all that is good and happy.

Summery

Om Tare Tuttare Ture Mama Aryu Puni Gyanya Punding Guruye Soha White Tara's Long Life Mantra

Requirements for the theory of causality


Karma

is about causality / interdependence without inherently existing entities (the Union of dependent origination and emptiness).

The Middle Way It has

between total determinism and total chaos.

to explain how conditioning is developed in the three worlds; how our own past choices and actions have created (have conditioned) our actual five aggregates and are conditioning all of our consciousnesses, our interpretation of the worlds, our actions. to explain the cycle of samsara without falling into simplistic views based on the inherent existence of some elementary components, basis of all. to also explain the interaction between the various levels of the three worlds without falling into the extremes of thinking that there is a fixed number of those levels (levels like ... individual, groups, society, ...). into the extremes of materialism or idealism.

It has

It has

Without falling It has

to explain how habits develop and get stronger and stronger; (the cumulative effect) and also the reverse, how we can get free from them. to explain how come the result of karma is related to its cause, how it is similar and proportional to the cause. to explain the six realms, the three worlds. to explain how, by just knowing its real nature, we can become free. to explain why the two accumulations are required, together.

It has

It has It has It has

Answer: Karma

is a progressive model adapted to the level of egotism of the student. It goes from a gross understanding of karma, to a very subtle model of the mind, and maybe more. At each level there is always the complementarity of method (interdependence, causality) and wisdom (impermanence, emptiness) reflecting the complementarity of the two aspects of the non-dual nature of everything: not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. And the division between levels is purely conventional; it follows the habitual patterns. conclusions:

Some preliminary

The tetralemma seems to express the ultimate better: everything is not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither. It seems to be able to explain everything else. The real nature of everything is beyond any description, beyond any conceptual model, anything we can think of is necessarily conditioned, impermanent, not "it". This includes the Madhyamika models, the Cittamatra model, the tetralemma, the Two Truths, ... There is no absolute, only adapted skillful means. But we still need a progressive path that would help us to gradually transcend our illusions, our wrong views. This gradual path needs to use views that are closer and closer to the real nature of reality, like : not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither; or the union of dependent origination and emptiness; or the inseparability of appearances and emptiness.

The complementarity of impermanence and karma is one of those introductory model. A more refined model is the combo of dependent origination and emptiness as defined in the Madhyamika. Another refined model is the existent flow of interdependencies without any inherently existing entities in it as defined in the Cittamatra. Madhyamika insists on the emptiness as the major realization; Cittamatra insists on the dependent origination (the flow; the alayavijnana). It think the perfection of both is the Union of the Two Truths. We tend to see everything from our own perspective, from our own level of consciousness. But karma (or interdependence) is working without the distinction of any particular level. Maturity seems to be explained by the gradual replacement of an egoistic, self centered view, by a more and more global view. We "identify" ourselves with a more and more global context. The individually contained being becomes integrated with the container. The distinction between individual and global slowly fades. ot one, not many. The distinction between living and non-living fades. The distinction between consciousness and not fades. There is no clear distinction between the karma of an individual and the karma of the society ... Karma is not really individual, not really global either. The non-individual karma support, the alayavijnana, is the flow itself, the interaction between everything.

Characteristics of karma / causality / potentiality Karma seems "individual" (it is not transferable between one sentient being to another; the effects are felt by the one who has generated the causes) Each cause has a specific effect (there are precise relations between causes and effects; it is not total chaos, there is some determinism) The effects are similar and proportional to its causes (particular kinds of actions inevitably lead to similar or appropriate results) (their magnitude and intensity directly correspond to the quantity and strength of the cause factors)

o cause without an effect (every action must have a reaction, or an effect; nothing is lost) (the consequences of actions are not annihilated with death) o effect without a cause (pleasure and pain arise from a cause) (the actual five aggregates are not the fruit of random events, or a god's will) The effect is not immediate, there is a potentiality that is stored until all the conditions are assembled. It is like "conditioning", it becomes manifest only when the specific stimuli are presented again. It has a cumulative effect that seems to be exponential. Like the "conditioning" gets stronger and stronger with repetitions. And ultimately all causes, effects, causal relations are empty of inherent existence (it is not total determinism, there is some freedom) In short a theory of causality compatible with the real nature of everything (the Middle Way: not absolute causality (determinism), not total absence of causality (chaos)
The many

aspects:

When we speak of karma we may be speaking of the causes, effects, cumulative proportional relation, potentiality, conditioning, filtering When we speak of karma we speak of the mind because the ignorance of the mind about its real nature is the cause of all actions, all karma formation. When we speak of karma we speak of purification of the mind, the removal of the conditioning covering the real pure nature of the mind. When we speak of karma we speak of kleshas, which are the things that have to be removed from the mind in order to purify it. They are the objectification of the conditioning itself. That which is conditioning all of our future actions of body, speech and mind. When we speak of karma we speak of the seeds that are planted in our mind stream waiting for the proper conditions to become manifest.
The root cause [the two

ignorances]:

All caused by the mind with ignorance [of the real nature of itself and of everything] This twofold ignorance about the ego (The five skandhas together support the concept of ego) and outer phenomena is the root of all defilements, karma and suffering...ultimately we will understand that there is no difference between the ego and outer phenomena -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation egative deeds basically means not knowing reality, not knowing the true nature of the mind. Instead of seeing the true nature of the mind, we cling to a self without any logical reason. -- Holiness Sakya Trizin, ature of The Mind

The basic reason why we act, produce karma, produce the causes of suffering, is because we have this ignorance about the real nature of our own mind, and of everything At this time, the aspect that does not know its intrinsic wisdom to be its own nature is co-emergent ignorance. The aspect that fixates its own projections as other is the ignorance of false conception. Because of not knowing that all this has arisen within the natural state, by the power of attachment of ego-fixation to its objects, habitual patterns of the vessel, the external world, ripen as body. Habitual patterns of the essence, sentient beings within the world, ripen as mind. This is confusion, the various phenomena of the five poisons. The root of confusion is not knowing what we are.
The divisions

of the causes: unborn sugatagarbha --> ignorance --> desire, aversion --> karma (loop) --> suffering Karma results from klesha -- mental defilement. ... Klesha is the immediate cause of karma; karma causes suffering. If we can remove klesha, we can stop the flow of karma, prevent suffering from arising, and reach nirvana -- though not the ultimate nirvana. -Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation

Lets go back to just how did it happen that I rose up, as it were, in this form of flesh and blood. One finds the causes to be, mentally speaking, these kankas or afflicted emotions (skt. klesha) in ones mind, and the actions that they motivated. If I didn't have these, I wouldn't be always getting stuck in these heaps of flesh and bone. In a word, I wasn't born miraculously; there were causes for my birth. The causes for birth are actions that one performed and actions, which were motivated by particular kankas in the mental state, particularly the afflicted emotions. It is through getting rid of these kankas in one's mental make-up that one gets rid of the causes to be in a state such as we now find ourselves. One identifies the causes of it; in essence these psychological afflicted emotions or kleshas. And one seeks to free oneself from suffering by removing from one's mind those kleshas. When a person has got strong kankas or kleshas, that person will be agitated and upset. If one doesn't have a way to bring oneself to peace, to a feeling of well being, how can one lead others to well being. Knowing mind as the source of many different kleshas, Kleshas and sub-kleshas, and those that are universal, who would want this state of samsara to increase further? The three poisons (three chief kleshas): It is easy to say kankas or kleshas, there are so many of these mental afflicted emotions. But really, if you boil it all down to the main ones, what one identifies is attachment and hatred and confusion. These are the main kankas. Desire and aversion are both produced by ignorance.

By the three poisons, arising from the three collections of objects, the senses, and the actions of concept mind, come all motivating karmas. These karmas are unhappiness. By the three poisons there is universally arising unhappiness. The lower realms and whatever suffering there may be are produced by this cause. As for passion, aggression, and ignorance the karma produced by them is unhappiness.... Unhappy karma is all suffering. The main klesha is confusion, which consists of an apprehension of truth. Say one is looking at a stone pillar off at a distance, but somehow it looks as if it is a person is over there. It really appears as a person even though there is no person, there's just a stone pillar but we believe in a person standing there. Similarly with everything that we're aware of in the universe. Every time we become aware of anything we think, 'hey, that's real, isn't it? Yeah that's real and it's truly what it seams to be, yes, that's how it is'. In exactly that same way we accept something as real or true by the way it seems to be, even if it is not real or true. It is the same as if you see something in the dark and think 'watch out, it is a snake', but in fact it is a coiled up rope. All of a sudden one feels tremendous animosity towards it. Better get rid of it! Better kill it! When you turn on the lights you suddenly see all of the grounds for one's animosity and fear are not there at all. But as for ourselves we had no doubt, it was really a snake, we were totally settled on it, totally certain about it. It was reality. We apprehend something, we hold on to it, we believe in it; 'But as for me, don't be silly, of course I am here, absolutely exactly as I seem to be. That person who hurt me is most certainly there, trying to get at me and I don't like them. The person who is helping me is definitely there helping me, and yes indeed, I like them very much.' Thus, based on this confusion comes hatreds and attachments. Since one is so sure that indeed 'I' am here and indeed that person hurts me or helps me is there, then that person who's so certainly there should immediately turn up once one searches for them analytically. Something appearing as so real, one should obviously be able to find. Something so real should become clearer and clearer when one's goes looking analytically for it. Through that analytical search, one begins to chip away at this ascent, the belief in a reality that is in fact not there. With the awareness that the reality I always believed in has never been there, one begins to get insight into emptiness and begins to find an anti-dote to the problems. Though karmas and kleshas are nature-less, they ceaselessly appear. Therefore, they depend on ignorance as their root. The condition is the arising of objects. The cause is connection with the three poisons. The lower ones are those in the lower realms. The middle ones are human beings. The higher ones are the gods. Each experiences the joys and sorrows of their own particular kind of karma. The root of this is ignorance. They all equally possess the three poisons. They all equally possess unwholesomeness. In accord with their virtues and merits, they all produce fruitions of happiness. The five poisons (five klesha-poisons) and the five wisdoms The six poisons and the six realms

There are six realms because there are six poisons, or defilements of the mind (Skt. klesha; Tib. nyon-mongs) that are the seeds or causes of the experience of the various realms. There are no more than six realms because there are no more than six poisons to act as seeds. The 84,000 defilements. In the scriptures, kleshavarana is said to have eighty-four thousand different forms. They can be simplified into three main categories, from which the others come or in which the others are included: desire, aversion, and ignorance. -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation Teaching how to tame the kleshas the gates of Dharma Are said to be eighty-four thousand, but the true intent of the Buddhas Is the one inseparable essence. That I have taught three vehicles Is explained by different capacities of sentient beings. There is also another kind of avarana, which remains even in the arhat stage after karma and klesha have disappeared. This is called jneyavarana, "the covering of what can be known," or obscuration to omniscience. -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation Attracted by the causes of suffering (because of ignorance): By the obscuring power of accepting and rejecting, though we may want powerful means of entering into the fruition, we do not produce the cause. How can we be free from accepting and rejecting? Those who want happiness should practice the cause, the virtuous path. We want to leave suffering behind, yet wholeheartedly enter into its cause, non-virtue. We practice all the causes of suffering, the five klesha-poisons, and the three chief kleshas. We are rushing to practice the source of all suffering, whose fruition is suffering itself, and experience of its different varieties. Still we just accept this and cannot even be ashamed of it. This is like a thief who is punished by having his hands cut of, but still robs us again. This time his punishment is having his head cut off. By the force of desire and attachment to the five desirables, the power of the kleshas increases, and we enter into suffering. A moth desiring the form of a lamp's light is burned when it is reached. Deer are killed because they listen to the sound of a flute. Bees who suck flowers, which are the source of nectar, get tangled when they close to them. Fishermen entice fish by the taste of food on the point of a hook. Elephants wanting to feel cool, go into lakes and die. Objects and poison alike are pleasant when first experienced. Objects and poison alike are unbearably harsh when ripe. Objects and poison alike are imbibed because of ignorance. Discrimination: By the obscuring power of accepting and rejecting, though we may want powerful means of entering into the fruition, we do not produce the cause. The five elements, the five aggregates: Earth is in water, water in wind, and wind in space. But space is not in the dhatus of wind and water and earth. Thus the skandhas

(i.e. five aggregates) and dhatus (i.e. irreducible elements), and the powers of sense, are supported in existence by karma and the kleshas. Fixation and grasping: The root of samsara and suffering is ignorance, Having the confusion of grasping and fixation. By objects, conceptualization, and mind's habitual patterns, by fixating "me" and "mine," samsara is established. "I" and "mine": The root of confusion is fixating on the "I" and ego. Because of that, the confused appearances of samsara arise like reflections, dreams, or hairs drifting before the eyes. Moreover, fixation is fixated as "I", and grasped objects are fixated as "mine" with an attitude like that of the owner of a house. Habitual patterns of objects: This means that grasping involves habitual patterns of objects. These various appearances of pure and impure are confused existence. Habitual patterns of reality are produced by the karma of bodily arising and also by the inner condition of not knowing such-ness. These are the skandhas (i.e. Five aggregates), dhatus (i.e. Irreducible Elements), ayatanas (i.e. spheres of sense and sense objects), and so forth. From them arise all the kleshas, and the suffering that is their fruition, the support of the confusions of fixation. Impure relativity: By ignorant fixation, takes on habits of false conception. Involving confused appearance of impure relativity, Dualistic appearance of objects as self and other, then come to be grasped as really being two. Intrinsically this presents itself as limitless suffering. Obstructions: "Endowed with these six qualities, a person is incapable of alighting on the lawfulness, the rightness of skillful mental qualities even when listening to the true Dhamma. Which six? "He is endowed with a (present) kamma obstruction, a defilement obstruction, a result-of-(past)-kamma obstruction; he lacks conviction, has no desire (to listen), and has dull discernment. -- A VI.86 ihilism: The obscurations of Dharmadhatu: The seventh consciousness or the consciousness, which is the mental afflictions, or klesha consciousness: is the innate fixation on a self that we all possess or that afflicts all of us. It's this innate assumption of "I." ... The seventh consciousness, this fundamental fixation on a self, is always there, and in fact it will be there until you attain the eighth level of bodhisattva realization. The eighth consciousness is called the all-basis consciousness, and it is the mere cognitive lucidity, which is the fundamental basis for the rest of the functionings of mind. And because it is the basis for all of the rest of the mental functionings or activities, it's called the all-basis. ow, it is on this basis that all of the habits of samsara are piled: habits of karma, of kleshas, and so on. And through variations in ones habituation - the habits that you accumulate--then various results arise. Through various types of habituation, then you tend to cultivate more virtuous and fewer unvirtuous states of mind, or the other way around; and through all of these variations and habituation which produce habits that are laid onto or piled onto the all-basis, then you

experience the world in your own particular way. Various appearances arise, and you experience the fluctuations; and to the extent you experience fluctuations in the degree of mental affliction, you experience fluctuations in your intelligence and your compassion, and so on. Sugatagarbha is the primordially pure, changeless essence, Dharmakaya, designated as the alaya of reality. When this becomes confused, it and the connected wealth of the nature of mind, Rupakaya and the Buddha fields, the perfect entities of wisdom, are obscured through the confused grasping and fixation of ignorance. This is the due to the alaya of the various habitual patterns. Within this, since beginning-less time, have been planted the various seeds or habitual patterns of confusion. Their great power becomes individual experiences of the higher and lower realms, and so forth. When we are within dream-like samsara, fixating I and ego, experiencing desire, aggression, and the five poisons, collecting karma and kleshas, from meaningless confusion, we live with a variety of attachments to truly existing entities. Day and night the wheel of confused appearance continuously turns, and since its succession is groundless, we are never liberated from it. It is like the confusion of a dream. Wandering because of kleshas, because of good and evil, is like a prince wandering along a road, separated from his kingdom. It is intrinsically a time of suffering. Since he was born into a royal family, the happiness of true wealth is naturally within him; but now he suffers temporarily. The luminous nature of mind is not obscured by the kleshas. ... Sugatagarbha pervades all sentient beings. By the nine examples it is taught to exist within the covering of the kleshas. ... Obscured by the incidental defilements of the kleshas, this dhatu exists within sentient beings. In short we have "fooled, conditioned ourselves"; and are still stacking up illusions on top of illusions. This conditioning is not based on the truth; it is something added, fabricated. It is impermanent and unsatisfactory. But this "conditioning" is not ourselves, it is just covering our real nature. This "conditioning" can be transcended by seeing its real nature. We can purify our real nature by removing this "conditioning."
The three gates: actions

of

1. Body 2. Speech 3. Mind Unskillful karma of mind is the worst kind of karma because actions of body and speech arise from mind. ... The mind forces body and speech to follow it; if we can control the mind, then other kinds of bad action can be avoided. ... All the sufferings of all beings in samsara are produced by mind. -- Geshe Rabten, The Graduated Path to Liberation egative deeds basically means not knowing reality, not knowing the true nature of the mind. Instead of seeing the true nature of the mind, we cling to a self without any logical reason. -- Holiness Sakya Trizin, ature of The Mind

Old

and new kamma ow what, monks, is old kamma?

The eye is to be seen as old kamma, fabricated and willed, capable of being felt. The ear ... The nose ... The tongue ... The body ... The intellect is to be seen as old kamma, fabricated and willed, capable of being felt. This is called old kamma. And what is new kamma? Whatever kamma one does now with the body, with speech, or with the intellect: This is called new kamma. And what is the cessation of kamma? Whoever touches the release that comes from the cessation of bodily kamma, verbal kamma, and mental kamma: This is called the cessation of kamma. And what is the path of practice leading to the cessation of kamma? Just this noble eightfold path: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. This is called the path of practice leading to the cessation of kamma.
Kamma

should be known

"'Fermentations should be known. The cause by which fermentations come into play ... The diversity in fermentations ... The result of fermentations ... The cessation of fermentations ... The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? "There are these three kinds of fermentations: the fermentation of sensuality, the fermentation of becoming, the fermentation of ignorance. "And what is the cause by which fermentations comes into play? Ignorance is the cause by which fermentations comes into play. "And what is the diversity in fermentations? There are fermentations that lead to hell, those that lead to the animal womb, those that lead to the realm of the hungry shades, those that lead to the human world, those that lead to the world of the devas. This is called the diversity in fermentations. "And what is the result of fermentations? One who is immersed in ignorance produces a corresponding state of existence, on the side of merit or demerit. This is called the result of fermentations. "And what is the cessation of fermentations? From the cessation of ignorance is the cessation of fermentations; and just this noble eightfold path -- right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration -- is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.

" ow when a noble disciple discerns fermentations in this way, the cause by which fermentations comes into play in this way, the diversity of fermentations in this way, the result of fermentations in this way, the cessation of fermentations in this way, and the path of practice leading to the cessation of fermentations in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of fermentations. "'Fermentations should be known. The cause by which fermentations come into play ... The diversity in fermentations ... The result of fermentations ... The cessation of fermentations ... The path of practice for the cessation of fermentations should be known.' Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said. "'Kamma should be known. The cause by which kamma comes into play should be known. The diversity in kamma should be known. The result of kamma should be known. The cessation of kamma should be known. The path of practice for the cessation of kamma should be known.' Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? "Intention, I tell you, is kamma. Intending, one does kamma by way of body, speech, and intellect. "And what is the cause by which kamma comes into play? Contact is the cause by which kamma comes into play. "And what is the diversity in kamma? There is kamma to be experienced in hell, kamma to be experienced in the realm of common animals, kamma to be experienced in the realm of the hungry shades, kamma to be experienced in the human world, kamma to be experienced in the world of the devas. This is called the diversity in kamma. "And what is the result of kamma? The result of kamma is of three sorts, I tell you: that which arises right here and now, that which arises later [in this lifetime], and that which arises following that. This is called the result of kamma. "And what is the cessation of kamma? From the cessation of contact is the cessation of kamma; and just this noble eightfold path -- right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration -- is the way leading to the cessation of kamma. " ow when a noble disciple discerns kamma in this way, the cause by which kamma comes into play in this way, the diversity of kamma in this way, the result of kamma in this way, the cessation of kamma in this way, and the path of practice leading to the cessation of kamma in this way, then he discerns this penetrative holy life as the cessation of kamma. "'Kamma should be known. The cause by which kamma comes into play ... The diversity in kamma ... The result of kamma ... The cessation of kamma ... The path of practice for the cessation of kamma should be known.' Thus it has been said, and in reference to this was it said.
The four components

or factors. For the action to be complete, (to bring the full karmic result), all four components must be present: 1. The basis or object of the action 2. The intention: the state of mind of the person performing the action. This has 3 parts: Recognition (discrimination), Motive (determination) and Delusion (mental perturbation)

3. The deed: actually performing the action (the preparation) 4. The final step, or completion of the action
Five alternative

conditions that modify the weight of karma:

1. Persistence or repetition 2. Willful intention 3. Absence of regret 4. Quality 5. Indebtedness


Factors

determining the power of the actions (causes)

1. ature of the action (order for virtues, and order for non-virtues) 2. Object (the person and the object) 3. Time and frequency 4. Method used 5. Intention / State of mind (karma is intentional, conscious, deliberate action motivated by volition, or will) 6. Using an antidote or not (also vows taken)
Three types:

Unwholesome actions (motivated by the three poisons) causing unhappiness (the three lower realms), What does bad karma mean? If your behavior is something that hurts somebody else, that's what is meant by bad karma. -- Geshe Yeshe Tobten egative deeds basically means not knowing reality, not knowing the true nature of the mind. Instead of seeing the true nature of the mind, we cling to a self without any logical reason. -- Holiness Sakya Trizin, ature of The Mind The five grave deeds What makes it unwholesome: "Unwholesome kamma is action which is spiritually harmful and morally blameworthy...If an action is intended to bring harm to oneself, harm to others or harm to both oneself and others, that is unwholesome kamma. ... All unwholesome actions

come from three unwholesome roots, greed, aversion and delusion. " -- Bhikkhu Bodhi, Beyond the et - Kamma "bodily [verbal, mental] conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, unrighteous conduct ... "So, householders, it is by reason of conduct not in accordance with the Dhamma, by reason of unrighteous conduct, that some beings here, on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappear in states of deprivation, in an unhappy destination, in perdition, even in hell. " Producing karma, the causes of suffering Creating bodily and mental agitation, unease, stress, ... Self-centered: in order to benefit ourselves primarily; to please our body and/or mind Hurting other sentient beings. The ten unwholesome actions Based on the three poisons: ignorance, desire / attachment, repulsion / hatred Based on mental defilements, kleshas Reinforcing the conditioning of the kleshas Based on the two ignorances: of the self and of the world, based on this duality Based on the four extremes - thinking they are absolute Based on realism, on inherent existence: Based on the belief in some absolute characteristics, or objects (material or immaterial), or being, or actions - on something inherently existing Grasping and fixating Based on impure relativity, thinking there is absolute causality Based on nihilism: Based on dualism: Based on accepting or rejecting Based on monism: Based on some acquired conditioning, on dependently arisen body, ideas, concepts, theories, philosophies thinking they are absolute ot done in order to ultimately transcend all conditioning.

ot done with Bodhicitta Done while not directly seeing the emptiness of the three: subject, object, action Done while not combining method and wisdom See "The divisions of causes" above. Wholesome actions (not motivated by the three poisons; motivated by wisdom, renunciation or detachment, and love and compassion) causing happiness (the three higher realms), We can regard wholesome actions as those that simply avoid the unwholesome ones (killing, stealing, sexual misconduct, and the rest), Or we can think of wholesome actions in terms of generosity, restraint, meditation, reverence, service to others, transference of merit, rejoicing in the merit of others, listening to the Dharma, teaching the Dharma, and correction of our own erroneous views. If what you do is of some help or benefit to somebody else, that's called making good karma. -- Geshe Yeshe Tobten It should be noted only good acts done "un-selfishly" (in other words not for the sake of merit) result in good karma. eutral actions causing neutral results. eutral karma is action that has no moral consequences, either because the very nature of the action is such as to have no moral significance, or because the action was done involuntarily and unintentionally. Examples of this variety of karma include walking eating, sleeping, breathing, making handicrafts, and so on. Similarly, actions done unintentionally constitute ineffective karma, because the all-important volitional element is missing.
Timing: the effects

of karma may become evident later (or not)

Either in the short term, or in the long term. " He will feel the result of that here and now, or in his next rebirth, or in some subsequent existence." -- M 136 The Buddha says that there are three types of kammas distinguished by way of time of ripening. There are kammas, which ripen in this lifetime, kammas that ripen in the next lifetime and kammas that ripen some lifetime after the next. The last kind of kamma is the strongest. The first two kinds become defunct if they don't find an opening. They will never ripen if they don't get the opportunity to ripen either in the present life or in the next life. But the third type remains with us as long as we continue in Samsara. It can bring its results even after hundreds and thousands of aeons in the future. -- Bhikkhu Bodhi, Beyond the et - Kamma

It is not the immediate reaction conditioned by past karma, but the conditioning effect, a potential, a propensity, that will become manifest later when the proper conditions are again combined. It is like some kind of reaction habit that is being memorized, or reinforced. Like an associative memory, an holographic pattern. Existence is conditioning: But if this whole pattern is seen for what it really is, seeing its real nature, then one become free from the uncontrolled reaction. Even though there is a seed of karma, its effect will not be seen. That is called transcending the conditioning. In that sense, Liberation, is a natural everyday function of the mind. on-existence: is egoistic rejection Dualities are mere appearances: In the same way, if one understand the real nature of two opposing elements or ideas, how they are interdependent, then one can transcend the stress of their opposition. That is called transcending the conditioning. In that sense, Liberation, is a natural everyday function of the mind. Oneness: is merely another mental fabrication, a skillful means. The mind is like an acting mirror that tries to memorize and predict. So no karma is lost, but still its effect might be transcended with wisdom.
There are 3

different results of a complete karma (i.e. an action that has been committed with all 4 components/factors present): 1. Ripened result - the future rebirth state you will experience as a result of having created a complete karma.[1]

2. Results congruent with the cause Experiences congruent with the cause - once your karma to be born in the lower realms has been exhausted and you take rebirth in an upper realm, you will have experiences similar to your original actions. Actions congruent with the cause - once your karma to be born in the lower realms has been exhausted and you take rebirth in an upper realm; you will have the instinctive tendency to commit the original action again and again. 3. Environmental results - when born in the human realm, you will experience results of your actions in the form of environmental conditions.
The conditioning

cycle:

Our perception, consciousness, actions are conditioned by our previous investments, previous choices, previous motivated actions Our present actions, present investments, are going to conditioned future perception, feelings, ideas, actions, ...

Like the five aggregates (body and mind) at a particular moment "t-1" are conditioning the five aggregates at "t", ... and there are also other conditions ... So it is not total free will; but it is not total determinism either. The potentialities are the conditioning factors that become manifest only through actual experiences. They are filters that are manifest only when something goes through them. And their effect is devastating mostly when we are not aware of them. Like a self-learning intelligent machine that develops new ways to analyze the world and to interact with it as it evolves. It is dependent on its actual capacities, but still have enough freedom to invest into new directions. atural evolution is also similar to this. A bit similar to the concepts of assimilation, accommodation and adaptation in Piaget's theories. The problems are like evolutionary dead-ends, like obsessions in a particular pattern of investments that do not bring any more beneficial results, the incapacity to adapt further, the suffering of lack of control. All investments, being caused, thus impermanent and imperfect, necessarily leads to such suffering after a while. So adapting (acting, choosing, discriminating...) is always just a temporary solution, a short term happiness. ote: Seeing everything in terms of conditioning is also a conditioning.
The goal

of these progressive models of causality:

Explaining the effects by extrapolating the cause and potentials knowing the relations The conditioned self: We are our own habits. Our perception and intentions - which precede any action - are influenced by our habits. These habits are build from previous actions based on ignorance. Patience: Knowing that experiences are the result of karma, thus developing patience instead of blaming others, and retaliating. Renunciation: Knowing mind as the source of many different kleshas, Kleshas and sub-kleshas, and those that are universal, Who would want this state of samsara to increase further? The five aggregates: The nature of samsara is suffering. The fruition of suffering is the five skandhas (3). These are the six causes. The five root kleshas and the twenty lesser kleshas are all included in the truth that all is suffering. The nature of this great source of many illnesses and harms should properly make us sad. The Buddha-nature: The luminous nature of mind is not obscured by the kleshas. ... Sugatagarbha pervades all sentient beings. By the nine examples it is taught to exist within the covering of the kleshas. ... Obscured by the incidental defilements of the kleshas, This dhatu exists within sentient beings. --

So we know the real reasons why we are suffering and thus can do something about it o blaming others, or external events ot perpetuating the cycle by trying to control external phenomena, objects or beings The root cause is the ignorance of the real nature of our mind (ego) and of everything (the world) -- seeing them as two polarities From this ignorance there is desire and aversion From theses three poisons there is the six poisons, the six realms, and their specific kinds of suffering From these there is all the other defilement. So we understand that the causes of suffering is grasping based on this ego; and that it is just like an illusion, a bad habit. The four un-conjecturables: The [precise working out of the] results of kamma is an un-conjecturable that is not to be conjectured about, that would bring madness and vexation to anyone who conjectured about it. A IV.77 Combining wisdom to these explanations: But these are only dependently arisen models used to help along the path. So there is no absolute explanation, just adapted skillful means. Taking responsibility for one's own actions: -- o total freedom (conditioning), no total absence of freedom (possibility of Liberation) -"'I am the owner of my actions (kamma), heir to my actions, born of my actions, related through my actions, and have my actions as my arbitrator. Whatever I do, for good or for evil, to that will I fall heir'... "Student, beings are owners of kammas, heirs of kammas, they have kammas as their progenitor, kammas as their kin, kammas as their homing-place. It is kammas that differentiate beings according to inferiority and superiority." So, instead of promoting resigned powerlessness, the early Buddhist notion of karma focused on the liberating potential of what the mind is doing with every moment. Who you are -- what you come from -- is not anywhere near as important as the mind's motives for what it is doing right now. Even though the past may account for many of the inequalities we see in life, our measure as human beings is not the hand we've been dealt, for that hand can change at any moment. We take our own measure by how well we play the hand we've got. If you're suffering, you try not to continue the unskillful mental habits that would keep that particular karmic feedback going. If you see that other people are suffering, and you're in a position to help, you focus not on their karmic past but your karmic opportunity in the present: Someday you may find yourself in the same predicament that they're in now, so here's your opportunity to act in the way you'd like them to act toward you when that day comes. ... Buddhists,

however, saw that karma acts in feedback loops, with the present moment being shaped both by past and by present actions; present actions shape not only the future but also the present. This constant opening for present input into the causal process makes free will possible. This freedom is symbolized in the imagery the Buddhists used to explain the process: flowing water. Sometimes the flow from the past is so strong that little can be done except to stand fast, but there are also times when the flow is gentle enough to be diverted in almost any direction. -- Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Karma The twin teachings on kamma and rebirth have several important implications for understanding our own lives. First they enable us to understand that we are fully responsible for what we are. We can't blame our troubles on our environment, on our heredity, on fate or on our upbringing. All these factors have made us what we are, but the reason we have met these circumstances is because of our past kamma. This might seem to be at first a pessimistic doctrine. It seems to imply that we are the prisoners of our past kammas that we have to submit to their effects. This is a distortion. It is true that very often we have to reap the results of our past kamma. But the important point to understand is that kamma is volitional action, and volitional action always takes place in the present, only in the present. This means at present it is possible for us to change the entire direction of our life. If we closely examine our lives we'll see that our experience is of two types: First, experience that comes to us passively, which we receive independently of our choice; And second, experience which we create for ourselves through our choices and attitudes. The passive side of experience is largely the effect of past kamma. We generally have to face this and learn to accept it. But within those limitations there is a space, the tremendous space of the present moment, in which we can reconstruct our world with our own minds. If we let ourselves be dominated by selfishness, hatred, ambition and dullness, then, even if we are wealthy and powerful, we'll still be living in misery and suffering and keep planting seeds for rebirth in the world of suffering. On the other hand, even if we are poor and in sad circumstances, with much pain and misfortune, if we observe pure conduct, develop a mind of generosity, kindness and understanding, then we can transform our world, we can build a world of love and peace. -- Thanissaro Bhikkhu, Beyond the et, Kamma Managing (discriminating) the temporary effects by controlling the causes, or controlling the conditions necessary for the potential to be experienced. In the first place, such an understanding discourages us from performing unwholesome actions that have suffering as their inevitable fruit.

Similarly, knowing that wholesome actions have happiness as their fruit, we will do our best to cultivate such wholesome actions. Reflecting on the law of karma, of action and reaction in the sphere of conscious activity, encourages us to abandon unwholesome actions and to practice wholesome ones; and since all actions are first motivated by the mind, it is important to tame the mind in order to be able to maintain moral discipline. Depending on our five aggregates we can control some external causes and some internal causes in order to produce temporary happiness. We can improve this by developing our body and external bodies (tools, machines) and developing our mind and external mind capacity (computers). We can also improve this by sharing our capacity with others (societies, enterprises, schools...) All of this permits to maintain the conditions of the precious human life for us and others. The problem is that we invest too much in short-term solutions, simplistic solutions, and external solutions. We should turn inward and look at the influence of the mind All effects are only temporary (imper