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Distributed Control System


Larsen & Toubro, India



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Larsen & Toubro Limited (L&T) is a technology, engineering, construction and manufacturing company. It is one of the largest and most respected companies in India's private sector. Seven decades of a strong, customer-focused approach and the continuous quest for world-class quality have enabled it to attain and sustain leadership in all its major lines of business. L&T has an international presence, with a global spread of offices. A thrust on international business has seen overseas earnings grow significantly. It continues to grow its overseas manufacturing footprint, with facilities in China and the Gulf region. The company's businesses are supported by a wide marketing and distribution network, and have established a reputation for strong customer support. L&T believes that progress must be achieved in harmony with the environment. A commitment to community welfare and environmental protection are an integral part of the corporate vision.

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L&T is an international manufacturer of a wide range of electrical and electronic products and systems. L&T also manufactures custom-engineered switchboards for industrial sectors like power, refineries, petrochemicals and cement. In the electronic segment, L&T offers a range of meters and provides control and automation systems for industries. Medical equipment and systems manufactured by L&T include advanced ultrasound scanners and patient monitoring systems.

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L&T is the market leader for switchboards in India. It manufactures custom-built switchboards with conventional as well as intelligent protection, control and communication to meet the power distribution and motor control needs of key industries. Its Power Control Centers (PCC) and Motor Control Centers (MCC) are installed at major and prestigious plants in India. L&T manufactures maximum number of panels every year and has a steady market share. It associates with its customers at the project conceptualization stage and the association continues even after the project is commissioned. The range of custom-built switchboards comprises fully drawout PCCs and MCCs, distribution boards and control panels. Its PCC type TF is rated up to 6000A and houses L&T-made Air Circuit Breakers to take care of power distribution. The MCC type TQ is rated up to 5000A. L&T offers assistance in product selection, application engineering and detailed engineering, installation and commissioning, retrofitting and upgradation of switchboards, after-sales service and training. It also designs and manufactures enclosures in flat pack systems for switchboard assemblers world-wide. L&T offers retrofitting solutions for a wide range of LV & MV switchgear including IMCS. Marine Business has developed marinised switchgear, switchboards, distribution boards, starters and control systems for application onboard Naval Ships as well as commercial ships. Larsen & Toubro Limited is among the major manufacturers of low voltage switchgear in the World, with the scale, sophistication and range to meet global benchmarks. In addition to its leadership position in the Indian market established over a decade ago, L&T has a growing presence in international market. L&T switchgear conforms to international design standards, KEMA certification and CE markings, attest to quality and reliability. The company's continuous investment in upgrading capabilities has led to a technology base at par with the finest in electrical industry worldwide. State of art manufacturing facilities at Mumbai & Ahmednagar conform to the principles of lean manufacturing, six sigma and value engineering. Testing facilities include a 85 kA short circuit test station. Each of L&T's manufacturing facilities reflect the company's overriding concern for the environment.As a leader in the switchgear industry, L&T views its role as a complete solution provider for power distribution and control in the low tension segment. L&T has therefore set up full-fledged training centres at three locations around the country to propagate good electrical practices and offer advance professional skills in operation and maintenance of switchgear. Expert assistance in product selection and specification as well as effective post-sales service is offered through a wide network of service centres across the country. 8

1. Distributed Control System (DCS)

A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system usually of a manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the controller elements are not central in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-system controlled by one or more controllers. The entire system of controllers is connected by networks for communication and monitoring. DCS is a very broad term used in a variety of industries, to monitor and control distributed equipment.

Electrical power grids and electrical generation plants Environmental control systems Traffic signals radio signals Water management systems Oil refining plants Chemical plants Pharmaceutical manufacturing Sensor networks Dry cargo and bulk oil carrier ships

Distributed control systems (DCS) use decentralized elements or subsystems to control distributed processes or complete manufacturing systems. They do not require user intervention for routine operation, but may permit operator interaction via a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) interface. Distributed control systems (DCS) consist of a remote control panel, communications medium, and central control panel. They use process-control software and an input/output (I/O) database. Some suppliers refer to their remote control panels as remote transmission units (RTU) or digital communication units (DCU). Regardless of their name, remote control panels contain terminal blocks, I/O modules, a processor, and a communications interface. The communications medium in a distributed control system (DCS) is a wired or wireless link which connects the remote control panel to central control panel, SCADA, or human machine interface (HMI). Specialized process-control software is used to read an I/O database with defined inputs and outputs. Selecting distributed control systems (DCS) requires an analysis of network protocols. Ethernet is a local area network (LAN) protocol that uses a bus or star typology and supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps. To handle simultaneous demands, Ethernet uses

carrier sense multiple access / collision detection (CSMA/CD) to monitor network traffic. Fieldbus is a bi-directional communications protocol used for communications among field instrumentation and control systems. Network protocols for distributed control systems (DCS) also include controller area network bus (CANbus), control network (ControlNet), DeviceNet, INTERBUS (Phoenix Contact GmbH & Co), and PROFIBUS (PROFIBUS International). The process fieldbus (PROFIBUS) is a popular, open communication standard used in factory automation, process automation, motion control, and safety applications. Distributed control systems (DCS) differ in terms of complexity and applications. Smaller implementations may consist of a single programmable logic controller (PLC) connected to a computer in a remote office. Larger, more complex DCS installations are also PLC-based, but use special enclosures for subsystems that provide both I/O and communication. In terms of applications, some distributed control systems (DCS) are used in electrical power grids or electrical generation facilities. Others are used in environmental control systems, wastewater treatment plants, and sensor networks. Distributed control systems (DCS) for petroleum refineries and petrochemical plants are also common. Fully-distributed systems enable remote nodes to operate independently of the central control. These nodes can store all of the process data necessary to maintain operations in the even of a communications failure with a central facility.

A DCS typically uses custom designed processors as controllers and uses both proprietary interconnections and communications protocol for communication. Input and output modules form component parts of the DCS. The processor receives information from input modules and sends information to output modules. The input modules receive information from input instruments in the process (a.k.a. field) and transmit instructions to the output instruments in the field. Computer buses or electrical buses connect the processor and modules through multiplexer or demultiplexers. Buses also connect the distributed controllers with the central controller and finally to the Human-Machine Interface (HMI) or control consoles. See Process Automation System. Elements of a distributed control system may directly connect to physical equipment such as switches, pumps and valves or may work through an intermediate system such as a SCADA system.

Distributed Control Systems (DCSs) are dedicated systems used to control manufacturing processes that are continuous or batch-oriented, such as oil refining, petrochemicals, central station power generation, pharmaceuticals, food & beverage manufacturing, cement production, steelmaking, and papermaking. DCSs are connected to sensors and


actuators and use setpoint control to control the flow of material through the plant. The most common example is a setpoint control loop consisting of a pressure sensor, controller, and control valve. Pressure or flow measurements are transmitted to the controller, usually through the aid of a signal conditioning Input/Output (I/O) device. When the measured variable reaches a certain point, the controller instructs a valve or actuation device to open or close until the fluidic flow process reaches the desired set point. Large oil refineries have many thousands of I/O points and employ very large DCSs. Processes are not limited to fluidic flow through pipes, however, and can also include things like paper machines and their associated variable speed drives and motor control centers, cement kilns, mining operations, ore processing facilities, and many others. A typical DCS consists of functionally and/or geographically distributed digital controllers capable of executing from 1 to 256 or more regulatory control loops in one control box. The input/output devices (I/O) can be integral with the controller or located remotely via a field network. Todays controllers have extensive computational capabilities and, in addition to proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control, can generally perform logic and sequential control. DCSs may employ one or several workstations and can be configured at the workstation or by an off-line personal computer. Local communication is handled by a control network with transmission over twisted pair, coaxial, or fiber optic cable. A server and/or applications processor may be included in the system for extra computational, data collection, and reporting capability.


Control system architecture can range from simple local control to highly redundant distributed control.SCADA systems, by definition; apply to facilities that are large enough that a central control system is necessary. Reliability criteria for C4ISR facilities dictate the application of redundant or distributed central control systems.

Distributed control
Distributed control system architecture (figure 3-3) offers the best features of both local control and centralized control. In a distributed control system, controllers are provided locally to systems or groups of equipment, but networked to one or more operator stations in a central location through a digital communication circuit. Control action for each system or subsystem takes place in the local controller, but the central operator station has complete visibility of the status of all systems and the input and output data in each controller, as well as the ability to intervene in the control logic of the local controllers if necessary. a. There are a number of characteristics of distributed control architecture which enhance reliability:


(1) Input and output wiring runs are short and less vulnerable to physical disruption or electromagnetic interference. (2) A catastrophic environmental failure in one area of the facility will not affect controllers or wiring located in another area. (3) Each local controller can function on its own upon loss of communication with the central controller. b. There are also specific threats introduced by distributed control architecture that must be addressed in the design of the system: (1) Networks used for communication may become electronically compromised from outside the facility. (2) Interconnection of controllers in different locations can produce ground loop and surge voltage problems. (3) If the central controller is provided with the ability to directly drive the output of local controllers for purposes of operator intervention, software glitches in the central controller have the potential to affect multiple local controllers, compromising system redundancy. (4) Distributed control system architecture redundancy must mirror the redundancy designed into the mechanical and electrical systems of the facility. Where redundant mechanical or electrical systems are provided, they should be provided with dedicated controllers, such that failure of a single controller cannot affect more than one system. Equipment or systems that are common to multiple redundant subsystems or pathways, (such as generator paralleling switchgear) should be provided with redundant controllers.

Types of distributed control systems

a. Plant distributed control system (DCS): While the term DCS applies in general to any system in which controllers are distributed rather than centralized, in the power generation and petrochemical process industries it has come to refer to a specific type of control system able to execute complex analog process control algorithms at high speed, as well as provide routine monitoring, reporting and data logging functions. In most applications, the input and output modules of the system are distributed throughout the facility, but the control processors themselves are centrally located in proximity to the control room. These systems typically use proprietary hardware, software and communication protocols, requiring that both replacement parts and technical support be obtained from the original vendor. b. Direct digital control (DDC): DDC systems are used in the commercial building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) industry to monitor and maintain environmental conditions. They consist of local controllers connected to a network with a personal computer (PC) based central station which provides monitoring, reporting, data storage and programming capabilities. The controllers are optimized for economical HVAC system control, which generally does not require fast execution speeds. Their hardware and control software are proprietary, with either proprietary or open protocols used for network communication. c. Remote terminal unit (RTU) based SCADA: RTU-based systems are common in the electric, gas and water distribution industries where monitoring and control must take place across large geographical distances. The RTUs were developed primarily to provide monitoring and control capability at unattended


sites such as substations, metering stations, pump stations, and water towers. They communicate with a central station over telephone lines, fiber-optics, radio or microwave transmission. Monitored sites tend to be relatively small, with the RTU typically used mainly for monitoring and only limited control. Hardware and software are proprietary, with either proprietary or open protocols used for data transmission to the central station. d. Programmable logic controller (PLC) based systems: PLCs, which are described in greater detail in the next section, can be networked together to share data as well as provide centralized monitoring and control capability. Control systems consisting of networked PLCs are supplanting both the plant DCS and the RTU-based systems in many industries. They were developed for factory automation and have traditionally excelled at high speed discrete control, but have now been provided with analog control capability as well. Hardware for these systems is proprietary, but both control software and network communication protocols are open, allowing system configuration, programming and technical support for a particular manufacturers equipment to be obtained from many sources.

2. The DCS Protocol

Three components comprise the DCS architecture: hardware servers (DHS), GUI clients, and the DCS server, DCSS. GUI clients and hardware servers communicate solely with DCSS, and DCSS operates the only listening sockets (i.e., network server) in the DCS system. Consequently, hardware servers are in a sense network clients of DCSS and are sometimes referred to as clients of DCSS in the DCS message protocol documentation. DCS hardware servers encapsulate low-level control of physical devices such as motors, shutters, detectors, and so on. Hardware servers simply connect to DCSS and do whatever DCSS tells them to do. DCS GUI clients such as BLU-ICE are the ultimate source of these instructions to the hardware servers. DCSS passes the requests from GUI clients down to the appropriate hardware servers, and broadcasts all replies from hardware servers back to all of the GUI clients, thus keeping all GUI clients in complete synchronization.


Modbus Profibus IC 61850

MODBUS Data Link Layer 2.1 MODBUS Master / Slaves protocol principle
The MODBUS Serial Line protocol is a Master-Slaves protocol. Only one master (at the same time) is connected to the bus, and one or several (247 maximum number) slaves nodes are also connected to the same serial bus. A MODBUS communication is always


initiated by the master. The slave nodes will never transmit data without receiving a request from the master node. The slave nodes will never communicate with each other. The master node initiates only one MODBUS transaction at the same time. The master node issues a MODBUS request to the slave nodes in two modes: * In unicast mode, the master addresses an individual slave. After receiving and processing the request, the slave returns a message (a 'reply') to the master In that mode, a MODBUS transaction consists of 2 messages: a request from the master, and a reply from the slave. Each slave must have an unique address (from 1 to 247) so that it can be addressed independently from other nodes. *In broadcast mode, the master can send a request to all slaves. No response is returned to broadcast requests sent by the master. The broadcast requests are necessarily writing commands. All devices must accept the broadcast for writing function. The address 0 is reserved to identify a broadcast exchange.


2.2 MODBUS addressing rules

The MODBUS addressing space comprises 256 different addresses. 0 From 1 to 247 From 248 to 255 Broadcast address Slave individual addresses Reserved


The Address 0 is reserved as the broadcast address. All slave nodes must recognize the broadcast address. The MODBUS Master node has no specific address, only the slave nodes must have an address. This address must be unique on a MODBUS serial bus.

2.3 MODBUS frame description

The MODBUS application protocol [1] defines a simple Protocol Data Unit (PDU) independent of the underlying communication layers: Data Function code MODBUS PDU The mapping of MODBUS protocol on a specific bus or network introduces some additional fields on the Protocol Data Unit. The client that initiates a MODBUS transaction builds the MODBUS PDU, and then adds fields in order to build the appropriate communication PDU . Address field Function code Data CRC (or MODBUS SERIAL LINE PDU On MODBUS Serial Line, the Address field only contains the slave address. As described in the previous section the valid slave nodes addresses are in the range of 0 247 decimal. The individual slave devices are assigned addresses in the range of 1 247. A master addresses a slave by placing the slave address in the address field of the message. When the slave returns its response, it places its own address in the response address field to let the master know which slave is responding. The function code indicates to the server what kind of action to perform. The function code can be followed by a data field that contains request and response parameters. Error checking field is the result of a "Redundancy Checking" calculation that is performed on the message contents. Two kinds of calculation methods are used depending on the transmission mode that is being used (RTU or ASCII).

2.4 Master / Slaves State Diagrams

The MODBUS data link layer comprises two separate sub layers : The Master / slave protocol The transmission mode (RTU vs ASCII modes) The following sections describe the state diagrams of a master and a slave that are independent of transmission modes used. The RTU and ASCII transmission modes are specified in next chapters using two state diagrams. The reception and the sending of a frame are described. Syntax of state diagram: The following state diagrams are drawn in compliance with UML standard notations. The notation is briefly recalled below: State_A State_B

Trigger [guard condition] / action When a "trigger" event occurs in a system being in "State_A", system is going into "State_B", only if "guard condition" is true. An action "action" is then performed.


2.4.1 Master State diagram

The following drawing explains the Master behavior :

MASTER STATE DIAGRAM Some explanations about the state diagram above: State "Idle" = no pending request. This is the initial state after power-up. A request can only be sent in "Idle" state. After sending a request, the Master leaves the "Idle" state, and cannot send a second request at the same time When a unicast request is sent to a slave, the master goes into "Waiting for reply" state, and a Response Time-out is started. It prevents the Master from staying indefinitely in "Waiting for reply" state. Value of the Response time-out is application dependant. When a reply is received, the Master checks the reply before starting the data processing. The checking may result in an error, for example a reply from an unexpected slave, or an error in the received frame. In case of a reply received from an unexpected slave, the Response time-out is kept running. In case of an error detected on the frame, a retry may be performed. If no reply is received, the Response time-out expires, and an error is generated. Then the Master goes into "Idle" state, enabling a retry of the request. The maximum number of retries depends on the master set-up. When a broadcast request is sent on the serial bus, no response is returned from the slaves. Nevertheless a delay is respected by the Master in order to allow any slave to


process the current request before sending a new one. This delay is called "Turnaround delay". Therefore the master goes into "Waiting Turnaround delay" state before going back in "idle" state and before being able to send another request. In unicast the Response time out must be set long enough for any slave to process the request and return the response, in broadcast the Turnaround delay must be long enough for any slave to process only the request and be able to receive a new one. Therefore the Turnaround delay should be shorter than the Response time-out. Typically the Response time-out is from 1s to several second at 9600 bps; and the Turnaround delay is from 100 ms to 200ms. Frame error consists of : 1) Parity checking applied to each character; 2) Redundancy checking applied to the entire frame. See 2.6 "Error Checking Methods" for more explanations. The state diagram is intentionally very simple. It does not take into account access to the line, message framing, or retry following transmission error, etc For more details about frame transmission, please refer to 2.5 paragraph, "The two serial Transmission Modes".

2.4.2 Slave State Diagram

The following drawing explains the Slave behavior:


SLAVE STATE DIAGRAM Some explanations about the above state diagram: State "Idle" = no pending request. This is the initial state after power-up. When a request is received, the slave checks the packet before performing the action requested in the packet. Different errors may occur: format error in the request, invalid action, In case of error, a reply must be sent to the master. Once the required action has been completed, a unicast message requires that a reply must be formatted and sent to the master.

If the slave detects an error in the received frame, no respond is returned to the master. MODBUS diagnostics counters are defined and should be managed by any slave in order to provide diagnostic information. These counters can be get using the Diagnostic MODBUS function (see Appendix A, and the MODBUS application protocol specification [1])

2.5 The two serial Transmission Modes

Two different serial transmission modes are defined: The RTU mode and the ASCII mode. It defines the bit contents of message fields transmitted serially on the line. It determines how information is packed into the message fields and decoded. The transmission mode (and serial port parameters) must be the same for all devices on a MODBUS Serial Line.


Although the ASCII mode is required in some specific applications, interoperability between MODBUS devices can be reached only if each device has the same transmission mode: All devices must implement the RTU Mode. The ASCII transmission mode is an option. Devices should be set up by the users to the desired transmission mode, RTU or ASCII. Default setup must be the RTU mode.

2.5.1 RTU Transmission Mode

When devices communicate on a MODBUS serial line using the RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) mode, each 8bit byte in a message contains two 4bit hexadecimal characters. The main advantage of this mode is that its greater character density allows better data throughput than ASCII mode for the same baud rate. Each message must be transmitted in a continuous stream of characters. The format for each byte (11 bits) in RTU mode is: Coding System: 8bit binary Bits per Byte: 1 start bit 8 data bits, least significant bit sent first 1 bit for parity completion 1 stop bit Even parity is required, other modes (odd parity, no parity ) may also be used. In order to ensure a maximum compatibility with other products, it is recommended to support also No parity mode. The default parity mode must be even parity. Remark: the use of no parity requires 2 stop bits. How Characters are transmitted serially: Each character or byte is sent in this order (left to right): Least Significant Bit (LSB) . . . Most Significant Bit (MSB) Start 1 2 3 4 5 6 With parity checking (bit sequence in RTU mode) Par Stop 7 8

Devices may accept by configuration either Even, Odd, or No Parity checking. If No Parity is implemented, an additional stop bit is transmitted to fill out the character frame to a full 11-bit asynchronous character : Start Stop 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stop Sequence in RTU mode (specific case of No Parity) Bit 7 8

Frame Checking Field: Cyclical Redundancy Checking (CRC) Frame description: Slave address 1 Byte Function code 1 Byte Data 0 upto 252 byte(s) CRC 2 Bytes

RTU Message Frame The maximum size of a MODBUS RTU frame is 256 bytes.

20 MODBUS Message RTU Framing A MODBUS message is placed by the transmitting device into a frame that has a known beginning and ending point. This allows devices that receive a new frame to begin at the start of the message, and to know when the message is completed. Partial messages must be detected and errors must be set as a result. In RTU mode, message frames are separated by a silent interval of at least 3.5 character times. In the following sections, this time interval is called t3.5.

3 Physical Layers
3.1 Preamble A new MODBUS solution over serial line should implement an electrical interface in accordance with EIA/TIA-485 standard ( also Known as RS485 standard). This standard allows point to point and multipoint systems, in a two-wire configuration. In addition, some Devices may implement a Four-Wire RS485-Interface. A device may also implement an RS232-Interface. In such a MODBUS system, a Master Device and one or several Slave Devices communicate on a passive serial line. On standard MODBUS system, all the devices are connected (in parallel) on a trunk cable constituted by 3 conductors. Two of those conductors (the Two-Wire configuration) form a balanced twisted pair, on which bi-directional data are transmitted, typically at the bit rate of 9600 bits per second. Each device may be connected (see figure 19): -either directly on the trunk cable, forming a daisy-chain, -either on a passive Tap with a derivation cable, -either on an active Tap with a specific cable. Screw Terminals, RJ45, or D-shell 9 connectors may be used on devices to connect cables (see the chapter Mechanical Interfaces). 3.2 Data Signaling Rates 9600 bps and 19.2 Kbps are required and 19.2 is the required default Other baud rates may optionally be implemented: 1200, 2400, 4800, 38400 bps, 56 Kbps, 115 Kbps Every implemented baud rate must be respected better than 1% in transmission situation, and must accept an error of 2% in reception situation.

is the world's leading fieldbus with cost-saving solutions in factory automation and process automation plus safety, drives, and motion control coverage. This fieldbus approach produces significant cost savings in design, installation, and maintenance expenses over the old approach of point-to-point wiring.


Openness and standardization guarantee the supply of PROFIBUS products from many different vendors as well as the availability of know-how and support from many different experts close to you. With more than 13,000,000 nodes installed there are significantly more PROFIBUS nodes installed than of any other fieldbus. Work proceeds as about 400 engineers in 40 Working Groups continue to advance the state-of-the-art, adapting to the ever-changing automation landscape. Welcome to PROFIBUS PROFIBUS is the powerful, open and rugged bus system for process and field communication in cell networks with few stations and for data communication in accordance with IEC 61158/EN 50170. Automation devices such as PLCs, PCs, HMI devices, sensors or actuators can communicate via this bus system. The IEC 61158/EN 50170 standard makes allowance at the same time for the future of your investments since existing plants can be expanded using components that conform to the standard. PROFIBUS is part of Totally Integrated Automation (TIA), the uniform, integrated product and system range from Siemens for efficient automation of the entire production process for all sectors of industry. Possible uses PROFIBUS can be used, for example, for the following applications:

Factory automation Process automation Building automation

Different PROFIBUS versions are available for the various fields of application:

Process or field communication - PROFIBUS DP (for fast, cyclic data exchange with field devices) - PROFIBUS PA (for intrinsic safety applications in process automation Data communication - PROFIBUS FMS (for data communication between programmable controllers and field devices

SIMATIC NET products are particularly suitable for use in industry. For implementing Profibus networks, SIMATIC NET offers the required network components and system interfaces for connecting S7 and PC/IPC.

Network components PROFIBUS networks can be implemented quickly and easily using the network


components from the SIMATIC NET product range. Various cables and connections are available depending on application. In the case of copper cables, in particular, FastConnect stripping technology ensures fast and reliable cabling.

System connections SIMATIC S7 and PG/PC are connected via communications processors - this relieves the CPU of communications tasks.

Other advantages

Investment protection through integration of PROFIBUS devices in Industrial Wireless LANs using IWLAN/ PB Link PN IO or in Industrial Ethernet - or PROFINET networks using IE/PB Link or IE/PB Link PN IO. High availability through ring redundancy with OLM. Fast assembly and startup on site with the help of the FastConnect wiring system. Continuous monitoring of network components through a simple and effective signaling concept. Configuration, commissioning, and troubleshooting can be carried out by any party. This results in freely selectable communication relationships that are very versatile, simple to implement, and easy to change.

PROFIBUS Automation Technology

PROFIBUS - your direct route to Automation Technology PROFIBUS, the market leader in automation technology, is applicable to every 23

application and industry, like automotive, baggage handling systems, chemical, food and beverage, machine building, material handling, metal processing, mining, oil & gas, pharmaceuticals, print & packaging, pulp & paper, ship building, textile, traffic, water and waste water, web presses, and many, many more. The success of PROFIBUS is unparalleled. About a million applications run using PROFIBUS. More than 2,500 products are available from internationally and locally recognized manufacturers. PROFIBUS is standardized in the international standards IEC 61158 and IEC 61784, and supported by more than 1,200 member companies of the PROFIBUS International user community. PROFIBUS for Process Automation

PROFIBUS is a standardized, open, digital communications system for all areas of application in manufacturing and process automation. The PROFIBUS protocol is based on the international standards EN 50170 and IEC 61158. This technology is suitable for replacement of discrete and analog signals. PROFIBUS for Process Automation meets the demands of the chemical industry for use in explosive areas, use in areas where both power and communication are available over the bus. Furthermore, standardized application profiles are available and Plug & Play instruments even in potentially explosive areas. PROFIBUS Technology and Application - System Description

It is recommended to connect the shield on both sides low inductively with the protective ground in order to achieve optimal electromagnetic compatibility. In case of separate potentials (e.g. refinery) the shield should be connected only at one side of the bus cable to the protective ground. Preferably the connection between shield and protective ground 24

is made via the metal cases and the screw top of D-sub connector. If this is not possible the connection can be made via pin 1 of the D-sub connector. It should be noticed that this is not the optimal solution. In such a case it is better to bare the cable shield at an appropriate point and to ground with a cable as short as possible to the metallic structure of the cabinet. This could be achieved with a ground bus bar in front of the bus connector. This is the universal solution for the communication tasks at the upper level (cell level) and the Field Level of the industrial communication hierarchy. In order to carry out the extensive communication tasks with acyclic or cyclic data transfers at medium speed, the Fieldbus Message Specification (FMS) services offer a wide range of functionality and flexibility. PROFIBUS-FMS is included into the European Fieldbus Standard EN 50170. This is the performance optimized version of PROFIBUS, specifically dedicated to timecritical communication between automation systems and distributed peripherals. It is suitable as a replacement for the costly parallel wiring of 24 V and 4(0) to 20 mA measurement signals. PROFIBUS-DP is included into the European Fieldbus Standard EN 50170. Every DP/PA device type has to have an individual Ident Number. This number is necessary, so that a DP-master is able to identify the types of the connected DP/PA devices without a significant protocol overhead. The master compares the Ident Number of every connected device with the Ident Number in the configuration database. User data transfer in the operation phase is only possible when the right DP-Slave is connected with the correct address. This ensures a very high protection against parameterization faults. The vendors must apply to the PPROFIBUS Support Center for an individual Ident Number for every DP/PA device type. PROFIBUS-PA is the solution for process automation, connecting automation systems and decentralised field devices. PROFIBUS-PA is based on PROFIBUS-DP (acc. to EN 50170) and permits a transparent communication from general purpose automation to process automation. The Profibus-PA profile defines the behaviour of the field devices and ensures full interoperability and interchangeability of the field devices from different manufacturers. Profibus-PA operates either with intrinsic safe transmission technology (acc. to IEC 1158-2) or standard transmission technology (acc. to RS485). PA fulfils the special requirements of the process automation industry e.g. chemical or petrochemical applications.

The transparent communication between process automation and general purpose automation is permitted by PROFIBUS-PA. PROFIBUS-PA permits powering of the stations and data transmission over the same two wires. PA can be used within areas with high explosion risk using intrinsic safe transmission technology according to IEC 1158-2. Intrinsic safe and non-intrinsic safe bus segments are separated by segment couplers.


The hamming distance is a messure for how secure a protocol is against misinterpretation of a packet with errors as a different legal packet. HD=4 tells us that at least 4 bits has to be wrong, and still match the checksum calculations in order to be mistaken as another valid packet. Termination of a bus line is done to prevent signal reflections on the PROFIBUS cable. Wrong or missing termination of the line results in lower efficiency due to transmission errors. Worst case is that the communication link is lost. In addition to traditional termination, the PROFIBUS termination also provides a defined idle level on the cable. Profiles are commitments about used non-mandantory services and bus parameters for specific areas of applications. It helps to minimize the implementation efforts to implement PROFIBUS functionallty into appropriate field devices. Profiles are available for

Communication between PLCs (FMS) Sensor / Actor networks (FMS) Low voltage switch devices (FMS) PA field devices (PA) NC / RC control systems (DP) Encoder Devices (DP) Drives Technology (DP/FMS) Safety Applications (DP)

This is a very subjective issue, as the faced challenge is setting the importance of the different aspects leading to a choice. But - provided that the technical solution is satisfactory for the task, it all boils down to cost/benefit comparisons.

PROFIBUS has the largest portfolio of products in the fieldbus world. Now close to 200 vendors of PROFIBUS products and services. It is supported by the largest user organisation in this industry. The demand for quality is driving the competitors to supply good products. The competition and volume keeps prices at highly competetive level. PROFIBUS technology is defined for several levels within the information flow in a company. Knowledge of one standard can be utilized on several levels. Wide application area including factory, process and building automation. Stable protocol with many protocol chips available today. Installed base > 2 Million devices Suitable for operation in intrinsically safe areas in process control Supported by many manufacturers of both master and slave device technology providing truly open approach and practical vendor independence. Platform independence, PC, PLC or VMEbus based controllers. 244 byte telegram means that even large packets of data can be sent without segmentation.


> 100km distance achievable. PROFIBUS at 12 MBaud offers the fastest transmission speed available today for any fieldbus system. PROFIBUS is the clear Fieldbus market leader in Europe and the UK. (ref IMS, Benchmark Research Ltd., and Consultic fieldbus studies).

A class 1 master can communicate activly only with it's configured slaves and is able to communicate in a passive way with a class 2 master. The class 2 master is the 'supervisory' master. He can communicate with other class 1 masters, theire slaves and his own slaves for configuration, diagnostic and data/parameter exchange purpose The base of the specification of the PROFIBUS standard was a research project (19871990) with the following members:

ABB Phoenix Contact AEG Rheinmetall Bosch RMP Honeywell Sauter-Cumulus Kloeckner-Moeller Schleicher Landis & Gyr Siemens

and five German research institutes


There was also a minor sponsorship of the German government. The result of this project was the first Draft of the DIN 19245, the PROFIBUS standard, part 1 and 2. Part 3, PROFIBUS-DP was defiened 1993 by the following working group:

Mr. Emmerling, MicroSyst Mr. Dr. Endl, Softing Mr. Schmitz, Pepperl + Fuchs Mr. Schneider, MBB Gelma


Mr. Szabo, TMG i-tec Mr. Thiesmeier, Kloeckner-Moeller Mr. Tretter, Siemens Mr. Volz, Bosch Dr. Weber, Siemens

Yes, 10 years is a long time .... hope this helps a little bit to remember! PROFIBUS has been designed to allow configurations where redundant cabling is possible and this takes account of wire breaks. Also node failures can be configured to be ignored or to trigger a stop in the master, in this case unaffected nodes can continue operation. When a failure is identified the master will immediately resend the telegram and you can configure the number of times a re-try is attempted. Information relating to the failure is generally available on a node, module within a node and a channel specific basis. Certification testing of devices through an authorised test laboratory ensures that failures conform to what is expected of them. In addition to a PLC and the devices to be controlled

a cable - Shielded Twisted Pair with terminating resistors or Fibre Optic with Optical Link Modules a GSD file for each device. (A simple ASCII text file containing device data like identification info, what transmission speeds are supported, data format, time required to respond etc.) a software configuration tool - Like Allen Bradley's Plug and Play software or the Siemens COM Profibus package. This configures the active stations and tells them what devices are present on the bus and how much data it needs to exchange with them etc.

is required. The PROFIBUS Standard does not specify an alternative to the 9 pin D-SUB connectors, but it is often necessary to have alternatives available. The test specification for DP-Slaves defines: Alternative connectors may be used. No special connector is defined. But if the device with these alternative connectors should be certified, it must have all the mandatory signals of the Profibus D-SUB connector available. Furthermore, you should take into consideration for high speed usage, that some additional components should be used in combination with the D-SUB connector, or any other one. These components (R, L, C) are specified into the Implementation Guideline for PROFIBUS-DP, and are explained in detail including sample circuit diagrams in the new


PROFIBUS-DP book (The Rapid Way to PROFIBUS-DP). This book may be ordered from your local PROFIBUS organization. The PROFIBUS standard defines two variations of the bus cable. However it is recommended to use cable Type A in all new installations. Type A is especially recommended for high transmission speeds (>500 kBaud) and permits doubling of the network distance in comparison to Type B. Technical specification: Impedance: 35 up to 165 Ohm at frequencies from 3 to 20 Mhz. Cable capacity: < 30 pF per meter. Core diameter: > 0,34 mm, corresponds to AWG 22. Cable type: twisted pair cable. 1x2 or 2x2 or 1x4 lines. Resistance: < 110 Ohm per km. Signal attenuation: max. 9 dB over total length of line section. Shielding: CU shielding braid or shielding braid and shielding foil Max. Bus length: 200 m at 1500 kbit/s, up to 1,2 km at 93,75 kbit/s. Extendable by repeaters. O Top v e r v i e w

PROFIBUS is the most universal fieldbus for plantwide use accross all sectors of the manufacturing and process industries. It is the fieldbus having world wide best economic success. Independent market studies confirm market leadership for PROFIBUS today and high growth rates for the future. Using PROFIBUS means to have great cost advantages and improved flexibility.


First of all there are major cost savings in hardware and assembly. Here most important is you need less hardware components as I/O, terminal blocks, and barriers. The installation becomes easier, quicker and cheaper. Very impressive are the cost savings in engineering and documentation, which makes the configuration much easier (only one tool for all devices), which improves the asset management of an automation system and which facilitates the documentation of the of the production procedure(easy and up-to-date documentation) An important feature of PROFIBUS based automation is the greater manufacturing flexibility. This feature covers a lot aspects, of which the most important are: improved functionality increases plant productivity, improved availability and reduced down time and optimized use of limited resources and raw materials

One of the most important advantage of using fieldbusses in the automation is reduced installation efforts. E.g., the cost savings estimated in process automation if PROFIBUS is used instead of the conventional 4-20mA technology are sumed up to more than 40%. For the device development or implementation of the PROFIBUS protocol, a broad spectrum of standard components and development tools (PROFIBUS ASICs, PROFIBUS stacks, monitor and commissioning tools) as well as services are available that enable device manufacturers to realize cost-effective development. A corresponding overview is available in the product guide of the PROFIBUS User Organization. PROFIBUS Interface Modules are ideal for a low/medium number of devices. These credit card size modules implement the entire bus protocol. They are fitted on the master board of the device as an additional module. PROFIBUS Protocol Chips (Single Chips, Communication Chips, Protocol Chips) are recommendable for an individual implementation in the case of high numbers of devices. The implementation of single-chip ASICs is ideal for simple slaves ( I/O devices). All protocol functions are already integrated on the ASIC. No microprocessors or software are required. Only the bus interface driver, the quartz and the power electronics are required as external components. For intelligent slaves, parts of the PROFIBUS protocol are implemented on a protocol chip and the remaining protocol parts implemented as software on a microcontroller. In most of the ASICS available on the market all cyclic protocol parts have been implemented, which are responsible for transmission of time-critical data. For complex masters, the time-critical parts of the PROFIBUS protocol are also implemented on a protocol chip and the remaining protocol parts implemented as software on a microcontroller. Various ASICs of different suppliers are currently available for the implementation of complex master devices. They can be operated in combination with many common microprocessors. Modem Chips are available to realize the (low) power consumption, which is required when implementing a bus-powered field device with MBP transmission technology. Only a feed current of 10-15 mA over the bus cable is available for these devices, which must


supply the overall device, including the bus interface and the measuring electronics. These modems take the required operating energy for the overall device from the MBP bus connection and make it available as feed voltage for the other electronic components of the device. At the same time, the digital signals of the connected protocol chip are converted into the bus signal of the MBP connection modulated to the energy supply.

IEC 61850 based Substation Automation Systems

IEC 61850 Benefits Speed: 100 Mbps instead of few 10 kbps More data for a better operation & maintenance Peer-to-peer: No extra hardware Design of innovative automation schemes, late tuning Conditional report instead of polling Optimal performances IP (Internet Protocol) routing: Ubiquitous data access Capability to extend the system outside of the substation Client-server: Instead of master-slave Flexible designs easy to upgrade Pre-defined names: Single vocabulary between users Easier engineering between teams XML references: Formal interfaces Consistency between engineering tools Flexibility of Usage Free usage of functions on all levels, no assumptions or constraints are imposed by the standard on the substation architecture. If the architecture is a centralized RTU based architectures with one computational element and parallel wiring from the primary equipment or a fully distributed architecture with intelligent sensors and actuators connected via a process bus does not matter. All possible architectures are equally and well supported by the standard.


Scope of Expansion Extension rules governs how to extend the scope of the standard in order to support new applications All applications defined today for substation automation are included and supported in the standard. This is however not enough. The standard also have an object model and set of rules that makes it possible to extend the scope of the standard and include new applications in the future, all this without need for additions or changes to the standard itself








Programmable logic controller (PLC)

PLC & input/output arrangements A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.

The PLC was invented in response to the needs of the American automotive manufacturing industry. Programmable logic controllers were initially adopted by the automotive industry where software revision replaced the re-wiring of hard-wired control panels when production models changed. Before the PLC, control, sequencing, and safety interlock logic for manufacturing automobiles was accomplished using hundreds or thousands of relays, cam timers, and drum sequencers and dedicated closed-loop controllers. The process for updating such facilities for the yearly model change-over was very time consuming and expensive, as electricians needed to individually rewire each and every relay. In 1968 GM Hydramatic (the automatic transmission division of General Motors) issued a request for proposal for an electronic replacement for hard-wired relay systems. The winning proposal came from Bedford Associates of Bedford, Massachusetts. The first PLC, designated the 084 because it was Bedford Associates' eighty-fourth project, was


the result. Bedford Associates started a new company dedicated to developing, manufacturing, selling, and servicing this new product: Modicon, which stood for MOdular DIgital CONtroller. One of the people who worked on that project was Dick Morley, who is considered to be the "father" of the PLC. The Modicon brand was sold in 1977 to Gould Electronics, and later acquired by German Company AEG and then by French Schneider Electric, the current owner. One of the very first 084 models built is now on display at Modicon's headquarters in North Andover, Massachusetts. It was presented to Modicon by GM, when the unit was retired after nearly twenty years of uninterrupted service. Modicon used the 84 moniker at the end of its product range until the 984 made its appearance. The automotive industry is still one of the largest users of.

Early PLCs were designed to replace relay logic systems. These PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic diagram of relay logic. This program notation was chosen to reduce training demands for the existing technicians. Other early PLCs used a form of instruction list programming, based on a stack-based logic solver. Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from ladder logic to more traditional programming languages such as BASIC and C. Another method is State Logic, a very high-level programming language designed to program PLCs based on state transition diagrams. Many early PLCs did not have accompanying programming terminals that were capable of graphical representation of the logic, and so the logic was instead represented as a series of logic expressions in some version of Boolean format, similar to Boolean algebra. As programming terminals evolved, it became more common for ladder logic to be used, for the aforementioned reasons. Newer formats such as State Logic and Function Block (which is similar to the way logic is depicted when using digital integrated logic circuits) exist, but they are still not as popular as ladder logic. A primary reason for this is that PLCs solve the logic in a predictable and repeating sequence, and ladder logic allows the programmer (the person writing the logic) to see any issues with the timing of the logic sequence more easily than would be possible in other formats.

Early PLCs, up to the mid-1980s, were programmed using proprietary programming panels or special-purpose programming terminals, which often had dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements of PLC programs. Programs were stored on cassette tape cartridges. Facilities for printing and documentation were very minimal due to lack of memory capacity. The very oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory. 40

More recently, PLCs are usually programmed using special application software written for use on desktop computers, and connecting between the desktop computer and the PLC such as via Ethernet RS-232 or RS-485 cabling. Such software allows entry and editing of the ladder-style logic, and then may provide additional functionality to assist debugging and troubleshooting the software (for example, by highlighting portions of the logic to show current status during operation or via simulation). Finally, the software may allow uploading and downloading of the program between the computer and the PLC, for backup and restoration purposes. Alternately, specific devices known as programming boards are used to hard wire the logic into the controller by the use of a removable chip, such as an EEPROM, where the program is transferred to the programming board from the workstation via serial or other bus logic.

The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control, motion control, process control, distributed control systems and networking. The data handling, storage, processing power and communication capabilities of some modern PLCs are approximately equivalent to desktop computers. PLC-like programming combined with remote I/O hardware, allow a general-purpose desktop computer to overlap some PLCs in certain applications. Regarding the practicality of these desktop computer based logic controllers, it is important to note that they have not been generally accepted in heavy industry because the desktop computers run on less stable operating systems than do PLCs, and because the desktop computer hardware is typically not designed to the same levels of tolerance to temperature, humidity, vibration, and longevity as the processors used in PLCs. In addition to the hardware limitations of desktop based logic, operating systems such as Windows do not lend themselves to deterministic logic execution, with the result that the logic may not always respond to changes in logic state or input status with the extreme consistency in timing as is expected from PLCs. Still, such desktop logic applications find use in less critical situations, such as laboratory automation and use in small facilities where the application is less demanding and critical, because they are generally much less expensive than PLCs. In more recent years, small products called PLRs (programmable logic relays), and also by similar names, have become more common and accepted. These are very much like PLCs, and are used in light industry where only a few points of I/O (i.e. a few signals coming in from the real world and a few going out) are involved, and low cost is desired. These small devices are typically made in a common physical size and shape by several manufacturers, and branded by the makers of larger PLCs to fill out their low end product range. Popular names include PICO Controller, NANO PLC, and other names implying very small controllers. Most of these have between 8 and 12 digital inputs, 4 and 8 digital outputs, and up to 2 analog inputs. Size is usually about 4" wide, 3" high, and 3" deep. Most such devices include a tiny postage stamp sized LCD screen for viewing simplified ladder logic (only a very small portion of the program being visible at a given time) and status of I/O points, and typically these screens are accompanied by a 4-way rocker pushbutton plus four more separate push-buttons, similar to the key buttons on a VCR remote 41

control, and used to navigate and edit the logic. Most have a small plug for connecting via RS-232 or RS-485 to a personal computer so that programmers can use simple Windows applications for programming instead of being forced to use the tiny LCD and push-button set for this purpose. Unlike regular PLCs that are usually modular and greatly expandable, the PLRs are usually not modular or expandable, but their price can be two orders of magnitude less than a PLC and they still offer robust design and deterministic execution of the logic.

PLC Topics

Control panel with PLC (grey elements in the center). The unit consists of separate elements, from left to right; power supply, controller, relay units for in- and output The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armored for severe conditions (such as dust, moisture, heat, cold) and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements. These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators. PLCs read limit switches, analog process variables (such as temperature and pressure), and the positions of complex positioning systems. Some use machine vision. On the actuator side, PLCs operate electric motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, magnetic relays, solenoids, or analog outputs. The input/output arrangements may be built into a simple PLC, or the PLC may have external I/O modules attached to a computer network that plugs into the PLC.

System scale


A small PLC will have a fixed number of connections built in for inputs and outputs. Typically, expansions are available if the base model has insufficient I/O. Modular PLCs have a chassis (also called a rack) into which are placed modules with different functions. The processor and selection of I/O modules is customised for the particular application. Several racks can be administered by a single processor, and may have thousands of inputs and outputs. A special high speed serial I/O link is used so that racks can be distributed away from the processor, reducing the wiring costs for large plants.

User interface
See also: User interface See also: List of human-computer interaction topics PLCs may need to interact with people for the purpose of configuration, alarm reporting or everyday control. A Human-Machine Interface (HMI) is employed for this purpose. HMIs are also referred to as MMIs (Man Machine Interface) and GUIs (Graphical User Interface). A simple system may use buttons and lights to interact with the user. Text displays are available as well as graphical touch screens. More complex systems use a programming and monitoring software installed on a computer, with the PLC connected via a communication interface.

PLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9-pin RS-232, but optionally EIA-485 or Ethernet. Modbus, BACnet or DF1 is usually included as one of the communications protocols. Other options include various fieldbuses such as DeviceNet or Profibus. Other communications protocols that may be used are listed in the List of automation protocols. Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system, such as a computer running a SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system or web browser. PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communication between processors. This allows separate parts of a complex process to have individual control while allowing the subsystems to co-ordinate over the communication link. These communication links are also often used for HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations.



PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer, then downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Often, a single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. Under the IEC 61131-3 standard, PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming languages. A graphical programming notation called Sequential Function Charts is available on certain programmable controllers. Initially most PLCs utilized Ladder Logic Diagram Programming, a model which emulated electromechanical control panel devices (such as the contact and coils of relays) which PLCs replaced. This model remains common today. IEC 61131-3 currently defines five programming languages for programmable control systems: FBD (Function block diagram), LD (Ladder diagram), ST (Structured text, similar to the Pascal programming language), IL (Instruction list, similar to assembly language) and SFC (Sequential function chart). These techniques emphasize logical organization of operations. While the fundamental concepts of PLC programming are common to all manufacturers, differences in I/O addressing, memory organization and instruction sets mean that PLC programs are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers. Even within the same product line of a single manufacturer, different models may not be directly compatible.

PLC compared with other control systems

PLCs are well-adapted to a range of automation tasks. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation, and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls; little electrical design is required, and the design problem centers on expressing the desired sequence of operations. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design. On the other hand, in the case of mass-produced goods, customized control systems are economic due to the lower cost of the components, which can be optimally chosen instead of a "generic" solution, and where the non-recurring engineering charges are spread over thousands or millions of units. For high volume or very simple fixed automation tasks, different techniques are used. For example, a consumer dishwasher would be controlled by an electromechanical cam timer costing only a few dollars in production quantities. A microcontroller-based design would be appropriate where hundreds or thousands of units will be produced and so the development cost (design of power supplies, input/output hardware and necessary testing and certification) can be spread over many 44

sales, and where the end-user would not need to alter the control. Automotive applications are an example; millions of units are built each year, and very few end-users alter the programming of these controllers. However, some specialty vehicles such as transit busses economically use PLCs instead of custom-designed controls, because the volumes are low and the development cost would be uneconomic. Very complex process control, such as used in the chemical industry, may require algorithms and performance beyond the capability of even high-performance PLCs. Very high-speed or precision controls may also require customized solutions; for example, aircraft flight controls. Programmable controllers are widely used in motion control, positioning control and torque control. Some manufacturers produce motion control units to be integrated with PLC so that G-code (involving a CNC machine) can be used to instruct machine movements.[citation needed] PLCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop, a "proportional, integral, derivative" or "PID controller". A PID loop could be used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process, for example. Historically PLCs were usually configured with only a few analog control loops; where processes required hundreds or thousands of loops, a distributed control system (DCS) would instead be used. As PLCs have become more powerful, the boundary between DCS and PLC applications has become less distinct. PLCs have similar functionality as Remote Terminal Units. An RTU, however, usually does not support control algorithms or control loops. As hardware rapidly becomes more powerful and cheaper, RTUs, PLCs and DCSs are increasingly beginning to overlap in responsibilities, and many vendors sell RTUs with PLC-like features and vice versa. The industry has standardized on the IEC 61131-3 functional block language for creating programs to run on RTUs and PLCs, although nearly all vendors also offer proprietary alternatives and associated development environments.

Digital and analog signals

Digital or discrete signals behave as binary switches, yielding simply an On or Off signal (1 or 0, True or False, respectively). Push buttons, limit switches, and photoelectric sensors are examples of devices providing a discrete signal. Discrete signals are sent using either voltage or current, where a specific range is designated as On and another as Off. For example, a PLC might use 24 V DC I/O, with values above 22 V DC representing On, values below 2VDC representing Off, and intermediate values undefined. Initially, PLCs had only discrete I/O. Analog signals are like volume controls, with a range of values between zero and fullscale. These are typically interpreted as integer values (counts) by the PLC, with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. As PLCs typically use 16-bit signed binary processors, the integer values are limited 45

between -32,768 and +32,767. Pressure, temperature, flow, and weight are often represented by analog signals. Analog signals can use voltage or current with a magnitude proportional to the value of the process signal. For example, an analog 0 10 V input or 4-20 mA would be converted into an integer value of 0 - 32767. Current inputs are less sensitive to electrical noise (i.e. from welders or electric motor starts) than voltage inputs.

As an example, say a facility needs to store water in a tank. The water is drawn from the tank by another system, as needed, and our example system must manage the water level in the tank. Using only digital signals, the PLC has two digital inputs from float switches (Low Level and High Level). When the water level is above the switch it closes a contact and passes a signal to an input. The PLC uses a digital output to open and close the inlet valve into the tank. When the water level drops enough so that the Low Level float switch is off (down), the PLC will open the valve to let more water in. Once the water level rises enough so that the High Level switch is on (up), the PLC will shut the inlet to stop the water from overflowing. This rung is an example of seal-in (latching) logic. The output is sealed in until some condition breaks the circuit.
| | | Low Level High Level Fill Valve | |------[/]------|------[/]----------------------(OUT)---------| | | | | | | | | | | Fill Valve | | |------[ ]------| | | | | |

An analog system might use a water pressure sensor or a load cell, and an adjustable (throttling) dripping out of the tank, the valve adjusts to slowly drip water back into the tank. In this system, to avoid 'flutter' adjustments that can wear out the valve, many PLCs incorporate "hysteresis" which essentially creates a "deadband" of activity. A technician adjusts this deadband so the valve moves only for a significant change in rate. This will in turn minimize the motion of the valve, and reduce its wear. A real system might combine both approaches, using float switches and simple valves to prevent spills, and a rate sensor and rate valve to optimize refill rates and prevent water hammer. Backup and maintenance methods can make a real system very complicated. 46

Programmable logic controllers The recommended controller for SCADA systems is the programmable logic controller (PLC). PLCs are general-purpose microprocessor based controllers that provide logic, timing, counting, and analog control with network communications capability. a. PLCs are recommended for the following reasons: (1) They were developed for the factory floor and have demonstrated high reliability and tolerance for heat, vibration, and electromagnetic interference. (2) Their widespread market penetration means that parts are readily available and programming and technical support services are available from a large number of control system integrators. (3) They provide high speed processing, which is important in generator and switchgear control applications. (4) They support hot standby and triple-redundant configurations for high reliability applications. b. A PLC consists of the required quantities of the following types of modules or cards, mounted on a common physical support and electrical interconnection structure known as a rack. A typical PLC rack configuration is shown in figure 3-4. (1) Power supply: The power supply converts facility electrical distribution voltage, such as 120 VAC or 125 VDC to signal level voltage used by the processor and other modules. (2) Processor: The processor module contains the microprocessor that performs control functions and computations, as well as the memory required to store the program. (3) Input/Output (I/O): These modules provide the means of connecting the processor to the field devices. (4) Communications: Communications modules are available for a wide range of industrystandard communication network connections. These allow digital data transfer between PLCs and to other systems within the facility. Some PLCs have communications capability built-in to the processor, rather than using separate modules. (5) Communication Media and Protocols: The most common communication media used are copperwire, coaxial, fiber-optics, and wireless. The most common open communication protocols are Ethernet, Ethernet/IP, and DeviceNet. Open systems generally provide plug and play features in which the system software automatically recognizes and communicates to any compatible device that is connected to it. Other widely accepted open protocols are Modbus, Profibus, and ControlNet. (6) Redundancy: Many PLCs are capable of being configured for redundant operation in which one processor backs up another. This arrangement often requires the addition of a redundancy module, which provides status confirmation and control assertion between the processors. In addition, signal wiring to redundant racks is an option.


c. All software and programming required for the PLC to operate as a standalone controller is maintained on-board in the processor. PLCs are programmed with one of the following standard programming languages: (1) Ladder Diagrams: Used primarily for logic (Boolean) operations and is easily understood by electricians and control technicians. This is the most commonly used language in the United States and is supported by all PLC suppliers. (2) Function Block Diagrams: Used primarily for intensive analog control (PID) operations and is available only in high-end PLCs. It is more commonly used outside the United States. (3) Sequential Function Chart: Used primarily for batch control operations and is available only in high-end PLCs. (4) Structured Text: Used primarily by PLC programmers with a computer language background and is supported only in high-end PLC 3-8. Safety PLCs A recommended means of assuring that PLC hardware and software meet specified reliability criteria is through specification of PLCs that are certified for use in Safety Instrumented Systems according to IEC 61508. This standard, while intended for application to protective systems used in manufacturing, chemical, and nuclear facilities, represents the only independently verified criteria for PLC reliability and diagnostic capability. PLCs meeting the requirements of this standard must have diagnostic coverage for failure of the power supply, processor and input and output modules. They must also have been shown to provide a minimum reliability level defined in terms of probability of failure on demand (PFD), or probability of failure per hour (PFPH). Safety integrity level (SIL) target reliability indices for PLCs in lowdemand operation modes (such as controlling a standby power system)

Difference PLC AND DCS

PLC for "Programmable Logic Controller". Historically a PLC forte was in discrete control of manufacturing processes. Most of the inputs and outputs for discrete control are binary, meaning they have only two states: on and off. Like a switch. Little processing power is needed for computing on/off signals so PLC tended to be very fast and are used in machine tool and other industries. The terminology "PLC" is interesting in itself. When they started becoming popular in the 1970s they were often called "relay replacers" since the logic for on/off type operations was done with relays arranged in a digital logic format. It was thought that calling them a computer would turn off many electricians and would scare people away from buying them. Manufacturers of the most popular PLCs include Allen-Bradley, Siemens, Modicon and a bunch of others. DCS stands for "Distributed Control System". DCS's were designed to control processes, not discrete operations. As such, a large number of the inputs and outputs are analog like 48

a 4-20mA signal or 0-10V signal. These signals generally represent temperature, flow, pressure, pH, conductivity or some other process variable. Complex algorithms are programmed into the DCS to provide accurate control of thing like food and medicine manufacturing. Speed wasn't as critical as with the PLCs but accuracy and complexity was. Typical manufacturers of DCS systems include Moore Products (now Siemens), Foxboro, Triconex, Leeds & Northrup (defunct), and many others. The "distributed" part of the name is indicating that the control functions are spread out amoung many different hardware parts. Using one big mainframe computer to control a plant was attempted back in the '60s but it soon became clear that one bug, hang-up, or failure could cause the whole plant to shutdown. Distributed control gives a safety margin! Of course, since the early 90's, microprocessors, memory, speed and everything else about computers has increased at a fantasitic rate. The distinct line between PLC and DCS is blurring a little and it is not usual to find a PLC performing simple to moderately hard process control functions. Analog cards are readily available and software is available also. DCS can also perform discrete manufacturing sequences but their higher cost and complexity make it improbable that someone would choose a DSC to control a lathe or grinder. But if just a couple discrete control steps are needed at a process plant (on/off control for a tank level) than it can be used.

Circuit symbol for a relay

Photographs Rapid Electronics

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so

Relay showing coil and switch contacts

relays have two switch positions and most have double throw (changeover) switch contacts as shown in the diagram. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits, the link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification. Relays are usuallly SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. For further information about switch contacts and the terms used to describe them please see the page on switches. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The supplier's catalogue should show you the relay's connections. The coil will be obvious and it may be connected either way round. Relay coils produce brief high voltage 'spikes' when they are switched off and this can destroy transistors and ICs in the circuit. To prevent damage you must connect a protection diode across the relay coil. The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch contacts. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind them, making the relay DPDT. The relay's switch connections are usually labelled COM, NC and NO:

COM = Common, always connect to this, it is the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on. Connect to COM and NO if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is on. Connect to COM and NC if you want the switched circuit to be on when the relay coil is off.

Choosing a relay

You need to consider several features when choosing a relay: 1. Physical size and pin arrangement If you are choosing a relay for an existing PCB you will need to ensure that its dimensions and pin arrangement are suitable. You should find this information in the supplier's catalogue. 2. Coil voltage The relay's coil voltage rating and resistance must suit the circuit powering the relay coil. Many relays have a coil rated for a 12V supply but 5V and 24V relays are also readily available. Some relays operate perfectly well with a supply voltage which is a little lower than their rated value. 3. Coil resistance The circuit must be able to supply the current required by the relay coil. You can use Ohm's law to calculate the current: supply voltage Relay coil current = coil resistance 4. For example: A 12V supply relay with a coil resistance of 400 passes a current of 30mA. This is OK for a 555 timer IC (maximum output current 200mA), but it is too much for most ICs and they will require a transistor to amplify the current. 5. Switch ratings (voltage and current) The relay's switch contacts must be suitable for the circuit they are to control. You will need to check the voltage and current ratings. Note that the voltage rating is usually higher for AC, for example: "5A at 24V DC or 125V AC". 6. Switch contact arrangement (SPDT, DPDT etc) Most relays are SPDT or DPDT which are often described as "single pole changeover" (SPCO) or "double pole changeover" (DPCO). For further information please see the page on switches.

Protection diodes for relays

Transistors and ICs must be protected from the brief high voltage produced when a relay coil is switched off. The diagram shows how a signal diode (eg 1N4148) is connected 'backwards' across the relay coil to provide this protection. Current flowing through a relay coil creates a magnetic field which collapses suddenly when the current is switched off. The sudden collapse of the magnetic field induces a brief high voltage across the relay coil which is very likely to damage transistors and ICs. The protection diode allows the induced voltage to drive a brief current through the coil (and diode) so the magnetic field dies away quickly rather than instantly. This prevents the induced voltage becoming high enough to cause damage to transistors and ICs.


Reed relays
Reed relays consist of a coil surrounding a reed switch. Reed switches are normally operated with a magnet, but in a reed relay current flows through the coil to create a magnetic field and close the reed switch. Reed relays generally have higher coil resistances than standard relays (1000 for example) and a wide range of supply voltages (9-20V for example). They are capable of switching much more rapidly than standard relays, up to several hundred times per second; but they can only switch low currents (500mA maximum for example). The reed relay shown in the photograph will plug into a standard 14-pin DIL socket ('IC holder'). For further information about reed switches please see the page on switches.

Relays and transistors compared

Like relays, transistors can be used as an electrically operated switch. For switching small DC currents (< 1A) at low voltage they are usually a better choice than a relay. However, transistors cannot switch AC (such as mains electricity) and in simple circuits they are not usually a good choice for switching large currents (> 5A). In these cases a relay will be needed, but note that a low power transistor may still be needed to switch the current for the relay's coil! The main advantages and disadvantages of relays are listed below: Advantages of relays:

Relays can switch AC and DC, transistors can only switch DC. Relays can switch higher voltages than standard transistors. Relays are often a better choice for switching large currents (> 5A). Relays can switch many contacts at once.

Disadvantages of relays:

Relays are bulkier than transistors for switching small currents. Relays cannot switch rapidly (except reed relays), transistors can switch many times per second. Relays use more power due to the current flowing through their coil. Relays require more current than many ICs can provide, so a low power transistor may be needed to switch the current for the relay


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