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Nonwoven Textiles

Basic course

Definition of nonwovens Production, position and end-uses of nonwovens Clasification of nonwovens Fibers for nonwovens, special fibers Binder for nonwovens Nonwovens technologies

Nonwoven definition (Europe)

A sheet, web or batt directionally or randomly oriented fibers Bonded by FRICTION and/or COHESION and/or ADHESION Excluded: paper, knitted, woven,

Nonwovens include a wide variety of technologies and product. The products possess various structures, properties and end uses. New production technologies arise, bringing new fabrics structures. That is why the definition of nonwovens is continuing to be changed.

Nonwoven definition (USA)

A sheet, web or batt natural or man-made fibers or filaments
That have not been converted into YARNS

Bonded to each other by any of several means

Production principles of nonwovens

Web forming Web bonding Fabric finishing

Web forming methods

- Dry Laid ( of staple fibers ) Carded, Air Laid, Combined Carded Air Laid - Wet Laid ( of staple fibres) - Spun Laid Spunbond, Melt Blown, Electrostatic spun

Web bonding methods

- Mechanical bonding Needled, Stitch bonded, Spunlaced, Felts - Chemical bonding Dispersion bonded by saturation, spraying, screen printing, foam Polymer solutions bonded - Thermal bonding by calender, thru-air, ultasound, infrared

Finishing methods
Coated Laminated Crimped Printed Special finished

Nonwovens Growth in Regions 2006

14 12 10 8 6 4 2

Japan North America W-Europe Rest of the World Asia Middle East



Geotextiles, Agrotextiles Automotive Hygiene (wet wipes, napkin, diaper) Filtration


Fibers for nonwovens

Polypropylene Polyester ( poly ethylene terephthalate) Rayon ( Viscose) Polyamide 6 ( Nylon 6), Polyamide 6,6


Basic parameters of staple fibers

Linear density ( weight of 1000 m of fiber in grams) 1,3-20 dtex - Lenght of staple fibers - For mechanical technologies 38-85 mm - 2-30 mm for wet-forming Stress strain behavior Fiber crimp Fiber finishings

Special fibers
Fiber with modified cross-section

Bi-component fibers

a) Sheath/core b) Side by side c) Island in the sea d) Orange


Special fibers
In bulk modified fibers- modify the fibre properties Non-flammable, UV-stable, antistatic and semi conductive, antimicrobial, pigment - Surface modified fibers Metallized fibers, Silanized fibers


Special fibers
Glass fibers Basalt fibers Carbon fibers Metal fibers Aramide fies Novoloid fibers Extremely strong polyethylene fibers Superabsorbent fibers

Binders for nonwovens

Polymer solution Polymer dispersion ( latexes ) Foamed polymer dispersions Polymer pastes Solid polymers: Thermoplastic fibers Thermoplastic powder, foil, meltblowns or spunbond sheet, netting

Polymer dispersion ( latexes )

An aqueous polymer dispersion is a twophases system consisting of homogeneus phase ( water ) and particles of a polymer. A surfactant is an important part of dispersion. The surfactant prevents the particles from unit. Surfactants are chamicals which reduce surface tension on the surfaces between two immiscible materials.

Coagulation of dispersion
Removing water, by evaporation for instance Increasing the kinetic energy of particles so they are able to overcome electrostatic repulsive powers and join together. Inhibition of surfatant dissociation which results into loss of charge on the surfaces of particles by freezing of dispersion, by dramatic change in acidity, by adding water soluble salts, adding thermosensibilizers

Example of dispersion binders

The most important properties of binder are: - Adhesion to the fibers - Mechanical properties (stress-strain behavior) - Swelling and solubility in water and organic solvent


Example of dispersion binders

Styrene-butadiene copolymers Acrylic copolymers Butadiene- acrylonitrile copolymers Poly vinyl acetate and its co-polymers Polyurethane dispersions


Nonwoven Technologies
From staple fibers
Preparation of fiber materials Forming fiber layer

From polymer
Melting of polymer Forming fibers and fiber layer

Bonding fiber layer


Web forming methos

Dry-laid methods : Formation and layering carded web (mehanical methods) Aerodynamic web formation ( air-lay) Combined mechanical-aerodynamic methods

Mechanical methods
Carding In the carding process, individual staple fibers are separated from clumps of fibers and more or les uni-directionally oriented Nonwovens- roller card


Layering of carded web

Longitudinal layering
Cross layering Perpendicular layering


Longitudinal layering
1 2


Cross layering-Vertical cross-lapper or camel-back

1) Carded web 2) Feeding belts 3) Couple of reciprocating belts

4) Output belt


Cross layering-horizontal crosslapper

a) Web b) Feed belt e) Delivery belt c) Upper conveyor belt d) Lower conveyor belt

a c d e

b f


Perpendicular laying
1) Carded web 2) reciorocating comb 3) conveyor belt 4) wire grid 5) compresing bar


Perpendicular laying


Aerodynamic web forming

Advantages are: Isotropic stucture of the web Voluminous webs can be produced Wide variety of fibres processable as natural, synthetic, glass, steel, carbon, etc.


Aerodynamic web forming

The main disadvantages are as follows: - Low level of opening fiber material by lickerin - Various stuctures of web in width of layer due to irregular air flow close to walls of duct - Possible entangling of fibers in air strem


Aerodynamic forming device

1) Condenser screen 2) Lickering 3) Condenser screen 4) Fan 6) Duct


Combined mechanicalaerodynamic methods

The random card
1) Random roller 2) Two doffer 3)Condensing rollers


Combined mechanicalaerodynamic methods

Three-cylinder principle


Combined mechanicalaerodynamic methods

Web former Fehrer K-21


Wet-laid methods
Wet laid methods were developed as a modification of the papermaking process. When compared with dry-laid methods, the wet process are distinguished by: - large, expensive and high-performance devices, outpu speeds up to 1000 m/min. - High demand on energy - Lightweight, non-voluminous products, usually below 100 /m2.

Wet-laid process comprises the following steps: - Wetting and dispersing fibers in water - Transport of fiber dispersion towards webforming device - Forming fiber web on the moving endless wire screen or perforated drum - Removing water by suction, pressure and drying

Process ( Bonding)
Hydrogen bonds when using self-bonding cellulosic fibers or wood-pulp. Bonding dispersions applied before drying process by spraying, printing,etc. Thermoplastic bonding fibers are admixed to fiber material


The wood pulp, short cellulosic fiber, is a typical raw material used in papermaking. Rayon, polyester, polyolefin and polyamid, glass fibre Good wettability of fibers is necessary to easily form water dispersion The tendency of fibers in the water dispersion to cluster, entangle or flocculate is main problem with the wet-laid process

Length of staple 2-30 mm Concentration of fiber dispersion 0,005-0,05 mass percent of fibers are common Increasing the dispersion viscosity prevents flocculation


Wet forming device

1) Dispersion inlet 2) Inclined wire screen 3) Dewatering pipes

4) Suction box 5) Formed sheet

5 4 3


Wet forming device

1) Dispersion inlet 4) Formed sheet 7) Free dewatering 2) Stirrer 3) Forming perforated cylinder 5) Adjustable over- flow dam 6)Dewatering pipes 8) Suction dewatering


Polymer- laid method

Spun bond Melt blown Electrostatic spinning


Spunbonding process
Operations: - Polymer melting, transport and filtration of polymer melt - Filament extrusion - Filament drawing - Filament deposion - Bonding

Any fiber-forming polymer such as polypropylene, polyester, polyamide, can be processed by spunbonding. The polymer pellets or granules are fed into the extruder hopper. As the polymer moves through the extruder, it melts due to the heat and friction. Polymer melt is filtred .


Filament extrusion- Spinneret is one of he components of the die assembly. It is a single block of metal having several thousands drilled orifices or holes. Polymer melt is forced trough the holes and formed into filaments. The fillaments are cooled by a stream of air under the spineret.


Drawing of the filaments follows spinning. The route e employes two blow ducts
e d c b a



The primary blow duct, located below the spinneret, cools filaments. In the secondary blow duct, located over the entire working width of the producton line, a ventilator generated under-pressure sucks filament and air down from the spinnerets and cooling duct.


The filaments are sucked trough a venturi ( high-velocity low pressure) zone to distributing chamber, which serves to more randomly move the filament around and to some extent case then entangle. - He filament deposition follows the drawing. The filaments are deposited on the wire screen conveyor belt usually in layers of overlapping circular loops of filaments.

b c

a) Polymer melt b) Screen pack c) Hole of spinneret d) Drawing jet e) Drawing conduit


Bonding: Autoadhesion Thermal bonding-calander Chemical bonding Needle punching


Properties: - Area weights between 5-800 g/m2 - Filaments diameters 15-50 micrometers
End-uses - Geotextiles, portective medical, agricultural apparel, top sheet for diapers, sanitary napkins

Melt-blowing process
The melt blowing process consists of the following integrated operations: Polymer melting, transport and filtration of polymer melt Polymer extrusion and filament forming using hot air Forming web on the surface of wire screen collector belt-bonding

e a f

a) Extruder b) Gear pump c) Die e) Collector drum f) Winder

d) Air manifold

Schematic of melt-blowing process


Polymers for melt-blowing procces

Polypropylene Polyethylene Polyester Polyamide


Schematic of melt blown die

a) Inlet of hot air d) Collector drum h) Air gap b) Inlet of polymer melt c) Cooling air e) Fiber stream f) air knife g) Air angle


Self-bonding due to fiber entanglement and cohesive sticking ensures sufficient cohesion of the melt-blown web in many applications. Additional calander bonding is required in some cases


Process variables
The most important on-line variables of the melt-blowing process and examples of their typical values are as follows: Temperature of polymer melt: 200-400 C Temperature of air: 250-400 C Air throughput rate: 100-500 m/s Mass ratio air:polymer 100 Die-to-collector distance: 0,2-0,5 m

End-uses of melt-blown webs

The main applications of melt-blown webs are - Filtration - thermal insulation - Oil absorption - sanitary napkins - Industrial wipes - respirators - Adhesives - protective apparel - Batery separtors - diapers cover stock - Surgical face masks, and many others

Web bonding methods

Mechanical bonding methods Chemical bonding Thermal bonding


Mechanical bonding methods

Needle-punching Stich-bonding Spunlaced


Chemical bonding
In chemical bonding, bonding adhesives are used in the form of polymer dispersion ( latex) or polymer solution Steps: Forming fiber layer Apllication of binder, Coagulation of binder Drying Curing


Methods of binder application

The following methods of binder application are used: Saturation Spraying Printing Froth bonding


Saturation applicator for pre-strengthened layers

1) Fiber layer

2) Tank with circulation binder

3) squeeze rolls


Saturation applicator for non-solidified fiber layers


The spraying process is employed mainly to produce voluminous fabrics. It consists of spraying the binder on one or both surfaces of the fiber layer A vacuum systm is usually employed to help the binder particles to penetrate through the thickness of the layer.


The binders are atomized in spray guns using high pressure air or in spray jets using hydraulic pressure. In the spray guns , latex and air are fed under the pressure of 0,2-0,5 Mpa.


Pneumatic spraying gun

2 2

2 2

1) Input of binder

2) Input of air

Spraying device with a spraying brush

1)Spraying brush 2) feeding roller 3) Bristel of spraying brush 4) Cover 5) Adjustable part of cover 12) Fiber layer