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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

Exaggerate Self Quotient Image Model for Face

Recognition

Enlist Subspace Method

S.Muruganantham 1 , Assistant professor S.T.Hindu college Nagercoil, India -629003 Email: smuru_1970@yahoo.co.in

Abstract - The attribute of reliance facial recognition technique is frequently impinge on variation of illumination such as shadow and illumination direction changes. In this paper, to enrich the performance of self quotient image model for the elimination of lighting effect for face recognition is recited and dispelled in detail. A Histogram equalization is embrace to enhance the contrast of samples. Then normalize the samples as the result of enhanced SQI. To apply enhanced SQI to face recognition subspace analysis algorithms ( PCA, KPCA and ICA ) are tout to perform subspace analysis on normalized samples. To prosecute experiments on CAS-PEAL face database. The face samples are preprocessed by enhance SQI to meliorate the performance of subspace analysis algorithms. Experimental result canonical the preprocessing of samples could salutary the robust to not only lighting but also facial expressions, masking and occlusion etc. in face recognition domain.

Keywords: Face recognition, Histogram equalization, Subspace analysis, illumination.

I.

Introduction

The illumination problem has been believed to be one of most difficulties in face recognition. The image variation from lighting changes is more portentous than that from divengent personal identities.

264

T.Jebarajan 2 Principal Kings College of Engineering Chennai, India - 600105

Up to now many prosperous algorithm are intend for face recognition. Principle component analysis ( PCA ) [1] , Independent component analysis (ICA ) [2] , Fisher’s linear discriminant ( FLD ) [3] are three basic algorithm for subspace analysis in face recognition. Besides the QI method, much other technique has been proposed for face recognition under various illumination conditions in Holocene year. SQI perpetuate QI to perform illumination subtraction without the need for alignment and no shadow assumption as QI does. Recently some researchers paying close solitious to preprocessing of face images to tune-up lighting in an image by initiate some models, like the quotient image QI [4,5,6] based methods, illumination cone based methods [7,8], total variation based methods (TV) [9,10]. Shashua et al. propound the quotient image which is an image ratio between a test image and a linear unification of three images illuminated by non coplanar lights, authentic only on albedo information and therefore is illumination free. QI method could improve the performance, but it exigeny a large training set and this is not practical in many predicament. Wang et al. proposed a self quotient image model (SQI) [6]. SQI is proposed based on basic conception of QI. SQI implements the normalization by dividing the low frequency part of the prime image, since the lighting effects are represented as the low frequency

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part. But the edge information is over smoothed by the smoother filter. To overcome this problem by applying lighting invariant preprocessing methods. In order to vanquish the drawback of SQI, a new method enhanced self quotient image is proposed and dispeled in detail. To apply ESQI to face recognition, feature is essensed using subspace method and the performance of PCA, KPCA and ICA are ascertained and compared. A large scale CAS- PEAL face database is used for check the validity of algorithms. Compared with SQI face sample preprocessed, the ESQI model could improve the performance of face recognition algorithm.

II. SQI frame work

be

decomposition into two parts 1. The intrinsic part. 2. The extrinsic part.

The

Lambertian

model

can

I (x, y) =

(x, y) n(x, y) T · S -------------- (1) T · S -------------- (1)

= F (x, y) ·

S

Where is albedo and n is the surface normal.

F (x, y) · S Where is albedo and n is the surface normal. The main

The main problem for accurate face recognition is to separating the two factors and detach the extrinsic factors are a key to attaining robust face recognition.

III.Self quotient image

We define the self quotient image as an

intrinsic property of face image. The self quotient image Q of image I is ipsofacto by

Q =

----------------The self quotient image Q of image I is ipsofacto by Q = (2) Where *

(2)

Where * is convolution operator, I is the smoothed I and F is the smoothing kernel and the division id point-wise as in the prime quotient image. The self quotient image has

265

illumination invariant properties as ostensive below using Lambertian model but with shadow. When shadow present the Lambertian model equation can be epitomize a

I = max (

the Lambertian model equation can be epitomize a I = max ( n T · S,

n T · S, 0) ------------- (3)

Analysis In a self quotient image, we regard three regions with divergent shapes and shadow conditions. Region 1:

In the absence of shadow and presents small surface normal variation. In this case, n T (u,v) C 1 , where C 1 is a constant, then we have

Q(u,v)=

C 1 , where C 1 is a constant, then we have Q(u,v)= = ------- (4)

, where C 1 is a constant, then we have Q(u,v)= ≈ = ------- (4) In

=

, where C 1 is a constant, then we have Q(u,v)= ≈ = ------- (4) In

------- (4)

In this case Q is quantisly illumination free and be contingent on the albedo of the face Region 2:

In the absence of shadow but present large surface normal variation. In this case n T (u,v) S is not a constant. The SQI is given by

Q(u,v) =

(u,v) S is not a constant. The SQI is given by Q(u,v) = = -------- (5)

=

(u,v) S is not a constant. The SQI is given by Q(u,v) = = -------- (5)

-------- (5)

In this case Q is contingent on surface normal, albedo and illumination Region 3 In shadow regions. In this case the gray value of image is relatively low and does not vary. Let us feigned that light is harmoniously scattered from all directions in shadow regions. The summation of the dot product between n and S i is constant in such region.

N T (u,v)·

S i (u,v)= i (u,v)=

is constant in such region. N T (u,v)· S i (u,v)= Where C 2 is a

Where C 2 is a constant and

n T (u,v)·S i (u,v)=C 2

Where C 2 is a constant and n T (u,v)·S i (u,v)=C 2 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 6, June 2011

Thus I(u,v) in shadow region can be

written as I(u,v) C 2

I(u,v) in shadow region can be written as I(u,v) ≈ C 2 (u,v), then we have

(u,v), then we have

Q(u,v)

be written as I(u,v) ≈ C 2 (u,v), then we have Q(u,v) = = -----(6) In

=

be written as I(u,v) ≈ C 2 (u,v), then we have Q(u,v) = = -----(6) In

=

written as I(u,v) ≈ C 2 (u,v), then we have Q(u,v) = = -----(6) In such

-----(6)

In such region Q is illumination free and also secluds the shadow effect. The advantage of SQI method is 1. Does not need alignment procedure. 2. No training images are exigency. 3. SQI is good for eradicate shadow. 4. Lightning source can be any type.

 

IV.

Proposed method

 

In

our

proposed

method

we

use

a

weighted Gaussian filter, given by

F = W G --------------------- (7)

Where W is the weight and G is the Gaussian kernel.

In this application we adopt this filter with a multi scale version. Histogram equalization (HE) method has been countenanced to be a cogent method to adjust lighting in images. Some Examples of preprocessed images by HE are illustrated in fig -1( row marked with HE)

images by HE are illustrated in fig -1( row marked with HE) ESQI Fig-1 From Fig

ESQI

Fig-1

From Fig – 1 HE method does discard most of impact of lighting from face images. But HE has some obstacle. The face image preprocessed by HE method some important regions are blocked. Face feature like eyes nose and mouth are not persist in these blocked regions. In our proposed method ESQI to persist some important features after HE method. Fig -1 also indicates some examples of normalized face samples got by our model (row marked with ESQI). Analogous with HE some consequential regions are not blocked. Analogous with ancestral HE method and SQI method these advantages of our proposed model make normalized face samples got by our model more apt to face recognition on large scale face database. Given the training set X={x 1 ,x 2 ,……… x N } where N is the number of samples.

In order to enhance contrast of every

sample x i wield histogram equalization, a flat

histogram H 1 with gray level K 1 is procreated where i = 1,2…………. , N.

H 1 =

is procreated where i = 1,2…………. , N. H 1 = * (n 2 /k 1

* (n 2 /k 1 ) ----------------

(8)

Accessory Distance

(n 2 /k 1 ) ---------------- (8) Accessory Distance Expression Lighting Original A gray scale transformation

Expression Lighting

---------------- (8) Accessory Distance Expression Lighting Original A gray scale transformation T (· ) is chosen

Original

(8) Accessory Distance Expression Lighting Original A gray scale transformation T (· ) is chosen to

A gray scale transformation T (· ) is

chosen to minimize C 1 (T (K) ) C 0 ( K ) Where C 0 (·) is the cumulative histogram of x i .

To procure the grayscale transformation

T(·) minimization of equation (8) may be rewritten to minimize the error intervening the optimal and actual cumulative histogram.

Histogram equalization(HE)

and actual cumulative histogram. Histogram equalization(HE) E r r ={C T The error is defined by

E r r ={C T rr ={C T

The error is defined by

- } + (
-
} +
(

) --- (9)

SQI

266

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Where H 0 is the actual histogram of x i , K 0 is the gray level of H 0 , C 0 is the actual cumulative histogram, C 1 is desired cumulative histogram. Every sample x i is preprocessed to map its gray value from the actual K 0 gray level to the desired K 1 gray level and to enrich its contrast as

X i = T (x i ) -------------------------- (10)

For these enhanced face samples x i appertain to the famous SQI method.

Subspace analysis

We appertain PCA, KPCA and ICA to perform subspace dialytic on these normalized face samples. Bartlett et al [2] has proposed and discussed two architecture about how to organize samples in the training set and they also corroborate that the second architecture about how to organize samples could outperform the first one. So in this paper, the second architecture about how to organize samples in the training set for ICA ( ICA2) [2] is chosen.

In order to codify features extracted by subspace analysis methods (PCA, KPCA and ICA2) the nearest neighbor classifier is adopted with four famous distances (L1, L2, cos and mid) as affinity measurement for classifier in face recognition.

The four distances are L1 = D L1 (x, y) = i x i – y i . L2 =D L2 (x, y) = (x, y) T (x, y). Cos = D cos (x, y) = x T y x║║y. Mid = D mid (x, y) = (xy) T -1 (x, y).

IV. Experimental result

We investigate our algorithm on the famous CAS-PEAL face database is chosen to verify and validate of various algorithms. It contains 99,594 images of 1040 individuals

(595 males and 445 females) with varying pose, expression, accessory and lighting. In the following experiment all the faces are rotated resized and cropped to 64 X64 with 256 gray levels according to the coordinate of two eyes.

Four probe sets in the frontal subsets expressions, lighting, accessory and distance are chosen to the algorithm. To test the validity using our proposed ESQI model in Face recognition.

The following Table-1 illustrates the preciseness of recognition rate at rank -1 of various approaches on the CAS-PEAL face database respectively. It clearly show that our proposed model improve the performance of ICA2, KPCA and PCA against accessory, distance and facial expression.

 

L1

L2

Cos

Md

L1

L2

Cos

Md

   

Accessory

   

Distance

 

ICA2

48.93

41.79

52.74

40.75

78.18

72.56

85.46

71.96

ESQI+ICA2

45.51

49.85

58.45

50.24

80.36

82.36

92.36

82.00

KPCA

40.20

32.60

20.18

46.00

86.11

63.45

30.15

74.64

KPCA+ICA2

48.97

38.30

36.30

50.32

90.12

90.45

75.32

81.66

PCA

46.15

25.50

15.06

40.35

84.18

54.78

26.44

75.64

PCA+ICA2

51.55

35.72

32.91

50.81

91.22

81.05

76.05

84.37

   

Expression

   

Lighting

 

ICA2

55.03

54.18

60.10

56.63

8.22

7.98

10.39

10.67

ESQI+ICA2

52.91

65.03

71.09

63.15

5.62

10.89

19.35

8.24

KPCA

71.55

65.45

37.33

56.61

8.11

3.00

0.5

11.98

KPCA+ICA2

75.11

70.11

65.98

64.26

12.00

6.05

7.09

10.00

PCA

68.58

62.50

30.48

53.17

6.10

2.16

0.57

10.98

PCA+ICA2

75.12

63.85

65.35

64.20

12.29

6.50

3.77

10.05

Table-1. The accuracy recognition rates(%) at rank 1 of various approaches on the CAS-PEAL face database.

Fig -2 gives the accuracy recognition rate of PCA, KPCA and ICA2 employing our proposed ESQI model at rank 1 -50. According to fig -1 ICA2 achieved the best performance for accessory, distance and lighting test sets. KPCA actualized the best performance for expression testing set.

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If the average preciseness rate is considered ICA2 could outperform the other two algorithms advocated ICA2 employing our proposed ESQI model for real application.

employing our proposed ESQI model for real application. Fig-2a Fig-2b Fig-2c Fig-2d 268 Fig-2 (a, b,c,d).

Fig-2a

our proposed ESQI model for real application. Fig-2a Fig-2b Fig-2c Fig-2d 268 Fig-2 (a, b,c,d). The

Fig-2b

our proposed ESQI model for real application. Fig-2a Fig-2b Fig-2c Fig-2d 268 Fig-2 (a, b,c,d). The

Fig-2c

ESQI model for real application. Fig-2a Fig-2b Fig-2c Fig-2d 268 Fig-2 (a, b,c,d). The accuracy recognition

Fig-2d

268

Fig-2 (a, b,c,d). The accuracy recognition rates of PCA, KPCA and ICA employing our proposed ESQI model at rank 1-50 with the similarity measurement which has achieved the max accuracy recognition rate in Table-1

VI. Conclusion

The new proposed model enhanced self quotient image rub-on to face recognition employing sub space analysis method. To practice the experiments on the CAS-PEAL face database the samples are preprocessed by our proposed model could improve the performance of some notorious subspace analysis algorithm. And these result confirm that the samples preprocessed by our model could make PCA, KPCA and ICA2 not only potent to light but also potent to facial expressions, masking and occlusion etc. Thus the new proposed model is apt to real applications.

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