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6, 13, and 27 June 2011

6, 13, and 27 June 2011

6, 13, and 27 June 2011
Conflict and Violence in Human Society
Conflict and Violence in Human
Society

First View on Human Violence:

Human Beings are Unique!

“…Humans are the only animals which take the business of killing their other members of their species with such seriousness. Other primates kill members of other species usually for food. Members of the same species fight amongst themselves for mates, territory and so on, but they rarely fight to death. Killing amongst the non-human primates equivalent to murder ”

rather than to

Conflict in the Natural World
Conflict in the Natural World

Two Views on Human Conflict and Violence

Two Views on Human Conflict and Violence Unique or Non-Unique?

Unique or Non-Unique?

Human Beings are Unique!

“War is a predominantly human activity. Despite its frequency, it is an activity which conflicts with most human activities such as the quest for wealth, knowledge, a happy family life and so on, all of which are much better pursued under the conditions of peace.”

Second View: Human Beings are not Unique

“Leading authorities have estimated that the rate of killings among humans is similar and in some cases greatly inferior to that of other species. According to one of them, it is a fact many times inferior to that any mammalian species studied. In many case, the similarity is striking: most killings in the animal kingdom is carried out for predation, as it is with humans (animal hunting), but there is also substantial killing of con-specifics— one’s own kind—in competition for opportunity to prey and mate for other activities, as it is with humans.

19

th Century Studies on Conflict

Social Philosophers

General Ideas

Role of Conflict

Charles Darwin

Struggle within species for the “survival of fittest.”

New species arise because of genetic adjustment generated by the struggle to survive

Sigmund Freud

Internal struggle led to the internal struggle of various psychodynamic forces for control of the ego

Psychological development result from the need to understand and address the conflict within.

from the need to understand and address the conflict within. Human Beings are Not Unique •
from the need to understand and address the conflict within. Human Beings are Not Unique •

Human Beings are Not Unique

Thus in a few decades, the scholarly picture has changed drastically. At least in the scale of intra-specific killings, human have lost their supposed uniqueness and are no longer regarded as an exception in killing their own kind

•   Strategic Studies. •   Peace Studies. •   Conflict Management/ Resolution Approach
•   Strategic Studies.
•   Peace Studies.
•   Conflict
Management/
Resolution Approach

Strategic Studies cum Realism:

Philosophical Basis

Strategic Studies cum Realism: Philosophical Basis
Strategic Studies cum Realism: Philosophical Basis
Strategic Studies cum Realism: Philosophical Basis

Strategic Studies/Realism: Philosophical basis

Strategic Studies/Realism: Philosophical basis Peace Studies: Philosophical Basis •   Existence of community and
Strategic Studies/Realism: Philosophical basis Peace Studies: Philosophical Basis •   Existence of community and
Strategic Studies/Realism: Philosophical basis Peace Studies: Philosophical Basis •   Existence of community and
Strategic Studies/Realism: Philosophical basis Peace Studies: Philosophical Basis •   Existence of community and
Strategic Studies/Realism: Philosophical basis Peace Studies: Philosophical Basis •   Existence of community and
Strategic Studies/Realism: Philosophical basis Peace Studies: Philosophical Basis •   Existence of community and
Strategic Studies/Realism: Philosophical basis Peace Studies: Philosophical Basis •   Existence of community and

Peace Studies: Philosophical Basis

Existence of community and moral constraints on individuals and states.

States should conform to

o r

g e n e r a l principles.

r u l e s

C o n f l i c t s

a n d

disagreements could be mitigated by general principles or rightness of s t a t e a c t i o n a t t h e expense of raw national interests.

be mitigated by general principles or rightness of s t a t e a c t
be mitigated by general principles or rightness of s t a t e a c t
be mitigated by general principles or rightness of s t a t e a c t
be mitigated by general principles or rightness of s t a t e a c t

Conflict Management: Philosophical Basis

The approach is primarily focused on personal tension generated by interactions among individuals and small social groups.

It saw the values of studying these individual/small group conflicts as a general phenomenon, with similar properties whether they occurs in international relations, domestic politics, industrial relations, communities, families, and in international organizations.

families, and in international organizations.   Conflict Management—Philosophical Basis •   It

Conflict Management—Philosophical Basis

Conflict Management—Philosophical Basis •   It accepts that social conflicts are necessary part of human existence

It accepts that social conflicts are necessary part of human existence but it argues that they need not be waged destructively. It states that if people and society understand the dynamics of human conflict, they can develop means to reduce their destructive effects and harness increase the potential benefits of social conflict. Accordingly conflict facilitates social change, facilitate reconciliation of legitimate but conflicting interests, and foster social cohesion and unity.

Development

Development—the transformation of subsistence/traditional society to commodified/ modern industrial society, capable of producing goods and services to the globalizing market economy.

goods and services to the globalizing market economy. Conflict Management: Philosophical Basis •   It

Conflict Management: Philosophical Basis

Conflict Management: Philosophical Basis •   It rejects the realist/ strategic and Marxist views that violence

It rejects the realist/ strategic and Marxist views that violence in human conflicts is unavoidable and integral part of human interactions. It rejects the this strain of determinism in the study of conflict and conflict resolution.

Human Conflicts and Macro-Social Phenomenon —globalization/development

and Macro-Social Phenomenon —globalization/development   Globalization—process of stretching of social, political,

Globalization—process of stretching of social, political, and economic activities so that events in part of the world comes to have significance for and effects on individuals, societies, and states in other parts of the world.

Conflict/Globalization and Development
Conflict/Globalization and
Development
Conflict/Social Change
Conflict/Social Change
Conflict/Social Change What is Conflict? It is a Process! •   It is activity which takes
What is Conflict? It is a Process! •   It is activity which takes place
What is Conflict? It is a Process!
•   It is activity which takes
place between two
conscious, but not
necessarily rational
beings.
•   It is defined in terms of
wants, needs, or
obligations of the parties
involved (aspirations).

What is conflict in general?

Perceived divergence of interests, or a conscious belief that parties current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously.

divergence of interests, or a conscious belief that parties current aspirations cannot be achieved simultaneously.

From Individual to Social Conflict?

Conflicts involve wants or needs which are states of the mind, thus there is a sense of subjectivity. It is also manifested in various forms of social groups and their behavior. In industry and business, there is strikes. In marriages and families, family quarrels. In the global society, threats, diplomatic row or spat, and even wars/ rivalries or they can also be transformed to sport as highly institutionalized and constrained forms of conflict.

What is conflict? It is a process!

The two parties wish to carry out acts which are mutually inconsistent.

A conflict is resolved when some mutually accepted set of actions (or solutions) are worked out by the parties.

•   A conflict is resolved when some mutually accepted set of actions (or solutions) are
 

Anatomy of a Human Conflict

 

Interest in

Aspirations

Incompatibili

Relative

terms of

ty of

Deprivation

values or

Aspirations

human needs

 

Security,

Past

Integration/

Trust or

sustenance,

Achievement

reconciliation;

distrust

reproductive,

Others’

Consider other

side as

identity,

achievements

   

territory,

Social norms

legitimate or

identity, achievements     territory, Social norms legitimate or Effects of Relative Deprivation
identity, achievements     territory, Social norms legitimate or Effects of Relative Deprivation
identity, achievements     territory, Social norms legitimate or Effects of Relative Deprivation
identity, achievements     territory, Social norms legitimate or Effects of Relative Deprivation
identity, achievements     territory, Social norms legitimate or Effects of Relative Deprivation
identity, achievements     territory, Social norms legitimate or Effects of Relative Deprivation
identity, achievements     territory, Social norms legitimate or Effects of Relative Deprivation
Effects of Relative Deprivation
Effects of Relative Deprivation
• Problem-Solving   Entail parties identifying the issues that divide them and develop efforts toward

Problem-Solving

Entail parties identifying the issues that divide them and develop efforts toward solution that

appeals to both sides.

involves not the clash of aspiration but efforts to reconcile both parties’ aspirations.

It

that appeals to both sides. involves not the clash of aspiration but efforts to reconcile both

Conflict-Avoidance

Entails one or both parties avoiding the conflict through:

inaction and withdrawal. Party avoids contact with each other or terminates the conflict by withdrawing its aspiration.

inaction and withdrawal. Party avoids contact with each other or terminates the conflict by withdrawing its

Contention

Parties resolve their conflicts without regard to each other’s interests. Parties involved maintains their aspirations and tries to persuade or force the other to yield. Various tactics involved; Ingratiation, the promise of bribes, persuasive argumentation (diplomacy), threats, coercive commitments, violence and non-violent means.

Yielding

Lowering one’s aspiration that need not imply total capitulation. It may imply partial concession of aspiration.

capitulation. It may imply partial concession of aspiration. Conflict Approaches/Attitudes Levels of Concern Low

Conflict Approaches/Attitudes

Levels of Concern

Low Concern for Others

High Concern for Others

Low Concern for Self (Altruism)

Conflict-Avoidance

Yielding

 

Contending/Confrontation

Problem Solving/

High Concern for Self (Egoistic)

Compromise

General Pattern of Human Conflict

General Pattern of Human Conflict • • Conditions Leading to Social Conflict Existence of a quasi-group
General Pattern of Human Conflict • • Conditions Leading to Social Conflict Existence of a quasi-group
General Pattern of Human Conflict • • Conditions Leading to Social Conflict Existence of a quasi-group
General Pattern of Human Conflict • • Conditions Leading to Social Conflict Existence of a quasi-group

Conditions Leading to Social Conflict

Existence of a quasi-group with latent or suppressed interests. There is a collective of people who has common aspiration but is not aware of it. Group mobilization begins with a trigger event (or series of events)

Existence of communication among members of this group.

of communication among members of this group.   • • From Individual to Social Conflicts
of communication among members of this group.   • • From Individual to Social Conflicts
of communication among members of this group.   • • From Individual to Social Conflicts
of communication among members of this group.   • • From Individual to Social Conflicts
of communication among members of this group.   • • From Individual to Social Conflicts

From Individual to Social Conflicts

“…conflicts differ in their complexity and importance, in the strategies to which they give rise, and in the solutions to which they lead (contention or yielding or conflict-avoidance or problem-solving)…Conflicts at the interpersonal, intergroup, inter-organizational, and international level are not the same. Nevertheless, we believe it is possible to develop generalizations that cut across, and shed light on, most or all conflicts…”

Pruitt and Kim, 2004

Conditions Leading…

Availability of a leadership within this group.

Legitimacy that this group might generate or acquire from the boarder social group.

within this group. •   Legitimacy that this group might generate or acquire from the boarder
within this group. •   Legitimacy that this group might generate or acquire from the boarder
within this group. •   Legitimacy that this group might generate or acquire from the boarder
Pattern of Social Conflict Approaches to Conflict Individualist Confronting High context non verbal
Pattern of Social Conflict Approaches to Conflict Individualist Confronting High context non verbal
Pattern of Social Conflict Approaches to Conflict Individualist Confronting High context non verbal

Pattern of Social Conflict

Pattern of Social Conflict Approaches to Conflict Individualist Confronting High context non verbal

Approaches to Conflict

Individualist

Confronting

High context non verbal communication.

Tend to blame the other side for the

conflict through

contention and

 

problem solving

 

conflict. Ego- centric bias.

Collectivist

Conflict aversion —indirect conflict- covert problem solving or conflict management

Low-context

Both parties are to be blamed for disturbing social harmony.

extremely verbal

 

communication.

Pattern of Social Conflict

verbal   communication. Pattern of Social Conflict Conflict and Culture: Individualist versus Collectivist

Conflict and Culture: Individualist versus Collectivist

Individualistic Society

Members view themselves as independent from each other, and their personal interest takes over group goals and interests.

Emphasizes: rights, freedom, and equality.

Collectivist Society

Members view themselves as interdependent with others and personal goals and interests are subordinate to the group’s cohesion and harmony.

Emphasizes: individual interdependence, group welfare and harmony.

interdependence, group welfare and harmony. •   Nourishes social change. Facilitates the reconciliation of
Nourishes social change. Facilitates the reconciliation of a collectivity’s legitimate interests in a larger society.
Nourishes social change.
Facilitates the reconciliation of a collectivity’s
legitimate interests in a larger society.
Fosters group unity.
May solve disputes in a way it will result to mutually
acceptable outcome for contending groups.
•   Hinders innovation and creativity. •   Fosters hasty premature and decision-making •  
•   Hinders innovation and
creativity.
•   Fosters
hasty
premature
and
decision-making
process.
F o s t e r s
b e n i g n
misunderstanding
that
will
serve
nobody’s
interests.
•   Prevents any redress of
legitimate grievances in
a society.
“Conflicts prevents the ossification of the social system by exerting pressure for innovation and creativity.”
“Conflicts prevents the ossification of the social system by exerting pressure for innovation and creativity.”
“Conflicts prevents the ossification of
the social system by exerting
pressure for innovation and
creativity.”