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1.

(a) Substance / chemical, that can, kill / inhibit growth, of an organism ; Produced by, microorganisms / fungi / other organism ; (b) Reference to penicillin targeting cell wall ; During growth of bacterial cell ; By interfering with synthesis (of cell wall); By preventing formation of, cross links / bonds, between peptidoglycan molecules ; Makes bacteria more susceptible to osmotic shock / eq ;

3
[5]

2.

(a) Reference to Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; Inhalation of droplets (containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis / bacteria) ; Bacteria, live / reproduce / active, inside cells (in lungs) ; Formation of, tubercles / plaques ; Reference to destruction of, (lung) tissue / alveoli, / reference to lesions ; (b) Reference to use of, antibiotics / isoniazid / rifampin / ethambutol / pyranamide ; In combination therapy / more than one drug needed ; Two phases of treatment ; Long period / several months / at least one month, of treatment ;

2
[5]

3.

(a) Protein / immunoglobulin / chemical / substance, produced in response / binds to antigen / foreign (glyco)protein ; (b) Large number of genetically-identical, lymphocytes / cells, produced ; Which produce a large amount of antibody ; Specific to, antigen / bacterium ; Bacterium / antigen, triggers active and, no bacterium / antigen, in passive ; Antibodies produced by infected individual in active, antibodies received from, mother / vaccination, in passive ; Memory cells produced in active, no memory cells produced in passive ; Active lasts longer than passive ;

(c)

3
[6]

4.

(a) 2. 3. (b) (c)

1. (In latency) there is a delay between infection and {symptoms / lysis} / eq ; (In latency) viral genetic material is incorporated into hosts DNA / eq ; Reference to a trigger / eq ;

2 1 2
[5]

Reverse transcriptase ; Makes DNA ; Using viral RNA as template / eq ;

5.

(a) 2. 3.

1. Substance produced by an {organism / microorganism / fungus} ; That {kills / inhibits} the growth of {bacteria / other organisms} ; (often) a secondary metabolite / produced {at end of exponential phase / during stationary phase} ; (i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. The lag phase is longer with E.coli / L.bulgaricus begins to increase before E.coli ; The growth is more rapid (in growth phase) with E.coli ; Credit manipulated use of figures to compare growth rate ; The stationary period is reached earlier with E.coli / E.coli has a shorter exponential phase ; More cells per cm3 (maximum) in E.coli than in L.bulgaricus ;

(b)

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ;

Penicillin (affects growth of L.bulgaricus) because it is Gram positive ; Bacteriostatic / eq ; No effect during lag phase ; Starts having effect once bacteria in growth phase ; Only affects dividing cells ; Because it interferes with structure of {cell wall / mucopeptide} 4
[9]

6.

(a) 1.

(i)

1 injection

st

2 injection immediate antibodies; 2 weeks to reach

nd

Lag period / no immediate rise {rise / production} of in antibodies AND 4 weeks to reach peak peak;

2. 3.

Peak after first injection is 2 au and peak after second is 5.5 5.7 au / {175% increase / increases by 3.5 3.7 au / greater increase} nd after 2 injection; More rapid decline in antibody level after 1 injection less rapid nd decline in antibody level after 2 injection
st

4.

(ii)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Antigens {activate / detected by} lymphocytes; Reference to specificity; B cells{divide/replicate}; Develop into plasma cells; (Plasma cells) {secrete/produce} antibody; Reference to memory cells; 3

(b)

Passive immunity comes from antibodies provided by {mother/ injection}; Body never exposed to the antigens; So no ability to make the antibodies; Short lived / only lasts for as long as antibodies present in body / no memory cells produced 3

(c)

Protein content of lymph is higher than that of tissue fluid but lower than that of (blood) plasma; Reference to {low permeability of capillary wall to protein / high permeability of lymphatic capillary to protein / overall movement of protein into lymphatic capillary / antibodies produced in lymph node};

2
[11]

7. (b)

(a)

9.4 and 11.4

Women of 1549 are {fertile / of reproductive age}; {Approximately / eq} half of all women aged 15-49 are infected with HIV; They could give birth to infected children; Die before giving birth / not have children; 2

(c)

Overall, population will get smaller; Fewer women surviving to give birth, so fewer children; {1 in 5 adults / eq) will die of AIDS in future; Children dying of AIDS; So population consists of older people;

2
[5]

8.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (b) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

1.

(HIV proteins act as) antigens;

Stimulate immune response / antibody production by B cells; Clonal selection by the antigen / eq; B cells {proliferate / clone / divide / clonally expand / undergo mitosis}; To plasma cells; (Plasma cells) {produce / eq} (specific) antibodies; Reference to antigenic presentation; Not much effect in first few years; Number of T helpers falls (with time); Reference to role of cytokines; Less able to {respond to antigen / mount immune response / eq} / not enough cytokines produced; More difficult to prevent infection; Health deteriorates / more infectious illness / opportunistic infection / example; Reference to T cells going below 200; Reference to AIDS; Death likely; 4
[8]

9.

(a) Produced by a {fungus / microorganism / organism); Bactericidal / kills another {microorganism / bacteria} OR bacteriostatic / inhibits growth of microorganisms; (b) Acquired {ability / eq} of microorganism to resist effect of an antibiotic; To which is normally susceptible; Reference to {gene / plasmid}; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Overuse / {unnecessary / inappropriate} use;

(c)

{Prophylactic / eq} treatment (of patients / animals); Used in {cattle / poultry} food; Not finishing the course; Concentration prescribed is too low; Use of broad spectrum antibiotics; 2
[6]

10.

(a) Organism that causes disease; E.g. {virus / bacterium / fungus}; (b) (i) (Release) histamine; Dilation of arterioles / increased blood flow / vasodilation; Oedema / swelling / leakage of plasma; More white blood cells / eq (attack pathogens); Mast cells; (ii) Enzyme; Tears / saliva / nasal secretions; Breaks down (cell walls of) bacteria / kills bacteria / lysis; {Destroys / prevents replication of} viruses OR Secreted by infected cells;

(iii)

1
[8]

11.

(a) {Foreign / non-self / eq} substance / eq; Which stimulates an immune response / eq; Antibodies produced / reference to specificity / binds to antibodies; (b) (i) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. (c) 1. Increase is more rapid;

More antibody produced overall by second injection / converse; Second injection peaks before first injection / converse; Antibody present at 0 weeks for second injection; Plateaus at peak only in second injection; Credit quantitative comparison; Memory cells already present; More cells to respond to antigen; So more likely that the antigen would be detected; Reference to {clonal selection / clone / cloning}; Reference to plasma cells produced {faster / in greater numbers}; Plasma cells produce the antibodies; Reference to {primary / secondary} immune response; 4 3

High circulating antibody; Removes streptokinase / prevents streptokinase activity; Not an effective treatment; Could cause damaging response;

(d)

{Response / antibodies} specific to this antigen / different antigen;

1
[12]

12.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

(i)

1.

Reference to all decrease;

The bigger the mesh, the greater the breakdown / leaves in the 5 mm mesh {broken down / eq} more quickly than the other bags; Leaves in the air broke down the least; In {1 mm / 5 mm mesh} no change after {Nov 1989 / May 1990} but 0.05 mm continued to break down over entire period / eq; In first six months, leaves remaining in 5 mm mesh was {half / eq} that remaining in {0.5 mm / 1 mm} mesh / any other valid comparison; Comparison of 0.05 in air and 0.05 in soil; Credit for suitable comparative manipulation of data e.g. 19% more leaves were broken down in 5 mm mesh compared with 61 % in 1 mm mesh; 4 {Soil animals / organisms / microorganisms / decomposers} {responsible for the breakdown of the leaves / feed on the The bigger the mesh, {the more animals / larger animals} are able to enter the bags to feed on the leaves / eq; Credit a specific example, e.g. worms cannot enter the bags with smaller mesh; Bag in the air had least breakdown because {fewer / no} {soil animals / organisms / microorganisms / decomposers} could get at the leaves / reference to {lack of moisture / dry air} / eq;

(ii)

1. leaves}; 2. 3. 4.

(b)

The higher the nitrogen content {the greater the breakdown / eq}; {Soil animals / microorganisms / decomposers} {more numerous / breed more / grow more} in leaves with higher nitrogen content OR leaves with more nitrogen were more {palatable / nutritious} reference to lignin / eq; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Decomposition affected by {climate / weather};

(c)

{Hot / wet} climate increases rate of decomposition so leaves are broken down quickly; Pine needles {do not break down quickly / harder to break down} (so build up on forest floor); Rainforest leaves may have high nitrogen content so are broken down more; Reference to {temperature / pH} and enzyme activity; Pine needles {may contain inhibitory chemicals / are thick / are waxy / are fibrous / eq}; 3

(d) 2. 3. 4.

1. {Bacteria / microorganisms / fungi} in soil {breakdown / putrefy / decompose} leaves / reference to bacterial decomposition; Releasing {ammonia / ammonium}; {Nitrosomonas / reference to nitrifying bacteria [allow ONCE]} {converts / oxidise} {ammonia / ammonium) to nitrite; {Nitrobacter / reference to nitrifying bacteria [allow ONCE]} {converts / oxidise} nitrite to nitrate; [Maximum 2 marks if any reference to nitrogen fixation or Rhizobium]

3
[14]

13. 2. 3. 4. (b)

(a)

1.

{Microorganism / named organism} enters {tissues / organs / cells};

Because microorganism penetrates hosts natural barriers / eq; Multiplies; Damages {tissues / cells} / releases toxins; (i) Invade cells in the lung; 2

{Lung tissue / alveoli} destroyed; Blood vessels ruptured; Coughing to remove debris from lungs; (ii) Reason for existence of resistant bacteria; Any resistant bacteria will multiply; And pass on resistance gene / plasmid / eq; 2

2
[6]

14.

(a) 1. 2. 3.

3 Active immunity Reference to use of bodys own lymphocytes Antibodies produced within the body Results from exposure to {pathogen / antigen / eq} Long lasting Make more antibodies / reference to memory cells Passive immunity Own lymphocytes not involved; Antibodies {not produced within the body / acquired}; Results from {injection / mother during pregnancy / breast milk / breast feeding}; Less long lasting / eq; No ability to make more / no memory cells;

4. 5.

(b) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1. {Coal dust / asbestos fibres / other named material} (enters lungs / breathed in); Reference to inhalation over time period / eq; Causes inflammatory response; Macrophages accumulate; Causes {lesions / nodules / plaques / fibrosis}; 3
[6]

15.

(a)

Skin is a physical barrier to bacteria /prevents entry / eq;

Normal flora compete {better than / with} pathogens; Surface {too salty / too acidic} for pathogens; Antibacterial agents in {sweat / eq}; Reference to hygiene; Reference to lysozyme / tears / saliva; (b) Clot formation; [accept a description] Histamine release; Vasodilation / increased blood flow; Phagocytosis / (increased) phagocytes; Mitosis / cell division; 2
[4]

16.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1.

Agar {plates /dish}; [Reject agar with no qualification]

{Lawning / spreading / coating} with bacteria; Sterility of equipment; Aseptic technique; {Wells / discs / paper / container / eq} with antibiotic; Reference to different concentrations of antibiotic; Control of {solvent only / sterile water / disc alone / known antibiotic}; Incubation; Details of safe incubation e.g. temperature, taping plates closed; {Measure / compare} a dimension of (area without bacteria); 5

(b)

Resistance develops / bacteria not killed by existing antibiotics / disease cannot be cured with existing antibiotics; Alternative pathways / enzymes destroy antibiotic / eq; Explanation of how resistance develops; Rapid {division / mutation / generations} of bacteria / high mutation rate of bacteria; [Reject immune] 2

(c)

Ensure safe to use on {people / mammals} / not toxic; Mammalian cells similar to human cells / eq; 1

(d)

(i)
3

10% = 20 (line on graph worth credit); 2

4.3(mg dm ); (ii)

Some bacteria already resistant; Some (bacteria) {survive / are not all killed} at high concentrations / use of figures; Reference to inheritance of resistance alleles; 2
[12]

17. (b)

(a)

Lung(s) 1. BCG}; They {are immune / are resistant / have been vaccinated / have had

2. 3. (c) 2. 3. 4.

Have antibodies / have memory cells; Bacteria destroyed before they cause damage / eq. 1. Prolonged drug treatment (3-9 months) / eq; Antibiotics / isoniazid / eq; At least 3 (antibiotics) are used / eq; Rest / healthy diet / direct observation therapy; 3
[6]

18.

(a) B C D

Chromosome / DNA

Ribosomes Plasmid / DNA if not A Cell wall 2 One mark for two correct answers;;

(b)

Smaller size; No cytoplasm; No cell membrane; Protein coat; Cannot reproduce independently; Cannot respire; 3

(c)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Easily seen / converse; Dont change / converse; Present in all members of group / converse; Appearance is consistent / converse; 2
[7]

19.

(a)

Response of the bodys immune system / making antibodies / eq; 2

To (foreign) antigen / organism / bacterium / pathogen / virus; (b) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. (c) Detect antigen; Via surface receptors; Proliferation eg mitosis / eq; Reference to plasma cells; Antibody (secretion); Reference to primary response; Reference to memory cells; Reference to secondary response /eq; Reference to mode of action of antibody;

M. bovis antigens similar to tuberculosis / M. fortuitum not similar; No (secondary response / memory cells to) tuberculosis in A / no immunity / converse; 2

(d)

Immunity to M. fortuitum prevents M. bovis growing and dividing; M. fortuitum immunises against M. bovis / eq.; No stimulation of immune response to TB antigens; M. fortuitum causes antibody production against M. bovis; 2

(e)

BCG wont protect against TB / more likely to get TB;

1
[12]

20.

(a) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (b)

1.

(Random / chance) mutation (resulting in resistance);

Exposure to antibiotic selects resistant mutants; More likely to survive / reproduce; Descendents also have resistance; Reference to natural selection; Reference to transmission of plasmids; 2

Used less frequently / eq.; Fewer bacteria exposed; Less likely to select resistant mutant; 2 1

(c) (d)

Untreated paper disc / disc soaked in appropriate solvent; Antibiotic alone ineffective, Bodyguard molecule ineffective / eq. ;; Augmentin prevents growth of bacteria;

(e)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Bodyguard molecule prevents bacterial enzyme from working / bodyguard molecule prevents gene being expressed; Reference to enzyme inhibitor; Blocking of active sites / other detail of inhibition; Antibiotic not broken down; Antibiotic can act on bacterium; 2
[10]

11

21. Bacterial cell 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. {70S / smaller} ribosome No membrane bound organelles / mesosomes No nucleus / nuclear envelope Circular DNA (Peptidoglycan) cell wall Prokayotic 2 (b) (i) 2. 3. (ii) 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. Bacteria type B is sensitive to antibiotics p and q whereas type A is {resistant / not sensitive} ; Bacteria type B are more sensitive than type A to antibiotic R ; Neither types of bacteria are sensitive to antibiotic S ; Antibiotic S ; Because it is ineffective on both type A & B / eq ; (because penicillin) only works on gram positive bacteria / converse; Interferes with synthesis of cell wall ; 3
[7]

Patients cell {80S / larger} ribosome ; Membrane bound organelles / named example / no mesosomes; Nucleus / nuclear envelope ; Linear DNA ; No cell wall ; Eukayotic ;

22.

(a) 2/3. 4. 5. (b) (c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

Similar route for infection;

Examples of means of transmission;; Immunosuppression in HIV/eq; Reference to opportunistic infection / eq; 2 1

T(-cell) / T-lymphocyte / T-killer; 1. Signal from surface protein;

Activation of PKR; Reference to protein synthesis / translation / eq; No production of virus; Cell death / cell function disrupted; 3

(d) 2. 3. (e) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

1.

PKR binds to virus protein;

Does not prevent protein synthesis; Viruses reproduce; 2 1. Rapid reproduction;

Many (gene) mutations / relevant mutation more likely in given time; Reference to variety of proteins; Large variation; Selection; Of resistant phenotype / gene; Short time; Long drug development time; 4
[12]

23.

(a) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

An explanation to include six from: Increased use; More bacteria exposed; Reference to mutation; Reference to plasmids; Reference to conjugation / sexual reproduction; Reference to genetic variation / existence of different genes; Reference to selection by the antibiotic; Description of selection; Reference to resistance gene passed to offspring; Selected organisms become more common; 6 1

11/12.Reference to graphs;; (b) (ii) (i) Greater clear area;

An explanation to include two from: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Larger molecules / antibiotic C {diffuse / eq} more slowly Through agar; Does not reach as many bacteria as the smaller antibiotic B; Clear area of C is reduced; Under estimates the effectiveness of C / converse; 2

13

(iii)

An explanation to include: 1. 2. Viruses no cell wall; or ribosomes/ viruses use host cell for protein synthesis; 2
[11]

24.

(a) 1. 2. 3. (b)

An explanation to include two from: Engulfed / endocytosis; Digested / eq; Reference to enzymes / lysosomes; (i) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. An explanation to include three from: Reference to APC; Reference to cytokines; (T cells) stimulate response; CD4 depleted cannot respond; Injected cells restore immune response; Reference to specific response; Prevents TB; 3 2

(ii)

An explanation to include two from: 1. 2. 3. HIV destroys / kills T helper cells; Reduced response; More likely to show symptoms / develop TB; 2

(c)

An explanation to include two from: 1. 2. 3. Chemicals (from infected lung) stimulate NV production; In T helper cells; Reference to control; 2

(d)

A suggestion to include three from: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Chemicals / lymphokines from rnacrophages from infected lung F-HV infects more / helper cells / number of T helper cells falls; Less able to destroy M tuberculosis / eq; More phagocytosis; More lymphokines / chemicals; Reference to positive feedback / eq; Both diseases progress more rapidly; 3
[12]

25.

(a) A - (B-cell/B-lymphocyte) B - clone of B cell / activated B cells / B effector cells / eq; C - memory B cells; D - plasma cell / antibody secreting cell; E - T-cell / helper T-cell / eq; (b) A suggestion to include two from: 1. 2. (c) HIV kills lymphocytes / reduces lymphocyte numbers; reference to T helper / CD4 cells;

(Aabb aaBb) Gametes Ab, ab; aB, ab; aabb, aaBb, Aabb, AaBb; correct genotype identified; / 1:3 / 25%; 4

15

(d)

Any two from: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. karposis sarcoma; excessive sweating; chronic lung infections/TB; pneumonia; opportunistic infection; weight loss; extreme lethargy / tiredness; any valid point; 2
[12]

26.

(a) Penicillin: no cell wall in virus; Tetracycline: no protein synthesis in virus; (b) A description and an explanation to include four from: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (c) penicillin bacteriocidal; because cell destroyed / eq; decreases number (of living cells); tetracycline bacteriostatic; no reproduction / eq; same number (of living cells); 4 2

A suggestion to include three from: 1. 2. 3. 4. slows growth / fewer cells; more time for immune system to respond; reference to detail of specific immune response; phagocytosis / description; 3
[9]

27. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

by inhalation of bacteria in (droplets/dust);

called Mycobacterium tuberculosis; formation of {tubercles / plaques / lesions}; in the lungs; ref to invasion of other tissues / organs; 3
[3]

28. (b)

(a)

present inside {cells/ macrophages};

B-cells : antibody production; ref memory cells; ref plasma cells; T-cells : antigenic presentation; stimulation of B-cell proliferation / eq; (i) HIV destroys T (helper) cells; Bacterial cells not destroyed by the immune system / eq; Bacteria proliferate/eq; (ii) tubercles; fever; excessive coughing / coughing blood; weight loss; 2

(c)

[8]

29.

(a) 1. Gram positive bacteria / S. aureus {more sensitive to /shows greater effect / more susceptible to / shows less resistance} to ampicillin /eq; 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (b) 2. 3. S. aureus / Gram positive have thick {cell wall / peptioglycan layer / eq}; ampicillin affects cell wall synthesis; inhibits formation of {peptidoglycan bonds (in cell wall) / eq}; weakening of cell walls; reference to osmotic shock / cell lysis / eq; 1. correct reason for existence of resistant bacteria; max 2 max 4

any resistant bacteria will multiply; (and) pass on {resistance gene/ plasmid};

17

(c)

(48-36); /36 100 = 33.33%; ampicillin doesnt fit active site / allosteric effect / eq;

2 1
[9]

(d)

30. 2. 3. 4. (b) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (c) 2. 3. 4. 5. (d) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

(a)

1.

response of immune system / bodys immune cells /eq;

to antigen /eq; producing antibodies; T killer cells; 1. max 2

memory cells produced;

response more rapid (on reinfection) / faster antibody production; prevents symptoms /eq; higher concentrations of antibodies produced; antibodies produced for longer; reference to secondary response; 1. population can be protected more quickly /eq; max 2

possible to keep high levels of immunity / herd immunity; distribution more reliable / possible to remote areas /eq; ref. to example of distribution benefit; allows rapid response to change in pathogens /eq; 1. also T memory cells; max 3

more lymphocytes to combat infection / eq; virus infects body cells; antibodies only destroy virus in blood / eq; T killer cells destroy virally infected cells; virus cannot spread / hide inside cells; max 4
[11]

31. 2. 3. 4.

1. virus;

mould / fungus / yeast / eukaryotic;

bacterium / prokaryotic; bacterium / prokaryotic;


[4]

32. 2. 3. 4. 5. (b)

(a) 1. T helper cells {destroyed / damaged / reduced in number / cell lysis / eq}; no T killer cell {production / activation} / eq; B cells activation / plasma cells production / eq; (less / no) antibody production / eq; phagocytosis / phagocytes; 1. (inflammation) preventing infection at site of tissue damage / detail of response e.g. macrophages attracted / oedema / increased blood flow; 2. 3. 4. phagocytosis; (lysozyme action enzyme to) destroy bacteria / cell lysis / breakdown of cell walls; interferon; 4
[8]

max 4

33. 2. 3. 4. (b) 2. 3. 4. 5.

(a)

1.

C is bacteriocidal;

bacteriocidal kills bacteria; B is bacteriostatic; bacteriostatic prevents reproduction / growth; 1. bacterium is no longer affected by antibiotic A; max 3

reference to mutation / changed {gene /DNA}; reference to resistance; reference to selection /eq; reference to plasmid transmission / horizontal inheritance; max 4

19

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1.

lawn bacteria / eq;

reference agar plate / eq; antibiotic in well / multidisc / eq; incubation qualified; measurement of clear area / eq; bigger area implies more effective; reference to safety / aseptic technique / eq; max 4
[11]

34. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

(a)

1.

huge numbers / population size / eq;

illustrated with example from the text; variety in metabolism/diet/molecular differences / eq; illustrated with example from the text; wide habitat distribution / eq; illustrated with example from the text; more life under the earth than on it / eq; reference to all bacteria swim in a single gene pool/ eq; explanation of single gene pool concept; specific example of how they have a major influence on many other living organisms e.g. oxygen production for respiration of other organisms; bacteria are unlikely to become extinct; (i) 2. 3. 1. {genetic / DNA}differences; max 4

11. (b)

molecular differences / lipids / peptidoglycan / eq; archaea are more different from bacteria than you and I are more different from a crab or spider / eq; did not fit in with old way of classifying in terms of {gross morphological / visible} similarities and differences / Woeses system focuses on molecular characteristics / eq; max 2

(ii)

1.

2.

suitable for microbiologists / less suitable for botanists and zoologists / too heavily weighted towards the microbial / eq; numerically distorted i.e. most identified species put into a small section of the classification system / eq; reference to alternative / updated classification systems; max 2

3. 4.

(c) 2. 3. 4. 5.

1.

eukaryotes have a nucleus, prokaryotes do not;

eukaryotes have {membrane bound organelles / named organelle}, prokaryotes do not; eukaryotes have larger ribosomes than prokaryotes; eukaryotic cells are much larger than prokaryotic cells; eukaryotic cells walls (if present) are made of cellulose (or chitin), prokaryotic cell walls are made of other materials (e.g. murein); plasmids traditionally thought to be confined to prokaryotic cells; linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, circular DNA in prokaryotes / reference to histone proteins in eukaryotes, not prokaryotes / eq; 1. genes can spread between different {species / types / eq} of bacteria;

6. 7.

max 2

(d) 2.

through sexual reproduction / exchange of plasmids / conjugation; 1. prostaglandins released;

(e) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

reset set point of hypothalamus / eq; produce fever / core temperature rises; histamine released; Inflammation / inflammatory response; {killer / cytotoxic} T cells {destroy infected cells / damage tissues}; clonal selection of white blood cells causes swollen {lymph nodes / glands} / eq; max 3

21

(f) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

1.

rapid reproduction rate / quick generation time;

large populations; large pool of mutations / lots of variation; strong selection pressure of antibiotics /eq; widespread use of antibiotics in farming; misuse of antibiotics / prescribed inappropriately / course not finished / eq; conjugation/bacterium can share plasmids / can pass antibiotic resistance genes from one bacterium to another (species) / eq; reference to antibiotic markers in genetic engineering; correct reference to hospital hygiene / compromised immune system of patients / intravenous procedures / eq; 1. may kill the host before they have a chance to infect other people / eq; max 4

8. 9.

(g) 2. 3.

newly evolved strain so it has not yet become reduced in virulence; reference to isolation of victims /eq; max 1
[20]

35.

(a) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of six marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. (b) No antibody in blood plasma in first 5 days; Because lymphocytes need to come in contact with antigens; Time needed for {lymphocyte activation/ lymphocyte cloning/ B cell differentiation}; Rise in antibody concentration between 5 and 15 days; As plasma cells release antibody; Decrease in antibody concentration after 15 days; Infection has been cleared up; Antibodies removed from blood stream by kidneys; Residual level of antibodies in blood (at 30 days) (i) 2. 1. Change in sequence of DNA; 2 6

Change in {mass of DNA / number of chromosomes};

(ii)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. mutation causes change in gene product/eq; idea that structure of antigen may change (as result of mutation); idea that individual will not be protected if flu virus does not have same antigens present in vaccine; idea that a cocktail of antigens will increase the chance of matching antigens; 2
[10]

36.

(a)

Award 1 mark for each correct row in the following table. Structural feature Bacteria Viruses

Mesosomes Capsid Nucleic acid Cytoplasm Ribosomes 5 (b) (i) Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. (ii) Increase in number of new cases in Africa and Europe Decrease in number of new cases in Asia and South America Any relevant manipulation of data 2

Explanation: More incidence of TB in the population/eq Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. Ref to opportunistic infection HIV positive people have weakened immune system A higher proportion of HIV positive people are infected by TB 3

23

(c)

Award one mark for each of the following points in context to a maximum of two marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. TB bacteria {mutate / become resistant to antibiotics} immigration from countries with high incidence of TB increased travel increase in HIV infection lower rates of immunisation against TB 2
[12]

37.

(a) (i) Bacteriostatic prevent bacteria multiplying and bacteriocidal kill bacteria 1 (ii) Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of two marks. Mammalian cells: 1. 2. 3. 4. (b) are eukaryotic have different enzymes do not have cell walls have {80s / larger/eq} ribosomes / different protein synthesis 2

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of three marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. do not prescribe antibiotics for minor infections /viral infections do not prescribe antibiotics to prevent infections reference to narrow spectrum antibiotics ref to rotation in the use of different antibiotics {advise / take} the full course of antibiotics ref to hand-washing (between patients / by visitors of hospitals) use of isolation wards 3

(c)

Award one mark for each of the following points up to a maximum of four marks. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ref. to a specific aseptic technique Bacterial lawn/pour plate Use of antibiotic discs / antibiotics incorporated into agar /eq Incubate for 24-36 hours At 25-30 C Record bacterial growth/eq 4
[10]

25