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# A subnetwork, or subnet, is a logically visible subdivision of an IP network. The practice of dividing a network into subnetworks is called subnetting.

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## 192.168.0.0, netmask 255.255.255.0 is written as 192.168.0.0/24

subnetting

The process of subnetting involves the separation of the network and subnet portion of an address from the host identifier. This is performed by a bitwise AND operation between the IP address and the (sub)network prefix. The result yields the network address or prefix, and the remainder is the host identifier.

Determining the network prefix An IPv4 network mask consist of 32 bits, a sequence of ones (1) followed by a block of 0s. The last block of zeros (0) designate that part as being the host identifier. The following example shows the separation of the network prefix and the host identifier from an address (192.168.5.130) and its associated /24 network mask (255.255.255.0). The operation is visualized in a table using binary address formats. Binary form IP address Subnet mask Network prefix Host part Dot-decimal notation

## 11000000.10101000.00000101.10000010 192.168.5.130 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000 255.255.255.0 11000000.10101000.00000101.00000000 192.168.5.0 00000000.00000000.00000000.10000010 0.0.0.130

The mathematical operation for calculating the network prefix is the binary and. The result of the operation yields the network prefix 192.168.5.0 and the host number 130 of a possible maximum of 256 addresses. Subnetting Subnetting is the process of designating some high-order bits from the host part and grouping them with the network mask to form the subnet mask. This divides a network into smaller subnets. The following diagram modifies the example by moving 2 bits from the host part to the subnet mask to form a smaller subnet one fourth the previous size: Binary form IP address Subnet mask Network prefix Host part Dot-decimal notation

## 11000000.10101000.00000101.10000010 192.168.5.130 11111111.11111111.11111111.11000000 255.255.255.192 11000000.10101000.00000101.10000000 192.168.5.128 00000000.00000000.00000000.00000010 0.0.0.2

192.168.5.0/26 192.168.5.64/26