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a. Scalar Quantities Most of the physical quantities encountered in physics are either scalar or vector quantities.

A scalar quantity is defined as a quantity that has magnitude only. Typical examples of scalar quantities are time, speed, temperature, and volume. A scalar quantity or parameter has no directional component, only magnitude. For example, the units for time (minutes, days, hours, etc.) represent an amount of time only and tell nothing of direction. Additional examples of scalar quantities are density, mass, and energy. Vector Quantities A vector quantity is defined as a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. To work with vector quantities, one must know the method for representing these quantities. Magnitude, or "size" of a vector, is also referred to as the vector's "displacement." It can be thought of as the scalar portion of the vector and is represented by the length of the vector. By definition, a vector has both magnitude and direction. Direction indicates how the vector is oriented relative to some reference axis, as shown in Figure 1. Using north/south and east/west reference axes, vector "A" is oriented in the NE quadrant with a direction of 45 north of the o EW axis. G iving direction to scalar "A" makes it a vector. The length of "A" is representative of its magnitude or displacement. c. Graphical methods involve examining charts, pictures, and graphs to determine the answer to a problem. This would be used when finding the solution to a system of equations and graphing all the equations to find points at which they coincide. Analytical methods involve calculating answers without the use of charts or graphs. If one were to solve a system of equations by substitution, this would be an example of an analytically produced solution d. e. A concurrent coplanar force system is a system of two or more forces whose lines of action ALL intersect at a common point. However, all of the individual vectors might not actually be in contact with the common point. These are the most simple force systems to resolve with any one of many graphical or algebraic options. A non-concurrent and non-parallel system consists of a number of vectors that do not meet at a single point and none of them are parallel. These systems are essentially a jumble of forces and take considerable care to resolve. Almost any system of known forces can be resolved into a single force called a resultant force or simply a Resultant. The resultant is a representative force which has the same effect on the body as the group of forces it replaces. (A couple is an exception to this) It, as one single force, can represent any number of forces and is very useful when resolving multiple groups of forces. One can progressively resolve pairs or small groups of forces into resultants. Then another resultant of the resultants can be found and so on until all of the forces have been combined into one force. This is one way to save time with the tedious "bookkeeping" involved with a large number of individual forces. Resultants can be determined both graphically and algebraically.

Describe the component method of vector addition

Vector Addition Using Components Given two vectors u = (u 1, u 2) and v = (v 1, v 2) in the Euclidean plane, the sum is given by: u + v = (u 1 + v 1, u 2 + v 2)

For three-dimensional vectors u = (u 1, u 2, u 3) and v = (v 1, v 2, v 3) , the formula is almost identical: u + v = (u 1 + v 1, u 2 + v 2, u 3 + v 3)

In other words, vector addition is just like ordinary addition: component by component. Notice that if you add together two 2-dimensional vectors you must get another 2-dimensional vector as your answer. Addition of 3-dimensional vectors will yield 3-dimensional answers. 2and 3-dimensional vectors belong to different vector spaces and cannot be added. These same rules apply when we are dealing with scalar multiplication.