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# MATHEMATICS I

## General Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts and

principles of number and number sense as applied to measuring, estimating,
graphing, solving equations and inequalities, communicating mathematically and
solving problems in real life.
Quarter I: Real Number System,
Measurement and Scientific Notation
Topic: Real Number System Time Frame: 20 days
Stage 1
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of the key concepts
of real number system.
Performance Standard:
The learner formulates real life problems involving real numbers
and solves these using a variety of strategies.
Essential Understanding(s):
Daily tasks involving measurement, conversion, estimation and
scientific notation make use of real numbers.
Essential Question(s):
How useful are real numbers?

The learner will know:
the real number system
rational and irrational numbers
the importance of order axioms
fundamental operations with real numbers
the application of real numbers to daily life.
The learner will be able to:
apply real numbers in a variety of ways to other disciplines.
identify/give examples of rational and irrational numbers
illustrate rational and irrational numbers in practical
situations
use the appropriate symbolic notation to illustrate the
order axioms.
cite examples/situations where order axiom is applied.
perform the sequence of operations with real numbers
properly.
solve problems in other disciplines such as science, art,
agriculture, etc.
Stage 2
Problems formulated
1. are real life related
Evidence at the level of understanding
Learner should be able to demonstrate
understanding of the real number system
Evidence at the level of performance
Assessment of problems formulated
based on the following suggested criteria:
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2.involve real numbers, and
3.are solved using a variety of strategies.
using the six (6) facets of understanding:
Explaining how numbers are expressed
in different ways.
Criteria:
Thorough
Coherent
Clear
Interpreting similarities between rational
and irrational numbers.
Criteria:
Thorough
Illustrative
Creative
Applying a variety of techniques in
solving daily life problems.
Criteria:
Appropriate
Practical
Accurate
Relevant
Developing Perspective on the types of
real numbers.
Criteria:
Perceptive
Open-minded
Sensitive
Responsive
Showing Empathy by describing the
difficulties one can experience in daily life
real-life related problems
problems involve real numbers.
problems are solved using a variety of
strategies
Tools: Rubrics for assessment of
problems formulated and solved
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whenever tedious calculations are done.
Criteria:
Open
Sensitive
Responsive
Manifesting Self-knowledge by
assessing how one can give his/her best
solution to a problem/situation.
Criteria:
Reflective
Responsive
Relevant
Stage 3
Teaching/Learning Sequence
1. Explore
Initially, begin with some interesting and challenging exploratory activities on real numbers that will make the learner aware
of what is going to happen or where the said pre-activities would lead to through meaningful and relevant daily life context.
a. Varied activities in the form of a game, puzzle or storytelling on how to identify/name a real number
Locating numbers on the number line
Giving the coordinate of a point on the number line
Naming a real number between two given numbers
Citing situations where real numbers are applied
b. Assessment by answering accurately the activity sheets containing HOTS questions on real numbers
(See attached sheet as sample)
c. Journal writing on real number system and its applications to real life. (See attached sheet as sample)
2. Firm Up
These are the enabling activities/experiences that the learner will have to go through to validate understanding on real
numbers during the activities in the exploratory phase. These would answer some misconceptions on real numbers that
have been encountered in daily life situations.
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a. Conduct an investigation considering the following steps:
Giving a list of different numbers
Changing the form of the given set of numbers by doing the basic operations and simplifying the results.
Analyzing/Observing the results.
Classifying numbers as to their types.
Classifying numbers into rational or irrational.
Preparing oral/written reports about the investigation conducted.
b. Give more exercises which may be in problem form, games, puzzles, etc.
c. Perform fundamental operations on real numbers and classify results.
3. Deepen
Activities in this stage shall provide opportunity for differentiated instruction for the learner to further reflect, revisit, revise and
rethink. Moreover, the learner shall express his/her understanding on real numbers and engage in meaningful self-
evaluation.

a. Explaining thoroughly the difference between rational and irrational numbers by giving several examples.
b. Investigating patterns leading to rational or irrational numbers (both manually and with the use of calculators).
c. Identifying the difference between rational and irrational numbers.
d. Generalizing and writing a report of what has been discovered about real numbers.
4. Transfer
Applications of learners understanding are demonstrated through culminating activities that reflect meaningful and relevant
problems/situations.
Formulating daily life problems involving real numbers using varied activities (e.g. storytelling, simulation,
role-playing, flowcharting, etc.)
Constructing scale models of toys, houses, bridges, etc. indicating the use of real numbers.
Resources:
See Appendix
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Quarter I : Real Number System,
Measurement and Scientific Notation
Topic: Measurement Time Frame: 25 days
Stage 1
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of the key concepts
of measurements.
Performance Standard:
The learner formulates real-life problems involving
measurements and solves these using a variety of strategies.
Essential Understanding(s):
Physical quantities are measured using different measuring
devices. The precision and accuracy of measurement depend
on the measuring device used.
Essential Question(s):
How are different measuring devices useful?
How does one know when a measurement is precise?
accurate?
The learner will know:
the concept of measurement
the different measuring devices and their respective
uses.
conversion of units of measure.
rounding off numbers
approximation.
how to solve problems involving measurements using
a variety of strategies.
The learner will be able to:
use different tools/devices and units of measures.
cite situations where measuring tools are appropriately
used.
convert units of measure.
round off numbers.
cite real life situations where rounding off numbers is
applied.
approximate measurement by rounding off to its
nearest desired value.
formulate and solve real life problems applying
conversion of units.
Stage 2
Problems formulated
1. are real life related
2. involve measurement and
Evidence at the level of understanding
Learner should be able to demonstrate
understanding of measurement using the
six (6) facets of understanding:
Evidence at the level of performance
Assessment of problems formulated
based on the following suggested criteria:
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3. are solved using a variety of
strategies. Explaining how to use the calibration
model and find its degree of precision.
Criteria:
Thorough
Clear
Accurate
Justified
Interpreting through story telling
situations that describe the appropriate
use and choice of measuring devices.
Criteria:
Illustrative
Accurate
Justified
Significant
Applying a variety of techniques in
posing and solving daily life problems
involving measurement
Criteria:
Appropriate
Practical
Revealing Empathy by role-playing the
uses of the primitive measuring devices
for the people who invented them and
discuss how they got accurate results.
Criteria:
Perceptive
Open
Manifesting Self-knowledge by
real-life problems
problems involve measurement
problems are solved using a variety of
strategies
Tools: Rubrics for assessment of
problems formulated and solved (See
attachment)
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assessing how one can give his/her best
solution to a problem/situation on
measurement.
Criteria:
Reflective
Responsive
Stage 3
Teaching/Learning Sequence:
1. Explore
Initially, begin with some interesting and challenging exploratory activities on measurements that will make the learner aware
of what is going to happen or where the said pre-activities would lead to through meaningful and relevant real-life context.
a. Group activities
Identifying and using the different measuring devices through games, puzzles, storytelling, etc.
Citing real life situations where these measuring devices are used through role playing, simulations, storytelling,
etc.
b. Creative group presentations of authentic situations showing the evolution of the different measuring devices.
c. Giving oral or written reactions on the group presentations.
2. Firm Up
These are the enabling activities/experiences that the learner will have to go through to validate understanding on
measurements during the activities in the exploratory phase. These would answer some misconceptions on measurements
that have been encountered in real life situations.
a. The learner shall conduct varied activities.
Using the given measuring instruments, find the measures of classroom table, blackboard, window frames, etc.
Measuring objects of different shapes.
Approximating measurements to the nearest unit of measure.
Estimating and finding actual measurements of objects.
Finding the perimeter and area of plane figures; surface area and volume of solid figures.
Formulating problems based on the given information.
b. Giving more exercises which may be in problem form, puzzles, games, simulation, storytelling etc.
c. Performing experiments/activities that will verify formulas for finding areas of plane geometric figures and volumes of
solid figures.
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3. Deepen
Activities in this stage shall provide opportunity for differentiated instruction for the learner to further reflect, revisit, revise and
rethink. Moreover, the learner shall express his/her understanding on measurements and engage in meaningful self-
evaluation.
Explaining thoroughly the process/procedure undertaken in every activity on measurement, including the
computation part.
Identifying objects whose area/volume can be found using formulas.
Exploring the different possibilities of finding the measures of objects with irregular shapes (e.g. football, star, etc.).
Investigating the relationship between the number of square units/cubic units in a given figure and the area/volume of the given
figure using concrete models.
Journal writings on the activities undertaken.

4. Transfer
Applications of learners understanding are demonstrated through culminating activities that reflect meaningful and relevant
problems/situations.
Formulating and solving a daily life situations/problems involving measurements.
Writing a report on what he/she has learned about measurement.
Improvising instruments used in measuring objects of different forms.
Creating miniature models (e.g. dream house, school, thermometer, weather vane, etc.).
Resources:
See Appendix
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Quarter 1 : Real Number System,
Measurement and Scientific Notation
Topic: Scientific Notation Time Frame: 5 days
Stage 1
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of the key concepts
of scientific notation.
Performance Standard:
The learner formulates real-life problems involving scientific
notation and solves these using a variety of strategies.
Essential Understanding(s):
Big and small quantities can be expressed conveniently in
scientific notation.
Essential Question(s):
Why are measures of certain quantities expressed in scientific
notation? How?

The learner will know:
numbers that are expressed in scientific notation.
real life measures where scientific notation is applied.
the application of scientific notation to different
disciplines.
The learner will be able to:
express numbers in scientific notation and vice- versa.
solve real life problems involving scientific notation.
cite real life situations where scientific notation is applied.
formulate and solve real life problems involving scientific notation.
Stage 2
Problems formulated
1. are real life related
2. involve scientific notation and
3. are solved using a variety of
strategies.
Evidence at the level of understanding
Learner should be able to demonstrate
understanding of scientific notation using
the six (6) facets of understanding:
Explaining how big and small quantities
are expressed in scientific notation.
Criteria:
Thorough
Accurate
Justified
Evidence at the level of performance
Assessment of problems formulated
based on the following suggested criteria:
real-life problems
problems involve real numbers using
scientific notation
problems are solved using a variety of
strategies
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Interpreting meaning of scientific notation
by considering the size of an atom,
distances of planets, etc.
Criteria:
Illustrative
Meaningful
Justified
Applying a variety of techniques in
posing and solving daily life problems
involving very large or very small numbers
expressed in scientific notation.
Criteria:
Appropriate
Practical
Accurate
Manifesting Self-knowledge by showing
the usefulness of scientific notation in
solving a problem.
Criteria:
Reflective
Responsive
Showing Empathy to persons who
encounter difficulties in expressing big
and small quantities.
Criteria:
Sensitive
Perceptive
Developing Perspective on other ways to
express big and small numbers.
Criteria:
Tools: Rubrics for assessment of
problems formulated and solved
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Appropriate
Practical
Stage 3
Teaching/Learning Sequence:
1. Explore
Initially, begin with some interesting and challenging exploratory activities on scientific notations that will make the learner
aware of what is going to happen or where the said pre-activities would lead to through meaningful and relevant real life
context.
a. Group activities such as games, puzzles, storytelling, simulation, role playing, etc. can be used in
identifying very big and very small numbers (e.g. 1 000 000 000, 23 000 000 000, 0.000000012, 0.0000001, etc.);
recognizing and finding patterns from a given set of numbers;
expressing big and small numbers in scientific notations; and
citing real life situations when/where scientific notations can be used.
b. Creative group presentations of authentic situations where scientific notations are used.
c. Oral and written reactions/comments to the presentations.
2. Firm Up
These are the enabling activities/experiences that the learner will have to go through to validate understanding on scientific
notations during the activities in the exploratory phase. These would answer some misconceptions on scientific notations
that have been encountered in real life situations.
activity sheets on expressing numbers in scientific notation; and
exercises involving fundamental operations using scientific notation.
b. Giving more exercises which may be in problem form, games, puzzles, storytelling, role playing, simulation, etc.
c. Solving problems involving scientific notation.
3. Deepen
Activities in this stage shall provide opportunity for differentiated instruction for the learner to further reflect, revisit, revise and
rethink. Moreover, the learner shall express his/her understanding on scientific notations and engage in meaningful self-
evaluation.
Explaining thoroughly the process/procedure undertaken in every activity, including the computation part.
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Investigating the procedure used in expressing numbers in scientific notation.
Journal writing on the usefulness of scientific notations.
4. Transfer
Applications of learners understanding are demonstrated through culminating activities that reflect meaningful and relevant
problems/situations.
Formulating and solving situations/problems that will make use of scientific notation through games, puzzles,
simulations, storytelling, role playing, etc.
Developing non-linear powerpoint presentation expressing distances, in scientific notation, of planets from the sun, size of atoms,
Resources:
See Appendix
Quarter II : Algebraic Expressions, First-Degree
Equations and Inequalities in One Variable
Topic: Algebraic Expressions Time Frame: 25 days
Stage 1
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of the key concepts
of algebraic expressions.
Performance Standard:
The learner models situations using oral, written, graphical and
algebraic methods to solve problems involving algebraic
expressions.
Essential Understanding(s):
Algebraic expressions represent patterns and relationships
that guide us in understanding how certain problems can be
solved.
Essential Question(s):
Why are algebraic expressions useful?
The learner will know:
translation of verbal phrases to mathematical
expressions and vice-versa
laws on integer exponents
operations of algebraic expressions
rules on finding special products
types of special products
special products of two binomials
The learner will be able to:
translate verbal phrases to mathematical expressions and
vice-versa
simplify algebraic expressions using the laws on integer
exponents
perform fundamental operations on algebraic expressions
explore the product of two binomials and search for
patterns
identify special products
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relationships between special products and factors
complete factorization of polynomials
applications of special products and factors in solving
real life problems

find special products of two binomials
discover the relationships between special products and
factors
find the complete factorization of polynomials
apply factoring polynomials in solving real life problems
Stage 2
Situations modeling the use of oral,
written, graphical and algebraic methods
to solve problems involving algebraic
expressions
Evidence at the level of understanding
The learner should be able to demonstrate
understanding of algebraic expressions using the
six (6) facets of understanding:
Explaining how the language of mathematics is
used to show /describe real-life situations.
Criteria:
Clear
Coherent
Justified
Interpreting representations of mathematical
situations
Criteria:
Illustrative
Meaningful
Applying algebraic expressions in daily life
situations
Criteria:
Appropriate
Practical
Relevant
Developing Perspective on the various ways of
writing algebraic expressions and solving a
problem
Evidence at the level of
performance
Performance assessment of
situations involving algebraic
expressions based on the
following suggested criterion:
Use oral, written, graphical
and algebraic methods in
modeling situations
Tools:
Rubrics of situations modeling
the use of oral, written, graphical
and algebraic methods
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Criteria:
Critical
Insightful
Credible
Showing Empathy to persons who encounter
difficulties in the lesson.
Criteria:
Open
Sensitive
Responsive
Manifesting Self-knowledge by discussing the
best and most effective strategies that one has
found for solving problems
Criteria:
Insightful
Clear
Coherent

Stage 3
Teaching/Learning Sequence
1. Explore
Initially, begin with some interesting and challenging exploratory activities on algebraic expressions that will make the
learner aware of what is going to happen or where the said pre-activities would lead to through meaningful and relevant real
life context.
a. Playing Guess my rule game and writing mathematical expression for the rule.
b. Asking students to surf the internet and look for similar games which they can share to the class.
c. Providing students with teacher-made worksheets on translating mathematical expressions to English phrases and
vice-versa.
d. Asking students to give their own English phrases and translate them to mathematical expressions and vice-versa.
e. Completing teacher-made activity sheets on: evaluating algebraic expressions and addition and subtraction of
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algebraic expressions.
f. Investigating relationships among integer exponents.
g. Manipulating algebra tiles to illustrate the product of two algebraic expressions
h. Finding the product of two algebraic expressions
2. Firm Up
These are the enabling activities/experiences that the learner will have to go through to validate understanding on algebraic
expressions during the activities in the exploratory phase. These would answer some misconceptions on algebraic
expressions that have been encountered in real life situations.
Activities such as games, puzzles, manipulative, storytelling, simulation, role playing, etc. can be used in
simplifying algebraic expressions,
performing operations on algebraic expressions,
finding special products, and
factoring (the reverse process of finding the product).
3. Deepen
Activities in this stage shall provide opportunity for differentiated instruction for the learner to reflect, revisit, revise and
rethink. Further, the learner shall express his/her understanding on algebraic expressions and engage in meaningful self-
evaluation.
Summarizing the steps in performing the fundamental operations on algebraic expressions.
Citing situations in the environment where the concepts of algebraic expressions and operations are applied.
Writing journals on how knowledge of algebraic expressions help in finding solutions to challenging computations.
4. Transfer
Application of learners understanding on algebraic expressions is demonstrated through culminating activities that reflect
relevant and authentic problems/situations.
Applying special products and factors in real life problems (e.g. business, engineering, etc.).
Creating/posing and solving problems using a variety of strategies.
Presenting a problem solving plan using models.
Making a flowchart on intelligent digital model applying algebraic expressions (e.g. robotics, software, etc.).
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Resources:
See Appendix
Quarter II : Algebraic Expressions, First-
Degree Equations and
Inequalities in One Variable
Topic: First-Degree Equations
and Inequalities in One Variable
Time Frame: 25 days
Stage 1
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of the key concepts
of first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable.
Performance Standard:
The learner models situations using oral, written, graphical and
algebraic methods to solve problems involving first-degree
equations and inequalities in one variable.
Essential Understanding(s):
Real-life problems where certain quantities are unknown
can be solved using first-degree equations and
inequalities in one variable
Essential Question(s):
How can we use first-degree equations and inequalities in
one variable to solve real life problems where certain
quantities are unknown?
The learner will know:
mathematical expressions, first-degree equations and
inequalities in one variable
first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable
properties of first-degree equations and inequalities in
one variable
applications of first-degree equations and inequalities in
one variable
The learner will be able to:
differentiate mathematical expressions from equations and
inequalities
identify and describe first-degree equations and
inequalities in one variable
give examples of first-degree equations and inequalities in
one variable
describe situations where first-degree equations and
inequalities in one variable
enumerate and explain the different properties of first-
degree equations and inequalities in one variable
give illustrative examples of each property of first-degree
equations and inequalities in one variable
apply the properties of equations and inequalities in solving
first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable
verify and explain the solutions to problems involving first-
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degree equations and inequalities in one variable
extend, pose, and solve related problems in real life
Stage 2
Situations modeling the use of oral,
written, graphical and algebraic methods
to solve problems involving first-degree
equations and inequalities in one variable
Evidence at the level of understanding
The learners should be able to
demonstrate understanding of first-degree
equations and inequalities in one variable
using the six (6) facets of understanding:
Explaining the properties of first-degree
equations and inequalities in one variable.
Criteria:
Clear
Coherent
Justified
Interpreting mathematical conjectures
and arguments involving first-degree
equations and inequalities in one variable
Criteria:
Illustrative
Meaningful
Applying first-degree equations and
inequalities in one variable in daily life
situations
Criteria:
Appropriate
Practical
Relevant
Developing Perspective on the various
ways of writing first-degree equations and
Evidence at the level of performance
Performance assessment of situations
involving first-degree equations and
inequalities in one variable based on the
following suggested criterion.
Use oral, written, graphical and
algebraic methods in modeling
situations
Tools:
Rubrics of situations modeling the use of
oral, written, graphical and algebraic
methods
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inequalities in one variable in solving a
problem
Criteria:
Critical
Insightful
Credible
Showing Empathy by describing
difficulties one can experience in daily life
whenever tedious calculations are done
without using the concepts of first-degree
equations and inequalities in one variable
Criteria:
Open
Sensitive
Responsive
Manifesting Self-knowledge by
discussing the best and most effective
strategies that one has found for solving
problems involving first-degree equations
and inequalities in one variable
Criteria:
Insightful
Clear
Coherent
Stage 3
Teaching/Learning Sequence:
1. Explore
Initially, begin with some interesting and challenging exploratory activities on first-degree equations and inequalities in one
variable that will make the learner aware of what is going to happen or where the said pre-activities would lead to through
meaningful and relevant real-life context.
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a. Group activities such as games, puzzles, storytelling, simulation, role playing, etc.
Identifying and describing first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable.
Citing real-life situations that may be represented using first-degree equations and inequalities in one
variable.
b. Online/offline presentations of authentic situations involving first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable
(e.g. ICT tools such as CONSTEL CDs, open-source learning materials, E-TV learning episodes, etc.).
c. Oral and written reactions to online/offline presentations.
2. Firm Up
These are the enabling activities/experiences that the learner will have to go through to validate understanding on first-
degree equations and inequalities in one variable during the activities in the exploratory phase. These would answer some
misconceptions on first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable that have been encountered in real life situations.
Group activities such as games, puzzles, storytelling, simulation, role playing etc.
Giving exercises on representing situations using first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable.
Enumerating, explaining and giving illustrative examples of the properties of first-degree equations and inequalities in
one variable.
Solving exercises involving first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable where the properties are applied.
Verifying solutions using scientific calculator/computer.
Solving problems involving first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable.
3. Deepen
Activities in this stage shall provide opportunity for the learner to reflect, revisit, revise and rethink about a variety of
experiences. Moreover, the learner shall express his/her understanding of first-degree equations and inequalities in one
variable and engage in multidirectional self-assessment.
Making and evaluating mathematical conjectures and arguments involving first-degree equations and inequalities in
one variable.
Investigating solutions to problems related to first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable.
Writing journals on situations or experiences involving first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable.

4. Transfer
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Applications of learners understanding on first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable are demonstrated through
culminating activities that reflect meaningful and relevant problems/situations.
Applying mathematical thinking and modeling to solve problems in other disciplines such as art, music,
Creating/posing and solving problems involving linear equations and inequalities in one variable using a variety
of strategies
Using models, present a problem solving plan on linear equations and inequalities in one variable
Making a flowchart on intelligent digital model applying first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable
(e.g. robotics, software, business model, etc.)
Resources:
See Appendix
Quarter III : Rational Algebraic Expressions, Linear
Equations and Inequalities in Two Variables
Topic: Rational Algebraic
Expressions
Time Frame: 25 days
Stage 1
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of the key concepts
of rational algebraic expressions.
Performance Standard:
The learner presents solutions to problems involving rational
algebraic expressions using numerical, physical, and verbal
mathematical models or representations.
Essential Understanding(s):
Simplifying rational algebraic expressions involve factorization
and operations similar to operations on numerical fractions.
Essential Question(s):
How can rational expressions be simplified?
The learner will know:
fractions in simplest form;
operations on fractions;
rational algebraic expressions in simplest form;
operations on rational algebraic expressions; and
applications of rational algebraic expressions.
The learner will be able to:
explore problems and describe results using numerical,
physical, and verbal mathematical models or
representations;
use his/her reading, listening and visualizing skills to
interpret mathematical ideas;
simplify rational algebraic expressions by using various
methods/techniques;
perform operations on rational algebraic expressions and
justify steps by stating the mathematical properties used;
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analyze rational algebraic expressions, formulate
relationships and extend them to other cases; and
apply the concept of rational algebraic expressions in
solving real life situations.
Stage 2
Solutions to problems involving rational
algebraic expressions are presented
using numerical, physical, and verbal
mathematical models or representations.
Evidence at the level of understanding
The learner should be able to demonstrate
understanding by covering the six (6) facets of
understanding:
Explaining by justifying how ones answer is
changed to simplest form.
Criteria:
Clear
Coherent
Justified
Interpreting how best procedures for simplifying
rational expressions are determined.
Criteria:
Illustrative
Creative
Accurate
Applying the appropriate operations in simplifying
rational expressions.
Criteria:
Appropriate
Accurate
Developing Perspective on how to choose the best
solution in simplifying rational expressions
Criteria:
Credible
Insightful
Evidence at the level of
performance
Assessment of presentation of
solutions to problems involving
rational algebraic expressions
based on the suggested
criterion:
the use of numerical,
physical, and verbal
mathematical models or
representations.
Tools:
Rubrics for assessment of
solutions to problems
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Showing Empathy on peoples difficulties in
performing operations involving rational
expressions.
Criteria:
Perceptive
Responsive
Sensitive
Manifesting Self-Knowledge in recognizing the
best solution to a given situation involving rational
expressions.
Criteria:
Reflective
Insightful
Stage 3
Teaching/Learning Sequence:
1. Explore
Initially, begin with some interesting and challenging exploratory activities on rational numbers that will make the learner
aware of what is going to happen or where the said pre-activities would lead to through meaningful and relevant real life
context.
Group activities such as games, puzzles, storytelling, role-playing, simulation, etc.
Simplifying rational numbers.
Identifying rational numbers.
Citing real life situations involving rational numbers
Differentiating rational algebraic expressions from rational numbers
2. Firm Up
These are the enabling activities/experiences that the learner will have to go through to validate understanding on rational
algebraic expressions during the activities in the exploratory phase. These would answer some misconceptions on rational
algebraic expressions that have been encountered in real life situations.
Activities such as games, puzzles, storytelling, simulation, role-playing, etc.
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Performing operations on rational algebraic expressions.
Simplifying rational algebraic expressions .
Using rational algebraic expressions to represent situations.
3. Deepen
Activities in this stage shall provide opportunity for the learner to reflect, revisit, revise and rethink about a variety of
experiences. Moreover, the learner shall express his/her understanding and engage in multidirectional self-assessment.
Group activities using pictures, multimedia presentations, or daily life experiences and observations where concepts of
rational algebraic expressions are applied (e.g. business, science, industry, etc.).
Writing the series of steps in simplifying rational algebraic expressions (e.g. application of properties of real
numbers, the different factoring procedures).
Investigating relationship of quantities. e.g. the distance (d) from the fulcrum where a person of weight (w) on
a see-saw.
Finding the actual size of the rooms of a building from a scale model.
Designing a scale model for a given classroom size.
4. Transfer
Applications of learners understanding on first-degree equations and inequalities in one variable are demonstrated through
culminating activities (e.g. Math Exhibits/Expo) that reflect meaningful and relevant problems/situations.
Designing a scale model of your dream house
Constructing miniature models, e.g. buildings, playground, amusement parks, ships, etc.
Resources:
See Appendix
Quarter III : Rational Algebraic Expressions, Linear
Equations and Inequalities in Two Variables
Topic: Linear Equations and
Inequalities in Two Variables
Time Frame: 25 days
Stage 1
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of the key concepts
of linear equations and inequalities in two variables.
Performance Standard:
The learner presents solutions to problems involving rational
algebraic expressions.
Essential Understanding(s): Essential Question(s):
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Linear equations show constant rate of change.
Graphs of linear equations show trends which help predict
outcomes and make decisions
How are linear equations used to communicate relationships
between quantities?
How does one know an outcome is favorable? How can
mathematics help one find out?
The learner will know:
coordinate plane and the terminologies associated with
it.
graph of linear equations in two variables
equation of a linear equation in two variables
application of linear equations in two variables
graph of a linear inequality in two variables
The learner will be able to:
give the exact location of a point, person or object using
investigate graphs of linear equations in two variables with
deductive arguments and evidences.
solve linear equations in two variables graphically .
apply mathematical thinking to solve problems in disciplines
such as art, music, science and business.
formulate and solve real life problems using various
representations.
Stage 2
Solutions to problems involving linear
equations and inequalities in two variables
are presented using numerical, physical,
and verbal mathematical models or
representations.
Evidence at the level of understanding
The learner should be able to demonstrate
understanding by covering the six (6) facets of
understanding:
Explaining how a statement is translated into
mathematical symbols
Criteria
Clear
Coherent
Interpreting possible relationships of rates of change
in a given set of data.
Criteria:
Revealing
Illustrative
Applying mathematical thinking and modeling to solve
problems in other disciplines such as art, music,
Evidence at the level of
performance
Assessment of presentation of
solution to problems involving
linear equations and
inequalities in two variables
based on the suggested
criterion:
Use of numerical, physical,
and verbal mathematical
models or representations.
Tools:
Rubrics for assessment of
solutions to problems
25
Criteria:
Practical
Appropriate
Accurate
Developing Perspective on the most likely outcomes
that may result from trends shown in graphs
Criteria:
Credible
insightful
Showing Empathy on people experiencing difficulties
in making decisions without the help of graphs and
linear equations
Criteria:
Perceptive
Responsive
Sensitive
Manifesting Self-Knowledge by sharing insights one
may have about how math can help make reasonable
judgments and predictions.
Criteria:
Reflective
Insightful
Stage 3
Teaching/Learning Sequence:
1. Explore
Initially, begin with some interesting and challenging exploratory activities on linear equations and inequalities in two
variables that will make the learner aware of what is going to happen or where the said pre-activities would lead to through
meaningful and relevant real life context.
26
a. Start with an activity that would assess the learners knowledge in naming places or locations.
Identifying classmates location through a seat plan
Treasure hunting
b. Ask follow-up questions that would enhance the critical thinking skill of the learner.
2. Firm Up
These are the enabling activities/experiences that the learner will have to go through to validate understanding on linear
equations and inequalities during the activities in the exploratory phase. These would answer some misconceptions on
linear equations and inequalities in two variables that have been encountered in real life situations.
Group activities such as games, puzzles, storytelling, simulation, role-playing, etc.
Finding/locating the coordinates of a point in the coordinate plane;
Solving for the slopes of two points (e.g. measuring the steepness of stairs/inclined objects);
Finding linear equations using the forms: slope and y-intercept, slope and a point, two points
Graphing linear equations and inequalities; and
Solving real life situations.
3. Deepen
Activities in this stage shall provide opportunity for the learner to reflect, revisit, revise and rethink about a variety of
experiences. Moreover, the learner shall express his/her understanding on linear equations and inequalities in two variables
and engage in multidirectional self-assessment.
Group activities using pictures, multimedia presentations, or daily life experiences and observations where concepts of linear
equations and inequalities in two variables are applied through the following activities:
Investigating the behavior of graphs in relation to their slopes.
Writing the steps in graphing linear equations and inequalities in two variables. (Imagine that you are writing
the steps for someone who has never experienced this concept before.)
Checking the results using graphics calculators or computers.
Analyzing situations represented by linear equations and inequalities in two variables.
Journal writing on the behavior of graphs of linear equations and inequalities in two variables.
4. Transfer
Applications of learners understanding on linear equations and inequalities in two variables are demonstrated through
27
culminating activities that reflect meaningful and relevant problems/situations.
a. Design a game map to locate a person in a certain town, a ship in distress, a treasure buried in a mountain slope.
b. Construct a miniature model of the learners ideal community.
Resources:
See Appendix
28
Quarter IV: Systems of Linear Equations and
Inequalities in Two Variables
Topic: Systems of Linear Equations
and Inequalities in Two Variables
Time Frame: 25 days
Stage 1
Content Standard:
The learner demonstrates understanding of the key concepts
of systems of linear equations and inequalities in two variables.
Performance Standard:
The learner creates situations/ problems in real-life involving
systems of linear equations and inequalities in two variables, and
solves these by applying a variety of strategies
Essential Understanding(s):
Unknown numbers in certain real-life problems may be derived
from solving systems of linear equations and inequalities in two
variables.
Essential Question(s):
How is knowledge of systems of linear equations and inequalities
in two variables used to solve real life problems?
The learner will know:
graphical solution of systems of linear equations and
inequalities in two variables.
algebraic solutions of systems of linear equations and in
two variables.
applications of systems of linear equations and
inequalities in two variables in problem solving
graph a system of linear inequalities and
inequalities in two variables
The learner will be able to:
explain thoroughly how systems of linear equations and
inequalities in two variables can be solved graphically and
algebraically.
graph with accuracy the solutions of a system of linear
equations and inequalities in two variables.
apply a variety of strategies to solve problems involving
systems of linear equations and inequalities in two
variables.
graph with accuracy the solution set of a system of linear
equations and inequalities in two variables.
Stage 2
Situations/ Problems created are drawn
from real-life and are solved by applying
a variety of strategies.
Evidence at the level of understanding
The learner should be able to demonstrate
understanding by covering the six (6) facets of
understanding:
Explaining and presenting a mathematical analysis
of graphs.
Criteria:
Clear
Coherent
Evidence at the level of
performance
Assessment of situations
problems created based on the
following suggested criteria:
problems are drawn from real-
life;
problems involve systems of
linear equations and inequalities
in two variables; and
29
Justified
Interpreting the significance of the way graphs
relate with each other.
Criteria:
Illustrative
Meaningful
Applying the appropriate solution that would
produce best results.
Criteria:
Appropriate
Practical
Useful
Developing Perspective on the different possible
outcomes illustrated by graphs/equations.
Criteria:
Critical
Insightful
Showing Empathy on problems that may result
when systems of linear equations are not properly
solved and the unknown number is not correctly
determined
Criteria:
Sensitive
Authentic
Manifesting Self-Knowledge on the impact of
individual accuracy in solving problems on systems
of linear equations
Criteria:
Insightful
Relevant
problems are solved using a
variety of strategies.
30
Stage 3
Teaching/Learning Sequence:
1. Explore
Initially, begin with some interesting and challenging exploratory activities on linear equations and inequalities in two
variables that will make the learner aware of what is going to happen or where the said pre-activities would lead to through
meaningful and relevant real life context.
a. Start with an activity that would assess the learners knowledge on linear equations in two variables.
Problem posing activity
Outdoor activity (e.g. measuring the horizontal and vertical distances of the steps of stairways, inclined plane, etc.)
Games, puzzles, storytelling, role-playing, simulation. etc.
Video/powerpoint presentations that would show representations of linear equations in two variables
b. Ask follow-up questions that would enhance the critical thinking skill of the learner.
c. Pose questions that would link linear equations in two variables and systems of linear equations in two variables.
2. Firm Up
These are the enabling activities/experiences that the learner will have to go through to validate understanding on systems
of linear equations and inequalities in two variables during the activities in the exploratory phase. These would answer some
misconceptions on systems of linear equations and inequalities in two variables that have been encountered in real life
situations.
Graphing solution of systems of linear equations in two variables, e.g. graph showing the gains and losses of a
business firm, income and expenses of a middle income family, etc.
Algebraic solutions of systems of linear equations in two variables.
Applying systems of linear equations in two variables in problem solving.
Graphing a system of linear inequalities in two variables.
Interpreting graphs of systems of linear equations and inequalities through storytelling, simulation, flowchart, etc.
3. Deepen
Activities in this stage shall provide opportunity for the learner to reflect, revisit, revise and rethink about a variety of
experiences. Moreover, the learner shall express his/her understanding on systems of linear equations and inequalities in
two variables and engage in multidirectional self-assessment.
Investigating the effect of the slopes on the graph of a linear equation in two variables and giving its
31
significance
Exploring graphs of inequalities using graphics calculator.
Investigating and analyzing critical points on the graphs of systems of linear inequalities.
Writing reports on the result of the investigation.
4. Transfer
Applications of learners understanding on linear equations and inequalities in two variables are demonstrated through
culminating activities that reflect meaningful and relevant problems/situations.
Applying the best decisions out of a given situation (e.g. choosing between membership packages offered by two
video rentals/cell phone companies, best time to plant crops that would produce more harvest, etc.).
Designing games and puzzles which would use systems of linear equations.
Resources:
See Appendix
32
Appendix
Resources :
ICT Tools
http://www.deped.gov.ph/iSchool Web Board/Math Web Board
http://www.deped.gov.ph/iSchool Web Board/skoool.ph
http://www.deped.gov.ph/e-turo
http://www.deped.gov.ph/BSE/iDEP
http://www.pjoedu.wordpress/Philippine Studies/FREE TEXTBOOKS
http://www.teacherplanet.com
http://www.alcob.com/ICT Model School Network
http://www.globalclassroom.net
http://www.think.com
http://www.rubistar.com
Computer/PC tablet/Interactive Whiteboard
Graphing calculator
CONSTEL CD/DVD materials
CAI materials in CD/DVD format
Intel Teach to the Future/ASEAN SchoolNet/FIT-ED/SMART School/Innovative Teachers Leadership
Award/sKwela/iSchool/Learn.ph/eskwela ng bayan modules in PowerPoint format
Authoring-enabled math storytelling enrichment modules ( e.g. Fibo the Frog Mathemajessyan, etc.)
Video clips/tapes
Interactive digital games/puzzles ( e.g. eDamath, 3D damath gaming, Cartesian coordinate system, etc.)
E-TV episodes (Knowledge Channel, National Geographic Channel, Discovery Channel, BBC, etc.)
Online/offline open-source teaching/learning materials
Mathematical simulations
Interactive flowchart/concept map/tree diagram/picture problem situation/secret message decoder
33
Dgital mathematical cartoon strips/humor/jokes/poster with hyperlinks
Manipulatives
Games and puzzles (e.g. damath, chess-math, sungkamath, sudoku, cross-number puzzle, etc.)
Geoboard/rubber bands/strings
Algebra tiles
Cuisenaire rod
Dice
Domino/triangular domino
Playing cards
Mathemagic biscuit crackers (e.g. opposite sense in integers, etc.)
Print Materials
Worksheets
Workbooks
Textbooks/supplementary reference materials/teachers manual
Consumer education/global warming and climate change integration lesson exemplars
Remedial/enrichment modules (e.g. EASE modules, distance learning/self-learning package, etc.)
Enrichment math storytelling modules with indigenous cartoon characters (e.g. Max the Matrix & Co., etc.)
Handouts/Activity Sheets/Cards
Mathematical post card / mathematical cartoon strips/humors/quotes/jokes/jingle/slogan/themes/tarpaulin
Supplies and Materials
Papers (graphing, bond, pad, manila, colored)
School Supplies (Ruler/straightedge, Colored cartolina , Illustration board , Pairs of scissors, Masking tapes
Pentel pen)
34
Attachment to Quarter I
Measurements
(See Explore)
Opening Activity
Guessing Game:
Directions:
1. Think of a four-digit number.
2. Add the digits and subtract the sum from the original number.
3. Encircle one digit.
4. Tell me the digits that are not circled.
5. Then, Ill tell you what you encircled.
Note: The answer is taken by subtracting the sum of digits that are not circled from a multiple of nine that is greater than but closer
to the sum of the digits.
Examples:
1. 1 472
The sum of the digits is 14 (from 1 + 4 + 7 + 2).
Subtracting 14 from 1 472, we get 1 458.
Suppose the encircled digit is 8.
The sum of the remaining digits will be 10 (from 1 + 4 + 5).
Note that:
The multiple of nine that is greater than but closer to 10 is 18.
Subtracting 10 from 18, we get 8.
Hence, the encircled digit is 8.
35
2. 7 214
The sum of the digits is 14 (from 7 + 2 + 1 + 4).
Subtracting 14 from 7 214, we have 7 200.
Suppose the encircled digit is zero.
The sum of the remaining digits is 9 (from 7 + 2 + 0).
Nine subtracted from 9 is zero.
Therefore, the encircled digit is 0.
(See Firm Up)
Directions:
1. Group the students into fives.
2. Pose this Activity:
Problem:
How long would it take you to count to one million (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, , 1 000 000) at the rate of one number per second?
(Assume that you will not stop until the task has been completed)
3. Ask for the answer in more commonly understood units of time, such as days, weeks, months, or years.
4. Allow students to make an estimate/ approximation before they compute.
5. Discuss the results.
36
(See Deepen)
Ask the students to bring a box full of ping-pong balls to solve the problem below.
Group the students into four members each.
Problem:
For a classroom of average size, do you think we could fit one million ping-pong balls?
2. Find the volume of the box full of ping-pong balls.
3. Use a tape measure and approximate the volume of the classroom.
4. Compare the volume of the classroom with the volume of the box full of ping-pong balls.
5. How many ping-pong balls are there in the box?
6. Do you think one million ping-pong balls could fit into the room? Explain.
(See Transfer)
1. Design a game.
2. Create a model house. Express dimensions of the actual structure to the scale model as ratios.

37
Attachment to Quarter I
Scientific Notation
(See Explore)
Opening Activity
Note: Ask students to work individually on this activity.
Directions:
1. Read the numbers in the table from top to bottom.
2. What pattern do you observe between succeeding numbers?
3. Guess the next term of the sequence.
4. Write down a rule for finding the value of numbers with negative exponents.
10
n

10
6
= ?
10
5
= ?
10
4
= ?
10
3
= 1 000
10
2
= 100
10
1
= 10
10
0
= 1
10
-1
=
10
1
10
-2
=
100
1
10
-3
=
1000
1
10
-4
= ?
10
-5
= ?
10
-6
= ?
5. What happens when the pattern continues?
6. Find the relationship between the succeeding numbers.
38
(See Firm Up)
Exploration Activity:
Have students answer the worksheet in pairs.
Study the table below.
Set A Set B
Set C
Column I
Decimal Form
8
81
814
8 143
Column II
Scientific
Notation
8 x 10
0
8.1 x 10
1
8.14 x 10
2
8.143 x 10
3
Column I
Decimal Form
14.325
143.25
1 432.5
Column II
Scientific
Notation
1.4325 x 10
1
1.4325 x 10
2
1.4325 x 10
3
Column I
Decimal Form
0.3768
0.03768
0.003768
Column II
Scientific Notation
3.768 x 10
-1
3.768 x 10
-2
3.768 x 10
-3
39
Questions:
1. Observe the numbers in Column I and Column II in Set A.
How do the numbers in each pair compare?
How are the numbers in Column I expressed? Column II?
2. For each set, look at the second number.
How does the second number compare with the number in decimal form?
What can you say about the second number in each pair?
3. Observe the position of the decimal point in each number expressed in scientific notation.
Where do you find the decimal point?
Note: If the decimal point appears after the first nonzero digit, such decimal number is in
STANDARD POSITION.

5. Repeat Steps 1 to 4 for Sets B and C.
6. When do you say that a number is expressed in scientific notation?
7. Complete this statement:
A number is expressed in scientific notation if it is expressed as the product of a number in standard position
and________________ .
40
(See Deepen)
A. Sample Problem
A jeepney park charges the following rates: P15.00 for the first hour, P10.00 for the next hour and P5.00 for each
additional hour. How much does the jeepney park charge for six hours?
Solution with the corresponding rubric points:
Let n pesos be the jeepney park charge for 6 hours.
Php15.00 is the charge for the first hour (1 point)
Php10.00 is the additional charge for the 2
nd
hour
Php 5.00 is the charge for each additional hour after 2 hours.
Thus, n = 15 + 10 + 5( 4 ) (1 point)
= 15 + 10 + 20
= Php45.00 (1point)
Total points : 3
Scoring Guide (Rubric) for Problem Solving
Points Criteria
3 Understood the problem, performed the correct
operation/s, and got the correct answer.
2 Understood the problem, performed the correct
operation/s, and got an incorrect answer
1 Attempted to solve the problem, performed an incorrect
operation/s and got an incorrect answer.
Got the correct answer, but no solutions/wrong solution.
0 No attempt
41
B.
Solve the following .Show all solutions.
Express the answers in scientific notation.
1. A watch ticks four times each second. How many ticks will it make each day?
2. The sun is approximately 1.5 x 10
11
m from Earth.
How far from the Earth is the nearest star if it is approximately 300 000 times as far as the sun?
3. A persons heart beats approximately 72 times per minute.
How many times does a heart beat in an average lifetime of 75 years? (Assume all years have 365 days.).
4. Biologists use the micrometer or the micron to measure short lengths.
One micrometer is equal to 0.001 millimeter. If a cell is 47 micrometers long, what is its length in millimeter?
(See Transfer)
1. Design a game.
2. Prepare contest questions. It may be a team competition of 4 members.
Classify the questions as 15 sec; 30 sec; and 1- minute
3. Create a model solar system. Express the distances in scientific notation.
42
Attachment to Quarter II
Algebraic Expressions
(See Explore)
Manipulating algebra tiles
Preparation of algebra tiles must be done the day before taking up this activity. The learner recalls briefly the process of
finding the area of a square and of a rectangle.
Example:
6
6 Area = (6)
2
= 36 units
2
3
2 2 Area = (2)(3) = 6 units
2
The learner explores by manipulating algebra tiles. (A video tape or CD on the manipulation of Algebra tiles may be helpful).
(See Firm Up)
Employ the pair square structure of cooperative learning. By using algebra tiles, have the learners find the products of two
algebraic expressions by giving three (3) exercises for each case of special product/formula.
Example: Finding the products of the following.
1. (x + 4) (x + 4) 6. (x y) (x y) 11. (2x + 2) (x 4)
2. (2x + 3) (2x + 3) 7. (x + y) (x y) 12. (x 3) (3x + 1)
3. (x = y) (x = y) 8. (2x + y) (2x - y)
43
4. (x 2) (x 2) 9. (x + 5) (x - 5)
5. (3x 5) (3x 5) 10. (x + 3) (x + 5)

(See Deepen)
The learners investigate the relationship between the products and their factors and discover the following patterns of
special products and their factors.
1. (a + b) (2a + 3b) Product of algebraic expressions with like terms
2. (a + b)
2
Product of the squares of the sum of two terms
3. (a b)
2
Product of the squares of the difference of two terms
4. (a + b) (a b) Product of the sum and difference of two terms
The learners write journals on generating rules on finding special products.
(See Transfer)

Using models, present a problem solving plan

Problem/Situation: You and your friends are at a restaurant. You ordered several Php 28.00 plates of pancit, puto and banana
cue. Your total expenses is Php 221.48 which includes 13% VAT. Use modeling to find the number of plates you ordered.
44
Attachment to Quarter II
First-Degree Equations and Inequalities in One Variable
(See Explore)
Showing one after the other the following figures (or physical model of each figure) to the learners.
The following questions may be posed to the learners:
1. What does the first figure tell?
2. What other figure would mean the same as the first figure? Explain.
3. In the second figure, what would balance the two cylinders? Why?
4. How many cylinders would balance the cubes in Figure 3? Explain.
5. Do you think the cubes in Figure 3 could also be balanced by the same number of cubes? If No, explain. If Yes, how many of
these cubes are needed?
45
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
6. In general, what do the three figures indicate?
7. In Figure 4, what must be placed inside the box to show that the two sides of the scale balance are equal? Explain your
answer. (Assume that the box has no weight.)
8. If Figure 4 illustrates an equation, how would you represent the big box?
9. What equation would represent the given situation?
10. How will you solve the equation?
Playing Bingo game on special products and factors
This is a bingo game on special products and their factors. To play this game, each learner must have constructed a 3 x 3
matrix on a piece of paper (prepared the day before). The learner selects nine (9) different numbers from the list of answers written
on the blackboard by the teacher and place these nine (9) numbers in the bingo matrix (in ink to prevent cheating) in any order.
After each student has completed his bingo card, the teacher writes one algebraic expression on the blackboard, flash
card, acetate to be shown on the overhead projector or read aloud. The teacher then gives the students time to factor the given
algebraic expression, locate the answer on the board and encircle the corresponding number on the bingo card if it is there. The
teacher presents another algebraic expression to be factored and this goes on until all prepared algebraic expressions are factored.

To win the game, a learner must get three (3) answers in a row twice (vertically, horizontally, or diagonally) before
declaring Bingo!.
(See Firm Up)
Group Activity 1:
Let each group of learners study the following equations and answer the questions that follow.
1. 13 + 5 = 13 + 5
2. If 3 + 7 = 2 + 8, then 2 + 8 = 3 + 7.
3. If 6 + 9 = 3 + 12 and 3 + 12 = 2 + 13, then 6 + 9 = 2 + 13
4. If 5 + 9 = 3 + 11, then 5 + 9 + 7 = 3 + 11 + 7.
5. If 18 4 = 6 + 8, then (18 4) 5 = (6 + 8) 5.
6. If 9 + 15 = 25 1, then 7(9 + 15) = 7(25 1)
7. If 4 x 12 = 16 x 3, then (4 x 12) 2 = (16 x 3) 2.
46
The following questions may be posed to the learners:
1. What does each mathematical statement mean?
The different properties of equality are as follows:
PROPERTIES OF EQUALITY
a.Reflexive Property
For any real number a, a = a is always true. This means that any number is equal to itself.
b.Symmetric Property
For any real numbers a and b, if a = b, then b = a. Interchanging the left and right members of the equation does not
change their value.
c.Transitive Property
For any real numbers a, b, and c, if a = b and b = c, then a = c. Two quantities that equal to the same quantity are equal.
For any real numbers a, b, and c, if a = b, then a + c = b + c and c + a = c + b. If the same number is added to both sides
of an equation, the sums are equal.
e.Multiplication Property of Equality
For any real numbers a, b, and c, if a = b, then ac = bc and ca = ba. If the same number is multiplied to both sides of an
equation, the products are equal.
2. Describe how the property of equality is illustrated in each mathematical statement.
3. Give two illustrative examples of each property of equality.
47
(See Deepen)
A. Group Activity:
Let each group of learners find the value of x in each equation using any method familiar to them.
1. x + 5 = 9; x = ____
2. x 4 = 8; x = ____
3. x + 12 = 24; x = ____
4. x 13 = -7; x = ____
5. x + 15 = -8; x = ____
6. 3 x = 12; x = ____
7.
4
x
= 24; x = ____
8. 5 x = -45; x = ____
9.
3
x
= 8; x = ____
10.
5
2x
=
15
4
; x = ____
B. The following questions may be posed:
1. How did you find the value of x in each equation?
2. What does the value of x mean in each equation?
3. How will you check if the value of x satisfies the equation? Verify the solutions you got.
4. Suppose you apply the different properties of equality in solving the equations, do you think you will get the same value of x?
Why/Why not?
5. How did you apply the different properties of equality in solving each equation?
48
C. Class discussion on the results of the activity follows.
1. What property of equality is illustrated by each of the following?
a. x + 6 = x + 6
b. If 2x 5 = 4x + 7, then 4x + 7 = 2x 5
c. If 3x + 5 = 12 and 4x 9 = 3x + 5, then 4x 9 = 12
d. If 5x 4 = 9, then 5x 4 7 = 9 7
e. If x
x
4
3
5

+
, then
) 4 ( 3
3
5
3 x
x

,
`

.
| +
f. If 7x + 12 = 17, then 7x + 12 10 = 17 10
g. If 12x = 48, then
12
48
12
12

x
h. If 7 + 3x = 4x 5, then 7 + 3x 2x = 4x 5 2x
i. If , 5
7
3 2
4
6
3 2
+

+ x x
then 4 5
7
3 2
4 4
6
3 2
+ +

+
+ x x
j. If 3(5x 4) = 18, then
3
18
3
) 4 5 ( 3

x
2. What must be the numbers in the boxes below to make the equation true?
One possible set of numbers are the solutions to the equations below. Solve the equations by applying the different
a. x + 15 = 22
b. 5x = -15
c. 3x + 8 = 32
d. x 11 = -9
e. 2
2

x
f. 7 3x = -2
49
x + - + x + - = -
13
a b c d e f g h i j
g. 10
3
5

x
h. 6x 11 = -23
i.

6
2
3

+ x
j. 4(x 17) = -28
3. Solve each of the following equations and write the properties of equality used.
a. x + 5 = 27
b. m 8 = 45
c. 5p = 65

4
7
.
m
d
e. 2n 7 = 39
f. 3a 7 = 14
g. 4(x 5) = 20

16
5
2
.
+ m
h

8 9
2
3
.
a
i
j. 9 3(x + 5) = 27
Other suggested activities:
1. PowerPoint with Hyperlinks presentation illustrating the different properties of equality and how they are applied in solving
first degree equations.
2. Practice exercises in solving first-degree equations applying the different properties of equality. Use worksheets.
3. Journal writing on situations or experiences involving equations and inequalities that need to be valued by every learner.
Sample Activity: Journal writing
50
Write a journal of the history of your savings account for the month of December, 2009. Include the tabular record, the
formula for each week savings, and the formula for the total deposit for December.
Solution: Note. The rubric distribution of points is indicated.
A. My initial deposit for the month of December was Php200.00. On the second week of the month, I deposited 50 more
than twice my initial deposit. Thus, I deposited Php450.00 on the second week. On the 3
rd
week, I deposited half of
1 point the amount I deposited on the second week, which is Php225.00. My last deposit for the month of December is equal
to the sum of my initial deposit and my first deposit, which is Php650.00.
Below is the table showing my deposits for the month of December and then formulas.
B. 1. Let first week be x, C.
2. Second week: 2x + 50
2 points 3. Third week: x/2 1 point
4. Fourth week: x + (2x + 50)
D. Hence, my deposit is:
A = x + (2x +50) + x/2 + [x + (2x+50)]. 1 point
So, the total score is 5 points.
(See Transfer)
Creating/posing and solving problems
1. Santino is running for class president. By 11:00 AM on election day he has 35 votes and his opponent has 45 votes.
Thirty-five more students will be voting. Let x represent the number of students (of the 35) who vote for Santino.
a. Write an inequality that shows the value of x that will allow Santino to win the election.
b. What is the smallest value of x that is a solution of the inequality?
2. Kudzu is a type of Japanese vine that grows at a rate of 26.4 cm per day during summer. On August 1, the length of 1
vine was 1,320 cm. What was the length on July 1? Use verbal and algebraic models to solve the problem.
Dates Amount Cumulative Sum
First Week Php200.00
Second Week Php450.00 Php650.00
Third Week Php225.00 Php875.00
Last Week Php650.00 Php1 525.00
51
Attachment to Quarter III
Rational Algebraic Expressions
(See Explore)
Show the following figures on the board and ask students to observe them. (Physical models could also be used.)
1. What can you say about the 3 figures?
2. What does each shaded part represent?
3. If the 3 figures have the same sizes, how are the three shaded parts related?
4. How would you show that the three shaded parts are equal or the fractions representing them are equivalent?
5. How would you simplify the following fractions?
52
a.
36
24
d.
54
45

b.
56
35
e.
18
12

c.
48
32
6. When do you say that a fraction is in its simplest form?

(See Firm Up)
Group Activity 1:
Mr. Gabriel has a farmland which he subdivided equally among his 6 children and 22 grandchildren.
1. How would you represent the area of Mr. Gabriels farmland?
2. If one-third of Mr. Gabriels farmland is given to his children, what expression represents the part of the land they would
3. If the remaining part will be shared by the grandchildren, what expression represents the part of the land they would receive?
4. How would you describe the expressions you got in (c) and (d)?
5. How would you compare these expressions with the fractions which you already studied before?
6. How would you differentiate rational numbers from rational expressions?
7. Which of the following are rational algebraic expressions? Explain your answer.
a.
2
4
x
x
f.
5
5

+
x
x
; x = 5
b.
4 4
4
2
2
+ +

x x
x
g.
( )( ) 3 2
6 5
2

+
x x
x x

53
c.
7
3
h.
x
x x x
3
6 12 3
2 4
+

d.
x 2
5
i. 4
4
+
x

e.
3 2
27 8
3

x
x
j.
3
3
3
x
x

Class Discussion: (Results of the activity)
(See Deepen)
a. The following are rational algebraic expressions.
a.
2
4
x
x
b.
2
4 2 + x
c.
9 6
9
2
2
+ +

x x
x
d.
x x
x x
8 2
12 7
2
2
+
+ +
1. Which of the above expressions are expressed in simplest form? Why?
2. Why do you say that the others are not written in their simplest form?
3. How would you simplify these expressions? Give the steps.
4. What mathematics concepts or ideas would you apply to simplify the expressions?
5. How would you apply these mathematics concepts or ideas in simplifying rational algebraic expressions?
6. Express the given rational algebraic expressions in their simplest form.
b. Is 1
2
+

## x a rational algebraic expression? Why?

c. Cite situations that could be represented by rational algebraic expressions. What expressions represent these situations?

(See Transfer)
1. Design a scale model of a structure. Express dimensions of the actual structure to the scale model as ratios.
2. Design Games
54
Attachment to Quarter III
Linear Equations and Inequalities in Two Variables
(See Explore)
1. Ask the students to arrange their seats to form columns and rows. Tell those seating in the front row to number their
seats as illustrated:

Column
Row 1
Row 2
Row 3
2. Guide them to name the seats of their classmates as (r, c), where r stands for row and c for column.
Example: The seat where Luisa who is seated on the 3
rd
row, and on the 2
nd
column is named as (3, 2)
3. After the activity, pose the question:
a. Who is seated at (2, 4)?
b. Are there other instances where locations of places are named?

(See Firm Up)
Discuss:
a. the Cartesian coordinate plane.
b. coordinates of a point on a Cartesian coordinate plane
(See Deepen)
Write experiences encountered if locations of persons, objects, places are not clearly defined.
55
2 1 3 4 5

L
(See Transfer)
1. Design a Model Community
a. Group students into four members.
b. Provide each group with an activity sheet, grid paper, pictures of houses, hospital or clinic, church, school, etc.
c. Let them design their ideal community by placing the cutout pictures at the corner of each grid.
d. Ask them to place their house at a strategic place. Let the location of the house be the reference point or (0,
0).
e. Tell them to give the coordinates of the structures they have placed on the grid paper in relation to their house.
f. Develop guide questions that would provide insights about what has been learned in the activity.
2. On a grid paper, design a game map where students find location of:
a. a buried treasure.
b. a boat in distress.
c. a particular animal.
d. the tallest tree.
3. Give the coordinates where pictures of the habitat of different species (pond, farm) are to be posted. Let students post the
fishes, ducks, birds, cow, etc in their proper habitat.
56
Attachment to Quarter III
Linear Equations and Inequalities in Two Variables
(See Explore)
Group Activity:
a. Provide students with activity sheets.
b. Send groups of students to measure the length and height of the steps of the stairs of each building in their school.
c. Let other groups measure inclined objects. Mark considered different points in the object and ask students to measure the vertical
and horizontal distances of these points.
d. Represent the measurement/distances as ratios (vertical distance to the horizontal distance). Let them compare the ratios.
e. Allow them to discuss their findings in class.

(See Firm Up)
1. Introduce the concept of slope.
2. Discuss:
a. the behavior of the graphs of linear equations in two variables if different slopes are used. Use a graphing calculator
b. how a linear equation can be graphed using the forms:
slope and a point.
the x and - y intercepts.
two points.
slope and y intercept.

57
(See Deepen)
Third Quarter
A. Sample Problem: (Note the correct distribution of rubric points.)
Graph the equation
1 2 + x y
.
Solution: m = 2 ; rise of 2 units and run of 1 unit. 1 point
b = 1
Y
1 2 + x y
2 points
X
Rubric Scoring Guide
B.
1. Ask learners experiences encountered on situations similar to:
steps of stairs unevenly spaced.
going up on an inclined plane with different gradients.
2. Investigate the effects caused by these phenomena.
3. Make the necessary analysis
(See Transfer)
Points Criteria
3 The graph is correct and Properly labeled
2 Graph is correct, but not labeled properly
1 Graph is incorrect
0 No attempt
58
1. Design a competition. (Graphing Calculator Competition)
a. Form students into groups
b. Construct questions about the topics discussed. Solutions to the problems should make use of the resources of a
graphing calculator.
c. Other students may act as runners/scorers in the competition.
d. Math teachers may be invited to act as judge.
e. Provide incentive to winning groups.
2. Treasure Hunt with Slopes
On a grid paper, mark points that would lead to the treasure.
Using the definition of slope, trace the path using the slopes listed below. A correct solution will trace the route to the treasure.
1. 3 5. 2 9.
2
3
2.
2
1
6. -3 10.
3
1

3.
3
2
7.
3
1
11. 4
4. 6 8. -1
59
Start here

Attachment to Quarter IV
System of Linear Equations and Inequalities
(See Explore)
1. Pose a Problem:
Andrea who lives in a condominium in Makati plans to avail herself of one of the parking packages being offered by the
condominiums management
Package A: Space Rental: P3000 per year
Monthly Dues: P200 per month
Package B: Space Rental: P4000 per year
Monthly Dues: P100 per month
Which parking package should she avail? Why? When is one package cheaper?
3. Introduce the system of linear equations in two variables and discuss related lessons.
(See Firm Up)
Divide the class into three groups. Each group will be assigned to graph a system of linear equations using any method of
their choice and to answer the following guide questions. Two representatives from each group will then be asked to present their
work to the class.
Sketch the graph of the given system of equations. Identify the slopes and y-intercepts of the two lines in the system and
then answer the questions that follow.
60
Group 1:

'

+
6
1 0
y x
y x
Group 2:

'

3
1
y x
y x
Group 3:

'

+
+
9 3 3
3
y x
y x
Guide Questions:
1. What is the slope of the first line in your system? second line?
2. What is the y-intercept of the first line in your system? second line?
3. What do you notice about the slopes and y-intercepts of the linear equations in your system?
4. Describe the graph that you sketched. What kind of lines is formed?
After each group presentation, discuss the different kinds of systems of linear equations. Let the students identify the
characteristics of each system based on their previous activity.
Use the following questions as guide.
What can you say about the slopes and the y-intercepts of:
1. consistent system of linear equations in two variables?
2. inconsistent system of linear equations in two variables?
3. dependent system of linear equations in two variables?
(See Deepen)
Technology Integration:
Teach the students how to use the graphics calculator to investigate the graph of a given system of linear equations.
1. Identify the slopes and y-intercepts of the lines in each of the following systems and then identify what kind of system
it is.
61
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
y
-4 -2 2 4
x
-4
-2
0
2
4
y
-4 -2 2 4 6 8 10
x
-4
-2
0
2
4
y
-6 -4 -2 2 4
x
-4
-2
0
2
4
y
-4 -2 2 4
x
a.

'

+
+
1 2 3 3
4
y x
y x
b.

'

+
+
1
3 2
x y
y x
c.
( )

'

2
5
3
1
1 0 5 3
x y
y x
d.

'

+

1 2
3 2
x y
x y
2. Analyze the graphs. What kind of system of linear equations is represented by each graph?
a. b.

c. d.

62
y
x
y
x
y
y
x
x
(See Transfer)
Allow students to design competitions, puzzles, games, etc.
63
Rubrics:
1. Scoring Guide (Rubric) for Problem Solving 2. Rubric Scoring Guide for Graphing
3. Rubrics Scoring Guide for Journal Writing
Points Description
5
Writes a clearly stated main idea, topic and presents supporting details in a logical order. The
journal is written with correct use of conventions (grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling)
4
Writes clearly stated main idea, topic and presents supporting details in a logical order. The details
may not be as complete as it could be. The journal is written with generally correct use of
conventions.
3
Writes a clearly stated main idea, topic but presents some unrelated details. There are few errors in
the use of conventions.
2
Writes a main idea, topic but not clearly stated. Details may not be presented in a logical order, or
some of the information may be inaccurate. The journal may include some errors in the use of
conventions.
1 No accurate understanding of topic/subject.
Points Criteria
3 Understood the problem, performed the correct
operation/s, and got the correct answer.
2 Understood the problem, performed the correct
operation/s, and got an incorrect answer
1 Attempted to solve the problem, performed an
incorrect operation/s and got an incorrect