You are on page 1of 53

1.

(a)

biomass

weight / mass, of, organisms / plants & animals ; productivity rate at which biomass / materials produced / synthesised / energy incorporated / energy transferred (into a trophic level) (could be expressed as per unit time ) ; (b) (i) grazed - (increase of) 150 so rate is 150 / 32 =

4.7 / 4.69 g m2 day1 ungrazed - (decrease of) 130 so rate is 130 / 32 = 4.1 / 4.06 g m2 day1 (note allow 31 days, giving 4.8 and 4.19 ) change for both correctly read (could be 200-50/ 32 and 300-430/32) ; correct rate calculation for grazing ; correct rate for ungrazed with negative sign ; correct units for either ; (allow consequential error if wrong reading but correct maths) (ii) no / lack of, compensatory growth ; competition for light / long leaves shading other leaves / less light penetration ; reduced photosynthesis ; competition for, water / nutrients / minerals ; leaves dying ; grass being grazed by, birds / insects (that can fly in) ; (c) (ii) (i) 0.5 arbitrary units ; max 3 1 4

(large numbers of) animals, trample/crush, grass ; overgrazing / too many grasses/plants eaten/damaged / reference to exceeding carrying capacity ; grasses unable to recover / few leaves so little photosynthesis / takes longer to grow back ; too much excreta / dung / urine /eq ; reference to soil compaction + qualification ; max 3

(d)

fewer, grazing animals / named grazers / herbivores killed, so numbers increase ; leads to, overgrazing / more grasses/plants eaten / reduction in numbers of primary producers ; grassland has reduced / less productivity ; leads to, grass shortage/ reduced biomass of grass, fewer / death of grazing animals / grazing animals migrate / reduced reproduction rate ; increase in numbers of other/named carnivores / decrease in scavengers / named scavengers ; max 3

(e)

(Converted to) ammonium; by, decomposers / saprophytes / bacteria / fungi / putrefying bacteria ; (ammonium) oxidised to nitrite ; by nitrifying bacteria (allow once) / Nitrosomonas / Nitrococcus ; (nitrites) oxidised to nitrate ; by nitrifying bacteria / Nitrobacter ; Note can use chemical symbols but must be correct max 4
[20]

2.

(a) (taken up from atmosphere) 93 + 121 = 214 ; (released into atmosphere) 90 + 120 + 1.6 + 0.1 + 5.5 = 217.2 ; difference = 3.2 Gt (year1 ) ; [allow consequential error] (b) planting of trees ; reference to photosynthesis ; carbon locked up in trees / reference to lignin or wood or cellulose ; trees live for long time / hundreds of years ; plants / trees die and become buried in swamps / eq ; peat forms ; fossil fuel forms ; reference to shells / exoskeletons / limestone / calcareous rock ; reference to carbon sink (anywhere) ;

(c)

reference 93 Gt taken in, 90 Gt released / net of 3 Gt taken up / eq ; some carbon, taken up by marine animals ; forms calcium carbonate / forms shell / exoskeleton ; example of marine animal (diatoms, corals, molluscs etc) ; used in photosynthesis ; of algae / plankton ; marine organisms die and form sediment on seabed / settle on sea bed / eq ; (sediments form) fossils / limestone / calcareous rock / chalk / oil / gas ;

(d)

improved fuel efficiency / eq ; increased use of public transport / eq ; burn hydrogen / ethanol / gasohol / biogas (rather than petrol / oil ) ; produce / use (electricity) from nuclear / solar / wind / water / geothermal / wood / energy crop / straw / renewable energy ; burning gas / methane in power station rather than oil / coal ; reference to planting trees / forests / afforestation ; 3
[14]

3. (b)

(a)

9.4 and 11.4

Women of 1549 are {fertile / of reproductive age}; {Approximately / eq} half of all women aged 15-49 are infected with HIV; They could give birth to infected children; Die before giving birth / not have children; 2

(c)

Overall, population will get smaller; Fewer women surviving to give birth, so fewer children; {1 in 5 adults / eq) will die of AIDS in future; Children dying of AIDS; So population consists of older people;

2
[5]

4.

(a) Remote sensing / satellite (images) / GIS / Global imaging system / OTCS; (b) (Algae supply polyps) with {sugar / carbohydrates / energy / food}; (Algae supply polyps) with oxygen; Any credible suggestion why colour is an advantage to the polyp;

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Some (species of) coral become less common / other types become more common (and take over); Reference to competition; Existing species {become adapted to change / evolve}; Correct reference to mutation; Improved conservation measures (to alleviate effects of human interference) Increased sea temperature was not the real reason why the reef was in decline suggested credible alternative e.g. {pollution / predation / disease} / whatever the original cause {has now declined / no longer the problem it was};

2
[5]

5.

(a) Access for {pollinators / pests / parasites}; Wind exposure; Light intensity; Light spectral composition; Wavelength / spectral composition of light; Rainfall / snow cover / soil moisture / water availability; Grazing by animals; Humidity / water vapour; {Carbon dioxide / oxygen} concentration; (b) (ii) (i) Increases; Any valid attempt to quantify the increase in growth e.g. more than double, at least 5 (or more); Sustained for (at least) three years (at a similar rate); (c) Pollen analysis / use of pollen from peat; Layers dated according to the depth / the deeper the {sediment / peat layer} the older the specimen / date the peat layer by radiocarbon method; Identify species in different layers / estimating relative abundance from pollen density / eq; More carbon dioxide turned into wood / more photosynthesis; Therefore more carbon dioxide removed from atmosphere / increased carbon dioxide absorption; Therefore less greenhouse gas (than there otherwise would be); Dendrochronology;

3 1

(d)

(e)

Increased rate of decay; Due to increased {microbial activity / enzyme activity};

2
[12]

6.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. (b) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. (c)

1.

Changes in {tree species / communities / eq} with time;

Seral stages / predictable changes / directional changes / eq; Changes bought about by trees themselves / eq; Reference to climax; Relevant example from the data; None at outset; Biomass increase (with time); Fall after 200 years; Greatest rate of increase between 80 and 120 years; Any other quantitative description; 3 2

1. Soil conditions not suitable / lack of water / lack of minerals / other abiotic factor; 2. 3. 4. 5. Cannot compete with {alder / willow}; Didnt happen to colonise; Other {climatic / external} factor; Species before (Hemlock spruce) change conditions; 2
[7]

7.

(a) Answers must be appropriate to a named organism maximum two marks if organism not named 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Method for defining samples (eg quadrat); Method for quantifying organisms (eg counting individuals, percentage cover); Method for selecting samples (eg transect, random or systematic sampling); Method for fixing samples (eg random numbers, fixed point above chart datum); Additional detail of equipment used; Additional appropriate practical detail (eg running means, repeats); 4

(b)

(i) Mussels {not found / found less} {outside stream / in sea water} / converse; Reference to greatest number of mussels in middle of stream / eq / converse; Numerical calculation comparing outside stream with in stream, allow between 5 and 6 times as many; (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mussels {cannot tolerate / tolerate less well} {salt water / high salinity} / tolerate fresh water better; Mussels which begin development in sea water dont survive; Hidden from predators; Can feed for longer / food {only found / found more} in stream / can open shell to feed in fresh water; Cooling effect from stream; Cannot tolerate dry period between tides / need to be in water continuously; Less affected by wave action / better attachment to {substrate / rocks / eq}; 2 Dog whelks can only survive in salt water; Therefore very few present at sites 3, 4 and 5; Dog whelks in sea water feed on mussels; Not enough time between tides to eat a mussel; Reference to explanation of the one dog whelk at site 3; Identify one biotic or abiotic factor in context; 3
[11]

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

8. (ii)

(a)

(i)

1.9 ( 104) 1.1 ( 104); 2

= {0.8 104 / 8000} kJ m-2 yr-1; 0.1 0.8 100; = 12.5 %; (b) 2

Some used in plant respiration; Not all parts of plants {eaten / available}; Indigestible matter / cellulose / plant cell walls / faeces / excretion; In {heat / respiration} of 1 consumers;

2
[6]

9. (b)

(a) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

The populations dont interbreed; {Changes / mutations} in {DNA / genes / alleles}; Accumulate in populations / changes of gene frequency / eq; Over production of offspring / many {offspring / eggs}; Competition (for a resource); Better adapted {survive / reproduce}; Advantageous {alleles / characteristics} are inherited; Different selection pressures (in each population); Different characteristics benefit each population; (Genetic / characteristic / phenotype) differences (between populations) become greater over time; Hybrid offspring infertile; Incompatible genomes / chromosomes become different / meiosis fails in hybrid; New species when (mating between the two populations) cant produce fertile offspring; Reproductive or temporal isolation; Biological content maximum Continuous prose 1

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Religious beliefs not compatible; Explanation of incompatibility / reference to creationism; Lack of evidence / incomplete fossil record; Impossible to experiment because time scale too big / theory not fact; 2
[10]

10.

(a) {Microorganism / bacteria / protozoa / yeast / fungi} found in the rumen; Reference to cellulase; Reference to {mutualistic / symbiotic} relationship; Food {stays / churned} in {rumen / stomach} for {long time / 5 - 30 hours}; Idea of fermentation / production of acids / production of {glucose / hexose}; Some food regurgitated and {chewed again / chewing the cud}; (b) 175715 160572 160572 100 OR 15143 160572 100; = 9.4; [allow 9.43]

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1.

Both increase;

Reference to manipulated figures / 0.8% more / eq; Emissions from dairy cattle and sheep have decreased because numbers have decreased; Increased emissions from beef cattle because numbers have increased; Change in (animal) diet has altered the emissions from {cattle / sheep}; Idea of change in human diet leading to changes in agriculture e.g. more beef burgers eaten; 3

(d)

(Methane) swamps / peat bogs / {paddy / rice} fields / landfill sites / leaking gas pipes / coal mines / tundra {decomposition of organic material / eq}/ leaking biogas digester; (Carbon dioxide) respiration / fermentation / combustion of fossil fuels / combustion of C-containing substances / burning forests;

(e) 2. 3. 4.

1.

Idea that greenhouse gases trap {heat / infrared energy};

Correct reference to short and long wave radiation; Which keeps the global temperature at a level that can sustain life / eq Increase in gases causes increase in the {heat / infrared energy) trapped in the atmosphere / eq; 3

(f)

GWP of methane is greater than that of carbon dioxide; 21x; 2 (i) (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Because the others have increased more / eq; More {livestock / paddy fields / rice production) leads to (increased) methane levels / eq; More {waste in landfills / gas pipes / mining / biogas ) leads to (increased) methane levels; More {fridges / computers / aerosols / fire extinguishers} leads to (increased) CFCs / eq, More packaging leads to (increased) CFCs; More {car engines / car exhausts / forest fires} leads to (increased) nitrous oxide; Increased use of (nitrogen / nitrate) fertilisers leads to (increased) nitrous oxide; 3
[19]

(g)

11.

(a) (Speciation) is the formation of a new species; (Speciation) is the {splitting / divergence} of a population; Populations become isolated / reference to reproductive isolation / idea of being unable to interbreed; (b) 1. Sympatric {within a population / occurs without physical separation} AND allopatric requires some form of geographic barrier; Sympatric 2. 3. Idea of {physiological / behavioural / reproductive / eq} barrier; Credit suitable example of species formed by sympatric speciation such as {polyploidy / Spartina / wheat / primroses}; Allopatric 4. 5. Idea of different selection pressures in different environments / suitable example of geographic barrier; Credit suitable example of a species formed by allopatric speciation such as Darwins finches;

4
[6]

12. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (b)

(a)

1.

Long term weather datasets / (direct) temperature records;

Pollen analysis / use of pollen; Dendrochronology / study of tree rings; Melting of {polar ice / glaciers}; Phenological records; Coral bleaching; (i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2 Dust cloud;

Less {sunlight / solar radiation} / blocks out sun; Got colder / global cooling; Less photosynthesis; So less food; Correct reference to temperature and {enzyme action / ectothermy / sex ratios} 3

(ii)

1. Increased volcanic activity; Leading to {more sulphurous gases released / reflection of solar radiation / more carbon dioxide / change in greenhouse effect}; 2. Competition from {other types of animal / mammals}; {Newly evolved animals / mammals} {are better adapted to / can adapt faster to} changing conditions; {Temperature / climatic} changes caused by factors other than meteorite collision / named alternative cause of {temperature / climate}; An example of a valid consequence of this; Disease; 2

3.

4. (c)

Become more {common / abundant} / grow in different places / altered distribution / spread further {north / south / to different altitudes} / change in breeding patterns; (i) Water vapour; Oxides of nitrogen / {NOx / NO2 / N2O / NO / named compound}; Methane; CFCs / chlorofluorocarbons; (ii) Increase in solar radiation / change in earths magnetic field / change in earths angle of rotation / decrease in snow cover / increase in greenhouse gases from a source other than fossil fuels e.g. {volcanic activity / biological methane production / more water vapour in atmosphere / more use of CFCs} / deforestation;

(d)

1
[11]

13.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

(i)

1.

Reference to all decrease;

The bigger the mesh, the greater the breakdown / leaves in the 5 mm mesh {broken down / eq} more quickly than the other bags; Leaves in the air broke down the least; In {1 mm / 5 mm mesh} no change after {Nov 1989 / May 1990} but 0.05 mm continued to break down over entire period / eq; In first six months, leaves remaining in 5 mm mesh was {half / eq} that remaining in {0.5 mm / 1 mm} mesh / any other valid comparison; Comparison of 0.05 in air and 0.05 in soil; Credit for suitable comparative manipulation of data e.g. 19% more leaves were broken down in 5 mm mesh compared with 61 % in 1 mm mesh; 4

(ii)

1. leaves}; 2. 3. 4.

{Soil animals / organisms / microorganisms / decomposers} {responsible for the breakdown of the leaves / feed on the The bigger the mesh, {the more animals / larger animals} are able to enter the bags to feed on the leaves / eq; Credit a specific example, e.g. worms cannot enter the bags with smaller mesh; Bag in the air had least breakdown because {fewer / no} {soil animals / organisms / microorganisms / decomposers} could get at the leaves / reference to {lack of moisture / dry air} / eq;

(b)

The higher the nitrogen content {the greater the breakdown / eq}; {Soil animals / microorganisms / decomposers} {more numerous / breed more / grow more} in leaves with higher nitrogen content OR leaves with more nitrogen were more {palatable / nutritious} reference to lignin / eq; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Decomposition affected by {climate / weather};

(c)

{Hot / wet} climate increases rate of decomposition so leaves are broken down quickly; Pine needles {do not break down quickly / harder to break down} (so build up on forest floor); Rainforest leaves may have high nitrogen content so are broken down more; Reference to {temperature / pH} and enzyme activity; Pine needles {may contain inhibitory chemicals / are thick / are waxy / are fibrous / eq}; 1. {Bacteria / microorganisms / fungi} in soil {breakdown / putrefy / decompose} leaves / reference to bacterial decomposition; 3

(d) 2. 3. 4.

Releasing {ammonia / ammonium}; {Nitrosomonas / reference to nitrifying bacteria [allow ONCE]} {converts / oxidise} {ammonia / ammonium) to nitrite; {Nitrobacter / reference to nitrifying bacteria [allow ONCE]} {converts / oxidise} nitrite to nitrate; [Maximum 2 marks if any reference to nitrogen fixation or Rhizobium]

3
[14]

14.

(a) B C D

Combustion / combusting / burning

Respiration / respire / respiring Respiration / respire / respiring Photosynthesis / photosynthesise / photosynthesising

[breathing negates B or C once] [1 for each correct pair] 2

11

(b) 2.

1. {Takes up / locks up / stores} {carbon / carbon dioxide} (for a long time) / eq; Named example e.g. {peat / coal / limestone / trees / fossil fuel / chalk / shells}; 2 (i) 2. 3. 4. 5. (ii) 1. Increase in {temperature of earths surface / mean global temperature / eq}; Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas / due to an increase in greenhouse gases; (Which) {trap / reflect back} {heat / long wave / infra red} (in the atmosphere); Reference to an {increased / enhanced} greenhouse effect; Reference to valid {effect / consequence} e.g. melting ice caps, flooding, climate change; 2 Methane / CH4; Nitrous oxide / N20; CFCs (or related gases such as HFC and HCFC); {Water / H2O} vapour; Ozone / O3; 2
[8]

(c)

15. 2. 3.

(a) 1. Unable to {reproduce with each other / mate with each other / interbreed / eq} / cannot produce fertile offspring; (Because of) {different mating behaviour / different mating seasons / different mating times of year / genetic incompatibility / eq}; Reference to different species having different {features / appearance / characteristics}; 2

(b)

Idea of {DNA fingerprinting / genetic fingerprinting / hybridisation / base sequencing / amino acid sequencing / immunological comparison}; {Close / eq} match between {DNA / protein / eq} (of two species); 2

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

1.

Reference to allopatric speciation;

Populations {physically / geographically} separated / idea of {barrier / strip of land} separating populations; Two populations {were unable to interbreed / prevented from breeding}; {Environmental conditions / eq} differ (on either side of the isthmus); Reference to different selective pressures / different {features / alleles} selected in two populations / each population subjected to natural selection; (Leads to) {formation / eq} of different {deme / gene pools} / eq; Leads to {change / divergence} in {behavioural / physical} {characteristics / appearance}; Reference to founder effect; Reference to genetic drift; 5
[9]

16.

(a) The use of satellites to {obtain information about / collect data about / to monitor the earths} {global environment / biological change}; The satellites carry (electron) sensors; Over very {large / inaccessible} areas / example; Example of sensor systems that might be carried in satellites e.g. Ocean Colour and Temperature Scanner (OCTS), LANDSAT, Sea WIFS; (b) {Sea / land} surface temperature; {Distribution / abundance / photosynthetic activity} of phytoplankton; Distribution of (types of) vegetation cover / eq; (e.g. cloud / ice cover) (c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2

Pollen analysis / collect pollen grains preserved in peat bogs;


14

The deeper the layer the older the pollen in it / use of C dating to date the layers (the pollen is found in); Pollen from each species {distinctive / can be identified}; Compare with present day distribution of species and climate; Sample widely; The greater the {proportion / relative amount} of pollen that is of a particular species the more common it was; 4
[9]

13

17.

(a) B C

(i)

Photosynthesis

Combustion / burning Respiration [Write a cross by each error in right hand margin] 2 1

[One error = 1 mark, two errors = 0 marks] (ii) (Willow) coppice / wood / trees / straw / agricultural waste; [do not credit sunflower oil / peat] (b) (i) Idea that: can be carried on long into the future / we can carry on doing it indefinitely / biomass renewable (unlike fossil fuel) will not get used up /fossil fuel will get used up (unlike biomass); (ii) For up to one mark: Any valid reference to {less atmospheric pollution / less greenhouse effect / less acid rain} (with biomass) / can grow some more wood; For up to two marks: EITHER Biomass is {renewable / eq}; And going on to explain that fossil fuel (on the other hand) {is getting used up / being used up faster that its being formed} / eq; OR Less carbon dioxide pollution; Because its just replacing what has recently been absorbed in photosynthesis / other valid explanation of carbon neutrality / contributes less to {global warming / greenhouse effect}; OR Biomass is renewable; And contributes less to {global warming / greenhouse effect}; For up to three marks (for a full explanation with three elements): Less carbon dioxide pollution because its just replacing what has recently been absorbed in photosynthesis / other valid explanation of carbon neutrality; Whereas fossil fuel represents carbon being returned to the system after being out of circulation for a long time; Therefore (use of biomass) contributes less to {global warming / greenhouse effect / climate change} (than fossil fuel);

(c)

Computer / data logger; Light / infra red / heat source; (Stop) clock / timer; 2 1

(d)

(i)

Increased {enzyme / microbial} activity; [Do not credit increased population]

(ii)

(Increased enzyme activity / decay) means more CO2 released / CO2 released faster than its being used up in photosynthesis; Due to increased (microbial) respiration; More CO2 (in the atmosphere) therefore more {global warming / greenhouse effect}; 2
[12]

18. (ii)

(a)

(i)

Energy in B = 80 1.5 = 120 1

AND energy in C = 140 0.1 = 14; Percentage = 14 120 100; = {11.67 / 11.7} %; (b) 1. 2. 3. 4. 2

Less energy in C than in B or A / converse; Reference to 10% rule / only about 10% of energy of B in C / small proportion passed; Energy lost between trophic levels; Example of loss (e.g. inedible parts, respiration, heat etc); 3
[6]

15

19.

(a)

(i)

Organic matter increases with distance;

Number of species rises; Up to {500 m / site 4} / falls {beyond 500 m / site 4 / at 650 m / site 5}; (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Less organic matter, fewer nutrients; Unstable substrate; Few species can tolerate; Reference to pioneer species; Increased organic matter suits more species; Reference to increased competition; Fewer species where good soil due to climax community established; 4 2

(b)

(Plant community that) no longer changes (in species) composition / eq; (Due to) succession; Dominant species (for climate) most abundant; 2

(c)

Defined area / quadrat; Method for choosing position (e.g. random, transect); Method of estimating cover described; 2
[10]

20.

(a) 2. 3. (b)

1.

{Rate of /eq }production of (new) {biomass / organic material ; 2

That is available to next trophic level / eq ; NPP = GPP - R / eq ; (i) 2. 3. 4. 1. Light is reflected(away from the leaf) ; Some light passes straight through leaf / light does not fall on {chloroplast /chlorophyll} ; Plant cannot use all wavelengths of light / eq; Photosynthesis is not efficient /eq ; (Secondary consumers) respire / loss as heat ; (Secondary consumers lose energy when they) move around ; Not all of them are eaten / some die(before being eaten) ; Ref. to {inedible / undigestable} parts / eq ; Ref. to decomposition of (secondary consumer) / eq ; 3 2

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(c)

Does not include energy from {producers / other food chains } / this shows energy from only one food chain / they obtain energy from all trophic levels ; (i) 2. 3. 4. (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. Total biomass for primary more than total biomass for secondary / use of figures ; Primary has more leaf litter than secondary / eq; {Leaves / branches} the same for primary and secondary ; Primary has more root(biomass) than secondary / eq ; After 25 years the total biomass has not returned to the original value ; The leaf litter is lower so there will be less {nutrient / recycling} ; Fewer roots could lead to less water retention / eq ; Fewer roots will lead to more soil erosion /eq ; Ref. to change in habitats ; allows more light in ; Exposure to wind / loss of shelter from wind ; Exposure to {light / wind } changes plant populations /eq ; May lead to soil {erosion / eq} ; {Plants / eq } cannot get established / eq ; Correct ref to movements of animals /e.g. migration ; Change in types of plants causes change in the types of animals / change in food {chains / webs} ;

(d)

(e)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

4
[18]

21. 2. (b)

(a)

1.

Increase / eq; 2

Not {grazed / eaten}(by the rabbits); (i) 2. 1. Idea of sub climax / eq 2

Reference to a {factor / activity e.g. grazing, mowing / eq} that maintains (the sub climax);

17

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Reference to removal of grazer / eq; Allows {new / different / eq} {species / plants} to {grow / colonise}; Reference to {competitive effects / change in soil /eq}; Will go through several stages / eq; Reference to succession; Reference to climatic climax / eq; Change in species composition / different food {web /chains} / eq; 4
[8]

22.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (b) 2. 3. 4. (c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

Reference to religion;

Reference to creationism; Description of creationism; Contrary to teaching of Bible; Implies man not special case (ie in Gods image); Description of evolution; Lack of evidence for evolution / natural selection; 1. Different alleles in different breeds / eq; [Reject gene] 3

Reference to random mating / fertilisation / eq; New combinations of alleles / characteristics in offspring; Reference to heterozygousity in the offspring; 1. Short time span / converse; 2;

Chance mutations have not happened; Selection pressures not enough; Single case; Reference to genetic isolating mechanisms; 2
[7]

23.

(a) 2. 3. 4.

(i)

1.

Water loss similar (for all);

Appropriate ref to species; Reference to comparative figures; No clear correlation (between water loss and zonation); 2

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Seaweed higher on the shore recover better from drying / more tolerant of drying /converse / eq; Thicker cell walls provide tolerance to drying / reject resistance to drying / converse; Walls are thicker the higher up the shore / converse; Thick wall aiding recovery / converse; One data point does not fit / eq; Callistoma on lower shore; 3

(b) 2. 3. 4.

1.

Cannot tolerate high temperature / loses water too rapidly; Any other on higher shore; Tolerates higher temperature / conserves water better (not obtusata); 1. Grazing animals; 4

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Predators; Food (supply); Parasites; Competition; AVP; 2


[11]

24.

(a) Producer ; Primary consumer /herbivore ; (b) (i) [Allow marking points if describe chondrus in B & C & Enteromorphia in B & C] Rock pool B had {4045%} Chondrus and no Enteromorpha ; Rock pool C had {9599%} Enteromorpha and no Chondrus ; (ii) 1. change} ; 2. 3. In Rock pool A, Enteromorpha remains {low / none little But in Rock pool B it increases {after 4 months/ between 4 and 10 months} and then levels off ; In Rock pool C it falls {after / from} 2 months (through the rest of the period) ;

19

(iii)

In Rock pool A the periwinkles eat all of the Enteromorpha ; In Rock pool B the removal of the periwinkles has removed the grazing, so the Enteromorpha can increase in cover / in Rock pool C the Enteromorpha has decreased because the periwinkles have been added to the rock pool ;

(iv)

(No Enteromorph) so periwinkles switch to eating Chondrus/ new consumer / ref to specified environmental change ; Maximum number of algal species at periwinkle density of 150 2 2 periwinkles per m / Up to 150 periwinkles per m the number of algal 2 species increases and above 150 periwinkles per m algal species decrease ; Number of species increase because periwinkles are eating {particular species / Enteromorpha} / periwinkle grazing stops faster growing algae out competing other species ; Number of species decrease because {periwinkles eat all species / periwinkles eating algae faster than they can grow/inedible ones survive / faster growing ones survive} ; (i) 2. 3. 1. (Raw) sewage ; Fertiliser (s) ; Detergents (s) ;

(c)

1.

2.

3.

(d)

(ii)

1. 2. nutrients) ; 3. 4. 5. 6. e.g.}

(Excess nutrients) {stimulates / increases} {algae growth / eq} ; Reference to eutrophication in correct context(as excess {Algae / plants} die ; {Bacteria / decomposers} increase in number ; {Bacteria / decomposers} use up oxygen / oxygen level falls / BOD increases ; Death of {fish / other animals} /increase in {animals/named that are adapted to low oxygen conditions; 4
[18]

25.

(a) 2. 3. (b)

1. {long / pointed} canines for {stabbing prey / holding prey / eq} ; {premolars / molars/ carnassials} have {sharp edges / eq} for {shearing/eq} ; incisors for nibbling meat off bones ; (i) 2. 1. correct comparison of rodents in the diet ; correct comparison of {small pets / human food /berries} in the diet ; 3. general comparison of the diet [Note: not essential to use figures, but if used must be correct]

(ii)

diet would provide more energy ; need to eat a smaller quantity of food ; less time spend {hunting /eq} ; Interruption of gene flow between rural and urban foxes / rural and urban populations become separated /no breeding between rural and urban foxes ; by a barrier / behavioral differences ; different environmental conditions either side of barrier ; different selection pressures / different alleles selected for ; formation of two different gene pools ; difference in physical characteristics / dentition ; correct ref to {allopatry /sympatry}

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

4
[10]

26.

(a) 1. 2. 3.

A suggestion to include three from: reference to seed (not pollen) dispersal by wind / animals; reference to a specific adaptation (of fruits) that aid dispersal by wind for example, wings / parachute / eq; reference to a specific adaptation (of fruits) that aid dispersal by animals for example, contain food for animals / may have hooks which stick to animals fur;

[N.B. candidates are not expected to know about how individual species are dispersed but only about adaptations for dispersal in general therefore examples of methods of dispersal need not refer specifically to pine, hazel or oak] (b) A suggestion to include two from: 1. the idea that the seeds of a single tree are only carried a short distance, for example, one squirrel is not going to carry an acorn more than a few 100 metres; therefore it will take many generations to cover the distance (750 km); suitable reference to slowness of climate change / temperatures would rise more slowly / the ice would take longer to melt in the {north / Scotland}; long time to reach reproductive age / eq; [Reject long to grow unqualified] oak requires warmer conditions than pine / differential response to pine against oak; dispersal limited by low number of animals;

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

21

(c)

(i) 1.

An explanation to include: need to find a place nearby with peat / take a peat core / look at layers in the peat / the deeper the layer the older the pollen / eq; pine and oak pollen look different; [Accept types of pollen are different] reference to method of identifying pollen 2

2. 3. (ii)

pine (pollen) would be in deeper layers than oak; correct reference to relative abundance of pine / oak pollen

(d)

An explanation to include three from: 1. 2. they assume that current trends will continue / we cannot be sure current trends will continue; there is only limited amount of long term data used to produce them /eq / older records may have been made with inadequate equipment; something unforeseeable may happen / not all the relevant factors may have been included in the model / appropriate reference to chaos theory; many factors involved / inadequate computing power; 3
[11]

3.

4.

27.

(a) Primary consumer Secondary consumer (b) (i) = 5642;

- seed eating birds / grasshopper / field mice; - spider;

1980 + 3600 + 62; 2

Allow full marks for correct answer with no working shown (ii) Either: subtract respiration / 3600; Or: 2042; NPP=(GPP - R)/GPP = NPP + R;

(c)

(i) 44.4 (12.5 + 25.4); 6.5 out of 44.4; 14.6%; Allow full marks far correct answer with no working shown 3

(ii)

Faeces/ indigestible material; Reject inedible parts Nitrogenous waste / eq; 2

(d)

An explanation to include two from: 1. 2. 3. Small proportion reaches next level / converse; Correct use of figures; Insufficient energy to support another level; 2
[12]

28.

(a) 2. 3. (ii)

(i)

1.

mass {decreases / eq};

ref. to {levelling off / gradient less steep} after 4-6 days / converse; suitable manipulation of figures; 2

1. saprobionts {feed / eq} on {dead / non-living / eq} (organic) material; 2. 3. leaves are freshly picked so are still alive / eq; time needed for saprobionts to {penetrate leaf tissue / secrete enzymes / increase in number / eq}; 2 1

(iii) (b) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (c) 2. 3. 4.

evaporation / loss of water / ref. to metabolic loss / eq; 1. freshly picked leaf has {no damage / is complete} and leaf left on compost {damaged / eq}; (saprobionts) secrete enzymes / named eg; {organic material / eq} {digested / hydrolysed / broken down / decomposed / eq} ref. to specific example (e.g. proteins to amino acids); into soluble products /eq; that are {absorbed / taken in /eq} {into saprobionts/soak into compost}; 1. ref. to {anaerobic / low oxygen} conditions;

aerobic respiration not possible / only anaerobic respiration possible; ref. to {denitrifying organisms / named e.g. / denitrification / eq}; {nitrogen compounds / eq} into nitrogen; 2
[11]

23

29.

(a) 1. 2/3. 4. (b)

A description to include three from: suitable method eg quadrat / point quadrat / pitfall trap; detail e.g. percentage cover / counting / abundance scale;; reference to belt transect /ref. to choosing intervals; 3

valid example eg predators / herbivores / competitors / human factors / grazing / prey / food / parasites; (i) (ii) any one valid e.g. pH / water / minerals / eq / particle size; 2

1 1

(c)

correct example; detail;

[7]

30.

(a) 1. 2. 3. (b) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

any two from: overgrazing / excessive grazing / too much grazing; drought / low rainfall / lack of rain / poor irrigation; climate change / global warming; 1. loss of {vegetation / eq} due to {overgrazing / climate change / drought / eq}; {trampling / eq} compacts soil / removes plants; soil exposed to {wind / water / heat} (from sun); soil blown away / carried away by water; {water evaporates / evaporation} {from surface of soil} leading to {salinisation /brings salts up / deposits salts on surface / eq}; poor irrigation leads to {change in water content of soil / eq}; idea of loss of roots loosens soils / eq; 4 2

(c)

Any two from the following pairs of answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. put in barrier e.g. planting wind breaks / hedges / trees / shelter belt / stones / walls / fence; to reduce wind speed / provide shelter to crops; use {plants that are drought resistant / native species / eq}; idea that plants can survive; plant fuel crop / eq; so no need to fell trees / ref to sustainability; rain water harvesting / irrigation; to supply water to livestock / plants / crops / agriculture / eq; control grazing by e.g. density / frequency / number / species; to prevent loss of vegetation cover / eq; laying {straw mats / stones / gravel / eq} over ground / add water-retaining material; to stabilise soil / prevent wind erosion / reduce water loss / retain moisture; 4
[10]

31.

(a) 1. {proteins / amino acids / organic nitrogen compounds / eq} {broken down / decomposed / converted} to {ammonium / ammonia} by {bacteria / fungi / putrifiers / microorganisms / decomposers / eq}; 2. 3. 4. (b) 2. 3. 4. {ammonium / ammonia} converted to nitrites by {Nitrosomonas / Nitrococcus / nitrifying bacteria}; nitrites converted to nitrates by {Nitrobacter / Nitrobac/llus / nitrifying bacteria}; ref. to oxidation in correct context; 1. ref. to {absorbed / taken in / eq} by root hairs; 3

by active transport and diffusion; used for {synthesis / eq} of {amino acid / protein / DNA / organic base / chlorophyll / eq}; ref. to {proteins / DNA }required for {growth / cell division / specified part of plant}; (i) 2. 3. 1. compost heap {warmer / higher temperature} than air; 3

(c)

difference in range 15 25 C / specified difference; both fluctuate in similar pattern / ref to both show a downward trend / eq; 2

25

(ii)

1. 2. 3.

ref. to {respiration / metabolic activity} of microorganisms; (which) releases heat; ref. to insulation effect of {compost / container}; 2

(iii)

ANY TWO FROM: {reduced food / substrate / toxin / inhibitor / more waste product / competition / more anaerobic / less oxygen / cooling effect of rain / change in water / change in pH};;

2
[12]

32.

(a) biotic involve {other organisms / living / eq}, abiotic are {physical / non-living / chemical / eq}; (b) 2. 3. 1. named organism appropriate to habitat;

specified abiotic factor and means of measuring abiotic factor / named apparatus/eq; appropriate technique for measuring distribution of organism in the habitat e.g. {belt / transect / systematic / stratified} sampling; 3
[4]

33. 2. 3.

(a)

1.

the rise in the (average) temperature of the Earths surface;

NOT air temperature / atmosphere due to the increase in greenhouse gases; carbon dioxide / methane / CFCs / nitrogen oxides / water vapour;

ACCEPT correct formula: CO2 / CH4 / NOx IF ozone / sulphur dioxide mentioned, DO NOT AWARD this marking point 4. 5. (b) (which) {trap / reflect back / absorb } {heat / long wave / infra red / radiation}; reference to {enhanced / increased} greenhouse effect; (i) 2. 3. 1. overall trend generalists increased in abundance and specialists decreased; peaks and troughs in the abundance for both correspond; generalists always greater than specialists; 2 3

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

specialists have lost their specific habitat; specialists have lost a food source; {weather /predation / common food} has effected both groups of butterflies; {climate change / temperature} has favoured generalists; generalists more able to {exploit new habitats / adapt / larger niche}; 3 comma once found only in the warmer south;

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

(global warming) produces milder winters further north / eq; (global warming has) increased {food supply /egg plants / habitats} of the comma; other butterflies cannot survive so well so comma outcompetes them / moves to avoid intraspecific competition / eq; (global warming) reduces the number of predators (so more commas survive); 3
[11]

34. (ii) (iii) (iv) (b)

(a)

(i)

photosynthesis;

decomposition; respiration; combustion; 4

(i) (coal contains) carbon that has been taken from the atmosphere (in the past) / carbon that has been taken out of circulation (in the carbon cycle); (ii) burning wood does not add to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere / does not cause a net increase; carbon dioxide in (roughly) equals carbon dioxide out; burning wood releases carbon recently absorbed (by photosynthesis) / burning fossil fuels releases CO2 trapped a long time ago / eq; 2

(c)

not enough room to keep planting enough forest to use up all the surplus CO2; a {mature/fully grown} forest is carbon neutral / only {young / growing} forest is a net absorber / eq; in the end the forest will die and decay / be burnt by humans;

2
[9]

27

35.

(a) One mark (an honest attempt to make the contrast): Global warming is a (general) increase in the temperature of the atmosphere / environment whereas greenhouse effect (is a way of explaining) explain why it is happening/the trapping of heat (in the atmosphere) / greenhouse effect is how the sun keeps the Earth warm whereas global warming is an increased greenhouse effect / greenhouse effect causes global warming; Two marks As for one mark plus further detail: Global warming is {an increase in global mean surface temperature/ average of measurements made in many different places throughout the world} / current global warming may be due to (anthropogenic) burning of fossil fuel / global warming is a fact whilst greenhouse effect is a theory / two greenhouse gases named;; Three marks (makes the contrast with some detail and which clarifies fact and conjecture and clearly disentangles global warming, greenhouse effect and the possible role of burning fossil fuels): As for two marks but also: widely believed that (some clear implication that it may not be the only explanation) current global warming is due to {enhanced/increased} greenhouse effect due to raised CO2 concentration (of the atmosphere) / global warming may be caused by something other than greenhouse gases e.g. changes in solar radiation;;; 3 (b) (ii) (i) any reasonable attempt at a J shaped curved best fit line; 1

credible attempt at extrapolating the line as a curve; for correctly reading both points off the candidates own extrapolated graph; (would expect 0.5 C for 2000 and around 1.2 C for 2020 if extrapolated as a curve or 1.0 C extrapolated as a straight line) for subtracting to get increase using own figures (e.g. 1.1-0.5 = 0.6 C) including units; assumes present trend continues; line not based on long enough series of data / older data may be less accurate / reliable; (graph shows) that temperature has fluctuated (over period 18802000); numerical evidence taken from graph to illustrate an occasion when the temperature fell approx 1900 to 1908 or approx 1945 to 1970; ALLOW any reasonable attempt to use figures to make a valid point about predicting future climate from these data; some unpredictable event may affect trend e.g volcanic eruption / sharper than expected change in fossil fuel consumption / changes in solar radiation; 3

(iii)

(c)

enzymes temperature sensitive / damaged by high temperature; damage to enzymes may affect respiration / metabolic activity / photosynthesis / supply of energy; may give competitor an advantage; may affect water availability; may affect supply of food plants / prey species / predators; change of sex ratio in reptiles / crocodiles;

2
[12]

36.

(a) (i) GPP and NPP similar to start with; both increase; (After 2 days) GPP and NPP diverge/eq; figures in support; 2 (ii) more energy is used in metabolism/eq in {older / bigger} plants; figures in support; suitable explanation e.g. protein synthesis/flower initiation/ differentiation / ref. to herbivores; more photosynthesis tissue; (as grows) / eq; 2

(b)

GPP-NPP=R /eq; biomass production reduced by respiration / eq;

2
[6]

29

37. Breadth: max 6 marks These marks are to be awarded to the candidate if they successfully introduce the general area of Biology relevant to the essay title. If a relevant B point is awarded then the corresponding A point should also be awarded. Key ideas to look for are in bold type the candidate need only show evidence that he or she realises that key idea is appropriate in the essay to gain a breadth (A) mark. A1 Global warming is happening at present/the surface air temperature/sea temperature is getting warmer: B1a B1b Depth: max 8 marks These marks are awarded to candidates for demonstrating an understanding of relevant A level biological detail expanding on the areas of biology introduced in A. This list is not exhaustive but is designed to give an idea of the type of response worthy of credit for a (B) mark. Allow a maximum of 4 B marks per corresponding A mark.

B1c B1d

B1e A2 Climate change may cause sea levels to rise B2a B2b B2c A3 Global warming has happened in the past B3a B3b

Plenty of data from direct records going back over >100 years/pollen analysis/dendrochronology/ice cores; Climate change related to global warming includes changes/increased temperature and {changes in rainfall pattern}/some places become drier/wetter; Discussion of the natural carbon cycle and how human activity may be changing the natural balance. Might be the result of humans burning fossil fuels but could be due to other nonanthropogenic causes/the contribution of CO2 emissions due combustion of fossil fuel to global warming is difficult to evaluate; Explain the possible link between greenhouse gases and global warming; Loss of agricultural land due to sea level rise Increased sea flooding may result in salt contamination of agricultural land Only plants with halophytic adaptations / modifications may be able to survive in many areas There was global warming at the end of Ice Age: Ice Age ended (in UK) about 10 000 BC/12 000 BP/12 thousand years ago [accept +/ 2000y];

B3c

B3d A4 Some species survive by change in distribution /{growing / living} elsewhere B4a

Examples to illustrate the scale of the effect e.g. (In UK) from tundra to forest/species entered UK across land bridge; Reference to time scale e.g. (tundra to forest in UK) in a few thousand/anything in the range 2000 to 5000 years; Some species may grow further north/at higher altitude; Species lost (from a particular place/example) will be replaced by ones from further South; How habitat fragmentation may make species dispersal/migration/succession harder than in the past; Appropriate reference to seed dispersal in enabling plant species to grow somewhere else; Example to illustrate B4d; Ref to animal migration compared to plant dispersal; Example to illustrate how succession works e.g. new species arrives and outcompetes indigenous species/{new species/loss of old species} may change/modify the (ecological) conditions/specific example; Species on mountain tops/northern coast may have nowhere to migrate to; Species may lose niche/habitat etc and may not be able to adapt/compete well enough to survive/ effects of disrupted food chains; Extinction rate currently extremely high. Farmers in a particular place will grow different crops /keep different (domestic) animals; Example to illustrate e.g. maize will grow/already growing further north; (Agricultural) Winners and losers: Some places will no longer be as good for agriculture as they are now/will become deserts/ some places will be better for agriculture/desertification may take place;

B4b B4c B4d B4e B4f A5 Reference to succession as a way ecosystem/vegetation may change; B5

A6

Some species will face extinction/ population decline;

B6a B6b

B6c A7 Effects on Agriculture B7a B7b B7c

B7d

Example to illustrate candidates response to B7c e.g. sub-Saharan Africa/Spain/Mediterranean area Grow more maize/sunflowers in Scotland Overgrazing/effects of (human)
31

A8

Pests/animal vectors/weeds may become more numerous/spread north/become more widespread; Behaviour of plants and/or animals may change (Wild species) may change by evolution/natural selection;

B8

A9

B9

A10

B10a B10b

overpopulation in {marginal areas/eq/the Sahel} made even worse/more severe; Examples of species which might benefit e.g. Witch weed (in Africa)/mosquitoes carrying malaria (further north) / other suitable examples of specific plants or animals; Disruption of breeding cycles/animals may hatch at a different time to their prey species/{seeds may not germinate/ plants may not flower} without cold stimulus Correct reference to mutations/random change in genes/DNA change; new genes might provide new adaptations that will enable the species to survive /compete better with pre-existing species;

B10c

A11

There will be loss of biodiversity

B11a B11b

A12

Plant breeding/GM will produce new varieties able to cope with new conditions

B12a B12b

A13

Reference to computer models to predict climate change

B13

(Struggle for survival and survival of the fittest) the individuals which survive will provide genes for future generations/will reproduce faster than the original variants; Species will become extinct faster than new ones evolve so there will be fewer species in the world (Why loss of biodiversity matters) means loss of genes/genetic variation limiting {evolutionary change/ability to adapt in the future/source of genes for use in plant breeding/GM in the future Outline description of how plants may be modified through genetic modification and/or details of selective breeding. Example: produce drought resistant/temperature resistant varieties with heat resistant enzymes/salt tolerance (in context of rising of sea level/similar examples; Qualification e.g. only make predictions not provide certainty/predictions continually improving/derived from a lot of data/based on extrapolation of current trends/specific example e.g. (some models predict) drier in SE England wetter in Scotland;

Unpacking the question: the focus of this of this question is on the biological effects including agricultural consequences of global warming. It is not primarily about the greenhouse effect nor issues surrounding combustion of fossil fuels although these may gain a mention when discussing uncertainties and difficulties of making predictions. Nor is it primarily about whether global warming is taking place or not although observing that it is clearly taking place and mentioning some of the evidence for this could be a good place to start. Some of the points below might have already have been awarded a mark under B but the C mark is for making connections. To be awarded a mark for each of the points below a candidate must have made the point in bold type and to have qualified it sufficiently to show they know what they mean the material that is not in emboldened is intended to illustrate how the idea might be qualified rather than a prescriptive mark scheme. The C points might be made as discrete points in the introduction and/or conclusion or indirectly as part of the way the factual material has been presented in the body of the essay. But it should be possible to identify precisely where each C mark has been awarded by, for example, writing C1 or C2 on the script.

33

C1 C2

Might not be as bad as all that e.g the extent of global warming is difficult to predict; Linked to C1: because of several possible scenarios e.g {if Atlantic conveyor/Gulf Stream breaks down UK will be much colder otherwise UK will be warmer}/{future levels of anthropogenic CO2 production from fossil fuel are difficult to predict/if humans reduced CO2 production from fossil fuels may take time to make a difference}/ Ref. to education about global warming; The global warming which ended the last Ice Age was much greater than the current global warming predictions Linked to C3: Yet successional processes, dispersal and natural selection took care of it bringing change not catastrophe; The rate of change may happen too fast for biological processes like dispersal, succession and evolution to keep pace and this may disrupt ecosystems/make it more difficult to feed the worlds human population/lead to greater loss of biodiversity than previous climatic change/Ice Age; Humans have fragmented natural habitats making it more difficult for living organisms to disperse as the climate changes;

C3 C4 C5

C6

C7 C8

Might be a catastrophe for the human race but not for the global ecosystem: Linked to C7: the world is already over-populated/ climate change could result in mass human starvation/war over dwindling resources and dry land/collapse of world economy/much of worlds population lives in places likely to be flooded by rising sea level. But the ecosystem, unhindered by the negative effects of humans could become more stable/have more biodiversity. In the past what appears to be catastrophic has led to major evolutionary change/ has been ecologically/biologically creative.

C9

C10 Linked to C9: For example, the meteor/asteroid which is said to have caused the demise of most of the Dinosaurs when it collided with the earth might well have accelerated the evolution of mammals including humans. There might be fewer humans but they might be an evolutionary improvement! C11 Science and Technology will cope it always does; C12 Linked to C11: A lot of scientists are studying global warming and climate change so we know what needs to be done/GM technology will be used to produce crops able to survive in a warmer climate/we shall adapt our {homes/cities/energy sources/ways of producing food}...

D: Coherence, clarity and expression of the answer: maximum of 4 marks This strand will award students for style of their answer and is quite distinct from mentioning the big ideas (C). It isnt what candidates say but how they say it. 4 marks: A truly synoptic essay which links together information from different parts of the specification in a coherent and logical style (introduction. Conclusion, good use of paragraphs and well illustrated by examples). Good spelling, punctuation, grammar and sound use of technical terminology. 3 marks: Good logical structure with good spelling, punctuation, grammar and sound use of technical terminology, but tends to be a collection of information which, although relevant, tends to be disjointed and only partly attempts to synthesise information. 2 marks: A reasonably coherent account that includes satisfactory spelling, punctuation and grammar, which tends to be disjointed. A collection of information with little or no attempt to link ideas together. 1 mark: Some relevant information is presented in an intelligible way using correctly formulated simple sentences. 0 marks: The use of English is not adequate to convey scientific information beyond naming a list of examples. A candidate who has scored some marks (particularly in strand A) for mentioning some relevant points may nevertheless fail to score marks in strand D if he or she fails to form simple sentences.
[20]

38. 2. (b) (ii)

(a) 1. bacteria / fungi / saprophyte / saprobiont / decomposer / suitable, correct organism; reference to respiration; (i) 1. 2. 3. photosynthesis; reference to respiration (of some of the organic material); idea that energy is required; for synthesis of {molecules / eq} / movement / active transport}; max 2 idea of {carbon / carbon dioxide} {locked away / stored} / eq; 2 2 1

(c) 2. (d)

1.

for {many years / a long time / eq};

24 391 37.98; 6 642.2 10 ha;

35

(e) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (f) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1.

(different) {climates / rainfall / temperatures / eq};

(different) {species / types} of {tree / forest}; (different) {ages / maturity / size / eq} of forests; (different) tree density / number of trees; reference to (different) day lengths; reference to (different) light intensity; (different) carbon dioxide concentration / eq; any two other valid reasons;; 1. max 2

idea of less carbon dioxide {fixed / taken up / eq} by photosynthesis;

{respiration / combustion of {fossil fuels / trees}} continues to release carbon dioxide; carbon dioxide builds up in {upper atmosphere / troposphere}; reference to carbon dioxide as greenhouse gas; description of the greenhouse effect; reference to {enhanced / eq} greenhouse effect; reference to global warming / increase in mean temperature (of Earths surface); max 4
[15]

39.

(a) (i) {total biomass / eq} produced / {[energy / eq} taken in; by {plants / producers / photosynthesis / eq}; (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (b) 2. 3. 4. 1. light intensity; light duration / eq; light wavelength; temperature; {carbon dioxide / carbonate} concentration; pH; named aquatic pollutant; max 2 (dead plant material) is decomposed / eq;

by action of {bacteria / microoorganisms / eq}; idea that aerobic respiration involved; (more) dead material provides more nutrients which leads to an increase in microorganisms / eq; max 3

(c)

(i) 2. 3. 4. (ii) 1.

1.

CR in winter {usually greater/eq} than in summer;

both show increase as distance (from headwaters) increases; in winter CR increases {greatly / eq}, in summer only {slight increase / eq}; use of manipulated data; max 2 idea that {more leaves / detritus / eq} added with distance from source / more leaves shed in winter / (more dead material because) algae die down in winter; far increased {bacterial / eq} activity; 1. GPP {increases as distance (from headwaters) increases / higher in Motueka River}; high GPP indicates {high algal population / eq}; (because) algae release oxygen by photosynthesis; more algae means more {grazing invertebrates / eq}; more food (for fish / trout); CR {higher / increases} (in winter); (higher CR indicates) more {detritus / eq}; {algae / eq} may die down in winter; reference to {decay / eq} (of detritus and/or algae) uses up oxygen; fish population {falls / eq}; max 3
[17]

2. (d) (i) 2. 3. 4. 5. (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

max 3

40. 2. 3. 4. (b) 2.

(a)

1.

fixed / constant area;

reference to sampling; valid comparisons possible; easy so can be repeated; 1. gradient; sampling along changing conditions / environmental max 2

systematic sampling /random sampling does not show distribution / eq; 2

37

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

more coverage by plants in 5 / converse;

more organic matter in 5 / converse; more species in 5 / converse; different species present; credit figures (e.g. 3 times more plants, 2.4g more matter, 17 more species); 1. different communities at different distances; max 3

(d) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

few species near beach; reference to pioneer species; organic matter (increase with distance from beach); consequence of increased organic matter (e.g. increased water holding, mineral content); suited to more species further from beach; reference to competition; few dominant species; (might be) climax community / mature community; max 5
[12]

41. (b)

(a)

same genus / reflects close relationship /eq; 1. isolation of populations; / reproductive isolation /eq;

2. 3. 4. 5.

mutations cannot pass between populations; genetic drift / founder effect; different selection pressures / eq; (reference to effects of local conditions on) allele frequencies; max 3 1. requires co-ordination between governments / eq;

(c) 2. 3. 4.

(government might have) different approaches to conservation / e.g. tourism / eq; (government might have) different needs for local populations / different wealth of countries / eq; leopards know no boundaries; max 2
[6]

42. B C (b) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

(a)

photosynthesis;

respiration / decomposition / putrefaction; NOT decay combustion; 1. 3 overall trend {increasing / eq};

{steady / linear / eq} increase to {1973 / 1974}; period of {increase and decrease / fluctuation} between {1973 / 1974} and {1982 / 1983 / 1984 / 1985}; decrease between 1979 and 1983; increase from 1983 (with some fluctuations); correct manipulation of data e.g. overall 58 10 barrels per day; max 3
6

(c)

YES, because: 1. 2. 3. there is an overall increasing trend in both graphs / eq; there are fluctuations on both graphs / eq; the {peaks and troughs / fluctuations} of the graphs do not match / eq; max 2 1. 2. {traps / eq} {heat / infrared / eq} (in the atmosphere) / eq; 2 1

NO, because:

(d)

methane / CFC / nitrous oxide / water vapour / eq; natural gas / coal / lignite / anthracite; 1. idea of meeting present needs;

(e) (f) 2. 3. (g) 2. 3. 4. 5.

idea of ensuring future supplies / last a long time / eq; (energy crops) are a renewable resource / eq; 1. none of the habitats supported all three species; max 2

planting willow {removes / eq} lapwing / eq; planting willow increases the numbers of snipe /eq; planting willow allows woodcock to appear / eq; credit any correct manipulation of data; max 3
[16]

39

43. 2. 3. 4. (b) 2. 3.

(a)

1.

63;

[max 2 from the following three marking points] cannot form gametes /eq; (because) chromosome pairing not possible / eq; during {meiosis / eq}; 1. (isolating mechanisms) prevent interbreeding (between species / populations) / barrier to reproduction / eq; (postzygotic mechanisms) allow {mating / fertilisation / eq} / eq; but prevent production of {viable / fertile} offspring / prevent offspring developing / eq; 1. idea that species is group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring / eq; 2. but mule {is sterile / cannot produce offspring}; 2
[8]

max 3

(c)

44.

ESSAY MARK SCHEME Outline scheme for marking essay 11 available for Scientific content (S) 2 available for Balance (B) 2 available for Coherence (C) Scientific content (S) 11 (good) Description The essay demonstrates a sound understanding of the topic and contains a significant amount of material from most areas of the mark scheme, including A2 content. Suitable examples are included and the candidate has clearly and coherently linked together information from different parts of the specification. An above average essay, with accurate content. The essay includes a good balance of material from several areas of the mark scheme, including A2 content, and examples where appropriate. There may be some minor factual errors. The essay includes relevant information from some areas of the mark scheme, including A2 content. The candidate links together some facts and principles. Some examples are included. There may be some minor factual errors. The essay includes some generally factually accurate and relevant material, and there is some attempt to link material from more than one area of the mark scheme. The A2 content, in particular, lacks depth and accurate details. There are some correct facts, but the essay lacks depth and accuracy. The essay contains little or no relevant information from the A2 content. There are very few correct facts. The essay is generally superficial and inaccurate. No correct or relevant material is included.

9 (above average) 7 (average) 5 (below average) 3 (poor) 1 (poor) 0 (poor)

Note: If a scientific content mark of 0, 1, or 3 is awarded, it is very unlikely that a balance mark of more than 1 is appropriate. An essay containing AS content only can be awarded a max of 3 for scientific content. An essay containing A2 content only can be awarded a max of 7 for scientific content.
S = 11 marks

41

Balance (B) 2 Most of the main topic areas outlined are covered Some discussion of each of the areas chosen, illustrated with suitable examples where appropriate Material included is all relevant to the topic and the candidate has linked information from more than one area of the specification. Few, if any, errors Some of the main topic areas outlined are covered. Some discussion of each of the areas chosen. Some irrelevant material included. There are some examples which link together different areas of the specification. Some errors Very limited account, possibly only one aspect chosen Material mostly irrelevant No examples of the candidate linking information from different topics Large number of errors
B = 2 marks

1.

Coherence (C) 2 Material logically presented, with little or no repetition Essay has coherence, ideas are developed well; continuous prose used throughout Essay has an introduction and a conclusion, summing up the main points Technical terms have been used correctly Spelling, punctuation and grammar are sound Material is presented in an orderly way and some ideas developed Continuous prose used throughout The introduction and conclusion may be present, but brief Technical terms are used and generally in the correct context Spelling, punctuation and grammar are generally sound Essay style not used Material in note form or numbered points Very poor standard of spelling, punctuation and grammar
C = 2 marks

Energy flow and succession in ecosystems introduction could include references to producers and consumers, food chains and food webs, succession as changes in community structure over time AS outline of autotrophic nutrition roles of producers and consumers food chains and food webs how energy is transferred through food chains and food webs why energy is lost between trophic levels

A2

ecosystems are dynamic and subject to change example of succession (grassland or abandoned farmland to woodland) seral stages plagio and climatic climax communities
Scientific content 11 marks Balance 2 marks Coherence 2 marks [15]

45. 2. 3. (b) 2. 3. 4. (c) 2.

(a) 1. the rate of hatching {increases with temperature up to / peaks at} 28 C; as the temperature increases above 28 C hatching rate decreases; reference to optimum temperature; 1. max 2

enzymes have an optimum temperature/ are temperature sensitive;

increased enzyme activity up to 28 C; some enzymes distorted / denatured (above 28 C); disrupting metabolic / physiological processes; 1. (reduced hatching) so reduced population of adults at temperatures over 28 C; at places where the present temperatures are currently less than 28 C global warming would increase populations / hatching rate; increased population due reduced predation / reduced population due to increased predation; increased population due to increased food supply / decreased population due to reduced food supply; early hatching means population out of synchronisation with food supply causing decrease / eq; max 3
[7]

max 2

3. 4. 5.

46.

(a) 2. (ii)

(i)

1.

the deeper the layer the older (the layer)/ eq; max 1 1

use of (radio)carbon dating of the peat;

alder trees grow well in wet places / eq;

43

(b) 2. 3. 4.

1.

identify the insects;

estimate [insect numbers of each species in each layer; find out which species of insect live in warm places (today); reference to increased numbers of such insects in upper layers of ( peat); (i) 2. 1. (loss of habitat as) cannot migrate/disperse northwards; max 2

(c)

competition from other plants advancing from the south; max 1 will use up stored food / starch / sugar (in respiration) faster than it can be replaced (by photosynthesis); therefore limiting growth/ increase in biomass / eq; increased CO2 release further increases global warming; max 2
[7]

(ii)

1. 2. 3.

47. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(a)

1.

male fish have unique DNA;

inherit DNA from male parent /eq; share DNA fingerprint characteristics /eq; doesnt change during life / eq; reference to microsatellites / restriction enzymes cut DNA predictably; max 3 (i) 2. 1. 63/68 100; OR 42.6 + 38.2 + 11.8 92.6 /92.64 / 92.65 / 93; 2 all females are more likely to mate with a male from same population / eq; population A exclusively mates within the same population; populations B and/or C will breed with each other; reference to limitations in data (e.g. ref to small sample size in population C); max 2

(b)

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

1.

reference to definition of a species;

all mating within population /eq; reference to reproductive isolation; no gene flow; reference to accumulation of differences /changes; more likely to become genetically different; max 4
[11]

48. 2. 3. 4. (b)

(a)

1.

reference to (selective) advantage;

speech provides better communication / eq; reference to better social interactions / eq; greater reproductive success / converse; (i) 2. 3. 4. 1. undermines teaching of bible / ref creation story in Genesis; reference to relationship of man to animals / eq; reference to age of the world / time of evolution; reference to influence of religion on politics / legal system; evolution is controversial because it contradicts creation story / eq; natural selection as a mechanism of change since creation less controversial; evidence for natural selection can be observed / more evidence for natural selection; distinction between microevolution and macroevolution (new taxa) / eq; max 2
[7]

max 3

max 2

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

49.

(a)

(i) 1. main food chain: phytoplankton Calanus - sand eel herring /cod with arrows pointing showing direction of energy flow; trophic levels indicated correctly in any comprehensible way; inclusion of any two other organisms at correct trophic level with appropriate arrows; 3

2. 3.

45

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

each cod eats many times its own mass of sandeels (in its life time) / eq; when {energy / nutrients / organ/c matter} passes from one trophic level to another only some /s passed on / eq; energy loss through respiration / heat / faeces / not all potent/al prey get eaten; larger number of sandeels (than cod) / removal of cod by fishing; max 2 1. more light (intensity);

(b)

(i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (ii)

suitable wavelengths; more carbon dioxide dissolved in the water; more appropriate temperature; more minerals / eq; fewer zooplankton; max 2

production of ATP / DNA / nucleotides / phospholipids / membranes; 1 (i) grams (organic) carbon per square metre; there is a (weak) correlation between temperature and productivity; the increase / decrease in productivity starts earlier than the increase in temperature; appropriate reference to data to illustrate points made; increase in productivity is more gradual than the increase in temperature; reference to other variables that may affect productivity e.g. light intensity or day length; productivity is limited by temperature (in May); reference to grazing by {zooplankton / Calanus} (in July); reference to another limiting factor e.g. reduced (solubility) of carbon dioxide, depletion of mineral ions, photoperiod; max 2 max 3 1

(c) (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(iii)

1. 2. 3.

(d) 2. 3. 4.

1.

less food available / more predation / eq;

low temperature optimum of its enzymes / eq; life cycle out of seasonal synchrony with the species it feeds on / {reproductive / migratory} behaviour / eq; increased respiration rate may increase food requirement/deplete stored food reserves more quickly; lower oxygen concentration; (i) 2. 3. 4. 1. herring stocks were in (steep) decline prior to {the ban / 1978}; but recovered rapidly/eq once fishing was controlled; use of figures e.g. recovered to over half of the 1963 level in less than ten years; meanwhile cod stocks (which were not controlled) remained low; max 2 (mean) size of (adult) cod will get less /eq; cod may {mature/become sexually mature} earlier/at a smaller size; genes for smallness/early maturity passed on to the next generation /eq; example of change in behaviour; max 2
[20]

5. (e)

max 2

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

47

50.

(a) Function Photophosphorylation Stores non-carbohydrate organic material Carbon fixation Label letter A C B Name of structure granum oil droplet stroma

Award 1 mark per correct row as in the table above. A granum Accept grana (stack) / thylakoids / thylakoid membrane Reject grain C oil droplet Accept lipid {droplet / drop} Reject fat B stroma Reject stoma (b) (i) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. (ii) {enter / used in} {Photosystem II / PSII}; replace electrons lost by chlorophyll; after {excitation by light / absorption of light}; which were used in production of reduced NADP; 2 3

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of three marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ref to reduction of CO2; (reduced NADP / eq) used to reduce {GP / G3P/eq}; in Calvin cycle; after fixation of CO2 by RuBP (to produce GP / G3P/eq); leads to formation of carbohydrate; {GALP / TP/eq} is the carbohydrate; 3 1

(c)

GPP = NPP + R

(d)

(i)

Correct answer (with or without working) = 2 marks mark

Answer: 5 670;; Correct working with incorrect answer = 1. Accept any working that would give correct answer eg (37 800 / 100) 85 = 32 130 37 800 32 130 = or (37 800 / 100) 15 = (ii) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. less light available farther from equator; lower temperatures farther from equator; {less water available / lower rainfall} farther from equator; less minerals available farther from equator; 2
[13]

Statements must use comparative terms. Accept converse statements.

51. (ii)

(a)

(i)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context of whether or not statement was chosen to a maximum of three marks. 1. as Ascophyllum decreases, Chondrus increases / Chondrus has low percentage where Ascophyllum has high percentage/eq; no data to say how Fucus grows when not covered by water; Ascophyllum still present in low tidal regions; 3

2. 3.

49

(b)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. temperature; light intensity; nature of rock / substratum/eq; slope/eq; aspect/eq; salinity/eq; ref to pollution; 2

(c)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of four marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. suitable named organism linked with habitat; reference to suitable technique for the organism; eg use of quadrat, transect; reference to systematic sampling; detail of method; stated measurement; reference to two abiotic measurements; reference to a safety procedure; 4
[10]

52.

(a) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. tree types can be identified from their pollen; pollen only produced by {fully-grown / mature/eq} trees; trees need to {grow/eq} for a long time before maturity/eq; 2 (i) (ii) D 1

(b)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context. 1. 2. reference to distributed across several climatic zones; reference to little fluctuation in the pollen data from different ages; 2

(c)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of five marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. climate has become warmer/eq; reference to a change between 8 700 and 6 390 years ago; {larch / spruce} were growing but died out/eq; (larch / spruce) are only found in boreal and northern temperature regions (in present day); (boreal and temperate regions) are cold climates; pine was not growing but has become established more recently; pine is only found in southern boreal and temperate regions (in present day); (southern boreal and temperate regions) are warmer climates; 5

(d)

Award one mark for each of the following points. 1. 2. idea that dendrochronology uses evidence from {tree / annual} rings; {density / thickness/eq} of rings changes with climatic conditions / thicker ring indicates warmer year; 2
[12]

53.

(a)

(i)

reproductive isolation 1

Accept reproductively isolated (ii) (iii) species allele frequency Accept % allele frequency Reject gene frequency % gene frequency 1

51

(b)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of five marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. different (environmental) conditions in the different areas; different selective pressures; some fish better adapted than others (in each population); use of example of an adaptation from information; these more likely to survive to breed; and pass on their {alleles / genes} (to next generation); process of selection continues {in each generation / over many generations}; allele frequencies of {favourable/eq} increases; correct use of term natural selection; 5

(c)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. reference to mutation; change in {base / eq} sequences in DNA; can occur during {DNA replication / cell division}; can be caused by named example of a mutagen; 2
[10]

54.

(a)

(i)

Correct answer (with or without working) = 2 marks

Answer: 51.9% (accept 52% or 51.88%) Correct working with incorrect answer = 1 mark Accept any working that would give correct answer eg 179 / 345 100 = 52% (ii) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. idea that length of life cycle is dependant on metabolic rate of blow fly; metabolic rate is determined by enzyme activity/eq; as temperature increases (up to an optimum) enzyme activity increases; idea that as a result of temperature increase (to a max) length of lifecycle decreases; 2 2

(iii)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. humidity; drugs; oxygen; ref. to genetic differences; 2

(b)

Award three marks for the following in context. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Muscle cells deprived of oxygen Respiration becomes anaerobic/reference to lactic acid Fall in pH Inhibits enzymes ATP no longer produced Bonds between muscle proteins become fixed 3

(c)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of three marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. as each organism feeds it changes the body / environment this allows conditions suitable for colonisation/growth of other species ref to other organisms eg microbes in plant succession many early species are replaced over time in this case most of the early insects remain as others colonise suitable reference to climax community in plants {longer timescale / larger area} in plants 3
[13]

53