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Notes 01 Introduction to Power Electronics

Marc T. Thompson, Ph.D. Thompson Consulting, Inc. 9 Jacob Gates Road Harvard, MA 01451 Phone: (978) 456-7722 Fax: (240) 414-2655 Email: marctt@thompsonrd.com marctt@thompsonrd com Web: http://www.thompsonrd.com

Marc Thompson, 2005-2007 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 1

Introduction to Power Electronics


Power electronics relates to the control and flow of electrical energy Control is done using electronic switches, capacitors, magnetics, and control systems S Scope of power electronics: milliWatts gigaWatts f l t i illiW tt i W tt Power electronics is a growing field due to the improvement in switching technologies and the need for more and more efficient switching circuits

Power Electronics

Introduction to Power Electronics

Summary
History/scope of power electronics Some interesting PE-related projects PE related Circuit concepts important to power electronics Some tools for approximate analysis of power electronics systems l t i t DC/DC converters --- first-cut analysis Key design challenges in DC/DC converter design Basic system concepts

Power Electronics

Introduction to Power Electronics

Scope of Power Electronics


Power Level (Watts) System 0.1-10 Battery-operated equipment Flashes/strobes 10-100 Satellite power systems Typical offline flyback supply 100 1kW Computer power supply Blender 1 10 kW Hot tub 10 100 kW Electric car Eddy current braking 100 kW 1 MW Bus micro-SMES 1 MW 10 MW SMES 10 MW 100 MW Magnetic aircraft launch Big locomotives 100 MW 1 GW Power plant > 1 GW S d P d substation (2.2 GW) Sandy Pond b t ti (2 2
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 4

Scope of Power Electronics

Power Electronics

Introduction to Power Electronics

Areas of Application of Power Electronics


High frequency power conversion DC/DC, inverters Low frequency power conversion Line rectifiers Distributed power p systems Power devices Power Transmission HVDC HVAC Power quality Power factor correction Harmonic reduction P Passive filt i i filtering Active filtering

Power Electronics

Introduction to Power Electronics

Some Applications
Heating and lighting control Induction heating Fluorescent lamp ballasts
Passive Active

Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) Electric power transmission Automotive electronics


Electronic ignitions Alternators

Motor drives Battery chargers Electric vehicles


Motors Regenerative braking

Energy storage
Flywheels y Capacitors SMES

Switching power supplies Spacecraft power systems


Battery powered Flywheel powered

Power conditioning for alternative power sources


Solar cells Fuel cells Wind turbines
7

Power Electronics

Introduction to Power Electronics

Some Power Electronics-Related Projects Worked on at TCI (Harvard Labs)


High speed lens actuator Laser diode pulsers Levitated flywheel Maglev Permanent magnet brakes Switching power supplies Magnetic analysis Laser driver pulsers 50 kW inverter switch Transcutaneous (through-skin) non-contact power supply

Power Electronics

Introduction to Power Electronics

Lens Actuator
z r Iron Coil Back iron Permanent Nd-Fe-Bo g Magnet

Lens

Air gap

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Introduction to Power Electronics

High Power Laser Diode Driver Based on gy Power Converter Technology


Overdrive duration set

Array Driver
O.D. current set

OVERDRIVE Switching Array

Laser Diode

Iod

THRESH. current set

-12V

Drive TTL INPUT Array Driver Drive* PEAK Switching Array Is


PEAK current set

Ith -12

Rsense -12 Power Converter

Diff. Amp.

Vsense

D P.W.M. PWM Vc Loop Filter

See: 1. B. Santarelli and M. Thompson, U.S. Patent #5,123,023, "Laser Driver with Plural Feedback Loops," issued June 16, 1992 2. M. Thompson, U.S. Patent #5,444,728, "Laser Driver Circuit," issued August 22, 1995 3. W. T. Plummer, M. Thompson, D. S. Goodman and P. P. Clark, U.S. Patent #6,061,372, Two-Level Semiconductor Laser Driver, issued May 9, 2000 4. Marc T. Thompson and Martin F. Schlecht, Laser Diode Driver Based on Power Converter Technology, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 12, no. 1, Jan. 1997, pp. 46-52 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 10

Magnetically Levitated Magnetically-Levitated Flywheel Energy Storage


For NASA; P = 100W, energy storage = 100 W-hrs
Guidance and Suspension

S N

N S

Flywheel (Rotating) Stator Winding

N S

S N

N S N S

S N S N

z N S

S N
r

S N

N S

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Introduction to Power Electronics

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Electromagnetic Suspension --- Maglev

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Maglev - German Transrapid

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Maglev - Japanese EDS

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Japanese EDS Guideway

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MIT Maglev Suspension Magnet

Reference: M. T. Thompson, R. D. Thornton and A. Kondoleon, Flux-canceling electrodynamic maglev suspension: Part I. Test fixture design and modeling IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol 35 no 3 May 1999 I modeling, Magnetics vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 1956-1963 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 16

MIT Maglev Test Fixture

M. T. Thompson, R. D. Thornton and A. Kondoleon, Flux canceling electrodynamic maglev suspension: Flux-canceling Part I. Test fixture design and modeling, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 35, no. 3, May 1999 pp. 1956-1963

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MIT Maglev Test Fixture


2 meter diameter test wheel Max. speed 1000 RPM (84 m/s) F testing flux For t ti fl canceling HTSC Maglev Sidewall levitation

Flux-canceling electrodynamic maglev suspension: Part I. Test f fixture M. T. Thompson, R. D. Thornton and A. Kondoleon, design and modeling, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 35, no. 3, May 1999 pp. 1956-1963 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 18

Permanent Magnet Brakes


For roller coasters 10,000 Braking force > 10 000 Newtons per meter of brake

Reference: http://www.magnetarcorp.com Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 19

Halbach Permanent Magnet Array


Special PM arrangement allows strong side (bottom) and weak side (top) fields Applicable to magnetic suspensions (Maglev), linear motors, and induction brakes

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Halbach Permanent Magnet Array

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Linear Motor Design and Analysis

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Variac Failure Analysis

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Photovoltaics

Reference: S. Druyea, S. Islam and W. Lawrance, A battery management system for stand-alone photovoltaic energy systems, IEEE Industry Applications Magazine, vol. 7, no. 3, May-June 2001, pp. 67-72 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 24

Offline Flyback Power Supply

Reference: P Maige A universal power supply integrated circuit for TV and monitor applications IEEE Transactions P. Maige, A applications, on Consumer Electronics, vol. 36, no. 1, Feb. 1990, pp. 10-17 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 25

Transcutaneous Energy Transmission gy

Reference: H Matsuki Y Yamakata N Chubachi S -I Nitta and H. Hashimoto, Transcutaneous DC-DC H. Matsuki, Y. Yamakata, N. Chubachi, S.-I. H Hashimoto Transcutaneous converter for totally implantable artificial heart using synchronous rectifier, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 32 , no. 5, Sept. 1996, pp. 5118 - 5120 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 26

50 KW Inverter Switch

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Non-Contact Non Contact Battery Charger

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High Voltage RF Supply

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60 Hz Transformer Shielding Study

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Intuitive Analog Circuit Design

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Power Quality in Electrical Systems

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Some Other Interesting Power-Electronics Related Systems

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Conventional vs. Electric Car vs

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High Voltage DC (HVDC) Transmission

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Mass Spectrometer

Reference: http://www.cameca.fr/doc_en_pdf/oral_sims14_schuhmacher_ims1270improvements.pdf Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 36

Some Disciplines Encompassed in the Field of Power Electronics


Analog circuits
High speed (MOSFET switching, etc.) High power PC b d l board layout t Filters
EMI

Machines/motors Simulation
SPICE, Matlab, etc.

Device physics
How to make a better MOSFET, IGBT, etc.

Control theory Magnetics


Inductor design Transformer design

Thermal/cooling
How to design a heat sink Thermal interfaces Thermal modeling

Power systems
Transmission lines Line filtering

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Selected History of Power Switching Devices


1831 --- Transformer action demonstrated by Michael Faraday 1880s: modern transformer invented

Reference: J. W. Coltman, f C The Transformer (historical overview, IEEE f ( Industry Applications Magazine, vol. 8, no. 1, Jan.-Feb. 2002, pp. 8-15 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 38

Selected History of Power Switching Devices y g


Early 1900s: vacuum tube Lee DeForest --- triode, 1906 1920 1940 mercury arc t b t 1920-1940: tubes to convert 50Hz, 2000V to 3000VDC for railway

Reference: M. C. Duffy, The mercury-arc rectifier and supply to electric railways, IEEE Engineering Science and Education Journal, vol. 4, no. 4, August 1995, pp. 183-192 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 39

Selected History of Power Switching Devices


1930s: selenium rectifiers 1948 - Silicon Transistor (BJT) introduced (Bell Labs) 1950s - semiconductor power diodes begin replacing vacuum tubes 1956 - GE introduces SiliconControlled Rectifier (SCR)

f S Switch and C Controlled Rectifier ( f (Thyristor), IEEE Transactions on ) Reference: N. Holonyak, Jr., The Silicon p-n-p-n S Power Electronics, vol. 16, no. 1, January 2001, pp. 8-16 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 40

Selected History of Power Switching Devices


1960s - switching speed of BJTs allow DC/DC converters possible in 10-20 kHz range 1960 - Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Field Effect (MOSFET) for integrated circuits 1976 - power MOSFET becomes commercially available, allows > 100 kHz operation

Reference: B. J. Baliga, Trends in Power Semiconductor Devices, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 43, no. 10, October 1996, pp. 1717-1731 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 41

Selected History of Power Switching Devices


1982 - Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) introduced

Reference: B. J. Baliga, Trends in Power Semiconductor Devices, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 43, no. 10, October 1996, pp. 1717-1731 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 42

Review of Basic Circuit Concepts


Some background in circuits Laplace notation First-order and secondorder systems Resonant circuits, damping ratio, Q p g , Reference for this material: M. T. Thompson, Intuitive Analog Circuit Design Elsevier 2006 Design, Elsevier, (course book for ECE529) and Power Quality in Electrical Systems, McGraw-Hill, 2007 by A. Kusko and M. Thompson

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Laplace Notation p
Basic idea: Laplace transform converts differential equation to algebraic equation G Generally, method i used i sinusoidal steady state ll th d is d in i id l t d t t after all startup transients have died out
Circuit domain Resistance, R Inductance L Capacitance C C i Laplace (s) domain R Ls 1 Cs

R1 vi + R2 C vo

+ ) vi (s + -

R1 R2 1 s /(C)

+ ) vo(s -

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System Function
Find transfer function H(s) by solving Laplace transformed circuit
R1 vi + R2 C vo -

+
) vi (s + -

R1 R2 1 s /(C)

+ ) vo(s -

H ( s) =

R2Cs + 1 vo ( s ) = = ( R1 + R2 )Cs + 1 vi ( s ) R + R + 1 1 2 Cs
Introduction to Power Electronics 45

R2 +

1 Cs

Power Electronics

First-Order Systems
vo (t ) = V (1 e ) V ir (t ) = e R = RC Time constant
t t

R = 2.2
h =
1

Risetime

h fh = 2

Bandwidth

0.35 R = fh
46

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First-Order Step and Frequency Response p q y p


Step R esponse 1 0.8 Am plitud de 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0

3 T e (sec.) im Bode Diagram s

Ph hase (deg); M agnitude (dB) e

0 -10 -20 -20 -40 -60 -80 10


-1

10 Frequency (rad/sec)

10

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Review of Second-Order Systems Second Order


R vi + L + C vo -

2 n vo ( s ) 1 1 = = = 2 = 2 H ( s) = 2 2 2s LCs + RCs + 1 s s + 2 n s + n vi ( s ) R + Ls + 1 + +1 2 Cs n n

1 Cs

Natural frequency n = q y Damping ratio

1 LC RC 1 R 1 R = n = = 2 2 L 2 Zo C
48

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Second-Order System Frequency Response


H ( j ) = 1 2 j 2 + 1 2 n n 1 2 2 + 1 2 n n
2 2

H ( j ) =

2 n 1 1 2 n H ( j ) = tan = tan 2 2 2 n 1 2 n

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Second Order Second-Order System Frequency Response


Plots show varying damping ratio
Frequency response for natural frequency = 1 and various dam ping ratios

30 20 10 0 Phase (deg); M a agnitude (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40

-50

-100

-150

10

-1

10

10

Frequency (rad/sec)

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Second-Order System Frequency Response at Natural Frequency


Now, what happens if we excite this system exactly at the natural f t l frequency, or = n? Th response i The is:

H ( s ) =

1 = 2

H ( s ) =n =

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Relationship Between Damping Ratio and Quality Factor Q


A second order system can also be characterized by its Quality Factor Q lit F t or Q

H ( s ) =

1 = =Q 2

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Second-Order System Step Response


Shown for varying values of damping ratio
Step R esponse Step response for natural frequency = 1 and various dam ping ratios 2 1.8 1.6 1.4 14 1.2 Am plitude 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Tim (sec.) e 6 7 8 9 10

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Second-Order Mechanical System


Electromechanical modeling

Reference: Leo Beranek, Acoustics, Acoustical Society of America, 1954 Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 54

Pole Location Variation with Damping

Very underdamped
j x + j n

Critically damped
j

Overdamped
j

n x 2 poles

x j n

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Undamped Resonant Circuit


iL + vc L

Now, we can find the resonant frequency by guessing that the voltage v(t) is sinusoidal with v(t) = Vosint. Putting this into the equation for capacitor voltage results in:

1 sin(t ) = sin(t ) LC
2

This means that the resonant frequency is the standard (as expected) resonance:

r2 =
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1 LC
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Introduction to Power Electronics

Energy Methods
iL + vc L C

By using energy methods we can find the ratio of maximum capacitor voltage to maximum inductor current. Assuming that the capacitor is i iti ll charged t Vo volts, and remembering th t it i initially h d to lt d b i that 2 capacitor stored energy Ec = CV and inductor stored energy is EL = LI2, we can write the following:
1 1 2 2 CVo = LI o 2 2

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Energy Methods
iL + vc What does this mean about the magnitude of the inductor current ? Well, we can solve for the ratio of Vo/Io resulting in:
Vo L = Zo C Io

The term Zo is defined as the characteristic impedance of a resonant Z circuit. Lets assume that we have an inductor-capacitor circuit with C = 1 microFarad and L = 1 microHenry. This means that the resonant frequency is 106 radians/second (or 166.7 kHz) and that the characteristic impedance is Ohm. i 1 Oh
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 58

Simulation
iL + vc L C

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Typical Resonant Circuit


Model of a MOSFET gate drive circuit

1 1 vo ( s ) H ( s) = = = = 2 2 1 2s vi ( s ) R + Ls + LCs + RCs + 1 s + +1 2 Cs n n
1 LC RC 1 R 1 R = n = = 2 2 L 2 Zo C

1 Cs

n =

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Resonant Circuit --- Underdamped


With small resistor, circuit i underdamped ll i t i it is d d d

n =

LC f n 31.8 MHz

= 200 Mrad / sec

L = 5 Zo = C n RC 1 R 1 R = = = = 0.001 2 2 L 2 Zo C
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Resonant C cu --- Underdamped Results eso a Circuit U de da ped esu s


This circuit is very underdamped, so we expect step p response to oscillate at around 31.8 MHz Expect peaky frequency response with peak near 31.8 MHz

n =

LC f n 31.8 MHz

= 200 Mrad / sec

L = 5 C n RC 1 R 1 R = = = 0.001 = 2 2 L 2 Zo C Zo =
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 62

Resonant C cu --- Underdamped Results, eso a Circuit U de da ped esu s, Step Response
Rings at around 31.8 MHz

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Resonant C cu --- Underdamped Results, eso a Circuit U de da ped esu s, Frequency Response
Frequency response peaks at 31.8 MHz

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Resonant C cu --- Critical Damping eso a Circuit C ca a p g


Now, lets employ critical damping by increasing value of resistor to 10 Ohms This is also a typical MOSFET gate drive damping resistor value

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C ca a p g, Step espo se Critical Damping, S ep Response


Note that response is still relatively fast (< 100 ns p ) response time) but with no overshoot If we make R larger, the risetime slows down

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C ca a p g, eque cy espo se Critical Damping, Frequency Response


No overshoot in the transient response corresponds to p g q y p no peaking in the frequency response

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Circuit Concepts
Power Reactive power Power quality Power factor R tM Root Mean S Square (RMS) Harmonics Harmonic distortion

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Sinewaves
A sinewave can be expressed as v(t) = Vpksin(t) Vpk = peak voltage = radian frequency (rad/sec) = 2 f where f is in Hz 2f VRMS = Vpk/sqrt(2) = 120V for sinewave with peaks at 170V More on RMS later
120V RMS 60 Hz sinewave 200 150

100

50

-50

-100

-150

-200 0

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008 0.01 Time [sec.] Time[sec ]

0.012

0.014

0.016

0.018

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Sinewave with Resistive Load


v(t) and i(t) are in phase and have the same shape; i.e. no harmonics in current - Time representation -Phasor representation Ph t ti -In this case, V and I have the same phase p

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Sinewave with Inductive Load


For an inductor, remember that v = Ldi/dt So, i(t) lags v(t) by 90o in an inductor

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Sinewave with Inductive Load --- PSIM

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Sinewave with L/R Load


Phase shift (also called angle) between v and i is somewhere between 0o and -90o

L = tan R
1

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Sinewave with Capacitive Load


Remember that i = Cdv/dt for a capacitor Current leads voltage by +90o

- Phasor representation

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Phasor Representation of L and C

In inductor, current lags g y g voltage by 90 degrees

In capacitor, voltage lags current by 90 degrees


75

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Response of L and C to pulses

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Review of Complex Numbers


In rectangular form, a complex number is written in terms of real and imaginary components A = Re(A) + jIm(A)
- Angle

Im( A) = tan Re( A)


1

- Magnitude of A

A=

(Re( A) )2 + (Im( A) )2 ( (

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Find Polar Form


Assume that current I = -3.5 + j(4 2) 3 5 j(4.2)

I = ( 3.5) 2 + ( 4.2) 2 = 5.5 A

= 180o
4.2 = tan = 50.2 o 3.5 = 180o 50.2 o = 129.8o
1

5.5 A129.8o
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 78

Converting from Polar to Rectangular Form

Re{A} = A cos( ) Im{A} = A sin( )


Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 79

Power
Power has many shapes and forms Real power p Reactive power Reactive power does not do real work Instantaneous power

p (t ) = v(t )i (t )
P ki t t Peak instantaneous power Average power
T

1 p (t ) = T
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v(t )i (t )dt

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Power Factor
Ratio of delivered power to the product of RMS voltage and RMS current
<P> PF = VRMS I RMS

Power factor always <= 1 With pure sine wave and resistive load, PF = 1 With pure sine wave and p p purely reactive load, PF = 0 y , Whenever PF < 1 the circuit carries currents or voltages that do not perform useful work The more spikey a waveform is the worse is its PF spikey
Diode rectifiers have poor power factor

Power factor can be helped by power factor correction


Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 81

Causes of Low Power Factor L/R Load Factor-- Power angle is = tan-1(L/R) For L = 1H R = 377 Ohms = 45o and PF = cos(45o) = 1H, Ohms, 0.707

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Causes of Low Power Factor --- Non-linear Load


Nonlinear loads include: Variable-speed drives Frequency converters Uninterruptable power supplies (UPS) Saturated magnetic circuits Dimmer switches Televisions Fluorescent lamps Welding sets Arc furnaces Semiconductors B tt Battery chargers h
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 83

Half Wave Rectifier with RC Load


In applications where cost is a major consideration, a capacitive filter may be used. If RC >> 1/f then this operates like a peak detector and the output voltage <vout> is approximately the peak of the input voltage Diode is only ON for a short time near the sinewave peaks

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Half Wave Rectifier with RC Load


Note poor power factor due to peaky input line current

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Unity Power Factor --- Resistive Load


Example: purely resistive load
Voltage and currents in phase
v(t ) = V sin t V i (t ) = sin t R V2 sin 2 t p(t ) = v(t )i (t ) = R V2 < p(t ) >= 2R V VRMS = 2 V I RMS = R 2 V2 < p(t ) > 2R PF = = =1 VRMS I RMS V V 2 R 2
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Causes of Low Power Factor --- Reactive Load


Example: purely inductive load
Voltage and currents 90o out of phase

v(t ) = V sin t V i (t ) = cos t L V2 p(t ) = v(t )i (t ) = sin t cos t L < p (t ) >= 0 >

For purely reactive load, PF 0 load PF=0

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Why is Power Factor Important?


Consider peak-detector full-wave rectifier

Typical power factor kp = 0.6 What is maximum power you can deliver to load ? VAC x current x kp x rectifier efficiency (120)(15)(0.6)(0.98) = 1058 Watts Assume you replace this simple rectifier by power electronics module with 99% power factor and 93% y efficiency: (120)(15)(0.99)(0.93) = 1657 Watts
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 88

Power Factor Correction


Typical toaster can draw 1400W from a 120VAC/15A line Typical offline switching converter can draw <1000W because it has poor power factor High power factor results in: Reduced electric utility bills Increased system capacity Improved voltage Reduced heat losses Methods of power factor correction Passive Add capacitors across an inductive load to resonate Add inductance in a capacitor circuit Active
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 89

Power Factor Correction --- Passive


Switch capacitors in and out as needed as load changes

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Power Factor Correction --- Active


Fluorescent lamp ballast application

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Root Mean Square (RMS)


Used for description of periodic, often multi-harmonic, waveforms Square root of the average over a cycle (mean) of the square of a waveform T
I RMS = 1 2 i (t )dt T 0

RMS current of any waveshape will dissipate the same amount of heat in a resistor as a DC current of the same value DC waveform: Vrms = VDC Symmetrical square wave: IRMS = Ipk Pure sine wave 0 0 IRMS=0.707Ipk Example: 120 VRMS line voltage has peaks of 169.7 V
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 92

Intuitive Description of RMS


The RMS value of a sinusoidal or other periodic waveform dissipates the same amount of power in a resistive load as does a battery of the same y RMS value So, 120VRMS into a resistive load dissipates as much power in the load as does a 120V battery
Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 93

RMS Value of Various Waveforms


Following are a bunch of waveforms typically found in power electronics, power systems, and motors, and their corresponding RMS values Reference: R. W. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, 2nd edition, Kluwer, 2001

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DC Voltage
Battery

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Sinewave
AC line

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Square Wave
This type of waveform can be put out by a square wave converter or full-bridge converter

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DC with Ripple
Buck converter inductor current (DC value + ripple)

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Triangular Ripple
Capacitor ripple current in some converters (no DC value)

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Pulsating Waveform
Buck converter input switch current (assuming small ripple)

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Pulsating with Ripple


i.e. buck converter switch current We can use this result to get RMS value of buck diode current

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Triangular

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Piecewise Calculation
This works if the different components are at different frequencies

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Piecewise Calculation --- Example


Wh t is RMS value of DC + ripple ( h What i l f i l (shown b f )? before)?

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Harmonics
Harmonics are created by nonlinear circuits Rectifiers Half-wave rectifier has first harmonic at 60 Hz Full-wave has first harmonic at 120 Hz Switching DC/DC converters DC/DC operating at 100 kHz generally creates harmonics at DC, 100 kHz, 200 kHz, 300 kHz, etc. Li harmonics can be t t d by li filt Line h i b treated b line filters Passive Active

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Total Harmonic Distortion


Total harmonic distortion (THD) Ratio of the RMS value of all the nonfundamental frequency terms to the RMS value of the fundamental I2 2 2
THD =
n 1 n , RMS

I1, RMS

I RMS I1, RMS I12, RMS

Symmetrical square wave: THD = 48.3%


I RMS = 1 I1 = 4 2
2

4 1 2 THD = = 0.483 2 4 2

Symmetrical triangle wave: THD = 12.1%


Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 106

Half-Wave Rectifier, Resistive Load


Simplest, cheapest rectifier Line current has DC component; this current appears in neutral High harmonic content, Power factor = 0.7

P.F . =

Pavg VRMS I RMS

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Half Wave Rectifier with Resistive Load --- Power Factor d A F t and Average Output Voltage O t t V lt
Average output voltage:

1 < v d >= 2

V pk sin(t )d (t ) = i (
2

V pk 2

[ cos(t )] (

t = t = 0

V pk

Power factor calculation:


2 I pk 1 I pk <P>= 2 R= 4 R 2

VRMS = I RMS =

V pk 2

RI pk 2

I pk 1 2 2
2 I pk

R <P> 4 = 0.707 = PF = I pk I pk 1 VRMS I RMS R 2 2 2


Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 108

Half-Wave Rectifier, Resistive Load --- Spectrum of L d V lt f Load Voltage

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Half Wave Rectifier with RC Load


More practical rectifier For large RC, this behaves like a peak detector

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Half Wave Rectifier with RC Load


Note poor power factor due to peaky line current Note DC component of line current

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Half Wave Rectifier with RC Load --Spectrum of Line Current S t f Li C t

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Crest Factor
Another term sometimes used in power engineering Ratio of peak value to RMS value F a sinewave, crest factor = 1.4 For i tf t 14 Peak = 1; RMS = 0.707 For a square wave, crest factor = 1 Peak = 1; RMS = 1

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Harmonics and THD - Sinewave


THD = 0%
Number of harmonics N = 1 THD = 0 % 1.5 15

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1 5 1.5

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

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Harmonics and THD - Sinewave + 3rd Harmonic

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Harmonics and THD --- Sinewave + 3rd + 5th Harmonic


THD = 38.9%

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Harmonics --- Up to N = 103


THD = 48%

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Full-Wave Full Wave Rectifier (Single Phase)

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Full-Wave Rectifier with Capacitor Filter

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6-Pulse (3-Phase) Rectifier


Typically used for higher-power applications where 3phase power is available

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12-Pulse Rectifier
T paralleled 6 l rectifiers Two ll l d 6-pulse tifi 5th and 7th harmonics are eliminated Only harmonics are the 11th, 13th, 23rd, 25th y

Reference: R. W. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, 2d edition Power Electronics Introduction to Power Electronics 121

Techniques for Analysis of Power Electronics Circuits


Power electronics systems are often switching, nonlinear, and with other t li d ith th transients. A variety of i t i t f techniques have been developed to help approximately analyze these circuits pp y y Assumed states Small ripple assumption Periodic steady state After getting approximate answers, often circuit simulation is used

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Assumed States
In a circuit with diodes, etc. or other nonlinear elements, how do you figure out what is happening ? G Guess.and th check your guess d then h k
1:10 1 10 120 VAC Vout

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Small Ripple Assumption


In power electronic circuits, generally our interest is in the average value of voltages and current if the ripple is small compared to the nominal operating point. In DC/DC converters, often our goal is to regulate the average value of the output voltage vo. State-space averaging is a circuit approach to analyzing the local average behavior of circuit elements. In this method, g , we make use of a running average, or:

1 v (t ) = v( )d T t T

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Periodic Steady State


In the periodic steady state assumption, we assume that p periodall startup transients have died out and that from p to-period the inductor currents and capacitor voltages return to the same value. In other words for one part of the cycle the inductor words, current ripples UP; for the second part of the cycle, the inductor current ripples DOWN. C calculate converter d Can l l t t dependence on switching b d it hi by using volt-second balance.

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Motivation for DC/DC Converter: Offline Linear +5V, 50 Watt Regulator


AC Vbus Cbus Linear Reg. Vo

Must accommodate:
Variation in line voltage
Typically 10%

In d t I order to maintain i t i regulation:

Drop in rectifier transformer rectifier,


Rectifier 1-2V total Transformer drop depends on load current

Vbus > 5V + Vdropout

Regulator power dissipation:

Ripple in bus voltage

P [< Vb > Vo ]I o bus

Vbus

IL 120Cbus

D Dropout voltage of regulator t lt f l t


Typically 0.25-1V
Power Electronics

For <Vbus> = 7V and Io = 10A, P = 20 Watts !


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Offline Switching +5V 50 Watt Regulator +5V,


If switching regulator is 90% efficient, Preg = 5.6 Watts (ignoring losses in diode bridge and transformer) Other switching topologies can do better

AC

Vbus Cbus

Switching Reg.

Vo

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PSIM Simulation

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PSIM Simulation

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Switcher Implementation
D + Vi RL vo(t) -

Switch turns on and off with switching frequency fsw D is duty cycle, or fraction of switching cycle that duty cycle v (t) switch is closed
o

Vi <vo(t)> v (t) t DT T T+DT

Average value of output <vo(t)> = Dvi v (t)


Can provide real-time control of <vo(t)> by varying duty cycle

Unfortunately, output is has very high ripple at switching frequency fsw


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Switcher Design Issues


Lowpass filter provides effective ripple reduction in vo(t) if LC >> 1/fsw Unfortunately, this circuit has a fatal flaw..
D L + Vi C RL vo(t) () -

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Buck Converter
Add diode to allow continuous inductor current flow when switch is open
D L + Vi C RL vo(t) -

This is a common circuit for voltage step-down applications E Examples of buck converter given l t l fb k t i later

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Types of Converters
Can have DC or AC inputs and outputs AC DC Rectifier DC DC Designed to convert one DC voltage to another DC voltage Buck, boost, flyback, buck/boost, SEPIC, Cuk, etc. DC AC Inverter AC AC Light dimmers Cycloconverters

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Ideal Power Converter


Converts voltages and currents without dissipating p power Pout Pout Efficiency = 100% = = Pin Pout + Ploss Efficiency is very important, especially at high power levels Hi h efficiency results i smaller size (d t cooling High ffi i lt in ll i (due to li requirements) Example: 100 kW converter p 90% efficient dissipates 11.1 kW 1 Pdiss = Pout 1 99% efficient dissipates 1010 W 99 9% efficient dissipates 100 W 99.9%
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Buck Converter
Also called down converter Designed to convert a higher DC voltage to a lower DC voltage Output voltage controlled by modifying switching duty i ratio ratio D D
L

Vcc

L + C vc R

Vo

Well figure out the details of how this works in later weeks
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Possible Implementations
Many companies make buck controller chips (where y you supply external components) as well as complete pp y p ) p modules

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Real-World Real World Buck Converter Issues


Real-world buck converter has losses in: MOSFET Conduction loss Switching loss I d t Inductor ESR Capacitor ESR Diode Diode ON voltage

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Converter Loss Mechanisms


Input rectifier Input filtering EMI filtering Capacitor ESR Transformer DC winding loss AC winding loss Skin effect Proximity effect Core loss Hysteresis Eddy currents Output filter Ou pu e Capacitor ESR
Power Electronics

Control system Controller C Current sensing d i t i device Switch MOSFET conduction loss MOSFET switching loss Avalanche loss Gate driving loss Clamp/snubber Di d Diode Conduction loss Reverse recovery Reverse current
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