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Rockets and Satellites

A Power Point Presentation About Rockets and Satellites By:

A.Sujatha

Rockets

A rocket moves forward when gases

expelled from the rear of the rocket push it in the opposite direction. Hot gases are propelled out of the back

of a rocket engine. The force of the

gas in one direction (action) produces an opposing force

(reaction) that propels the rocket

forward.

Space Shuttles

• The Saturn V rockets that carried astronauts to the moon in the 1960’s and 1970’s were very expensive. In addition, they could not be reused because each stage burned up and fell back through earth’s atmosphere. In the late 1970’s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed the reusable space shuttles. They are called shuttles because they can go back and forth, or shuttle, between the earth and space. Since the first shuttle was launched in 1981, space shuttles have been the main way that the United States launches astronauts and equipment into space. NASA is studying several ideas for building better and less expensive ways of launching people and cargo into space. The ideal vehicle would be an aerospace

plane that could take off from a runway, travel into space, and landing

again on the runway.

Space Stations

A space station is a large satellite in which people

can live for long periods. The first space station, the

Soviet Union’s ‘Salyut’, was launched in 1971. In 1973, the United States launched Skylab, which carried a series of telescopes and medical, geological, and astronomical experiments.

Satellites

Satellites are used for communications,

navigation, collecting weather data, and research, In addition, two-dozen Global Positioning Satellites give off signals that can

be picked up by small receivers on earth. The

receiver can then tell you where you are on earth’s surface.

The Rocket Stages

1. Heavy first stage provides thrust for launch.

2. First stage separates and falls to earth.

3. Second stage ignites and continues with third stage.

4. Second stage separates and falls to earth.

5. Third Stage ignites.

6. Third stage is discarded.

7. Lunar vehicle proceeds to lunar orbit.

The Different Satellites

Artificial Satellites- Artificial Satellites are used to relay telephone calls, to measure the earth’s atmosphere, and photograph weather systems, crops, troops, and ships.

Global Positioning Satellites- Global Positioning Satellites give off small signals that can be picked up by small receivers on earth.

The receiver can then tell you where you are on the earth’s

surface.

Geosynchronous Satellites- Geosynchronous Satellites are used to relay television signals and to map weather patterns.

PHYSICAL LAWS

Kepler’s 1st Law: Law of Ellipses

PHYSICAL LAWS Kepler’s 1st Law: Law of Ellipses The orbits of the planets are ellipses with

The orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one focus.

Or, the orbits of satellites around the earth are ellipses with the earth at one focus…

PHYSICAL LAWS

Kepler’s 2nd Law: Law of Equal Areas t2 t1 Area 1 Area 2 t0 t3
Kepler’s 2nd Law: Law of Equal Areas
t2
t1
Area 1
Area 2
t0
t3

t1-t 0 = t3-t2 Area 1 = Area 2

Satellites travel at varying speeds!!

Kepler’s 3rd Law

a 3 = µ / n 2

Where, n = Mean motion of the satellite in rad/sec.

µ = Earth’s geocentric gravitational constant.

With the n in radians per sec. the orbital period in second is given by,

P = 2/ n

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

True Anomaly

True Anomaly is a measurement from a fixed point in space to the actual satellite location in the orbit

It is measured in degrees

True Anomaly:

Is this angle, measured in degrees

in degrees True Anomaly: Is this angle, measured in degrees Direction of satellite motion You will
in degrees True Anomaly: Is this angle, measured in degrees Direction of satellite motion You will
in degrees True Anomaly: Is this angle, measured in degrees Direction of satellite motion You will

Direction of satellite motion

You will be able

to much easily see what True Anomaly is when using STK!!

Fixed point in space

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

ORBITAL ELEMENTS Inclination Prograde: 0  i < 90 Equatorial: i = 0 or 180 Polar:

Inclination

ORBITAL ELEMENTS Inclination Prograde: 0  i < 90 Equatorial: i = 0 or 180 Polar:

Prograde:

0 i < 90

Equatorial: i = 0 or 180

Inclination Prograde: 0  i < 90 Equatorial: i = 0 or 180 Polar: i =
Inclination Prograde: 0  i < 90 Equatorial: i = 0 or 180 Polar: i =

Polar: i = 90

Inclination Prograde: 0  i < 90 Equatorial: i = 0 or 180 Polar: i =

Retrograde:

90 i ú 180

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

Right Ascension

Right Ascension is the tilt, as measured from a fixed point in space, called the First Point of Aries

i First
i
First
Point of
Point of

Aries ()

Right Ascension of the Ascending Node ()

ARGUMENT OF PERIGEE

ARGUMENT OF PERIGEE

Low Earth Orbit Concepts

node angle Orbit South Pole
node
angle
Orbit
South Pole

Descending node

Ascending

Ground track

Inclination

Equator

Perigee

Orbit
Orbit

Apogee

ORBITAL ELEMENTS

True Anomaly

True Anomaly is a measurement from a fixed point in space to the actual satellite location in the orbit

It is measured in degrees

True Anomaly:

Is this angle, measured in degrees

in degrees True Anomaly: Is this angle, measured in degrees Direction of satellite motion You will
in degrees True Anomaly: Is this angle, measured in degrees Direction of satellite motion You will
in degrees True Anomaly: Is this angle, measured in degrees Direction of satellite motion You will

Direction of satellite motion

You will be able

to much easily see what True Anomaly is when using STK!!

Fixed point in space

Questions From Sheet

What is a geosynchronous orbit?

The Orbit of a satellite that revolves around earth at the same rate the

earth rotates.

How Do Rockets move in Space?

A Rocket moves forward when gases are expelled from the rear of the rocket, pushing it in the opposite direction. Hot gases are propelled out

of the back of a rocket engine. The force of the gas in one direction

(action) produces an opposing force (reaction) that propels the rocket forward.

Which stage of a multistage rocket reaches the final destination?

Multistage rockets have three stages, or sections. Each of the first two stages burns all of its fuel and then drops off. The next stage then takes over. Only part of the third stage reaches the rockets destination.

Reference

Science Text Book

Pictures Found Off Google

Reference • Science Text Book • Pictures Found Off Google