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8/22/2009

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THERMOGRAPHY

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Thermography

ABSTRACT
Thermography is a non-contact, non-destructive test method that utilizes a thermal image to detect, display and record thermal patterns and temperatures across the surface of an object. Thermography is widely used in industry for predictive maintenance, quality assurance and forensic investigations of electrical, mechanical and structural systems. Other applications include, tank and concrete inspection, nondestructive testing, condition monitoring, night vision and medical and veterinary sciences. Thermography is useful because: 1. It is non-contact Uses remote sensing Keeps the user out of danger 2. It is two dimensional - Thermal patterns can be visualized for analysis -Comparison between areas of the target is possible 3. It is real time - Enables very fast scanning of stationary targets - Enables capture of fast moving targets - Enables capture of fast changing thermal patterns. Thermal infrared imagers convert the energy in the infrared wavelength into a visible light video display. All objects above 0 Kelvin emit thermal infrared energy. The radiation from the object makes it possible for a thermal camera to display an objects temperature.

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1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. About the Thermography Thermal or infrared energy is an energy, not visible because its wavelength is too long for the sensors in our eyes to detect. It is the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that we perceive as heat. Unlike visible light, in the infrared spectrum, everything with a temperature above absolute zero emits infrared electromagnetic energy. Even cold objects such as ice cubes, emit infrared radiation. The higher the temperature of the object, the greater the infrared radiation emitted. The Infrared camera allows us to see what our eyes cannot. All objects, cold or hot, radiate heat in the form of infrared energy. As an object increases in temperature, it radiates more energy, and the wavelength gets shorter. Infrared radiation, visible light and ultraviolet light are all forms of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum. The only difference is their wavelength or frequency.

Fig 1.1. Electromagnetic Spectrum

1.1.1. What is Thermography? Infrared Thermography is the technique that uses an infrared imaging and measurement camera to "see" and "measure" invisible infrared energy being emitted from an object. Thermography is a non-contact, non-destructive test method that utilizes a thermal imager to detect, display and record thermal patterns and temperatures across the surface of an object. Infrared thermography may be applied to any situation where knowledge of thermal profiles and temperatures will provide meaningful data about a system, object or process.

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Thermography 1.1.2. What principle used in Thermography?

Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects based on their temperatures, according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to "see" one's environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore thermography allows one to see variations in temperature. Radiation also originates from the surroundings and is reflected in the object, and the radiation from the object and the reflected radiation will also be influenced by the absorption of the atmosphere If the temperature an object gets hot enough however, above 525C the energy from that object will radiate energy in the visible spectrum and we will see it. This is when we see an object like the burner on an electric stove glowing red. In fact any time an object will emit or reflect energy in the same frequency of our eyes we will see it. Infrared energy is just one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that encompasses radiation from gamma rays, x-rays, ultra violet, a thin region of visible light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves. All objects emit a certain amount of black body radiation as a function of their temperatures. The higher an object's temperature is the more infrared radiation as black-body radiation it emits. A special camera can detect this radiation in a way similar to an ordinary camera does visible light. It works even in total darkness because ambient light level does not matter. This makes it useful for rescue operations in smoke-filled buildings and underground. 1.1.3. Where Thermography is used? Thermal imaging photography finds many uses. For example, firefighters use it to see through smoke, find persons, and localize hotspots of fires. With thermal imaging, power line maintenance technicians locate overheating joints and parts, a telltale sign of their failure, to eliminate potential hazards. Where thermal insulation becomes faulty, building construction technicians can see heat leaks to improve the efficiencies of cooling or heating airconditioning. Thermal imaging cameras are also installed in some luxury cars to aid the driver. Some physiological activities, particularly responses, in human beings and other warm-blooded animals can also be monitored with thermographic imaging. Cooled infrared cameras can also be found at most major astronomy research telescopes.

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Fig 1.1.3.1.Thermographic image of several lizards

Fig 1.1.3.2.Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared ("thermal") light (false-color)

1.2. Why Thermography? Thermography is useful because: It is non-contact Uses remote sensing Keeps the user out of danger It is two dimensional Thermal patterns can be visualized for analysis Comparison between areas of the target is possible It is real time Enables very fast scanning of stationary targets Enables capture of fast moving targets Enables capture of fast changing thermal patterns.

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1.3. Benefit of Thermography? Thermography is a non-contact, non-destructive test method. It is capable of catching moving targets in real time. It finds defects in shafts and other metal parts. It is used to take measurement in areas inaccessible or hazardous for other methods. It find deteriorating components prior to failure. It helps compare temperatures over a large area. When compared with other classical nondestructive testing techniques such as ultrasonic testing or radiographic testing, thermographic inspection is safe, nonintrusive and noncontact, allowing the detection of relatively shallow subsurface defects under large surfaces and in a fast manner.

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2. THERMOGRAPHIC CAMERA
2.1. Radiation from an Object Every object whose surface temperature is above absolute zero (-273 C) radiates energy at a wavelength corresponding to its surface temperature. Utilizing our highly sensitive infrared cameras, it is possible to convert this radiated energy into a thermal image of the object being surveyed. Infrared energy is just one part of the electromagnetic spectrum that encompasses radiation from gamma rays, x-rays, ultra violet, a thin region of visible light, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves. These are all related and differentiated in the length of their wave (wavelength). All objects emit a certain amount of black body radiation as a function of their temperatures. The higher an object's temperature is, the more infrared radiation as black-body radiation it emits. A special camera can detect this radiation in a way similar to an ordinary camera does visible light. It works even in total darkness because ambient light level does not matter. This makes it useful for rescue operations in smoke-filled buildings and underground. 2.2. Thermographic Camera A thermographic camera, sometimes called a FLIR (Forward Looking InfraRed), or an infrared camera less specifically, is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible light. Instead of the 450750 nanometer range of the visible light camera, infrared cameras operate in wavelengths as long as 14,000 nm (14 m).

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Fig2.1.ThermaCAM PM390

The ThermaCAM PM390 System utilized by Infra-red Analyzers, Inc. consists of an infrared camera with optics transparent only to infrared radiation and a video monitor capable of displaying the thermal image. The camera converts radiated heat energy into an electrical signal which is then displayed on the monitor as a real-time heat image of the object being scanned. This digital thermal image can be captured directly from the camera and processed for CD-ROM, printed report, or analog VHS videotape generation. There are two different types of images. Color Thermograms (photographs of the infrared image) and Control Photos (conventional digital images of the same scene taken during the inspection) are provided of problem areas uncovered during the inspection. In the thermograms, temperatures are displayed in a spectrum of colors.

Fig2.2.Hierarchy of colors

This chart illustrates the hierarchy of colors used to represent the relative temperature differences of the problems found during the inspection. Black and white, and color, are properties of visible light that do not exist in the infrared world. Because we need to convert these images into visible light, the IR camera assigns black SeminarUseful for for Computer Science | Instrumentation | Electronics and Bio Medical Engineering.

Thermography

to the coolest temperatures in an image, white to the hottest temperatures in an image, and graduating shades of gray in between. Similarly, different colors can be used to portray different temperatures. The higher the temperature, the more energy emitted. The typical infrared thermography camera resembles a standard camcorder and produces a live TV image of heat radiation. The camera provides a basic grey scale image which is converted to false color images to make interpretation of thermal patterns easier. The thermal image produced by an infrared camera is called a thermogram.

Fig 2.3. Grey scale image converted to false color images

Infrared Thermography is an ideal technique for inspecting electrical equipment for defective components or connections. Excessive heat can be readily noted and the temperature rise measured by the infrared camera. Increased temperatures indicate potential trouble spots which could lead to failure of the component.

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3. THERMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE
The basic principle of thermography is that all types of surfaces will emit some degree of heat. The thermographic equipment will detect heat which differs from the temperatures in the surrounding area of a surface. These higher temperatures might be an indication of a potential malfunction of the scanned object i.e. faults in electrical circuitry or overheating of bearings in mechanical equipment, i.e. pumps, motors, compressors, etc. Thermographic imaging can detect insufficiently insulated hot spots in engine rooms, which create a large fire risk.

If material under inspection is heated with radiators (active thermography), the temperature of the surface will rise suddenly. The speed at which the heat front dissipates into the material depends on the thermal properties like density, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and the bonding quality between top surface layer and the base material. A defect in the sub-surface creates a barrier for the heat diffusion process and, therefore, the surface temperature above the defect will decrease more slowly than the temperature in other regions. The surface above such a defect will show a hot spot for a longer time as its vicinity covering good bonded material. The principle of this effect is shown schematically in Fig.3 .

In contrast to the fast dissipation of heat in metallic materials, the dissipation of heat in woodbased-materials is comparable slow. The detection of defects can take a few seconds or even some minutes after the heat impact depending on the material and depth of the defect.

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Fig.3. The uniformly distributed heat impact on the warmer region (dark) on the surface above the defect.

surface (left), the recorded heat emission (right) and the

3.1. Active and Passive Thermography If the inspected material is heated during the production process (passive thermography), the surface temperature will decrease after leaving the production line. Invisible defects within the material will appear as cold spots on the surface, because of the good insulation between the hot core material and the colder surface. In both cases, active or passive thermography, the defects can be either detected as hot (active) or cold spots (passive) on the surface. 3.2. Results of active and passive thermographic measurements For first tests with active on-line thermography, different panels of laminating floor were placed on a conveyor belt and heated by a few degrees centigrade while moving along three infrared heaters. The result can be seen in Fig. 3.2.1. & Fig.3.3.2., where a blister shows up in the thermographic image as circular hot (red) spot. But moreover some extended areas show also a warmer behavior as its vicinity. Destructive tests showed that these areas have a decreased adhesion bonding in comparison to the rest of the material.

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Fig.3.2.1. Photo of a laminated flooring with no visible defect on the surface (top) and thermographic image (bottom) with a blister shown as red (hot) spot and poor adhesive bonding shown as irregular red areas.

Fig.3.2.2. Photo of a table top surface with a hardly visible defect (left) and the thermographic image (right) with a clearly visible hot spot (missing knot in the third layer of the plywood).

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4. PROCESS OF THERMOGRAPHY
Infrared thermography is the technique of converting infrared energy (radiant heat) into an image that a person can see and understand. We ordinarily see in visible light. We can compare infrared to visible light - they are not the same, but they are analogous. We are familiar with the idea of a video camera creating images on video monitors or television. The electronics in the camera convert the light energy that enters the lens into a video signal and displays that signal on a monitor or TV. We see shapes, colors, textures, shadows, and reflective surfaces in the image as a result of the camera's ability to capture light.

Fig 4. This image shows the radiant heat rather than light. The light areas are warmer than the dark areas

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In a similar way, an infrared camera creates an image by converting radiant heat energy into a signal that can be displayed on a monitor (and later printed). The infrared energy emitted from an object is directly proportional to its temperature. Therefore temperatures are accurately measured by the infrared camera. The ability to measure temperature from an IR image is called radiometry. This requires sophisticated and expensive electronics. The ability to measure a temperature anywhere on the image is available only on the high-end cameras. 4.1. Colorizing Infrared Images Black and white, and color, are properties of visible light that do not exist in the infrared world. Because we need to convert these images into visible light, the IR camera assigns black to the coolest temperatures in an image, white to the hottest temperatures in an image, and graduating shades of gray in between. Similarly, different colors can be used to portray different temperatures. Using colors to represent different temperatures, a knowledgeable technician adjusts the color image to optimize clarity and best reveal the high temperatures of interest.

Fig 4.1. This image of shows a hot coffee mug and a plate of cookies. The colors bear no correlation with visible light, rather the colors correspond to the radiant heat

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4.2. Adjusting Images for Clarity One of the benefits of 12 bit dynamic range technology is that the upper and lower temperature limits visible in the image can be adjusted to get the clearest picture. Compared to a video image, the temperature span is comparable to contrast, and the levels of temperature within the span are comparable to brightness.

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5. APPLICATIONS OF THERMOGRAPHY
Infrared Thermography is the technique for producing a visible image of invisible infrared energy emitted by objects. The higher the temperature, the more energy emitted. The thermographic camera provides a basic grey scale image which is converted to false color images to make interpretation of thermal patterns easier. The thermal image produced by an infrared camera is called a thermogram.

Fig 5.A visual image of a tea pot after pouring boiling water into it.

Thermography can be applied in any situation where a problem or condition can display itself by a thermal difference. For many situations, this is quite easy to apply; a thermal condition can be seen because the process involves release of thermal energy. Here are several examples of applications. 5.1.ElectricalThermography It is used virtually around the world to evaluate the condition of electrical systems and equipment. When an electrical system is energized, current passes through the entire system, a byproduct of this current flow is heat. When there is a defect in the system, more heat is generated because of high resistance, and the camera will see the difference between the normal components and the one with a problem.

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Fig5.1. Thermal image showing a failing connection on an electrical component.

5.2.TankInspections Manufacturers concerned with non-destructively testing product quality and performance are also among those employing, infrared radiometric technologies. An automobile manufacturer might use IRT to measure the real-time thermal dynamics of a prototype engine block or a plastics manufacturer might be interested in monitoring its extrusion process. Many industrial processes implicate the use of IRT where temperature and heat flow are a useful indicators of how a process is operating.

Fig 5.2.Infrared Inspection for tank leaks and to verify tank level.

5.3.ConcreteInspections Another example is the inspection of concrete bridges. Over the years, a concrete bridge deck can develop subsurface delaminations, which can lead to holes in the deck. When a hole develops, it is already a big problem. What is important is to find the problem before the hole appears. Using the energy from the sun as an active heating source, we look at it with the infrared camera. The region with the subsurface delamination will have a different level of heat than the solid parts of the concrete deck structure. The infrared camera will show the differences.

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Fig 5.3.This shows that even though the bridge deck doesnt generate heat it can still be analyzed with thermography.

5.4.AircraftInspections Composite aircraft materials are extremely sturdy and lightweight. These materials are vital to aircraft performance and airworthiness. However, the honeycomb structure of this material presents a potentially dangerous problem: water ingress.

Fig 5.4.Aircraft inspection

5.5.MedicalThermography Clinical IRT is applied to the care of horses. Many minor injuries to muscle tissue may go unnoticed until the problem is more severe. However, infrared imagers used today can pick up the smallest change in temperature as a result of increased blood flow to damaged tissues. In this way IR imaging aids the expert trainer in caring for the horse.

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Fig.5.5. Race horse sustained an injury in a fall. The infrared image shows where the problem is, and monitored the process of the healing.

There are three main areas in veterinary medicine where thermography can play a major part: 5.5.1. Preventative Medicine - particularly effective for competition animals in detecting strains or areas of abnormal heat after an event 5.5.2. Diagnosis - assisting the veterinary surgeon by quickly and easily locating the source of a problem

5.5.3. Treatment - a visual method of monitoring the effectiveness of treatment allowing

changes to be made as the case progresses.

Fig 5.5.3.1.Horse showing lameness after exercise. Thermography revealed localised inflammation at the bottom of the tendon.

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Fig 5.5.3.2.This horse which was being treated for Navicular disease had suddenly gone lame. A thermal scan showed inflammation in the foot centred on the right part of the frog. Investigation revealed an abscess which was subsequently treated.

Thermography can be applied to treat human beings also. They are used in treating: 5.5.4.RespiratoryDysfunctions Infrared thermography is useful for monitoring asthma, allergies, bronchitis, influenza etc. 5.5.5.DigestiveDisorders Infrared thermography has demonstrated excellent results in helping in the diagnosis of urgent gastrointestinal pathology, especially appendicitis and hyper and hypo gastric secretions. 5.5.6.UrinaryDiseases Infrared thermography helps to save patient's and doctor's time in waiting for laboratory data and is successfully used to monitor urinary tract infections, kidney pathology etc. 5.5.7.Cardiovascular&CirculatoryDisorders Infrared thermography is periodically applied for differential diagnostics and is useful in preventing heart disease and serious circulatory problems such as varicose veins. 5.5.8.LymphaticDysfunctions Infrared Thermography tests therapy effectiveness in severe cases of lymphoma, leukaemia and reliable to monitor lymphatic involvement in breast cancer patients. 5.5.9.NervousDysfunctions Infrared Thermography analyses the brain, spinal cord and nerves, gives doctor a reliable and safe method of problem location and for monitoring improvements.

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5.5.10.EndocrineDisorders Infrared Thermography helps to evaluate hormonal changes, thyroid disorders such as hypo and hyperthyroidism, and diabetes 5.5.11.LocomotorsDisorders Infrared Thermography helps in the clinical evaluation and detection of serious and difficult disorders such as musculo-skeletal syndromes, neuropathy, neurovascular compression, nerve injury, soft tissue injury, arthritis, inflammatory pain, and disk injury. 5.5.12.SurgicalAssistance Surgeries can be assisted safely before and after using Medical Thermography- helps to locate tumours size and locates surgical area and monitors the healing process after surgery. 5.5.13.SkinProblems Infrared thermography gives a more precise level of information - skin tumours and skin cancers, and wound healing. 5.5.14.Ear,Nose&ThroatDysfunction Infrared thermography can assist in identifying areas with disorders when radiation should not be used such as tonsillitis, swelling of the lymphatic glands, teething problems, and sinusitis. 5.5.15.Dentistry Dentists recommend the use of Medical Thermography in monitoring control in the inflammation process into oral cavity and reaction of the regional lymphatic nodes and other chronic diseases of the bones, nerves, located in the maxilla facial area. Medical Thermography can also measure temperature changes in the application of new methods and dental materials applied by dentists. 5.6. Nondestructive Testing Nondestructive Testing (NDT), also called nondestructive examination (NDE) and nondestructive inspection (NDI), is testing that does not destroy the test object. To detect different defects such as cracking and corrosion, there are different methods of testing available, such as X-ray and ultrasound.

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While destructive testing usually provides a more reliable assessment of the state of the test object, destruction of the test object usually makes this type of test more costly to the test object's owner than nondestructive testing. That there is a tradeoff between the cost of the test and its reliability favors a strategy in which most test objects are inspected nondestructively; destructive testing is performed on a sampling of test objects that is drawn randomly for the purpose of characterizing the testing reliability of the nondestructive test. During their service lives, many industrial components need regular non-destructive tests to detect damage that may be difficult or expensive to find by everyday methods. For example: Aircraft skins need regular checking to detect cracks. Underground pipelines are subject to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Concrete structures may be weakened if the inner reinforcing steel is corroded.

Fig 5.6. Composite material at aeroplane industry.

Violet color indicates parts visible at surface level and yellow indicates non visible patrs at surface level.

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5.7. Condition monitoring It is the process of monitoring a parameter of condition in machinery, such that a significant change is indicative of a developing failure. It is a major component of predictive maintenance. The use of conditional monitoring allows maintenance to be scheduled, or other actions to be taken to avoid the consequences of failure, before the failure occurs. It is typically much more cost effective than allowing the machinery to fail. Serviceable machinery includes rotating machines and stationary plant such as boilers and heat exchangers. 5.8. Night Vision Night vision is the ability to see in a dark environment. Humans have poor night vision compared to many animals, in part because the human eye does not have a tapetum lucidum.

Fig 5.8.Two American Soldiers pictured during the 2003 Iraq War seen through an Image Intensifier

Enhanced spectral range allows the viewer to take advantage of non-visible sources of electromagnetic radiation (such as near-infrared or ultraviolet radiation). Some animals can see well into the infrared and/or ultraviolet compared to humans, enough to help them see in conditions humans cannot. Thermal imaging cameras are excellent tools for night vision. Contrary to other technologies they do not need any light at all to produce a clear image. They produce an image in the darkest of nights and can see through light fog, rain and smoke. Thermal imaging cameras make small temperature differences visible. They detect what can not be detected by the human eye. Thermal imaging cameras are widely used to complement new or existing security networks. SeminarUseful for for Computer Science | Instrumentation | Electronics and Bio Medical Engineering.

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6. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF THERMOGRAPHY


6.1. Advantages of Thermography

It shows a visual picture so that can help compare temperatures over a large area It is capable of catching moving targets in real time Able to find deteriorating components prior to failure Measurement in areas inaccessible or hazardous for other methods It is a non-destructive test method Make easier to find defects in shafts and other metal parts

6.2. Disadvantages of Thermography

Due to the low volume of thermal cameras, quality cameras often have a high price range Images can be hard to interpret accurately even with experience Accurate temperature measurements are very hard to make because of emissivities Training and staying proficient in IR scanning is time consuming Ability to only measure surface areas.

(often $6,000 USD or above) and are easily damaged


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7. CONCLUSION
When compared with other classical nondestructive testing techniques such as ultrasonic testing or radiographic testing, thermographic inspection is safe, nonintrusive and noncontact, allowing the detection of relatively shallow subsurface defects under large surfaces and in a fast manner.Thermography enables us to see and measure heat. Thermography is a method that utilizes a thermal image to detect, display and record thermal patterns and temperatures across the surface of an object. Thermography is the future in water damage and mold claims adjudication for the insurance industry. IR is going to allow the industry to be more exact in the data that it obtains, and to be able to resolve any claims that may be occurring now, as well as in the future, more quickly and costeffectively, saving time and money. A large part of the savings is in the fact that more often than not, when infrared is involved, the case never gets to court.

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8. BIBILIOGRAPHY
1. Chuck Hellier,Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation,McGraw-Hill Professional,2001 2. Maldague X.P.V. &Prystay M. Chapter 2: Fundamentals ofInfrared & Thermal Testing WEBSITES: www.wikipedia.com www.infraredinstitute.com www.ebme.co.uk www.iranalyzers.com www.meditherm.com www.aetna.com www.frankel.co.uk

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9. APPENDIX

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