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Mr. Abhinav Dutt Singh* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No.

8, Issue No. 1, 054 - 057

SYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLE
SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLESAS PLASMONICS

Mr. Abhinav Dutt Singh Branch: Electronics College: G. H. Raisoni College Of Engineering Nagpur, India Email id: abhinavduttsingh@hotmail.com Abstract While emerging technologies in the world,
Nanotechnology is predicted to create the sixth Kondratieff period following the AGE OF INFORMATION. It represents a new revolutionary approach in fundamental research moving from a macro centric to nano centric system. Since the research is still going on its starts with the nanoparticles .The particles are synthesizes into its nanoparticles. This paper deals with the strategy of research and the synthesis of Gold nanoparticles as plasmonic materials. Generally, nanoparticles are prepared by varied of chemical methods which are not environmentally friendly. We report a rapid and convenient method to reductively prepare Gold nanoparticles from auric chloride. In this paper the particles we have prepared using simple, green, roomtemperature and non-toxic route. The materials are easy to obtain and the synthesis does not require sophisticated equipment. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized through X-ray diffraction, UV-V spectroscopy. The influence of light on the molecules that are most probably involved in the synthesis. in 1958, there has been an exponential growth in the number of transistors per micro chip and an associated decrease in the smallest width of the wires in the electronic circuits. As. a result extremely powerful computers and efficient communication systems have emerged with a subsequent profound change in the daily lives of all of us. In recent years, plasmonics has emerged as a promising tool in the fields of analytical chemistry and biochemistry. In particular, surface plasmon resonance at the surfaces of gold nanostructures has led to the development of widespread interest in gold nanoparticles. A technological break-through in the fabrication of nanodimensional clusters and other metallic nanoparticles gave rise to a development of nanotechnological and nanooptical branches such as nanoplasmonics, which is of great interest to physicists, chemists, material engineers, IT specialists, and biologists. The nanoplasmonics deals with conduction electron liquid oscillations in metallic nanostructures and nanoparticles, and an interaction of those oscillations with light (plasmon polariton). Such studies are also aimed at the oscillations of a crystal lattice (SiC, for example) in the nanoparticles, whose interaction with light has much in common with plasmon oscillations (phonon polariton) . The important feature of nanoplasmonic phenomena is the combination of a strong spatial localization and highfrequency (from ultraviolet to infrared) of electron oscillations. Strong localization leads to a giant enhancement of the local optical and electrical fields. These important features of plasmonic particles made it possible to discover quite a number of new effects. One of the most developed is the use of large local fieldsnear plasmonic nanoparticles for enhancement of the Raman scattering cross-section. Recent experiments have shown that such an increase may achieve 1014 orders of magnitude of enhancement, which may help to resolve single molecules. The local enhancement of the fields can also be used to increase the fluorescence intensity and to determine the structure of a single DNA strand without using fluorescent labels. By using nanoparticles of more complex shapes one can provide enhancement of both the absorption and the emission of light by natural and artificial fluorophores. Besides, the plasmon nanoparticles are proposed to be used in nanolasers and to stimulate plasmonic oscillations in nanoparticles by means of the optical emission (SPASER). Beside these new applications of plasmonic

I.

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Encompassing nanoscale science, engineering, and technology, nanotechnology involves imaging, measuring, modeling, and manipulating matter at this length scale. A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. A sheet of paper is about 100,000 nanometers thick; a single gold atom is about a third of a nanometer in diameter. Dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers are known as the nanoscale. Unusual physical, chemical, and biological properties can emerge in materials at the nanoscale. These properties may differ in important ways from the properties of bulk materials and single atoms or molecules Nanotechnology owes it existence to the astonishing development within the field of micro electronics. Since the invention of the integrated circuit nearly half a century ago

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ISSN: 2230-7818

A
INTRODUCTION

Keywords-Gold Nanoparticles ; lemon grass extract ; plasmons

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Mr. Abhinav Dutt Singh* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 054 - 057

. II.

Materials used for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles are chloroauric acid (HAuCl4), and lemon grass (cymbopogon flexuosus). Both materials are commercially available. The chloroauric acid was purchased from Merck, while the lemon grass (used as spice all over the world) from specialized shop. The lemon grass extract prepared by mixing 100 g of thoroughly washed and finely cut cymbopogon flexuosus leaves, in a 500-mL Erlenmeyer flask, with 100 ml of distilled water and then boiling the mixture before finally decanting it. The extract was added to 3.5*104 M chloroauric acid aqueous solution, obtaining eight samples (the volumetric ratio mixture extract/chloroauric acid were: 4/100 and one control sample containing only chloroauric acid. UVVis spectra were recorded on a SPECORD M 400 Carl Zeiss Jena spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were carried out on films of the respective solutions drop-coated onto glass substrates on a Dron instrument with CuK radiation. For Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements, dry powders of the nanoparticles were obtained in the following manner. The

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EXPERIMENTAL

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III.

nanoparticles, one can essentially increase the efficiency-cost ratio, for example, in solar batteries or light emitting diodes by using the achievements in nanoplasmonics. Finally, it is expected that nanoplasmonics will make it possible to create a new element base (genuine integrated optics and ultracompact optical components) for computers and data processing equipment by taking advantage of the small dimensions of metallic nanoparticles and fast speed of optical processes. An intricate spatial structure of the physical phenomena, which form the basis of nanoplasmonics, impedes the development of the latter. Very often, the numerical studies do not allow one to explain the physics of the observed phenomena, while the analytical studies are mostly devoted to the case of spherical and spheroidal nanoparticles, which are very far from the synthesized nanostructures from the viewpoint of geometry and physics. There has been significant interest in gold nanoparticles over the past few decades, and particularly over the past several years, because of their unique shapesize-, and aggregation- (orientation-) dependent optical properties. These characteristics have been exploited for a variety of applications, including optical sensing, catalysis, and nanoscale electronics. Much of the focus on the spectroscopic applications of gold nanoparticles has been devoted to the intense plasmon bands appearing in the visibleto-near-IR region. A number of preparation procedures for gold nanospheres have been reported. Of these, the most familiar methods are via the chemical reduction of chloroauric acid with appropriate reducing agents such as citric acid and sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions. Nanospheres from a few to several tenths of nanometers in diameter have been prepared. Moreover, methods for the preparation of hydrophobic gold nanospheres have also been developed .

Au nanoparticles synthesized after 24 h of reaction of the salt solutions with the lemon grass extract broth were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 min, following which the pellet was redispersed in sterile distilled water to get rid of any uncoordinated biological molecules. The process of centrifugation and redispersion in sterile distilled water was repeated three times to ensure better separation of free entities from the metal nanoparticles. The purified pellets were then dried and the powders (embedded in KBr) subjected to FTIR spectroscopy measurement. These measurements were carried out on a GX Perkin Elmer Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

Fig: gold nanoparticles after extraction in reddish colour

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Formation of the metal nanoparticles by reduction of the metal ions from the aqueous solution during the contact with cymbopogon flexuosus extract may be easily followed by UV Vis spectroscopy, as well as from the apparition of a distinctive reddish colour. It is well known that gold nanoparticles exhibit a specific colour, in water, arising due to excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in the metal nanoparticles. Figs. 1A and 1B are shown the picture of the solution containing the obtained nanoparticles and the UVVis spectra recorded for the aqueous chloroauric acid cymbopogon flexuosus mixture for sample. It isobserved that the band corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance occurred at 550 nm as shown in Fig. 1B. The best concentration for gold nanoparticles synthesis appeared to be in sample. As a proof of the influence of light on nanoparticles synthesis, in sample, no nanoparticles appeared. After the 48 hours, the samples 58 were exposed to natural light, and the formation of gold nanoparticles could be observed after 48 more hours in sample 7; these results are the prove that the natural light plays an essential role in the formation of gold nanoparticles.

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Mr. Abhinav Dutt Singh* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 054 - 057

1A. Picture taken of the solution containing gold Nanoparticles

FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible molecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the metal nanoparticles synthesized by lemon grass leaves extract. The chloroauric acid solutions were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 min, after complete reduction of the ions and formation of gold nanoparticles. Figure 3 shows the FTIR spectra of the stabilized gold nanoparticles solution synthesized by using lemon grass leaves extract.

1B. UV-Vis spectra of the sample

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Fig. 2 XRD pattern gold nanoparticles synthesized by treating lemon grass leaves extract with HAuCl4 aqueous solution.
ISSN: 2230-7818

The metal particles were observed to be stable in solution even 4 weeks after their synthesis. By stability, we mean that there was no observable variation in the optical properties of the nanoparticles solutions with time. Fig. 2 shows the XRD patterns obtained for gold nanoparticles synthesized using lemon grass. A number of Bragg reflections corresponding to the (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222) sets of lattice planes are observed. The XRD pattern thus clearly shows that the gold nanoparticles formed by the reduction of HAuCl4 by lemon grass leaves extract are crystalline in nature.

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Fig. 3 FTIR spectra of the obtained stabilized gold nanoparticles solution.

In conclusion, we developed a simple, room-temperature, and efficient biological method for synthesis of gold nanoparticles using lemon grass (cymbopogon flexuosus) extract. It is probable that citral or citronellal, the main components of lemon grass, acted as molecules involved in the bioreduction and synthesis of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles could find applications in the field of nanomedicine. More quantitative experiments, as well as a more precise of the molecules involved in the synthesis of nanoparticles are presently undergoing. Sizes are typically on the order of 20 nm by TEM imaging. Some interesting triangle shaped nanoparticles are seen in the gold nanoparticles.

1.Scanning electron microscope (SEM):


You can use a scanning electron microscope (SEM) which creates images of invisibly tiny things by bombarding them with a stream of electrons to look at features on a scale as small as 10 nanometers (billionths of a meter).
Figure:shows an SEM image of a nanotube hanging from one of the pyramidshaped tips used in atomic force microscopes.

CONCLUSION

EQUIPMENT USED

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Mr. Abhinav Dutt Singh* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 8, Issue No. 1, 054 - 057

3.Transmission electron microscope (TEM):

Bouncing electrons off a sample is only one technique; you can also shoot electrons through the sample and watch what happens. Thats the principle behind a transmission electron microscope (TEM). In effect, its a kind of nanoscale slide projector: Instead of shining a light through a photographic image (which allows certain parts of the light through), the TEM sends a beam of electrons through a sample. The electrons that get through then strike a phosphor screen, producing a projected image: Darker areas indicate that fewer electrons got through (hence that portion of the sample was denser); lighter areas are where more electrons got through (thats where the sample was less dense). An SEM shoots a beam of electrons at whatever youre examining, transferring energy to the spot that it hits. The electrons in the beam (called primary electrons) break off electrons in the specimen. These dislodged electrons (called secondary electrons) are then pulled onto a positively charged grid, where theyre translated into a signal. Moving the beam around the sample generates a whole bunch of signals, after which the SEM can build an image of the surface of the sample for display on a computer monitor.

2.Atomic force microscope (AFM):

If youre old enough to remember what a phonograph record was, you know that a crystal-tipped stylus (needle) would move along in the grooves cut in a spinning vinyl platter, and when the motion vibrated the needle, the machine translated that vibration into sound. In a similar way, an atomic force microscope (AFM) scans the movement of a really tiny tip made of a ceramic or semiconductor material as it travels over the surface of a material, as shown in Figure 3-6. When that tip, positioned at the end of a cantilever (a solid beam), is attracted to or pushed away from the samples surface, it deflects the cantilever beam and a laser measures the deflection. The AFM then produces a visible profile of the little hills and valleys that make up the samples surface.

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We thanks to International Institute of Information Technology for taking the basic course on Nanotechnology and sharing their knowledge with us and with the theories session taking the practical session and helping us to do the practical on our own. VII REFERENCES

S.H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer, Berlin, 1998). U. Kreibig, M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer,Berlin,1995). S.S. Shankar, A. Rai, A. Ahmad, M. Sastry, Rapid synthesis of Au, Ag, and bimetallic Au coreAg shell nanoparticles using Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf broth, Journal of Colloid andInterface Science, 275, Issue 2, 15 July 2004, Pages 496502. G.B. Sergeev, Synthesis and Stabilization of Nanoparticles, Nanochemistry, 2006, Pages 736. Book by Richard Booker and Earl Boysen Nanotechnology for Dummies.

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VI ACKNOWLEDGMENT

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