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French Acquisition of Italy French attacked Piedmont Sardinia in 1792, gaining Nice and Savoy.

By 1805, Napoleon had crowned himself king of Italy. Napoleon made a series of changes which simplified political territorial boundaries; making Italy into just four separate republics, and by 1810 he had divided the country into three sections. -One third was annexed to France and became part of the French Empire, it was the North West Region (Piedmont, Central Duchies and Papal States. -Another third became the Kingdom of Italy, comprising of

1815 - The Restored Monarchies French control of Italy came to an end when Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo in 1815. At the congress of Vienna, the European powers met and decided to return the Italian state boundaries to what they were before Napoleon changed them. Piedmont Victor Emmanuel I restored to King and enlarged to include Savoy and Genoa. (Genoa was of great commercial benefit to Piedmont) Lombardy and Venetia Joined together and controlled from Vienna Central Duchies (Tuscany, Modena and Parma) Restored to old Austrian appointed rulers Kingdom of Two Sicilies (Naples and Sicily) theoretically independent, but needed Austrian approval to make laws. Papal States returned to control of the pope, Austrian armed forces stationed there The old rulers were keen to return to Pre-

Revolutions of the 1820s and 1830s Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1820 Sicilians wanted independence, resented Austrian influence and agricultural prices meant peasants became less price competitive and discontent Piedmont Sardinia 1821 news of revolution in Naples encouraged secret societies of the North. They hoped to force Victor Emmanuel I to grant a constitution Modena and Parma 1830 middle classes wanted constitutional reform and establishment of a central Italian

Life under French Rule Some groups suffered and some gained at their expense: Church: Suffered under French rule severely. Power was greatly reduced and two popes were imprisoned. Church land was sold off Wealthy: Some benefitted from buying church land Urban Groups: 10% of Italians lived in urban ares. Most benefitted from Napoleons decreased bureaucracy and the Code Napoleon: a group of civil laws which promoted equal rights for all citizens but not women Peasants: 80-90% of whole county, life changed little

Life under the Restored Monarchies Piedmont Victor Emmanuel I set about trying to restore Piedmont. The Code Napoleon was abandoned and old, 18th century laws were reimplemented. He tore down many things the French introduced, such as Gas Lights and French Roads. Central Duchies (Tuscany, Modena and Parma) Ferdinand III, ruler of Tuscany was no reactionary leader. He improved the education system, expanded health facilities and allowed a degree of free expression which was not seen anywhere else in Italy. Florence became cultural centre of Italy. Kingdom of Two Sicilies (Naples and Sicily) King Ferdinand I abolished Sicilian constitution which meant they now had no say in government. Cruel, repressive ruler

Why did the revolutions fail? The failure of the revolutions can be put down to a number of reasons. 1. Might of Austria the rulers were all close to Austria, called on them for support 2. Internal Divisions Revolutions were separate and local. In each case, local plans were of concern and communication/co-operation was limited 3. Lack of mass support there was no cohesion which meant lack of support from peasants, revolutions were mainly a middle class affair. They would not call on peasantry for fear of rule of the mob. The middle classes

Mazzini Founder of Young Italy and he believed the aims of the previous revolutionaries were too moderate. He said that true liberty would only be possible when Italy was united, so he campaigned tirelessly for a united Italy. The Young Italy movement had a uniform and were armed. They were not localised either which separated them from previous societies. Despite Mazzinis efforts, he was largely unsuccessful. His ideas were seen as too

Sicily Jan 1848 Revolutions began in Sicily, inspired by King Ferdinands repression, famine and demonstrations by Mazzinians. The revolutionaries

Papal States March 4th Pope grants

Piedmont March- Demands for constitution, Charles Albert grants the Statuto

Tuscany 11th Feb People receive a constitution from Grand Duke. He flees in February and a provisional government is set up by the

Central Duchies March People discontent with state monopoly of tobacco and brandy in Milan. The people go on a tobacco strike and the Austrian government subsequently loses revenue. Radetzky decided to withdraw, Metternich had resigned and there was a

Pope Pius IX - May 1848 saw initial success and existing rulers flee, But in May, whilst the Papal States army disobeyed orders and joined Piedmonts war against Austria, the pope decided to issue an allocution; making it clear he would not join a war against Austria and also that he was no longer interested in the idea of united Italy. He had turned

March 1849 - Roman Republic established In by Mazzini. He abolished death penalty, reformed taxation, education reformed, new newspapers etc. The republic was at the forefront of political radicalism and favoured the mass poor population. However it only lasted 100 days. It crushed by French Garrison, which remained there until 1870.

Feb 1849 - The pope fled! A temporal power end of the pope proclaimed

Defeat of Piedmont August - Charles Albert defeated by Austrians in August. Forced to abdicate but the Statuto remained and his

1831- 47 factors promoting change! Riformisti believed in economic reform being the key to Italys future. Opposed the ideas of Mazzini Cultural influences new literature began to promote nationalist and Anti-Austrian ideas Social and Economic influences 19th century, Italys economy still based on agriculture, when it was inefficient and vulnerable to foreign competition Mazzini formed the Young Italy movement, called for the unification of Italy Albertisti + Charles Albert -Charles Albert became leader of Piedmont, showed greater willingness to reform in

Why did the revolutions fail? The failure of the revolutions can be put down to a number of reasons. 1. Might of Austria: probably the single most important factor in the failure of the revolutions. Austrian army was better equipped, bigger and better led. They took a leading role in restoring the old regimes in 1849 2. Internal divisions: there was a lack of co-operation between revolutionary groups. The revolutionaries had different aims, for example moderate liberals wanted a constitution as a first step, whereas radicals wanted a republic straight away. Furthermore, there was no accepted national leader for the cause, none of the three (Mazzini, Pope Pius IX and Charles Albert) was accepted everywhere 3. Lack of popular support: the revolutionary movements lacked guidance. They were inexperienced, weak and lacked resources, especially military. Once they had gained power, they could not maintain it, partly owing to the lack of support from the mass of population such as peasants.

Nov 4th 1952 Cavour becomes Prime 1855 Piedmont enter the Crimean war, siding with Britain and

1856 Peace of Paris conference declared at the armistice at the end of the war. Piedmont on the victorious side so were given a seat at the conference Cavour became acquainted with Napoleon III and a peace treaty was decided.

1858 Plombieres. Cavour was included in a secret meeting two years after the Peace of Paris talks. France gave support to a Piedmont war against Austria, to stop the spread of increasing Austrian influence Piedmont was to give

1859 At Plombieres it was decided they could only go to war with a good reason. April Piedmont mobilised their army and Austria demanded it was disbanded. Piedmont refused and Austria declared war on them. Napoleon openly declared support for Piedmont and the

July Villafranca armistice. Piedmont would receive Lombardy, but handed over to France first Tuscany, Modena and Parma would get their old rulers back (never happened) Austria kept Venetia (remained

August Tuscany voted for annexation with Piedmont, so did Modena, Parma and Romagna, but Napoleon objected at first so pro-Piedmont governments were left in charge. Over the next 9

Why did Piedmont enter the Crimean War? - Victor Emmanuel saw the war as an opportunity to reassert his royal authority whilst the constitution began to restrain him - To gain international prestige - An opportunity to gain France and Britain as allies since they had pressured them into joining the war.

The Austrian War The war only lasted seven weeks and was poorly organised. Austria suffered two defeats in June 1859 but in July Napoleon unexpectedly made a truce without the consultation of Cavour. Why did Napoleon stop the war? The Austrians had not been completely beaten, but their troops had retreated to the impenetrable Quadrilateral fortresses, which would have only fallen at a high human/financial cost. Napoleon was becoming more unpopular in France as there was growing criticism of the war. Napoleon was becoming increasingly suspicious of Cavours actions and motives, who seemed to be encouraging revolutions and spreading Piedmonts influence as a means to gain more power than had been agreed at Plombieres. Provisional governments had been set up in Modena and

Why did Cavour resign? Cavour was not consulted when the truce was signed between Austria and Napoleon. In France there was growing suspicion of Piedmontese activities and Cavour was falling out of favour with Napoleon and therefore losing French support they needed. Cavour was encouraging revolutionary activity through the Central Duchies and Cavours agents were even encouraging it in the Papal States, which Napoleon disliked. Cavour was angry about the

March 1860 Tuscany and the new state of Emilia (Modena, Parma and Romagna) voted for annexation with Piedmont. The war with Austria had increased nationalistic feeling. Nice and Savoy were handed over to France to restore good relations.

4th April - Palermo, Sicily Mazzinian republicans, led by Crispi, initiated an uprising. The difference between this uprising is that it was quickly taken up by the countryside peasantry, thus had a surge of popular support. The revolts were directly mostly against landlords who raised their rents. Neapolitan troops were sent to restore order May: Garibaldi gathered 1000 volunteers known as red shirts. Cavour refused to support the conquest but nevertheless, Garibaldi sailed from Genoa in two ancient steamers and

Garibaldi crossed into Naples, took it and moved northwards to take the Papal States and

August: Cavour and Victor Emmanuel headed through the Papal States from the North to stop Garibaldi from creating an

26th October: Garibaldi had the choice of fighting Piedmont or acknowledging the supremacy of the king. Garibaldi handed over his

June 1862 Garibaldi gathers troops for second attack on Rome, in the Papal States. 6th June 1861 Cavour Dies Only Venetia and Papal August He is stopped by Italian government at Aspromonte and the army is disbanded.

THE VENETIAN QUESTION Prussian/Austrian war 1864 Austria and Prussias relations decline 20th June 1866 Italy enter war against Austria, promised Venetia by Prussia if they win 12th August: Italy ends war with Austria after Prussia signs armistice THE ROMAN QUESTION Franco/Prussian War July 1870: With the outbreak of the FrancoPrussian war, Napoleon III calls back troops from Rome 20th September: Italian forces enter Rome; Rome is annexed by the Kingdom of Italy

September 15: Victor Emmanuel II meets with Napoleon III at the September Convention; Napoleon III agrees to withdraw French troops from the French Garrison in Rome within 2 years if Italy protects it