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Radiology in Respiratory System Lobar Anatomy (Right Lung) Pneumonia Clinical presentation Abrupt onset of fever, tachypnea Etiology

Staphylococcus, Pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenza Alveolar involvement (without airway involvement) Pneumatoceles formed (transient)(during recuperative phase) Imaging Findings Indicating Consolidation Opaque shadows (ill-defined borders on lobe with air bronchograms) Confined to segment/ bounded by segmental margin (fissure, diaphragm, heart contour) Lung volume is preserved (no mediastinal displacement) Air bronchograms (if marked) Silhouette sign loss

Right Upper Lobe

Right Middle Lobe

Right Lower Lobe

Lobar Anatomy (Left Lung)

Collapse, Consolidation RUL Carcinoma of Lung

Left Upper Lobe

Left Lower Lobe

Lung Consolidation (Diagnosis Pneumococcal pneumonia)

Metastases to Lung

air space filling replacement of air in alveoli by fluid Transudate Exudate Pulmonary edema Infection Cardiogenic Infarction Non-cardiogenic (ARDS) Contusion Haemorrhage Collagen disease Allergy Dense lobar consolidation Bulging of adjacent fissure Due to large amounts of accumulated fluid, inflammatory exudate

Carcinoma of Lung

Carcinoma of Lung Adenocarcinoma (most common type of lung cancer) Common in y Women y Non-smokers

Pneumothorax

Emphysema

Pneumothorax Pneumothorax Pneumothorax Collection of air/ gas in pleural cavity Pleural Effusion

Flattening of diaphragms ( lung volumes) Enlarged left pulmonary artery Attenuation of vessels Diffuse hyperlucency Pleural Effusion Pulmonary Artery Enlargement & Cardiomegaly

Pleural Effusion

Large pulmonary arteries & pruning Large heart Median sternotomy D/D Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Pleural Effusion Radiological features Homogenous basal opacity in erect film in costophrenic angle Meniscus sign Lamellar sign Haze (through which lung fields can be seen in supine) Changes in appearance with posture (decubitus, erect/ supine films) Air-fluid level in hydropneumothorax Fluid in fissure (widening of pleural part of fissure) Mediastinal displacement y Fluid is suspected by o Breath sounds o Dullness to percussion y Treatment Chest tube (draining) Chest Trauma

Fracture ribs, clavicle Lung contusion