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EXPERIMENT 1

Factors affecting reaction rates


Objectives: at the end of the experiment, the student must be able to:
1. Determine the effects of some factors on reaction rates,
2. Determine the rate law expression using the method of initial rates,
3. Evaluate the value of the activation energy of a reaction.
Theoretical Framework
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Procedure
Part A. Nature of reactants
Label two test tubes A and B. Place 3mL of water in each test tube. Add a strip of Mg ribbon to
test tube A and a small piece of Na to test tube B. Record your observation.
Reactants

Observation

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1. Which reaction has a higher activation energy? Why?


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2. Sketch the reaction profile (superimposed) of the two reactions on the graph below:

Part B. Concentration of Reactants


Place a 10mL beaker on a piece of white paper previously marked X. The beaker should be
placed right on top of the mark. Then place 5mL of 0.15M Na2S2O3 in the beaker. Check if the mark is
clearly seen through the solution. Immediately add 1mL of 3M HCl and time the reaction from the
moment the HCl solution is added to the moment the mark is no longer visible. (Do not agitate the
solution.)
Repeat the above process according to the following schedule:
I.

Constant HCl Concentration


0.15 M Na2S2O3 (mL)
4
3
2
1
[Na2S2O3]
______
______
______
______
______

[HCl]
______
______
______
______
______

H2O (mL)
1
2
3
4
ln [Na2S2O3]
______
______
______
______
______

3M HCl (mL)
1
1
1
1
time
______
______
______
______
______

Rate (1/time)
______
______
______
______
______

ln rate
______
______
______
______
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3. How does change in concentration of Na2S2O3 affect the rate of reaction?


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4. Plot ln rate vs. ln [Na2S2O3]

5. What is the order of reaction with respect to Na2S2O3?

II. Constant Na2S2O3 Concentration


0.15 M Na2S2O3 (mL)
5
5
5
5
5

H2O (mL)
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

3M HCl (mL)
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

[Na2S2O3]
______
______
______
______
______

[HCl]
______
______
______
______
______

ln [HCl]
______
______
______
______
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time
______
______
______
______
______

Rate (1/time)
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______
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ln rate
______
______
______
______
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6. How does change in concentration of HCl affect the rate of reaction?


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7. Plot ln rate vs. ln [HCl]

8. What is the order of the reaction with respect to HCl?


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9. What is the overall order of the reaction between Na2S2O3 and HCl?
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10. Write the rate law expression of the reaction.


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11. Calculate the specific rate constant, k, of the reaction. Show your solution below.

Part C. Temperature
Prepare two test tubes and place the following reagents:
Test tube #
1
2

Reagent
5mL 0.15M Na2S2O3
7.5mL H2O + 2mL 2M HCl

Immerse both test tubes in a water bath containing tap water for 5 minutes. Measure and
record the temperatures (room temp) of the water bath. Immediately mix the reagents in a 50mL
beaker placed on top of a white paper previously marked with an X. Time the reaction just like in part B.
Repeat the above process at two other temperatures: one approximately 10 degrees lower than
room temperature.
[Na2S2O3]=_________________
Temp (C)
_______
_______
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1/T (K)
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[HCl]=___________________
time
_______
_______
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Rate (1/time)
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k
_______
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ln k
_______
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12. What is the effect of temperature to the rate of reaction?


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13. Plot ln k vs. 1/T (ln k).

14. Calculate the value of Ea (in Joule units) using Arrhenius equation.

Part D. Surface Area


Take two identical strips of Mg ribbon and cut one of the strips into very small pieces . Place the
uncut Mg in one test tube and the shredded Mg in another test tube. To each test tube add 5mL of 3M
HCl solution. Record your observation
Reactants
Strip of Mg
Pieces of Mg

Visible results
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15. What is the effect of the surface area of the reactant on reaction rate?
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Part E. Catalyst
Place 5mL of 3% of H2O2 in a test tube and add about one gram of Rochelle salt (sodium
potassium tartrate). Heat the solution gently. Record your observation. To another test tube, place the
same amounts of H2O2 and Rochelle salt but this time add a pinch of CoCl2. Heat the solution gently.
Record your observation.
Reactants
H2O2 + Rochelle salt
H2O2 + Rochelle salt + CoCl2

Visible results
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16. What is the role of CoCl2 in the reaction between Rochelle salt and H2O2?
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17. Briefly summarize the effects of the different factors affecting the reaction rates.
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