You are on page 1of 14

1.

(a) It is a factor which limits the rate (of photosynthesis / of a reaction) ; Increasing this factor increases the rate (of photosynthesis) ; Until another factor limits the rate / eq ; (b) (i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. Increase in rate from 0 to 300 / 350 (light intensity) ; Reference to manipulated figures to support increase ; Light is the limiting factor / eq ; [accept converse] Rate levels off / eq above 300 / 350 (light intensity) ; Another factor has become limiting ; Named limiting factor: carbon dioxide / temperature / chloroplasts / chlorophyll ; (Provides) carbon dioxide ; Rate of, O2 production / photosynthesis, is greater (at all light intensities) above 50 for higher carbonate / CO2 concentration / eq ; Reference to comparative figures for rates / approx. double ; For both concentrations rate starts to levels off at 300 / 350 light intensity / lower concentration levels off above 250 compared with 300 ; Hydrogen carbonate / CO2 concentration is a limiting factor / limiting up to light intensity 50 ; (iii)

(ii)

1. 2.

3. 4. 5. not

Keep temperature constant / place tube containing pond weed in a water bath ; Reference to rate of reaction / enzymes being affected by temperature changes / temperature affects, solubility / diffusion / volume of oxygen / kinetic energy ; Repeat / replicate ; To avoid anomalous / eq results ; Use the same piece / length of pond weed throughout ; A different piece could have, more / fewer, leaves / different surface area / eq (and so affect the volume of oxygen produced) ; Reference to equilibration / eq ; To make sure pond weed is acclimatised to new conditions ; No air bubbles in equipment ; So measuring only gas / oxygen given off ; Same type of light source ; So keep wave length the same ; No external light sources ; To control the experimental light intensities ; 1+1 Splitting water in (presence of) light ; H2O O2 + 2e- + 2H+ ; [allow words] Electrons replace the electrons lost from PS11 / P680 / chlorophyll ; Hydrogen ions picked up by NADP / hydrogen ions reduce NADP ; NADPH / eq used, in light-independent reaction / Calvin cycle / to reduce carbon dioxide ;

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

3
[14]

2.

(a) Affects (rate of) enzyme activity / affects (rate of) enzyme {controlled / catalysed} reaction / correct reference to kinetic energy of molecules / reactants / eq ; In light-independent stage / Calvin cycle ; (b) A B C Starch (grain) ; Stroma ; Granum / stack of thylakoid ; [All correct for two marks, two correct for one mark] (c) (i) Y X CO2 / carbon dioxide ; PGA / phosphoglyceric acid / phosphoglycerate / GP / glycerate 3-phosphate / unstable 6-carbon compound ;

(ii)

Light-dependent reaction / grana / thylakoid / non-cyclic photophosphorylation ; Sucrose ; Loading by {companion cells / transfer cells / loading cells} ; Active process / requires {energy / ATP} ; In phloem sieve {tubes / elements} ; Reference to {reduction in cell organelles / sieve plates / perforated end walls} ; Continuous tube ; Mass flow ; Bi-directional flow / flow in any direction ; From {leaves / eq} to {growing regions / storage organs} / reference to source to sink ; Oxygen by diffusion ;

(d)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

5
[12]

3.

(a)

X Ribulose bisphosphate / RuBP 5 (carbon atoms) Y {PGA / GP / eq} 3 (carbon atoms) [1 mark for each two correct] (b) Y is reduced + Using ATP and NADPH+H ;

2 2

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

1.

Reference to sieve tubes (cells) and companion cells;

Sieve tube cell has {perforated end walls / sieve plates}; To allow passage of materials / eq; Sieve tube cell has no nucleus / reference to nucleus present in companion cell; No vacuole / few cell organelles / organelles pushed to the sides; To provide more space for translocation; Companion cell has {dense cytoplasm / many mitochondria / eq} for {metabolic activity / energy}; Plasmodesmata connecting sieve tube cell with companion cell; For exchange of materials / eq; Transfer cells; To load the sieve tube cells; 6
[10]

4.

(a) (i) (Gaining) light energy / chlorophyll excited / photoexcitation; Results in {excited electrons / electrons raised to a higher energy level}; Electrons able to leave chlorophyll molecule / oxidation of chlorophyll; Get picked up by molecule A / must have somewhere to go; (ii) Photolysis / splitting using light energy; Of water; Hydroxide ions as source of electrons / 2OH 2OH + 2e ; Cyclic photophosphorylation; As electrons move from carrier to carrier energy is released / eq; Oxidation reduction reactions; (Energy used to) synthesise ATP from ADP + Pi; + H moved into lumen of thylakoid using light energy; + H diffuse out of thylakoid synthesising ATP;

(iii)

(b)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

(Takes place in the) stroma; (During the) light independent stage; RuBP required for carbon dioxide fixation / eq; Reference to {RuBP carboxylase / Rubisco}; To provide {GP / PGA}; Reference to {reduced NADP / NADPH / NADPH2}; Reduction (of GP / PGA); To {GALP / TP / PGAL / 3C sugar / triose}; Requires ATP / ATP broken down; {GALP / eq} used to form glucose; {GALP / eq} used to regenerate RuBP;
P P +

Content - maximum 5 marks [indicate by 9 or 8 ] Continuous prose - 1 mark

6
[12]

5.

(a) Light {intensity / wavelength} / photoperiod / carbon dioxide concentration / {soil / eq} / {watering / humidity} / temperature / {age / size / mass / eq} of plant; [Reject amount] (b) Prevent { reactions / respiration / photosynthesis / carbon fixing / uptake of carbon dioxide} / eq; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ATP production requires electron flow / ATP production reduced;

(c)

ATP produced in {light dependent reactions / photosystems / chloroplast membranes / thylakoids}; CO2 fixation requires ATP / less CO2 fixed; RuBP regeneration requires ATP / cannot regenerate RUBP; Correct reference to reduction of NADP; Production of carbohydrate requires ATP / less carbohydrate produced; Reduction of PGA / GP triose phosphate requires reduced NADP; Conversion to PGAL requires energy from ATP / reduced NADP; So less radioactive carbon fixed in products of photosynthesis / eq; 5
[7]

6. (b) (c)

(a)

Stroma of chloroplast / stroma


+

NADPH / reduced NADP / NADPH2 / NADPH + H / NADPH + H; ATP; 2 Idea of carbon dioxide fixation / carbon dioxide acceptor; To form 6C {compound / intermediate / molecule} / to form {2 3C molecules / GP}; 2

(d)

(i)

RuBP increases and GP decreases; 2

Description of one curve (e.g. GP decreases and levels off, both quantities equal at 3.5 minutes, comparison of 2 gradients); (ii) 1. eq; 2. 3. 4. [RuBP rises because ] it is being regenerated / it accumulates / [RuBP rises because] less CO2 {to combine with it / for fixation / eq}; [GP falls because] less is being formed; [GP falls because] being used faster than its being formed;

2
[9]

7. 2. 3.

(a)

1.

Factor which {controls / eq} the rate

Increasing this factor increases the rate (of photosynthesis); Factor {not at optimum / nearest its {threshold / minimum} value / eq} 2

(b)

[condition + control for two marks] 1. 2. Temperature; Use water bath / description of heat filter / eq; Carbon dioxide; adding sodium hydrogen carbonate / bubble through carbon dioxide / eq; 3. 4. {Wavelength / colour} of light; Use same {light source / filter / gel}; pH; [not acidity / alkalinity] Buffer; 4

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (d) 2.

1.

{Equilibrate / eq} before timing;

{Clear / remove} bubbles from capillary tube at start / eq; Use syringe to move {oxygen / gas bubble} into capillary tube eq; measure length of bubble / eq; Correct reference to determining volume of oxygen / eq; Correct reference to rate calculation; Reference to repeats to give {mean /reliable} results / eq; 1. Reference to {filters / gets / coloured bulbs / eq} 4

Reference to appropriate qualification e.g. filters placed in correct position / keeping light intensity the same / all other factors the same

2
[12]

8.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (b)

1.

Light harvested / eq;

Reference to chlorophyll; Reference to {accessory / eq} pigments; Electrons excited / reference to higher energy level; Reference to carriers / electron acceptors / electron transport chain; Reference to energy release coupled to ATP production; Photophosphorylation; Reference to photolysis (as electron source); 5

Sucrose content increased; Correct figure manipulation; 2

(c) 2. 3. (d) 2. 3. 4.

1.

Less PGAL converted to RuBP / less RuBP reformed; 2

More available for {sucrose / glucose} production; Enzymes for sucrose more active than for RuBP production; 1. Higher carbohydrate yield;

Sweeter crop / better quality crop; Faster growth of crop / eq; Increased profit; 2
[11]

9. (b)

(a) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

ref. to shape described gives {increased/eq} / surface area ; active {uptake / transport} ; {up / against / eq} {concentration gradient / eq} ; {energy /ATP} used ; idea of selective uptake ; by cell membrane ; ref. to ion pumps / carrier protein / channel protein ; ref. to diffusion /facilitated diffusion ;

(c)

reduced NADP / eq + + ATP ; 1 suitable plant material ; [e.g. maize seedling, duckweed] ; ref. to {culture solution / Sachs solution} with phosphate missing and ref. to complete / control with all minerals ; control of specified variable / eq; description of suitable apparatus set up / simple diagram ; left to grow for appropriate time/eq ; ref. to how measured result assessed ;

(d)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

3
[9]

10. 2. 3. 4. (b) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

(a)

1.

shape and quality of diagram;

ACCEPT round / oval clear diagram with a smooth, clear, complete outline. double membrane i.e. has two lines clearly not cristae; grana / thylakoids shown as at least two stacks joined by one line; correctly labelled position of light dependent and independent reactions; 1. {light absorbed / energy absorbed / electrons excited / eq} in {photosystem /PS I / PS II / pigment system / P680 / P700}; (photosystems) {emit /eq} electrons; electron from PSII pass along {chain of electron carriers / eq} to PS I; ATP generated / eq; electron from PS1 to NADP to form NADPH + H / eq; using {H / eq} from {photolysis /eq}; oxygen formed; 4
+

(c) 2.

1. oxygen {diffuses out (of leaf / photosynthetic tissue) / used in respiration}; ATP and NADPH + H {enter Calvin Cycle / enter light independent stage / used in synthesis of carbohydrate / used to reduce CO2 / eq}; 2
[10]

11.

(a) (i) A stroma B starch (grain) / lipid droplet C thylakoid (membrane) / chlorophyll D granum (2) for all correct (1) for 2 or 3 correct (ii) (iii) C / thylakoid / granum / D; photolysis/splitting water using light energy; release of electrons to chlorophyll; releases hydrogen ions; oxygen released; OH source of oxygen; 2 1

(b)

reduced production (of carbohydrate); less carbon dioxide fixed; ref RuBP; ref Calvin cycle / eq; less carbon available for reduction to carbohydrate; ref to enzyme / RuBPcarboxylase; high light intensity; ref. to change in wavelength; high temperature; high humidity; high carbon dioxide concentration;

(c)

2
[11]

12. (b)

(a)

photolysis (of water);

1 1

light / enzyme / chlorophyll /eq;

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (d) 2. 3. 4. (e) 2. 3. 4.

1. passed to chlorophyll / photosystem / replace electrons lost by chlorophyll / eq; light energy {promotes electrons to higher energy level / excites electrons } / electrons emitted; ATP production; reduction of NADP / production of NADPH / eq; reference to electron carriers / electron transport chain; reference to redox / eq; 1. reduced; using H from reduced NADP; and ATP as source of energy; 1. 10/12 GALP /eq; 4 GP; max 4

(regeneration of) RuBP /eq; (rest used to form) glucose; and starch / other organic chemicals /eq; max 2
[12]

13. 2. 3. 4. 5.

(a) 1. absorption spectrum shows wavelengths where light is absorbed by pigments / eq; action spectrum shows activity at different wavelengths / eq; reference to the link between peak absorption for a pigment and the photosynthetic rate; indicates that pigments are involved in {photosynthesis / eq}; correct comparison between graphs (using whole range of wavelengths); max 3 1

(b) (c)

thylakoid (membrane) / granum / grana; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. use of {chromatography paper / (silica) gel plates / eq};

using {solvent / named example} to {move / separate} pigments; left to run until solvent {reaches / near to} {top / other end} of {paper / plate}; origin and solvent front marked; reference to use of Rf values to identify pigments; max 4

(d) 2. 3.

1. (magnesium) {component / used in formation / eq} of chlorophyll; less chlorophyll formed if magnesium deficient / eq; {other pigments / carotenoids} still present / eq; max 2
[10]

14. 2. (b)

(a)

1.

thylakoid / granum; 2

membrane;

A ATP; B reduced NADP / eq; photolysis; 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. less carbohydrate production;

(c) (d)

less reduced NADP; less reduction of carbon dioxide; less ATP (to supply energy); less conversion of GP to GALP; (i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. for light; for carbon dioxide; for space; for water / ions; fewer resources for growth; treat crop with atrazine; (non-resistant) weeds die; reference to reduced competition; produce atrazine-resistant crop; reference to selective breeding / genetic modification; max 2
[13]

max 4

(e)

competition;

max 2

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

15.

(a)

(i) 1. main food chain: phytoplankton Calanus - sand eel herring /cod with arrows pointing showing direction of energy flow; trophic levels indicated correctly in any comprehensible way; inclusion of any two other organisms at correct trophic level with appropriate arrows; each cod eats many times its own mass of sandeels (in its life time) / eq; when {energy / nutrients / organ/c matter} passes from one trophic level to another only some /s passed on / eq; energy loss through respiration / heat / faeces / not all potent/al prey get eaten; larger number of sandeels (than cod) / removal of cod by fishing; max 2 1. more light (intensity); 3

2. 3.

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

(b)

(i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (ii)

suitable wavelengths; more carbon dioxide dissolved in the water; more appropriate temperature; more minerals / eq; fewer zooplankton; max 2

production of ATP / DNA / nucleotides / phospholipids / membranes; 1 (i) grams (organic) carbon per square metre; there is a (weak) correlation between temperature and productivity; the increase / decrease in productivity starts earlier than the increase in temperature; appropriate reference to data to illustrate points made; increase in productivity is more gradual than the increase in temperature; reference to other variables that may affect productivity e.g. light intensity or day length; max 3 1

(c) (ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

11

(iii)

1. 2. 3.

productivity is limited by temperature (in May); reference to grazing by {zooplankton / Calanus} (in July); reference to another limiting factor e.g. reduced (solubility) of carbon dioxide, depletion of mineral ions, photoperiod; max 2 less food available / more predation / eq;

(d) 2. 3. 4.

1.

low temperature optimum of its enzymes / eq; life cycle out of seasonal synchrony with the species it feeds on / {reproductive / migratory} behaviour / eq; increased respiration rate may increase food requirement/deplete stored food reserves more quickly; lower oxygen concentration; (i) 2. 3. 4. 1. herring stocks were in (steep) decline prior to {the ban / 1978}; but recovered rapidly/eq once fishing was controlled; use of figures e.g. recovered to over half of the 1963 level in less than ten years; meanwhile cod stocks (which were not controlled) remained low; max 2 (mean) size of (adult) cod will get less /eq; cod may {mature/become sexually mature} earlier/at a smaller size; genes for smallness/early maturity passed on to the next generation /eq; example of change in behaviour; max 2
[20]

5. (e)

max 2

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4.

16.

(a) Function Photophosphorylation Stores non-carbohydrate organic material Carbon fixation Label letter A C B Name of structure granum oil droplet stroma

Award 1 mark per correct row as in the table above. A granum Accept grana (stack) / thylakoids / thylakoid membrane Reject grain C oil droplet Accept lipid {droplet / drop} Reject fat B stroma Reject stoma (b) (i) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. (ii) {enter / used in} {Photosystem II / PSII}; replace electrons lost by chlorophyll; after {excitation by light / absorption of light}; which were used in production of reduced NADP; 2 3

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of three marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ref to reduction of CO2; (reduced NADP / eq) used to reduce {GP / G3P/eq}; in Calvin cycle; after fixation of CO2 by RuBP (to produce GP / G3P/eq); leads to formation of carbohydrate; {GALP / TP/eq} is the carbohydrate; 3 1

(c)

GPP = NPP + R

13

(d)

(i)

Correct answer (with or without working) = 2 marks mark

Answer: 5 670;; Correct working with incorrect answer = 1. Accept any working that would give correct answer eg (37 800 / 100) 85 = 32 130 37 800 32 130 = or (37 800 / 100) 15 = (ii) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. less light available farther from equator; lower temperatures farther from equator; {less water available / lower rainfall} farther from equator; less minerals available farther from equator; 2
[13]

Statements must use comparative terms. Accept converse statements.