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1.

The diagram shows a section through the heart of a mammal

(a)

Name the parts labelled A, B and C.


A ................................................................................................................................
B ................................................................................................................................
C ................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Each time the heart beats, the atria contract first and then the ventricles contract. Explain
how this sequence of events is coordinated.
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(4)
(Total 7 marks)

2.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a major cause of death in developed countries, and accounts
for over 160 000 deaths each year in the United Kingdom. One of the main causes of CHD is
atherosclerosis, a condition in which lipids and connective tissue build up on the inside wall of
blood vessels.

(a)

State two consequences of atherosclerosis which may lead to the development of CHD in
an individual.
1 .................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
2 .................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The table shows deaths from coronary heart disease as a percentage of all deaths in the
United Kingdom in 1983.
Percentage of all deaths

(i)

Age / years

Males

Females

014

1524

10

2534

15

14

3544

37

18

4554

53

26

5564

53

37

6574

53

50

75 and over

51

56

Which two risk factors associated with the development of CHD are indicated in
the table?
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

With reference to the data in the table, compare the percentage of deaths from
CHD in males and females.
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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

3.

The diagram below shows cross-sections of three different types of blood vessel, A, B and C.

5 mm

(a)

5 mm

0.005 mm

Name the blood vessels A and B.


A ...............................................................................................................................
B ...............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

State two ways in which blood vessel C is adapted to enable the formation of tissue fluid.
1 ................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
2 ................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

Give one function of tissue fluid.


.
(1)

(d)

When tissue fluid is not efficiently reabsorbed, it collects in tissues causing swelling
(oedema). Suggest one factor that could cause oedema.
.
.
(1)
(Total 5 marks)

4.

The graph below shows changes in the blood pressure in the aorta and the left ventricle during
two complete cardiac cycles.

20
Pressure 15
/ kPa
10

Aortic pressure

5
0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Left
ventricular
pressure

Time /s

(a)

On the graph, draw an arrow to show when the left atrioventricular (mitral) valve closes.
(1)

(b)

Use the information in the graph to calculate the heart rate. Show your working.

Answer ..................................
(2)

(c)

During the cardiac cycle, the pressure in the left ventricle falls to a much lower level than
in the aorta. Suggest an explanation for this difference.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(3)

(d)

During the cardiac cycle, the pressure in the right ventricle rises to a maximum of
about 3.3 kPa. Suggest reasons for the difference between this pressure and the maximum
pressure in the left ventricle.
.
.
.
.
.
.
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

5.

Explain what is meant by each of the following terms.

(a)

The cardiac cycle


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................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Coronary circulation
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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

6.

The diagram below shows an outline of the double circulation in a mammal.

(a)

Name the chambers of the heart labelled A and B.


A ..................................................................................................................................
B ..................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Name the organ in which the capillaries labelled C would be found.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

The heart maintains a high pressure of oxygenated blood in the arteries to the body.
Explain how a double circulation is important in bringing this about.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)

(d)

The photomicrograph below shows a transverse section through blood vessels.

(i)

Give the names of the two types of blood vessel D and E.


D ........................................................................................................................
E ........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Describe one characteristic feature that you used to identify D.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

7.

The following information is taken from a web site promoting a margarine.


Cholesterol in the body comes from two sources. A small amount is eaten in certain foods
but most is actually produced by our liver, and we need some in our bodies to stay
healthy. The liver produces cholesterol when saturated fats are eaten. Todays diet
contains a lot of saturated fat and therefore the liver produces more cholesterol than the
body actually requires. To complicate matters, there are two types of cholesterol HDL
(good) and LDL (bad) cholesterol.
Our healthier margarine is a low fat spread enriched with plant sterols. Plant sterols have
been clinically proven to lower cholesterol levels by reducing the cholesterol being
absorbed from the gut. This helps to maintain a healthy heart.
Independent clinical trials prove that moving to a diet that includes 2025 g of healthier
margarine per day gives average LDL cholesterol reductions of 1015%. There is no
effect on HDL cholesterol. If you eat less than this amount you will still see a reduction,
although it will not be as high as it could be. Eating more will not give a significantly
greater cholesterol lowering effect.

(a)

Give one way in which cholesterol in our bodies ensures that we stay healthy.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Explain how high levels of LDL can affect the risk of heart disease.
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(4)

(c)

Use information from the passage to suggest:


(i)

one way, other than eating margarine, in which blood cholesterol levels could be
reduced by a change of diet;
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

a reason why eating more than 2025 g of healthier margarine a day will not give
a significantly greater cholesterol lowering effect.
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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

10

8.

(a)

The table below refers to structural features of two types of blood vessels. If the feature is
correct, place a tick ( ) in the appropriate box, and if the feature is incorrect, place a
cross ( ) in the appropriate box.
Structural feature
Blood vessel
Valves present

Wall has pores

Wall a single layer


of cells

Capillary
Vein
(3)

(b)

The wall of the aorta, a major artery, has many elastic fibres in it. Suggest a reason for the
presence of these fibres.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

9.

(a)

Describe three structural differences between arteries and veins.


Arteries

Veins

1
2
3
(3)

11

(b)

Suggest why arteries are more likely than veins to develop atherosclerosis.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

The diagram below shows how tissue fluid is formed from blood plasma.

Describe and explain how fluid is forced out of the capillaries to form tissue fluid at the
arterial end of the capillary.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

(i)

Give one reason why fluid might accumulate within the tissues and cause swelling.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

12

(ii)

Name this type of swelling in the tissues.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

10.

The composition of our diet may be associated with the development of disease in a number of
our body organs. Explain how diet may be associated with the development of the following
diseases.
Coronary heart disease (CHD)
...............................................................................................................................................
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(Total 3 marks)

11.

The diagrams below show a pig (a mammal) and a flatworm (a small pond animal).

0.05

13

(a)

Explain why a pig has a heart and circulatory system whereas a flatworm does not.
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

The diagram below shows a cross-section of a mammalian heart. The positions of the
valves are shown by the four circles.

(i)

On the diagram, indicate whether each valve is open or closed during ventricular
systole (contraction of the ventricles) by writing open or closed on the lines
provided. Do not draw the valves.
(2)

(ii)

Indicate the position of the sino-atrial node (pacemaker) by drawing a cross on the
diagram.
(1)

(iii)

State the role of the sino-atrial node.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

14

(c)

Suggest two advantages of the coronary artery branching directly off the aorta.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 8 marks)

12.

(a)

The diagram below summarises some of the steps involved in blood clotting. Complete
the diagram by writing in the missing words in the boxes.

Thromboplastin released by damaged cells and

Thrombin

Fibrin
(3)

(b)

Describe the possible effects of a blood clot forming in a coronary artery.


.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)

15

(c)

Name one drug that helps to prevent clotting.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 7 marks)

13.

The chart below shows the number of deaths from cardiovascular disease per 100 000
population for men and women in four countries.

1000

800

Number 600
of
deaths
per
100 000
population 400

Women
Men

200

Spain

France

England
and Wales

Russia

16

(a)

Describe the differences in the death rates shown in the chart above.
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(3)

(b)

One possible reason for the differences in the death rates due to cardiovascular disease
between the different countries is the quantity of fruit and vegetables eaten.
Write a suitable null hypothesis that could be tested by an epidemiologist investigating
the effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on deaths from cardiovascular disease.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Suggest and explain two other reasons for the differences in the death rates between the
countries due to cardiovascular disease.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

17

14.

The diagram below shows the structure of the heart and some associated blood vessels.

(a)

Name the parts labelled A, B and C.


A ...................................................................................................................................
B ...................................................................................................................................
C ...................................................................................................................................
(2)

18

(b)

Describe how the structure of the left ventricle and the parts labelled B and C enable
the left ventricle to carry out its function.
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(4)

(c)

Many organs such as the uterus, heart and kidneys of a pregnant woman use more oxygen
than when she is not pregnant. The graph below shows the increased usage of oxygen by
these organs near the end of pregnancy, as compared with the oxygen used before
pregnancy.

8
7
6
Increase in 5
oxygen used
/ cm3 min1 4
3
2
1
0

Uterus

Heart

Kidneys

19

Suggest why the use of oxygen by each of the following organs increases during
pregnancy.
(i)

Uterus
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................

(ii)

Heart
...............................................................................................................................
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(4)
(Total 10 marks)

20

15.

(a)

Studies show that individuals who exercise regularly at 70% of their maximum heart rate
significantly reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease. Two reasons for this are that
regular exercise reduces both the percentage body fat and the overall cholesterol level in
blood plasma.
(i)

Describe the procedure for obtaining skinfold measurements to estimate percentage


body fat.
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(4)

(ii)

Explain why having high percentage body fat increases the risk of cardiovascular
disease.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(2)

21

(b)

Cholesterol is transported around the body in the blood by either high density lipoproteins
(HDL) or low density lipoproteins (LDL).
The graph below shows the relationship between LDL cholesterol and coronary heart
disease.
7
Prevalence of
coronary heart
disease (%)

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

< 120

142167
120141
LDL cholesterol / mg dm3

> 167

Describe the relationship between LDL cholesterol and coronary heart disease.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

16.

Carbohydrates and lipids are both sources of energy in the diet. A high carbohydrate intake
stimulates the production of fatty acids. Eating excessive amounts of carbohydrates can lead to
obesity.

22

(a)

(i)

The diagram below illustrates part of the structure of a fatty acid with the formula
C15H31COOH. Complete the diagram of the molecule.

HC C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
H

H
(2)

(ii)

State whether this fatty acid is saturated or unsaturated. Give a reason for your
answer.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)

Explain what is meant by the term risk factor.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain how obesity increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease.
...........................................................................................................................
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(3)

23

(c)

Energy drinks containing glucose provide a concentrated source of energy that is


particularly valuable during exercise.
Explain why glucose can provide a quick energy boost during exercise.
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(3)
(Total 11 marks)

17.

The diagram below represents the sequence of stages during one complete cardiac cycle.

(a)

Name Stage B.
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

24

(b)

Describe what is happening in the heart during complete cardiac diastole.


......................................................................................................................................
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(2)

(c)

Describe how cardiac muscle is supplied with oxygen.


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(3)
(Total 6 marks)

25

18.

It is suggested that the amount of dietary fibre has an influence on the occurrence of cancer of
the colon and diverticular disease.
The graph below shows the number of deaths (mortality) from cancer of the colon plotted
against the mass of dietary fibre.

100

Deaths from
colon cancer
per 100 000 of
the population

90

80
2.0

2.2

2.4

2.6

Dietary fibre/ g day 1

(a)

(i)

Describe the relationship between dietary fibre and mortality from cancer of the
colon.
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(3)

26

(ii)

Explain why increasing the intake of dietary fibre may affect the incidence of
cancer of the colon.
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Diverticular disease has been observed to be particularly associated with people over
70 years old. Suggest reasons for this observation.
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(3)
(Total 8 marks)

27

19.

Several risk factors influence the onset of coronary heart disease (CHD), including high blood
cholesterol level, high blood pressure and smoking.
The chart shows the effect of combining these three factors on the incidence of CHD.

700
Incidence
of CHD
per
100 000
people

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

(a)

1
2
3
Number of risk factors

Describe the effect on the incidence of CHD of increasing the number of risk factors.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)

28

(b)

Explain how each of these risk factors can influence the onset of CHD.
High blood cholesterol ...............................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
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High blood pressure ....................................................................................................
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Smoking ......................................................................................................................
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(6)
(Total 9 marks)

29

20.

The diagram below shows a transverse section of a blood vessel, as seen using low
magnification of a light microscope.

(a)

Name the type of blood vessel shown in the diagram.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

The layer labelled A contains smooth muscle fibres, collagen and elastic fibres.
(i)

Name layer A.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Describe the function of the collagen fibres.


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(2)

30

(c)

The diagrams below show the single blood circulatory system of a fish and the double
circulatory system of a mammal.

Mammal
Lungs

Fish

Tissues

Gills

Heart

Tissues

Heart

KEY
Deoxygenated blood
Oxygenated blood

Suggest why a double circulatory system is an advantage to a mammal.


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(2)
(Total 6 marks)

31

21.

The table below shows population statistics and deaths from coronary heart disease (CHD) for
males and females in England during a two year period.
Number in the population

Number dying from CHD

Males

23 922 144

33 879

Females

25 216 687

9 016

(a)

(i)

For this two year period, calculate the percentage risk of a male dying from CHD.
Show your working.

(1)

(ii)

Use the data in the table above to calculate how many times females are less likely
to die from CHD than males.

(1)

(b)

Body Mass Index (BMI) can be used to indicate whether a person is overweight. The
chart below shows the effect of having a high BMI on the risk of dying of CHD when
compared with a control group with a normal BMI of 20. A person with a BMI of 30 is
obese.

50
Increase in
risk of death
due to
CHD /%

40
30
20
10
0
20

25

30

35

Body Mass Index (BMI)

32

(i)

Describe the trend shown in the chart.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Give the formula used to calculate BMI.

(1)

(iii)

Explain why people who are overweight are more likely to die from CHD.
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(3)
(Total 8 marks)

33

22.

Daphnia (water fleas) can be used to determine the effect of chemicals on heart rate.

(a)

(i)

Explain one reason why Daphnia is a suitable organism for this experiment.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of caffeine on the heart rate
of Daphnia. State two variables that you would need to control to produce reliable
results.
1 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Suggest why Daphnia needs a heart and circulatory system.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

34

(b)

Caffeine increases human heart rate. Suggest and explain why high caffeine consumption
could increase a persons risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
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(2)
(Total 7 marks)

23.

Complete the paragraph below which summarises the blood clotting process.
............................................. are cell fragments that stick to a site of damaged tissue.
............................................. is released from this area, which results in a plasma
protein called ............................................. being converted to thrombin. Thrombin
acts as an enzyme and catalyses the conversion of the soluble plasma
protein ............................................. into long, insoluble strands of the
protein .............................................. These strands form a mesh that
traps ............................................. to form a blood clot.
(Total 3 marks)

35

24.

The diagrams below show the left side of the heart at two stages of the cardiac cycle.

Diagram A

(a)

(i)

Diagram B

Name structure X shown on the diagram.


X .......................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Name the part of the cardiac cycle illustrated by diagram B.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii)

With reference to structures shown on diagram B, describe and explain what


happens during this phase of the cardiac cycle.
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(3)

36

(b)

Balloon angioplasty is regularly used to unblock coronary arteries that have been affected
by atherosclerosis. The procedure is shown in the diagram below.

Guiding catheter

Narrowed coronary artery

Balloon catheter with


uninflated balloon

Balloon catheter with


partially inflated balloon

Balloon catheter with


inflated balloon

Unblocked coronary artery

(i)

Suggest why the patient may experience chest pain as a result of this partial
blocking of one of the coronary arteries.
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(3)

37

(ii)

Suggest why the walls of the artery return to their original position once the
balloon is removed.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Explain why doctors may advise a patient to try a balloon angioplasty in preference to an
operation such as a coronary bypass.
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.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d)

Suggest why atherosclerosis usually affects coronary arteries but not coronary veins.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

25.

Diseases of the cardiovascular system are a major cause of death worldwide. Most
cardiovascular diseases are caused by fatty deposits called plaques. The diagrams below show
stages in the development of a plaque and the narrowing of the lumen of an artery.

Narrow lumen

Normal lumen

Normal artery

Tear in artery
wall

Plaque

38

(a)

Describe how this narrowing of the lumen can increase the risk of further damage to an
artery.
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

(i)

Describe the sequence of events that results in the formation of a blood clot.
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(3)

39

(ii)

Explain how a blood clot can cause a heart attack.


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(3)
(Total 8 marks)

26.

Lowering the level of blood cholesterol in an individual by 1% can decrease the risk of coronary
heart disease by 23%. A low cholesterol diet can help to lower the level of blood cholesterol.
(a)

(i)

Suggest a specific change in diet that could help to lower the level of blood
cholesterol.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Suggest and explain why a low cholesterol diet might not result in a lower blood
cholesterol level.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

40

(b)

Statins are drugs currently in use to help lower blood cholesterol levels. The table below
gives the results of some trials carried out to determine if statins reduce the risk of heart
disease in men and women.

Drug used

Number of subjects
involved

% of subjects who had heart


attacks

Control group

Statin group

Control group

Statin group

% reduction
in heart
attacks

Statin A

4502

4512

15.9

12.3

22.6

Statin B

2223

2221

15.0

8.7

42.0

Statin C

3301

3304

14.8

8.9

(i)

Use the figures shown in the table to calculate the % reduction in heart attacks after
taking Statin C. Show your working.

Answer .......................................
(2)

(ii)

State which statin was the most effective.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

41

(iii)

Suggest a reason for:


The number of subjects involved
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
The control group
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

27.

Sunil has angina and has been recommended to control his diet to reduce his chance of a heart
attack.
(a)

Explain how atherosclerosis could cause the chest pain associated with an attack of
angina.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

42

The table below shows some of the relevant dietary information for assessing the content
of three alternative breakfasts that Sunil normally eats.
Energy
/kJ

Carbohydrate / g

Saturated
fatty acids / g

Unsaturated
fatty acids / g

Cholesterol
/mg

2 slices
of whole
wheat
toast

580

26

0.5

1.5

margarine

180

0.1

3.8

baked
beans

1113

52

0.25

0.5

78.1

1.75

5.8

Meal

Food

Total

2 slices
of white
toast

662

29

0.3

1.7

margarine

180

0.1

3.8

2 fried
eggs

772

0.8

210

29.9

5.3

13.5

210

Total

2 slices
of white
toast

662

29

0.3

1.7

margarine

180

0.1

3.8

2 slices of
cheddar
cheese

948
0.8

5.8

58

29.9

7.3

11.3

58

Total

(b)

(i)

Complete the table by calculating the total energy of each meal.


(1)

(ii)

Give the letter of the meal that contains the highest energy content.
Meal with highest energy content ...................
(1)

43

(iii)

Suggest which meal you would recommend to Sunil if he wishes to reduce his risk
of coronary heart disease. Explain the reasons for your choice.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)

28.

The figure below shows a simplified diagram of the heart.

44

(i)

Draw arrows on the diagram to show the direction of blood flow through both sides of the
heart during diastole.
(1)

(ii)

Name the part of the heart responsible for the initiation of the cardiac cycle.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 2 marks)

29.

(a)

The photograph below shows Daphnia (a water flea). It is a small animal that lives in
freshwater.

M. I. Walker/Science Photo Library

Daphnia has a heart which pumps fluid around its body. This fluid has a higher solute
concentration than the freshwater that Daphnia lives in.

The table below gives four statements concerning transport in Daphnia. If a statement is
correct, place a tick ( ) in the box to the right of that statement and if a statement is
incorrect, place a cross ( ) in the box.
Statements about transport in Daphnia
(i)

Tick or
cross

The movement of fluid through the heart is an example of mass


transport

(ii) Daphniauses diffusion to transport oxygen into muscle cells


(iii) Daphniatends to lose water to the freshwater by osmosis
(iv) Daphniacan use active transport to move ions from the freshwater
into its body

45

(b)

A student investigated the effect of caffeine on the heart rate of Daphnia. Three different
Daphnia were used, A, B and C. The table below shows her results at the end of the
investigation.

(i)

Daphnia

Caffeine
concentration/
arbitrary units

Duration of
observation/
seconds

Number of
heart beats
counted

10

50

10

53

10

47

10

10

73

10

10

76

10

10

76

15

10

101

15

10

99

15

10

100

Calculate the mean number of heart beats per 10 seconds for each Daphnia.

Daphnia A .............................. heart beats per 10 seconds

Daphnia B .............................. heart beats per 10 seconds

Daphnia C .............................. heart beats per 10 seconds


(1)

(ii)

Use your answers from (i) above to predict the mean number of heart beats in 10
seconds for another Daphnia placed in a caffeine concentration of 35 arbitrary
units.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

46

(iii)

Suggest three reasons why the prediction you made for (ii) above may not be very
reliable.
1 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

30.

(a)

The diagram below shows a ventral (front) external view of a mammalian heart.

47

(i)

Name the structures labelled X, Y and Z.


X .......................................................................................................................
Y .......................................................................................................................
Z .......................................................................................................................
(3)

(ii)

There are four boxes on the heart diagram. Place a tick () in the box that correctly
identifies the position where electrical activity of the heart is initiated.
(1)

(iii)

Name the structure that initiates electrical activity in the heart.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

Blood pressure within the heart varies throughout the cardiac cycle.
(i)

Explain what is meant by the term cardiac cycle.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

48

(ii)

The table below shows the range of blood pressures found in the left ventricle and
in the right ventricle during one complete cardiac cycle.
Ventricle

Blood pressure / kPa

Right

0.0 to 3.3

Left

0.0 to 15.8

Explain why the maximum blood pressure is higher in the left ventricle than in the
right ventricle.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Explain why blood pressure varies in a ventricle during the cardiac cycle.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

49

(c)

Apart from high blood pressure, state two other risk factors for heart disease.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 12 marks)

31.

Tissue fluid is formed as a result of the blood pressure forcing water and dissolved solutes, such
as glucose and mineral ions, out of capillaries.
(a)

Explain how the structure of a capillary is related to the formation of tissue fluid.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

Suggest why proteins are present in the plasma but are not normally present in tissue
fluid.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

50

(c)

Tissue fluid is reabsorbed back into capillaries as a result of the osmotic effect of the
plasma proteins. Suggest why this reabsorption is reduced in a person on a proteindeficient diet.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

32.

The photograph below shows two blood vessels, as seen using a light microscope.

Magnification 50

(a)

(i)

Identify the type of blood vessel labelled A on the photograph.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

51

(ii)

Describe two features of blood vessel A and explain the function of each feature.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(4)

(b)

People suffering from high blood pressure may be given Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
(ACE) inhibitors. The ACE inhibitor stops the conversion of an inactive substance in the
blood called angiotensin I to the active form, angiotensin II.
Angiotensin II causes blood vessels to constrict.
Suggest how the ACE inhibitor could prevent the conversion of angiotensin I to
angiotensin II.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 9 marks)

52

33.

The photograph (below left) shows sections of two blood vessels labelled A and B. The diagram
(below right) shows a human heart with two of the blood vessels numbered 1 and 2.

CNRI/Science photo library

(a)

Two of these vessels are arteries and two are veins. Place a tick in the box on the right of
the table below that correctly identifies the row showing which two vessels are arteries
and which two are veins.
Arteries

Veins

A and 1

B and 2

A and 2

B and 1

B and 1

A and 2

B and 2

A and 1

53

(b)

Blood moves towards the heart in veins. Describe how blood is moved through veins.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

Capillaries are involved in the exchange of materials between the blood and the
surrounding body tissues. Give two structural features of a capillary that enable it to
exchange materials rapidly between the blood and the surrounding body tissues.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

54

(a)

Daphnia heart rate increases when Daphnia are given the stimulant, caffeine. A student
used this knowledge to estimate the caffeine content of three drinks.
To do this she set up a calibration curve. Initially, she placed one Daphnia in pond water
with no caffeine and counted the number of its heart beats in one minute. She found this
to be 180.
She then placed the Daphnia in pond water with 10 mg of caffeine per 100 cm3 of pond
water and recorded the time taken for 180 heart beats. This was repeated for several
different caffeine concentrations and the results are shown in the calibration curve below.
All measurements were taken at 15 C.

65
Time taken for 180 heart beats / seconds

34.

60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Caffeine concentration / mg per 100 cm3 pond water

The student now repeated the study, using the same Daphnia and keeping the temperature
at 15 C throughout, but with instant coffee as the source of caffeine. She recorded the
time taken for 180 heart beats to occur. She then repeated this using the two other drinks.
The results are shown in the table below. Use the calibration curve to complete the third
column of the table.
Drink

Time taken for 180


heart beats / seconds

Instant coffee

33

Filter coffee

28

Tea

35

Caffeine concentration
/ mg per 100 cm3

(3)

55

(b)

By using the same Daphnia throughout the investigation, the student was able to control
certain variables that could have affected her results.
Give three variables that the student controlled by using the same Daphnia.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
3 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

At the end of the investigation the student removed the Daphnia from the tea and placed
it in pond water. She then recorded its heart rate and found it to be 190 beats per minute.
Suggest two reasons why the Daphnia heart rate was higher at the end of the
investigation compared to the 180 beats per minute at the start.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 8 marks)

56

35.

Describe two ways in which alveoli are adapted for their function.
1 ..........................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
2 ..........................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
(Total 4 marks)

36.

Read through the following passage on alveoli and gas exchange, then write on the dotted lines
the most appropriate word or words to complete the passage.
During inspiration, air reaches the alveoli through small tubes known as
................................................ . The alveolar wall is composed of a
................................................ layer of epithelial cells which
................................................ the diffusion rate of oxygen from the alveolar air
into the ............................................ surrounding the alveoli.
(Total 4 marks)

57

37.

The diagram below shows a section through lung tissue, as seen using a microscope.

58

(a)

Explain how the cells labelled A are adapted to their function.

(3)

(b)

At rest, the total blood flow through the lungs is about 5 dm3 per minute. During exercise,
this increases to about 30 dm3 per minute. Suggest how this increase in blood flow
through the lungs is brought about.

(1)
(Total 4 marks)

38.

(a)

The table below summarises four processes by which molecules can pass across
membranes.
Complete each box in the table with a
is incorrect.
Process

if the statement is correct or a x if the statement

Requires energy from


respiration (ATP)

Requires a concentration
gradient

Passive diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis
Active transport
(4)

59

(b)

Explain how the structure of the lung makes it effective for gaseous exchange by
diffusion.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 8 marks)

39.

The rate of diffusion of gases across an exchange surface is greater if the surface is thin and a
concentration gradient is maintained across it.
Describe how each of these factors is involved in respiratory gas exchange in the following:
Alveoli in human lungs
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
(Total 5 marks)

60

40.

The diagram below illustrates a small section of part of a lung responsible for gas exchange.

Alveoli

Capillary network

(a)

Write X, Y or Z in the appropriate spaces in the table below.

Structure

Letter on
diagram

Bronchiole
Branch of pulmonary artery
Branch of pulmonary vein
(2)

(b)

Describe how the structures in this diagram are adapted for rapid gas exchange.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 6 marks)

61

41.

The diagram below represents the approximate concentrations of certain molecules inside an
alveolus and a capillary in the lungs.

alveolus
15% oxygen
5% carbon dioxide
0% glucose
capillary
8% oxygen
7% carbon dioxide
1% glucose

(a)

State and explain which direction the oxygen and carbon dioxide molecules will move
between the capillary and the alveolus.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Describe three ways in which the lungs are adapted for rapid gas exchange.
1 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
2 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
3 ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

62

(c)

People suffering from cystic fibrosis produce viscous (sticky) mucus and are often short
of breath.
(i)

Explain why the mucus produced is viscous.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest why they are often short of breath.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)

63

42.

Describe how alveoli are adapted for the function of gas exchange.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
(Total 5 marks)

43.

The rate of diffusion of gases across an exchange surface is greatest if the surface is thin and a
concentration gradient is maintained across it.
(a)

Describe how each of these factors is involved in efficient gas exchange in the alveoli of
a mammalian lung.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

64

(b)

Describe and explain the effect of cystic fibrosis on gas exchange.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

The pedigree below shows the inheritance of cystic fibrosis (CF) in one family.

Jane

Zac

Unaffected female

Unaffected male
Priya

Fiona

Samir

Female with CF

Male with CF
James

Nigel

With reference to the information in the pedigree, answer the following questions.
(i)

Give the name of a female who is homozygous for the CF gene.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Give the name of a male who is heterozygous for the CF gene.


...........................................................................................................................
(1)

65

(iii)

If Fiona and Samir had a third child, state the probability that this child would have
cystic fibrosis.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(d)

Genetic screening can be used to identify the cystic fibrosis allele. By considering
contrasting ethical viewpoints, discuss one reason in favour and one reason against
genetic screening for cystic fibrosis.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 12 marks)

44.

(a)

During ventricular systole, blood is forced out of the heart.


Place a tick in the box ( ) below the column that correctly identifies three features that
occur during ventricular systole.
Three features

Atrioventricular valves

closed

open

open

closed

SAN pacemaker

active

not active

active

not active

Ventricular blood
pressure

lower than
atria

lower than
atria

higher than
atria

higher than
atria

Place your tick in one


of these four boxes
(1)

66

(b)

(i)

When a doctor takes the blood pressure of a patient, two values are found, such as
110/75 (110 over 75). Which value is the systolic pressure?
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Hypertension is a consistently and abnormally high blood pressure. Give two


factors that increase the risk of having hypertension.
1 ........................................................................................................................
2 ........................................................................................................................
(2)

(c)

It has been shown that, for men aged 40 to 50 years old, each rise of 10 units in their
systolic blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease by 20%.
(i)

Calculate the increased risk of heart disease in a 40 year old man with a systolic
blood pressure 50 units higher than the average for his age.

Answer ....................................
(1)

(ii)

Explain the meaning of the figure you have calculated in (c)(i).


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

67

45.

The graph below shows death rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in men from 1970 to
1995 in four countries.

Death rate / deaths per 100 000

800
700
600
500
400
Finland

300

Italy
200

UK

100

Poland
0
1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

Year

(a)

Describe the changes in death rates shown on the graph.


.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

68

The graph below shows the percentage of men from these countries in 1980 with high
systolic blood pressure.

Percentage men with high systolic blood pressure / %

(b)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Finland

Italy

UK

Poland

It has been suggested that there is a link between high blood pressure and deaths from
CHD.

(i)

Using both graphs, give two pieces of evidence to support this hypothesis.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(ii)

Suggest how the data shown in the graphs do not fully support this hypothesis.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

69

(c)

Suggest how high blood pressure can result in less oxygen reaching heart muscle.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 10 marks)

46.

The diagram below shows an external view of the heart.

(a)

Name the blood vessels labelled W, X, Y and Z.


W .................................................................................................................................
X .................................................................................................................................
Y .................................................................................................................................
Z .................................................................................................................................
(2)

70

(b)

Describe and explain the events that occur during ventricular systole in the cardiac cycle.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(c)

The hypothesis that higher concentrations of caffeine will increase heart rate can be
investigated practically using Daphnia (water fleas).
Describe a reliable procedure that could be used to test this hypothesis.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(6)
(Total 12 marks)

71

(a)

Blood vessels can be distinguished by their structure. The table shows some structural
features for three blood vessels P, Q and R.
Structural feature
P
Q
R
Endothelium present
Small lumen relative to the thickness
of the walls
Many elastic fibres present
Valves present
Identify the blood vessels P, Q and R.
P ..................................................................................................................................
Q ..................................................................................................................................
R ..................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b)

The diagram below shows changes in blood pressure as blood flows from the arteries to
the veins.

12
A

10
Blood pressure / kPa

47.

8
6
4
B
2
0

ARTERIES

ARTERIOLES CAPILLARIES

VENULES

VEINS

direction of blood flow through circulation

The blood pressure at point A is 10.5 kPa and the blood pressure at point B is 2.5 kPa.
Calculate the percentage decrease in the pressure as blood flows from A to B.

Answer ............................ kPa


(2)
72

(c)

Explain the changes in blood pressure


(i)

in the arteries
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................

(ii)

in the capillaries.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

73