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FLOW METER SELECTION SEMINAR

Alan Graff RL Stone Co I&C Sales Manager Upstate NY & New England

RL Stone Co. New England


Corporate Office: 115 Ainsley Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 Tel: 888-404-8882 Fax: 315-479-5402 www.rl-stone.com

Process/HVAC Products and Solutions


Armstrong Steam and Condensate Group: Traps, Liquid Drainers, Steam Distribution & Condensate Return Manifolds, Air Vents, Strainers, Wireless Trap Monitors, Spargers, Separators Armstrong Humidification Group (Vermont only): Direct Steam, Ionic Bed Electric, Gas-Fired, Steam to-Steam, Evaporative Cooling Fogging, Unfired Steam Generators Armstrong Condensate Management Group: Mechanical & Electrical Condensate Pumps and Packages, Flash Tanks, Condensate Coolers Armstrong Heat Transfer Group: Unit Heaters, Door Heaters and Make-Up Air Heaters, Heavy-Duty Steam and Hot Water Coils, Replacement Coils, DuraMix VIFB Coils, Fumigation Heat Treat Systems Armstrong Hot Water Group: Instantaneous Hot Water Heaters, Direct Fired Gas High Efficiency Hot Water Heaters, Thermostatic Mixing Valves, The Brain & MEGAMIX Digital Electronic Mixing Center, Steam & Hot Water Hose and Mixing Valve Stations Armstrong Pressure Temperature Control Group: PRVs, Pneumatic and Electric Industrial Control Valves, Temperature Regulators, Radiator Control Valves Armstrong Service Group: Steam System Optimization, Contracting: Installation Construction, Engineering Audits and Steam Surveys, Heat Treat Audits

Cataract Steel

Compressed Air, Gas & Heat Transfer Products, Industrial Heat Exchangers, Pressure Vessels, Air Receivers New and Replacement Steam, Water and DX Coils, Remote Condensers, Fluid Coolers, Evaporative Coolers

Diversified Heat Transfer

Heat Transfer Equipment, Shell and Tu be Heat Exchangers, Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers, Steam and Hot Water Generators Refrigerant Leak Detection Monitoring Systems

Thermacor Process

Pre-Insulated Above and Below Ground Piping Systems, Containment Piping, High Temperature Polyisocyanurate Foam, Pressure Testable Joints, ERM Leak Detection Strip Doors, Air Doors, Screens and Curtains, Modular Enclosures, Clear and Colored Flexible PVC Film, Noise Control Products Flow Sensors & Instrumentation, Accelabar Zero Straight Run Flow Meter, Utility Flow Metering Systems Gauges: Pressure, Vacuum, Digital and Analog Indicators, Mini and Industrial Diaphragm Seals, Pressure Transducers, Accessories Pressure Snubbers, Gauge Cocks, Needle Valves, Siphons, Petes Plugs, Bimetal Thermometers and Temperature Transmitters

TMI, Inc

R. L. Stone Services

Design Build, Installation, On -Site Seminars and Training, Energy Audits, Steam Trap Surveys, Control Panels, SCADA System

A Leading Supplier of Flowmeters to HVAC & Industrial Marketplace


        

Magmeters Vortex & Swirl Turbine Thermal & Coriolis Mass BTU Meter Pitot, Wedge Orifice Plates, Venturi Positive Displacement Rotameter, Variable Area

Define Application Basic Facts


Flowing Media (Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc ) Density - pressure and temperature Flow Range, minimum to maximum (turndown needed) Accuracy how stated? % of range or span Repeatability Straight run requirements & available Economic Considerations Initial cost, maintenance cost & operating costs

Why are we here?


There is no 1 meter that will meet every application Every application needs to be looked at individually We can make some generalizations !!!!!!

FLOW MEASUREMENT

HOW MUCH (TOTAL) HOW FAST (RATE)

Flow Through A Pipe

Idealized

Real World

Pipe

Velocity Profile

Flow Profile Correlation

Steam Water Heavy Crude

Velocity profile is a predictable function of Reynolds number. Fluids with the same Reynolds number will have similar velocity profiles.

General Flow Terminology




Reynolds Number (RE) A single dimensionless parameter formed as the ratio of inertial to viscous forces . Magnitude indicates whether flow is laminar or turbulent
RE= Inertia Forces Viscous Forces = Fluid Density (p) Fluid Velocity (V) Characteristic Dimension* (D)

Fluid Viscosity ( )

* Usually inside pipe diameter.

Characterization of Fluid Flow

Types of Flow
RE < 2100
Laminar

Transitional

RE >3000

Turbulent ***

*** Well documented & proven fully developed flow profiles

Volumetric Flowrate (Q)

V A Q

Volume = Area x Length Volume Flow = Area x Velocity

Mass Flowrate (m)


Q=VA Mass Flow m = Qp = AV

V A m
Where m Q = Mass Flow = Volume Flow = Fluid Density

Mass = Volume x Density

Mass vs Volume Flowmeters


Why are we concerned? How much does it really matter? Flow through a 4 line measured in a Averaging Pitot Flow Rate Pressure Temperature DP in WC 1000 cfm 5 psi 100 F 12.181 1000 cfm 5 psi 70 F 11.532

There is a 6% error just by changing density / temperature slightly can you meter cope??

General Flow Terminology

Factors affecting flowmeter performance


Process media
Liquid Gas

Temperature Velocity

Density (Specific Gravity) Viscosity Pressure

Flowmeter Performance

Accuracy  Repeatability  Linearity  Rangeability




Types of Accuracy

% Rate  % Full Scale  % Span  % Max DP




Accuracy
% Rate The percent accuracy value is constant and applied to the actual (or indicated) flowrate Flowrate 1% rate 1 GPM Example: 100 GPM 50 GPM 0.5 GPM 10 GPM .01 GPM

% Full Scale The absolute value of error (as expressed in engineering units) Flowrate Example: 100 GPM 50 GPM 10 GPM 1% Full Scale 1 GPM 1 GPM 1 GPM % Rate 1% 2% 10%

Accuracy
Percent Error Versus Flow

Poor Repeatability Means Poor Accuracy Good Accuracy Means Good Repeatability Good Repeatability Does Not Necessarily Mean Good Accuracy

Volumetric Flowmeters

DP Turbine Vortex / Swirl Magnetic Target Ultrasonic Displacement

Note: can be inferred mass with compensating transmitter

Differential Pressure Flowmeters


Flow Measurement Principles
Q=K
ORIFICE PLATE (or FLOW TUBE) VENA CONTRACTA

Direction of Flow

MANOMETER (or DP TRANSMITTER)

DP Primary Elements

Various Orifice Configuration

Flow Nozzle

Flow Tube

Venturi Flowmeter

DP Primary Elements
Averaging Pitot

Accelabar Combined Pitot & Venturi

Wedge Element

Secondary Flow / DP Transmitter

Differential Pressure / Flow Transmitter  Square Root Extraction




DP Flowmeters
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE ADVANTAGES Use On Liquid, Gas, and Steam Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Pressures No Moving Parts Low Cost

DISADVANTAGES Limited Rangeability Effected By Changes In Density, Pressure, and Viscosity Maintenance Intensive

Magnetic Flowmeters

Theory of Operation

Magmeter Requirements

Process must be a liquid  Minimum conductivity  Meter must be full




Magnetic Flowmeters
MAGNETIC ADVANTAGES No Moving Parts Very Wide Rangeability Ideal For Slurries Unobstructed Flow Path

DISADVANTAGES Liquid Must Be Conductive Physical Pressure and Temperature Limits

Magnetic Flowmeters
Advantages Over Other Technologies
        

No moving parts No pressure drop Flowrate independent of viscosity, temperature, and density Minimum upstream piping requirements Electronics interchangeable without regard to size Measure dirty liquids with solids Measure highly corrosive fluids Very large turndown Linear output

Vortex Meter

Vortex Meter
Principle of Operation
Q=VxA

Vortex

Vortex / Swirlmeter
VORTEX / SWIRLMETER ADVANTAGES No Moving Parts For Liquid, Gas, or Steam Uneffected by Pressure, Temperature, or Density Changes. Wide Rangeability

DISADVANTAGES Span Limitations Due to Viscosity Flow Profile Sensitive (Vortex)

Swirlmeter
Principle of Operation
Preamplifier Housing Swirler Sensor Deswirler Backflow

r VA VT p

= = = =

local radius axial velocity of flow angular velocity of flow static pressure

Swirlmeters

Benefits
High Accuracy 0.50% of Rate No Moving Parts Minimal Upstream Piping Measures Low Flows Versatile Electronics can be used for Diagnostics Works with Entrained Liquids

Swirlmeter
Cut-Away View

Technical Data  Measures liquids, gases and steam  Available integral, remote, or flow computer electronics  Accuracy 0.50% rate  Sizes 0.75" thru 16.0"  Minimal upstream piping req.  Flow as low as 1 GPM  Excellent in light gas applications

Installation Length
Swirlmeter
Swirlmeter Vortex 4
Process control valve
5D 1D 50 D 5D

90 elbow
3D 1D
min. 1.8 D

25 D

5D

Reduction
3D 1D 15 D 5D

Turbine Meter

Turbine Meter
Principle of Operation

Rotor velocity is proportional to fluid velocity

Turbine Meter
        

High accuracy (.5% of rate) High rangeability (up to 50:1) Compact design Fast response time Broad range of sizes Clean water applications only NIST Traceable Factory Calibration Low cost, Easy to install In and out of line, under pressure

Turbine Meter

Performance Considerations
  

Straight pipe run requirements Process fluid lubricity Reynolds number constraints Viscosity Density Maintenance & recalibration

Turbine Flowmeters
TURBINE ADVANTAGES High Accuracy Suitable for Extreme Temperatures and Pressures Can Be Used On Gas or Liquid

DISADVANTAGES Only For Low Viscosities Moving Parts Sensitive to Flow Profile

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

PD Flowmeters

Types Helical gear  Nutating disk  Oscillating piston  Oval gear  Rotary


Positive Displacement Meter


Typical Principle of Operation

Schematic of a nutating-disk meter

Schematic of a rotary-vane flowmeter

Schematic of a lobed-impeller flowmeter

PD Flowmeters

Advantages Ideal for viscous fluids  Custody transfer  Batching  Minimal straight piping requirements


Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Types

Doppler  Time of flight




Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation

Doppler Flowmeter

Ultrasonic Flowmeters Principle of Operation

Transit-Time Flowmeter

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Performance Considerations
    

Reynolds number constraints Entrained gas or particles for doppler Clean liquids for time of flight Installed without process shut down Straight upstream piping requirements

Ultrasonic
ULTRASONIC ADVANTAGES No Moving Parts Unobstructed Flow Passage Wide Rangeability

DISADVANTAGES For Liquids Only (limited gas) Flow Profile Dependent Errors Due To Deposits

Mass Flowmeter
Direct Measurement

Thermal Dispersion Coriolis

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter

Coriolis

Coriolis
CORIOLIS ADVANTAGES Direct Mass Measurement High Accuracy Additional Density Measurement Uneffected By Flow Profile

DISADVANTAGES High Purchase Price High Installation Cost Size Limitations Vibration Sensitive

Thermal Dispersion

Thermal Dispersion Mass Flowmeter

Gas application only Relatively inexpensive Easy to install and remove under pressure Accuracy 0.5% Turndown, 100:1 Capable of monitoring extremely low flows True mass flow meter (compensates for temperature/pressure)

Piping Considerations
Always need a full pipe

Proper up / down diameter

BTU Monitoring

Summary Each Application is Different


Flowing Media (eg Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc ) Density - pressure and temperature Flow Range, minimum to maximum (turndown needed) Accuracy how stated? % of range or span Repeatability Straight run requirements & available Maintenance and reliability

General HVAC Recommendations

Steam : Accelabar or Swirl Chilled or Hot Water: Hot Tap Insert Turbine Natural Gas or Air: Thermal Dispersion Fuel Oil: Coriolis or Wedge