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Database Management System-1

1.What are the representative applications of Databases? List them. A collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. The following are examples of database applications: computerized library, systems automated teller machines, flight reservation systems, computerized parts inventory systems. Databases function in many applications, spanning virtually the entire range of computer software. Databases have become the preferred method of storage for large multi-user applications, where coordination between many users is needed. Even individual users find them convenient, and many electronic mail programs and personal organizers are based on standard database technology. Software database drivers are available for most database platforms so that application software can use a common API to retrieve the information stored in a database. Commonly used database APIs include JDBC and ODBC.

2. Explain Oracle Architecture with a neat diagram.

Oracle Database Server is made of two major components.Oracle Server = Oracle Instance (RAM) + Oracle Database (Physical disk) Oracle Instance

Created in the RAM of the server. Gets created on startup of the database. Memory size and other related parameters are defined in parameter file. Used to access the database (Physical files). It is always connected to one database only. Made of memory structure and background processes.

When user starts a tool like Oracle forms, other application software or SQL plus to connect to oracle database, a user process starts on the users machine. It will request the connection to the database, so server process will start on the server on which database is created. User process communicates with Oracle Instance

via server process, and server process communicates with database. User can create connection with Oracle server by three different ways: 1.1 Tier connection: In this type user log on to the same machine on which oracle database is resides. 2.2 Tire connection: In this type user log on to the separate client machine and then connects to database through network. This also called as client-server type of the connection. 3.3 Tier (N Tire) connection: In this type, user log on to the separate client machine and connect to middle tire-application server and application server connects to oracle database. Session: A session is a separate connection between user and oracle server. This gets created when user get authenticated by the oracle server. Oracle Database

It is a physical storage disk on the server. It is the physical files related to the database. These files are mainly three types. o Data files - Contains actual data. o Online Redo log files - Records changes in the data. o Control files - Contains information to maintain and operate the database. Oracle server also having other files, those are not a part of database are. o Password file - Authenticate user to startup and shutdown the database. o Parameter file - It defines the characteristics of an Instance like size of the different memory structure of the SGA etc. o Archive log files These are the offline copies of the online redo log files.

Click here to get more information about database. Oracle Instance Details Oracle Instance = Memory Structure + Background processes. Memory Structure //////////////////////////////////////////////////////// For full Version visit

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