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Introduction II. Logic III. Notation IV. Terminology V. Partitioning the Variance VI. The F Test VII. Formal Example 1. Research Question 2. Hypotheses 3. Assumptions 4. Decision Rules 5. Computation - [Minitab] 6. Decision VIII.Comparisons Among Means - [Minitab] [Spreadsheet] IX. Relation of F to t Homework

I.

I. Introduction

The ANalysis Of VAriance (or ANOVA) is a powerful and common statistical procedure in the social sciences. It can handle a variety of situations. We will talk about the case of one between groups factor here and two between groups factors in the next section. The example that follows is based on a study by Darley and Latan (1969). The authors were interested in whether the presence of other people has an influence on whether a person will help someone in distress. In this classic study, the experimenter (a female graduate student) had the subject wait in a room with either 0, 2, or 4 confederates. The experimenter announces that the study will begin shortly and walks into an adjacent room. In a few moments the person(s) in the waiting room hear her fall and complain of ankle pain. The dependent measure is the number of seconds it takes the subject to help the experimenter.

How do we analyze this data? We could do a bunch of between groups t tests. However, this is not a good idea for three reasons. 1. The amount of computational labor increases rapidly with the number of groups in the study. Number Number Pairs Groups of Means

3 4 5 6 7 8 3 6 10 15 21 28

2. We are interested in one thing -- is the number of people present related to helping behavior? -- thus it would be nice to be able to do one test that would answer this question. 3. The type I error rate rises with the number of tests we perform.

II. Logic

The reason this analysis is called ANOVA rather than multi-group means analysis (or something like that) is because it compares group means by analyzing comparisons of variance estimates. Consider:

We draw three samples. Why might these means differ? There are two reasons: 1. Group Membership (i.e., the treatment effect or IV). 2. Differences not due to group membership (i.e., chance or sampling error). The ANOVA is based on the fact that two independent estimates of the population variance can be obtained from the sample data. A ratio is formed for the two estimates, where:

one is sensitive to treatment effect & error between groups estimate and the other to error within groups estimate

Given the null hypothesis (in this case HO: 1= 2= 3), the two variance estimates should be equal. That is, since the null assumes no treatment effect, both variance estimates reflect error and their ratio will equal 1. To the extent that this ratio is larger than 1, it suggests a treatment effect (i.e., differences between the groups). It turns out that the ratio of these two variance estimates is distributed as F when the null hypothesis is true.

Note: 1. F is an extended family of distributions, which varies as a function of a pair of degrees of freedom (one for each variance estimate). 2. F is positively skewed. 3. F ratios, like the variance estimates from which they are derived, cannot have a value less than zero. Using the F, we can compute the probability of the obtained result occurring due to chance. If this probability is low (p ), we will reject the null hypothesis.

III. Notation

We already knew that: i = any score n = the last score (or the number of scores) What is new here is that: j = any group p = the last group (or the number of groups) Thus:

Group

1 2 J P

And:

1 .

2 .

3 .

4 .

5 .

IV. Terminology

Since we are talking about the analysis of the variance, let's review what we know about it.

So the variance is the mean of the squared deviations about the mean (MS) or the sum of the squared deviations about the mean (SS) divided by the degrees of freedom.

As noted above, two independent estimates of the population variance can be obtained. Expressed in terms of the Sum of Squares:

To make this more concrete, consider a data set with 3 groups and 4 subjects in each. Thus, the possible deviations for the score X13 are as follows:

total #3

within groups #1

between groups #2

To obtain the Sum of the Squared Deviations about the Mean (the SS), we can square these deviations and sum them over all the scores.

Thus we have:

Note: nj in formula for the SSBetween means do it once for each deviation.

It is simply the ratio of the two variance estimates:

As usual, the critical values are given by a table. Going into the table, one needs to know the degrees of freedom for both the between and within groups variance estimates, as well as the alpha level. For example, if we have 3 groups and 10 subjects in each, then: DfB = p - 1 DfW = p(n - 1) or with unequal N's: =31=2

= 3 * (10-1) = 27

DfT = N - 1

= 30 - 1 = 29

Note that the df add up to the total and with =.05, Fcrit= 3.35

Research Question Does the presence of others influence helping behavior? 2. Hypotheses

1.

In Symbols In Words

HO 1= 2= HA

3.

3

The presence of others does not influence helping. The presence of others does influence helping.

Not Ho

Assumptions 1) The subjects are sampled randomly. 2) The groups are independent. 3) The population variances are homogenous. 4) The population distribution of the DV is normal in shape. 5) The null hypothesis. 4. Decision rules Given 3 groups with 4, 5, and 5 subjects, respectively, we have (3-1=) 2 df for the between groups variance estimate and (3+4+4=) 11 df for the within groups variance estimate. (Note that it is good to check that the df add up to the total.) Now with an level of .05, the table shows a critical value of F is 3.98. If Fobs Fcrit, reject Ho, otherwise do not reject Ho.

5.

Computation - [Minitab] Here is the data (i.e., the number of seconds it took for folks to help):

# people present

0

25 30 20 32

2

30 33 29 40 36 168

4

32 39 35 41 44 191

107

26.8

33.6

38.2

For the analysis, we will use a grid as usual for most of the calculations:

0 X2 2 X2 4 X2

25 30 20 625 900 400 30 29 900 841 32 1024 39 1521 35 1225 41 1681 44 1936 191 5 =466 =14 33 1089 40 1600 36 1296 107 4 168 5

32 1024

T N

26.8

33.6

38.2

2949

5726

7387

=16062

II

2862.25

5644.8

7296.2 =15803.25

III

Now we need the grand totals and the three intermediate quantities:

I.

II.

III.

And:

Thus:

SSB = III I = 15803.25-15511.14 = 292.11 SSW = II III = 16062-15803.25 = 258.75 SST = II I = 16062-15511.14 = 550.86

Source Within Total SS df MS 23.520 F p Between 292.11 2 146.056 6.21 <.05

258.75 11 550.86 13

6.

Decision Since Fobs (6.21) is > Fcrit (3.98), reject Ho and conclude that the more people present, the longer it takes to get help.

In the formal example presented above, we rejected the null and asserted that the groups were drawn from different populations. But which groups are different from which? A "comparison" compares the means of two groups. There are two kinds of comparisons that we can perform: "preplanned" and "post hoc". These are outlined below. Which approach is used should be based on our goals. In reality, the post hoc approach is the one that is most often taken. Preplanned

We have a theory (or some previous research) which suggests certain comparisons.

Post hoc

Have a significant overall (or omnibus) F & then w localize the effect.

In this case, we might not even compute the omnibus F (this Are more commonly used than preplanned compa approach is somewhat analogous to a one-tailed test).

In addition, there are "simple" (involving two means) and "complex" (involving more than two means) comparisons. With three groups (Groups 1, 2 & 3), the following 6 comparisons are possible. Simple Complex

1 vs. 2 (1 + 2) vs. 3 1 vs. 3 1 vs. (2 + 3) 2 vs. 3 (1 + 3) vs. 2

As the number of groups increases, so does the number of comparisons that are possible. Some of these can tell us about trend (a description of the form of the relationship between the IV and DV). The problem with post hoc tests is that the type I error rate increases the more comparisons we perform. This is a somewhat controversial area and there are a number of methods currently in use to deal with this problem. We will consider one of the more simple methods below. The protected t test - [Minitab] [Spreadsheet] It is performed only when the omnibus F is significant. This technique is protected because it requires the omnibus F to be significant (which tells us there is at least one comparison between means that is significant). So, in other words, it is protected because we are not just shooting in the dark. It uses a more stable estimate of the population variance than the t test

(i.e.,

instead of

(Where the df's are 1 for the numerator and dfw for the denominator.) So, for our example the critical value of F is 4.84 (from the table) and:

Thus, the only comparison that is significant is that between the first and third groups.

IX. Relation of F to t

Since the F test is just an extension of the t test to more than two groups, they should be related and they are. With two groups, F

For example, consider the critical values for df = (1, 15) with = .05: Fcrit (1, 15) = tcrit (15)2

Obtaining the values from the tables, we can see that this is true: 4.54 = 2.1312

Copyright 1997-2009 M. Plonsky, Ph.D. Comments? mplonsky@uwsp.edu.

Anova Formula

See Also Send comments on this topic.

Overview

An Anova test is used to determine the existence, or absence of a statistically significant difference between the mean values of two or more groups of data.

All statistical formulas are calculated using the Statistics class, the following table describes how to use its Anova method to perform an Anova test.

1. 2.

probability: the alpha value (probability). inputSeriesNames: the names of two or more input series. Each series must exist in the series collection at the time of the method call, and have the same number of data points.

Statistic

Return:

An AnovaResult object, which has the following members: DegreeOfFreedomBetweenGroups DegreeOfFreedomTotal DegreeOfFreedomWithinGroups FCriticalValue

Note Make sure that all data points have their XValue property set, and that their series' XValueIndexed property has been set to false.

Statistical Interpretation

The purpose of an Anova test is to determine the existence, or absence of a statistically significant difference amongst several group means. Anova actually uses variances to help determine if the various means are equal or not. To perform an Anova test three basic assumptions must be fulfilled: 1. 2. 3. Each group from which a sample is taken is normal. Each group is randomly selected and independent. The variables from each group come from distribution with approximately equal standard deviation.

The null hypothesis is simply that all group population means are the same. The alternate hypothesis is that at least one pair of means is different.

Calculation

1. Calculate the sample average for each group:

Example

This example demonstrates how to perform an Anova Test, using Series1, Series2, and Series3 for the input series. The results are returned in an AnovaResult object. Visual Basic

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C#

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Example

This example demonstrates how to perform an Anova Test, using Series1, and Series2 for the input series. The results are returned in an AnovaResult object. The object values are then added as titles to a separate chart. We assume that series data was added at design-time. Further, we assume a "DundasBlue" template was applied for appearance purposes.

Figure 1: Two Charts; One containing Series data (left), and the other containing the AnovaResult object (right).

Visual Basic

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Imports Dundas.Charting.WinControl ... ' The Anova Result Object is Created Dim result As AnovaResult = Chart1.DataManipulator.Statistics.Anova(.9,"Series1,Series2") ' Add Title to the second chart. Chart2.Titles.Add("AnovaResult Object at Probability: 90%") ' Change Appearance properties of the first title. Chart2.Titles(0).BackColor = Color.FromArgb(255, 65, 140, 240) Chart2.Titles(0).Font = New Font("Trebuchet", 12, FontStyle.Bold) Chart2.Titles(0).Color = Color.White Chart2.Titles(0).Style =

TextStyle.Shadow ' Add All AnovaResult data to the title collection, using the ToString() method. Chart2.Titles.Add("Degree Of Freedom Between Groups: " + result.DegreeOfFreedomBetweenGroups.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("Degree Of Freedom Total:" + result.DegreeOfFreedomTotal.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("Degree Of Freedom Within Groups: " + result.DegreeOfFreedomWithinGroups.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("F Critical Value: " + result.FCriticalValue.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("FRatio: " + result.FRatio.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("Mean Square Variance Between Groups: " + result.MeanSquareVarianceBetweenGroups.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("Mean Square Variance Within Groups: " + result.MeanSquareVarianceWithinGroups.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("Sum Of Squares Between Groups: " + result.SumOfSquaresBetweenGroups.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("Sum Of Squares Total: " + result.SumOfSquaresTotal.ToString()) Chart2.Titles.Add("Sum Of Squares Within Groups: " + result.SumOfSquaresWithinGroups.ToString())

C#

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using Dundas.Charting.WinControl; ... // The Anova Result Object is Created AnovaResult result = Chart1.DataManipulator.Statistics.Anova(.9, "Series1,Series2"); // Add Title to the second chart. Chart2.Titles.Add("AnovaResult Object at Probability: 90%"); // Change Appearance properties of the first title. Chart2.Titles[0].BackColor = Color.FromArgb(255, 65, 140, 240); Chart2.Titles[0].Font = new Font("Trebuchet", 12, FontStyle.Bold); Chart2.Titles[0].Color = Color.White; Chart2.Titles[0].Style = TextStyle.Shadow; // Add All AnovaResult data to the title collection, using the ToString() method. Chart2.Titles.Add("Degree Of Freedom Between Groups: " + result.DegreeOfFreedomBetweenGroups.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("Degree Of Freedom Total:" + result.DegreeOfFreedomTotal.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("Degree Of Freedom Within Groups: " + result.DegreeOfFreedomWithinGroups.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("F Critical Value: " + result.FCriticalValue.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("FRatio: " + result.FRatio.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("Mean Square Variance Between Groups: " + result.MeanSquareVarianceBetweenGroups.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("Mean Square Variance Within Groups: " + result.MeanSquareVarianceWithinGroups.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("Sum Of Squares Between Groups: " + result.SumOfSquaresBetweenGroups.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("Sum Of Squares Total: " + result.SumOfSquaresTotal.ToString()); Chart2.Titles.Add("Sum Of Squares Within Groups: " + result.SumOfSquaresWithinGroups.ToString());

See Also

Financial Formulas Formulas Overview Statistical Formulas Using Statistical Formulas Statistical Formula Listing

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