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GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

Descriptions and Specifications


October 02, 2007

Overview GWR Instruments, Inc. is the exclusive manufacturer of the


Superconducting Gravimeter (SG). In the SG sensor, levitation of a spherical test mass in an ultra-stable magnetic field replaces the mechanical springs found in previous gravity meters. The field is generated by persistent currents in two niobium coils that are superconducting below a temperature of 9.3 K. The stability is derived from the zero resistance property of superconductors after the currents are trapped no resistive (ohmic) losses exist that could cause them to ever decay in time. In addition, adjusting the ratio of currents in the magnet coils makes the magnetic force gradient (spring constant) very weak. As a result, small changes in gravity produce large displacements of the test mass that are easily detected in the capacitive displacement transducer that surrounds the mass. The ultra stable magnetic field, weak gradient and operation at cryogenic temperatures eliminate the sources of noise and drift commonly found in mechanical spring gravity meters. As a result, the SG is the worlds most sensitive and stable gravimeter.

Figure 1: GWR OSG Superconducting Gravimeter and Integrated Electronics GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 1

To maintain the superconducting state, the Gravimeter Sensing Unit (GSU) is operated at 4 K inside a dewar filled with liquid helium. In 2003, GWR introduced the Observatory Superconducting gravimeter (OSG) which uses a 4 K refrigeration system and 35 Liter dewar. In this system, the refrigeration system operates below the boiling point of liquid helium thereby preventing any loss of the liquid during normal operation. Therefore, the OSG can operate indefinitely without the need for refilling with liquid helium. The refrigerator requires less power than previous models, consuming approximately 1.3 kW; however, it has enough excess capacity to liquefy helium gas when it is added to the dewar from a pressurized gas cylinder. This technique is used to replace any helium lost during maintenance or power failures thereby eliminating the requirement to transport and transfer liquid helium during normal operation. Liquid helium however is required when the SG is first setup. The OSG dewar is smaller and lighter than previous SGs. It weighs only 60 kg and is easily installed on any concrete pad 80 cm x 80 cm. The data acquisition system and control electronics, used for operating and monitoring the SG and for recording data are fully integrated in the OSG. The proof mass levitation, centering, leveling, and system monitoring are all accomplished through computer interface. This allows the operator to control and monitor the SG from his home or office. In addition to gravity and pressure, the data acquisition system (DDAS) records 30 status variables. Alarm thresholds can be set for all channels, to automatically generate warnings and alert the operator by email to initiate investigation and repair. After the operator enters the calibration factor, tidal parameters and barometric pressure admittance into the DDAS, it will calculate a theoretical tide and display the gravity residual signal in real time. This allows immediate visual examination of the gravity noise at sub-Gal levels. Observations of small signals and changes in noise level are immediately observable and with some experience can be identified as of geophysical origin (atmosphere, ocean, or earthquakes) or due to equipment problems. In the latter case, GWR can examine the system on-line to analyze the problem with the user to provide a rapid solution. Remote access reduces the frequency of data gaps and ensures high quality of overall long-term data. As demonstrated by results from the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP)1, the SG provides a continuous record of changing gravity and provides data over wide period range from seconds (ocean noise) to several years (secular changes). It is common for the SG to measure small periodic tidal signals and long period seismic signals with a sensitivity of 1 nano-Gal and better. Therefore, one nano-Gal is generally referred to as the nominal precision, or sensitivity, of the SG. At quiet sites, typical noise levels at long period seismic frequencies are from 0.1 to 0.3 Gal Hz-1/2. For temporal studies, SG data averaged to 1 minute intervals achieves a precision of better the 0.04 Gal. For frequencies less than 1 mHz, SGs have achieved lower noise levels than attained by most long-period seismometers and are now being used to study low frequency normal modes.

Reference:
1. Global Geodynamics Project (http://www.eas.slu.edu/GGP/ggphome.html)

GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

Applications
High precision continuous gravity monitoring for study of geophysical phenomena such as normal modes, mantle rheology, tides, solid Earth-oceansatmosphere interactions, hydrology, and Earth rotation. Resolving mass density changes associated with elevation changes measured by GPS, VLBI, SLR, LLR, DORIS and GLONASS Hydrological, geothermal and non-invasive ground water monitoring Volcano monitoring Measurement of subsidence caused by oil, gas, or water extraction Long term crustal motion and sea level monitoring Correlation & validation with satellite gravity including GRACE, CHAMP, GOCE Aquifer monitoring and management, measuring depletion and recharging of municipal water supplies High accuracy gravity reference stations when combined with periodic Absolute Gravimeter observations

Figure 2: Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter (OSG) , Refrigeration System, Integrated Electronics with Digital Data Acquisition System and Paroscientific Meteorological Measurement System

GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

Figure 3: Naming conventions of OSG and system components.

GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

I. Observatory Superconducting Gravity Sensor and Refrigeration System


The GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravity Sensor and Refrigeration System combine the same SG sensor that has been proven by decades of precision gravimetric measurements with the newest in 4 Kelvin refrigeration technology. The system is completely integrated, providing the user a system that can be operated and maintained more easily than any previous SG.

A. GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter (OSG)


The system consists of all the necessary equipment to setup the sensor, automatically maintain the systems alignment with the gravity vector, and maintain the SG at cryogenic temperatures. The analog controller combined with the Digital Data Acquisition System provides all necessary gravity and sub-system data. Files are continuously logged to a PC supplied with the system and available through a TCP/IP connection. Details of the sensor and subsystems are given below. Operators are advised that supplies such liquid helium, and helium gas are considered expendables and must be provided by the operator at time of installation. Details on required expendables are outlined at the end of this document. 1. GSU-4A Gravity Sensing Unit with Single Sphere As shown in Figure 4, the Gravimeter Sensing Unit (GSU) contains a 2.5 cm diameter spherical proof mass. The sphere is levitated by the forces produced by magnetic fields generated from a pair of superconducting coils. Since the sphere is superconducting, it behaves as a perfect diamagnet so that surface currents are generated which exactly cancel and exclude any applied magnetic field from its interior. It is the interaction between the sphere's surface currents and the applied magnetic field that produce the levitation force. Both the position of the sphere and the vertical force gradient (spring constant) are optimized by adjusting the ratio of the currents in the two coils. Superconducting/normal heat switches are used to "trap" the supercurrents in the magnetic coils. This allows the external power supply to be disconnected from the magnet coils after the trapped currents have been adjusted to their final values. The use of trapped persistent supercurrents to produce an ultra stable levitation force is responsible for the unprecedented long term stability of the superconducting gravimeter in comparison to mechanical spring type gravimeters. A capacitance bridge network, consisting of three spherical capacitor plates positioned around the sphere, is used to sense the position of the sphere. The upper and lower plates are driven by precisely matched AC signals that are 180 degrees out of phase. The sphere capacitively couples these excitation signals to the center plate of the bridge. When the sphere is equidistant from the upper and lower plates, the drive signals cancel and produce a null signal on the center plate. As changes in gravity cause the sphere to move from its null position, an error signal is produced. During operation, the position of the sphere is held close to its null position by a feedback circuit which applies a magnetic force through a separate feedback coil. Since the force from feedback coil is linear with

GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

current, measuring the current through the feedback coil provides a linear measurement of the force of gravity.

Figure 4: Cross section schematic of superconducting gravity sensor A superconducting magnetic shield surrounds the gravity sensor. This shield eliminates effects from changes in the external magnetic field. The sensor is also enclosed in a vacuum can and temperature regulated to a few OK. This makes it insensitive to environmental effects such as changes in external temperature, humidity and barometric pressure. The vacuum can is sealed inside the liquid helium dewar during assembly at the factory. Electrical leads are brought out through the top end of the dewar through a fiberglass GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 6

neck tube and terminated at the head of the instrument. Great care is taken in design and manufacturing of the neck and signal leads to insure that heat leaks into the liquid helium reservoir are minimized. High quality environmental connectors allow interfacing the gravity sensor and its subsystems to an electronics package that resides external to the dewar. 2. GSU-4D - Gravity Sensing Unit with two spheres The Dual Sphere GSU operates on the same principal as the single sphere sensor. However, this sensor has two superconducting spheres and capacitance detection bridges separated by a spacing of 20 cm. The spheres are levitated by two separate sets of superconducting coils wound on the same copper magnet form. By adjusting the currents in each set of coils, each sphere is independently levitated and centered in its own magnetic field. After levitation and adjustment of the force gradient, additional superconducting side coils are used to apply small horizontal forces on one of the spheres. This allows the tilt minimum positions of the two sensors to be precisely aligned. The Dual Sphere SG operates in a dewar that is 4 taller than the single sensor SG. With the difference of the signals from the individual sensors of a dual sphere gravimeter, one can detect any offsets produced by magnetic flux 'jumps" that are larger than 0.04 Gal. Offset detection is no longer limited by the ambiguity of removing "real" gravity signals nor by sources of geophysical noise that may overlap and hide an offset. Table 1: OSG Single Sphere and Dual Sphere Gravimeter Sensor Specifications Precision: 0.1 to 0.3 Gal/(Hz)1/2 0.012 to 0.040 Gal for a one-minute averaging time 0.002 to 0.005 Gal for a one-hour averaging time Drift: Typically less than 6 Gal/year after 6 to 12 month stabilization period Calibration: The GSU sensor is not provided with a calibration from GWR. Users normally perform a rough calibration by fitting the observed gravity signal to a theoretical model of the Earths tides. The OSG calibration can be improved by comparison to the signal from an absolute gravity meter operating next to the OSG for 5 to 10 days. Many users have reported that they can calibrate the scale factor to a precision of better than 0.1%. However, the precision will depend on the quality of the absolute gravimeter and the skill of the operator. A relative calibration can be performed by placing the SG on an acceleration platform, or by applying a gravitational force with a known mass. Apparatuses for these calibration methods are not currently commercially available. Scale factor (calibration) stability: By comparing the OSG signal to models of the Earth Tides, several users have reported the scale factor to be constant to better than 0.01% over several years.

GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

B. OGD-35L-S/D Super Insulated Dewar and OGD-35-REF 4 Kelvin Refrigeration System and Vibration Isolation System
The OGD-35L liter super-insulated dewar is the result of more than 25 years of development of high efficiency dewars at GWR Instruments. It is optimized to operate in conjunction with a 4 OK cryogenic refrigeration system, which eliminates the need for refilling the dewar with liquid helium after the system is cooled down and initialized. Unrefrigerated, the dewar has a loss rate of less than 5%/day which corresponds to a 20 day holdtime. This gives plenty of helium reserves so that power failures and refrigeration maintenance do not interfere with the continuous gravimeter operation. The OGD measures 114 cm in height, 42 cm in diameter, and weighs approximately 60 kg with the GSU installed (see Figure 4). This small size makes it ideal for applications where the gravimeter will be operated in tunnels or vaults at existing geophysical observatories. The dewar is supported at three points attached to a reinforced flange welded around the outside of the dewar. The heights of two of the support points are adjustable using precision micrometers and can be precisely controlled by using thermally controlled levelers which are an integral part of the tilt compensation system. The height of the support points coincide with the height of the sphere. This minimizes the effects of ground vibrations on the gravimeter. The dewar is constructed mostly of aluminum with radiation shields situated between the outer shell and the inner liquid helium reservoir. Layers of aluminized Mylar (superinsulation) are wrapped inside the dewar to minimize radiative heat from entering the system. During manufacturing, the GSU is first operated in a test dewar. After extensive testing, the GSU is installed into the OGD-35L through a large port in the bottom of the dewar. The port is then sealed and the dewar's vacuum space is evacuated. This "sealed in" design allows the neck of the dewar to be customized to achieve the maximum obtainable efficiency of the dewar and refrigerator when operating together as a system. In order to strengthen the mechanical system, radial stiffening spokes are incorporated into the design. These allow the use of an extremely thin neck tube assembly while maintaining a rigid system that is not excited by ground vibrations. The helium refrigeration system is a separate and isolated system with respect to the liquid helium dewar. The helium gas in the dewar operates at pressures between 0 and 0.5 PSI relative pressure. The Refrigeration system operates at approximately 350 PSI or 2MPa. These two gas circuits do not come in contact with each other. The relationship between the two systems is shown in Figure 5 below.

GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

Figure 5: Dewar and refrigeration system relationship

The OGD-35L REF refrigeration system consists of a Sumitomo CNA-11 helium compressor, Sumitomo RDK-101E Coldhead (expander), flexible interconnects hoses, vibration isolation diaphragm with sealing flange, and a vibration isolation coldhead support frame. Use of the 4 Kelvin refrigeration system allows collection of uninterrupted data over much longer periods than previous design which used 11 Kelvin, or un-refrigerated dewars. Noise related to maintaining the liquid helium is small and there are only infrequent disturbances related to periodic servicing of the coldhead. Disturbances associated with scheduled refilling of the dewar have been eliminated. Liquid Helium replenishment from the high pressure Helium gas cylinder is explained below.

GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

Figure 6: Cutaway view of dewar showing sensor mounted inside

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Figure 7: OSG dewar and refrigeration system shown with the Coldhead lifted out of the dewar. The compressor is connected to the coldhead with flexible metal hoses The refrigeration unit is a closed cycle system consisting of a compressor attached to the coldhead via flexible hoses. The hoses are supplied in three standard lengths allowing the compressor to be situated at a convenient location. When placing an order three (3), six (6) or fifteen (15) meter hose lengths should be specified. The coldhead is mounted inside the neck of the OGD-35L dewar. The coldhead uses a modified Gifford McMahon cycle for cooling and is supplied high pressure helium gas by the compressor. The gas entering the coldhead is first pre-cooled by exhaust gas and then cools further when it is allowed to expand. The RDK-101E coldhead has two cooling stages. The second stage has a minimum operating temperature below the boiling point of liquid helium allowing the system to operate without loss of liquid helium. In order to prevent mechanical vibrations from the coldhead from disturbing the gravity measurement, the coldhead is mechanically de-coupled from the dewar. At the two cooling stages heat transfer is accomplished through gas coupling only. At the head of GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 11

the SG a thin diaphragm is used to isolate the coldhead from the dewar while maintaining a gas-tight seal. The helium gas volume inside the dewar reduces as it cools and condenses. If the cooling capacity is not controlled, the dewar pressure will drop below atmospheric pressure. Continued operation in this mode can cause failure of the thin vibration isolation diaphragm. To prevent this condition a small heater placed near the tip of the coldhead is used to add heat to the system. By precisely controlling the pressure across the vibration isolation diaphragm, the diaphragm is operated in a state where vibration transmission is minimized. During power failures of less than 1 hour duration liquid helium that vaporizes is maintained inside the dewar. After approximately one hour a 0.5 PSI safety relief valve begins venting helium to the atmosphere as it boils from the bath. During the subsequent 23 hour period without refrigeration, the boiloff rate raises to a maximum loss rate of 5%/day or about 1.75 liter/day. The dewar may be refilled with liquid helium by adding helium gas to the system while allowing the refrigeration system to liquefy the gas. Gas is supplied from a compressed gas cylinder supplied by the operator. When gas is introduced, the dewar pressure rises causing the dewar pressure controller automatically to turn the dewar heater off. This allows the liquefaction process to start. A pair of precision high purity regulators supplied by GWR allows the addition of gas with minimal disturbance to the gravity measurement. During the liquefaction process, room temperature compressed gas is converted to liquid at rate of between 1 and 2 liters/day when operating form 50 Hz power, and 1.5 to 2.5 liter/day when operating from 60 Hz power. A standard 200 cu ft helium gas cylinder converts to approximately 10 liters of liquid Helium. This is a convenient and simple way to refill the dewar after small helium losses occur from either power failures or removal and insertion of the coldhead during maintenance.

Figure 8: Gas regulator supplied by GWR Instruments connected to He gas cylinder and to the flexible metal hose carrying He gas for liquefaction to SG dewar. The liquefaction process can be monitored with the LHe screen provided as part of the data acquisition system user interface. The coldhead is supported external to the dewar on frame which stands on rubber feet. This vibration isolation frame incorporates a spring activated slide-mount that lifts the coldhead vertically out of the dewar. The apparatus allows the coldhead to be removed and inserted into the dewar without mechanically contacting the dewar neck, thereby minimizing disturbances to the gravity measurement during this procedure. When done GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 12

properly, the slide mount prevents offsets from occurring in the gravimeter record. This procedure must be performed at one to two year intervals to service the coldhead. Table 2: OGD Dewar Specifications OGD-35L-S Single Sensor Dewar Specifications: Capacity: 35 liters (with GSU installed) Hold time between refills (un-refrigerated): 20 days minimum Dimensions: 42 cm diameter x 114 cm high Total height installed on support feet: Dewar only - 116cm Dewar with coldhead - 130cm Minimum height required to transfer liquid helium (with standard equipment): 180 cm Weight of Dewar with GSU installed: 60 kg Concrete pier required: 80 cm x 80 cm OGD-35L-S/D Dual Sensor Dewar Specifications: Capacity: 38 liters (with GSU installed) Hold time between refills (un-refrigerated): 21 days minimum Dimensions: 42 cm diameter x 124 cm high Total height installed on support feet: Dewar only - 126cm Dewar with coldhead - 140cm Minimum height required to transfer liquid helium (with standard equipment): 190 cm Weight of Dewar with GSU installed: 70 kg Concrete pier required: 80 cm x 80 cm

GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems

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Table 3: OGD-35-REF Specifications Interconnecting Hoses: 6m, 9m or 15m lengths available. Customer must specify the length needed at the time of ordering. Contact GWR instruments for information on availability of lengths other than those specified. Helium loss rate: No loss of liquid helium during normal operation as long a power is supplied to the refrigeration system. Liquefaction rate: greater than 1 liter/day at 50 Hz; greater than 1.5 liter/day at 60 Hz.

Sumitomo SRDK-101 Cryo-Cooler Unit Refrigeration System power requirement summary: Comp. Cold-head System System Fan (FLA) (FLA) (LRA) (FLA) (RUN) (START) 50 100 1 13.5 56 0.4 0.5 14.4 56.9 60 100 1 14.8 52 0.3 0.5 15.6 52.8 * Factory supplied step-down transformer provided with 100, 120, 220/230, 240 VAC input taps. Input voltage MUST be within -5% to +10% of voltage tap rating. For example, when operating on the 220/230VAC tap input voltages should not exceed 209-253VAC limits. Voltages exceeding these limits can cause the system to stop operating or may cause damage due to overheating. These conditions void all warranties! Currents scale with input voltage. Minimum circuit amp capacity: 20 Amps (@ 100 VAC) Maximum breaker size: 20 Amps (@ 100 VAC) RDK-101E Coldhead specifications: First stage: 3.0/5.0 W at 60 OK (50/60 Hz) Second stage: 0.1 W at 4.2 OK (50/60 Hz) Ambient operating temp.: 5 to 28 OC. 28 to 35 OC with 10% capacity loss Dimensions: Width 103 mm; Length 226 mm; Height 442 mm Weight: 7.2 kg Coldhead Service: Factory reconditioning necessary at 10,000 hour interval CNA-11 Compressor specifications: Operating Temperature: 4 to 28 OC; 28 to 38 OC with 10% capacity loss Helium gas pressure (3-6m hoses): Static - 195 to 200 MPa at 20 OC Operating 2.2 to 2.3 MPa Dimensions: Width 390 mm; Length 450 mm; Height 610 mm Weight: 75 kg AC Power: Single phase Operating Voltages: ACV 100, 120, 220-230, 240 Power Line Frequency: 50, 60 Hz Current (@100VAC): Max. 13.9 A / Steady State 12.4 A at 50 Hz, Max. 15.1 A/ Steady State 13.3 A at 60 Hz Compressor Service: Mandatory adsorber replacement, 30,000 hour interval. Clean Air Cooler at least one time per year (Or more often if required by unclean environment) Hz Volt * Phase Comp. (FLA) Comp. (LRA)

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C. TM-7B GWR Cryogenic Tilt meters and TCS-6 - Automatic Tilt Compensation System 1. TM-7B - GWR Cryogenic Tilt meters When making high precision gravity measurements it is crucial that the sensor be precisely aligned with the gravity vector. For continuous measurements this alignment must be maintained for the course of the measurement or must be continuously measured so that deviations from the vertical can be corrected for during post processing. When an ideal gravimeter is tilted by an angle, D, from the local vertical it simply measures the component of gravity, gcos D, along its axis. Thus to the lowest order in D, the ideal response is a -1/2 gcos D2 or -4.9 x 10-4 mgal/ mradian2. The ideal gravimeter will read a maximum value when it is aligned with the vertical. For the superconducting gravimeter, the magnitude and quadratic response are close to that of the ideal gravimeter. However, the sign of the response to tilts is opposite to that of the ideal gravimeter. This is a consequence of the geometry of the magnetic field supporting the sphere. Because of the quadratic response to changes in tilt, it is desirable to mechanically maintain the SG alignment with vertical rather than correct for deviations from vertical in post processing. In order to sense changes in tilt, the SG incorporates two tilt meters mounted orthogonally inside the GSU. These sensors are mounted as close as possible to the gravity sensor (see Figure 3). Tilt meters mounted externally introduce tilt artifacts due to tilt differences between the point at which the tilt meter is mounted and the position of the gravity sensor. These effects include stresses induced by changing temperature profiles in the neck of the dewar. The TM-7B tilt meter uses a rectangular pendulum paddle which hangs from a thin metal foil. Capacitive sensing techniques similar to that used in the gravity meter are used to sense the paddle position and its motion in response to tilts. In this case the excitation voltage is applied to two side plates, located on either side of the hanging paddle. When the paddle is perfectly centered, the resulting signal sensed on the hanging paddle is zero. When tilts cause the paddle to move from its null position, an error signal is produced. Table 4: TM-7B Tilt meter specifications: Sensitivity: 0.1 radians Dynamic range: greater than 60 mradians

2. TCS-6 - Automatic Tilt Compensation System The tilt compensation system is necessary to counteract changes in local tilts that are common even at seemingly stable locations. Tilts can be introduced from settling of the underlying substrate, varying substrate density, heating and cooling of the support platform, and changes in humidity or water table.

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Tilts at the SG pier are compensated for by two actuators called Automatic Thermal Levelers. The levelers are controlled by electronics in the GEP-3 which heat thermal elements inside the levelers causing them to change height. As shown in Figure 3, the Thermal Levelers bolt directly to the OGD-35L dewar, and are part of the structure that supports the dewar. By varying the lengths of the two actuators relative to the third fixed point, the dewar is maintained at a constant tilt orientation. Inside the case of each Automatic Thermal Leveler, two sliding cars travel on precision crossed roller bearings. The bearings allow extremely smooth movement without transmitting noise or vibrations to the gravimeter. The lower car rests on a hardened steel ball which mates to a receptacle on top of the dewar Support Pillar. The support Pillars are cemented and bolted in place on top of the SG pier. When the SG is first installed, it is manually aligned precisely with the plumb line (along the local gravity vector). The manual adjustment is accomplished by turning precision micrometers mounted on top the levelers. This "tilt minimization" procedure is performed by observing the gravity signal while tilting the instrument in pre-determined increments. After installation is complete, the levelers are placed in automatic mode where their length is controlled by a signal derived from the output of the tilt meters. In this configuration the gravimeter is held to within 0.1 radians of its tilt minimum position. The thermal levelers have a range of about 1 mm, providing ample compensation for most sites. There are several advantages to maintaining the system at its tilt insensitive position, rather than measuring tilts and calculating their effects. Since the response of the gravity meter is proportional to the square of the tilt error, small tilt changes that cannot be compensated for have minimal effect when the gravimeter is held close to the tilt insensitive position. The closed loop operation of the system also improves the precision of tilt sensing. Since the tilt meters are operated in closed feedback loop at their null position, electronic gain changes that result from temperature and aging do not affect the measurement. Actively controlling the tilt also eliminates problems associated with calibration of tilt effects on the gravity signal, and removing these effects in post processing. Table 5: TCS-6 Tilt Compensation System specifications: Controlled alignment with set vertical: 0.1 radians Dynamic range: 2.5 mradians

D. HTK-4 Liquid Helium Transfer Kit


The Helium transfer kit contains all supplies necessary to easily transfer liquid helium from a supply dewar into the OGD-35 dewar. It includes the following components: 1. Flexible transfer tube constructed with a superinsulated vacuum sheath; 2. Pressure gauge scaled with recommended pressures used during different stages of the transfer process; 3. Helium Transfer Lid including an insulted cover for the dewar and exhaust tube used to direct cold gas away from critical components of the gravimeter sensor; 4. Helium dip stick (flutter stick) used for measuring the contents of storage dewars; GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 16

5. Miscellaneous hoses and fittings needed during the transfer process. The supply dewar is NOT provided as part of the transfer kit. Normally the supply dewar is provided by the same company which has been contracted to provide liquid helium (LHe) to the operator. However in some cases the LHe provider has access only to large helium dewars (e.g. 250 liters or more) which are impractical for the small volume required to initialize the SG. In this case the operator should consider procuring a 30, 60, or 100 liter supply dewar to transfer LHe from the supplier to the SG operating site.

Figure 9: Transferring liquid helium from storage dewar to SG dewar using the liquid helium transfer kit supplied by GWR Instruments. The LHe screen in the GWR UIPC software is used to monitor the transfer process.

II. Integrated Electronics and Data Acquisition Package for OSG Gravimeter
The Integrated Electronics and Data Acquisition Package (IEDP) is used to control, and monitor the SG as well as log SG data. It includes the Gravimeter Electronics (GEP-3), Data Acquisition System (DDAS-3), Temperature Controlled Electronics Enclosure (TREE), and all necessary hardware for a turnkey solution for operation of the gravimeter. Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPSs), Power conditioning and Lightning Protection equipment (PLP) can also be provided for installations where poor power quality is expected or protection from severe lighting storms is required. This equipment is described in the following section. The IEDP is designed to improve performance by eliminating many sources of offsets, drift, and gaps in the gravity data record, as well as improve reliability. When combined with the appropriate UPS/Power Conditioning package, it allows the SG to be manufactured and tested in its final configuration thereby eliminating surprises from unanticipated interactions between components. These include: ground loops, DVM aging, sensitivity to temperature and humidity variations, and variations in ac power. It allows the operator remote access to all gravimeter subsystems allowing the operator to quickly and easily verify optimal performance on a daily basis. If problems arise, the operator can rapidly determine the cause of failure without traveling to the installation site. A GWR engineer in San Diego can also retrieve data from the system in a standard format that enables rapid analysis and consultation with the operator. In this way, problems can be rapidly diagnosed and repaired. This can improve long term data quality and reduce the manpower required to operate an SG.

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Figure 10: Integrated Electronics, Data acquisition System (GPS and Met-3 not Shown)

A. GEP-3 - Gravimeter Electronics Package


The Gravimeter Electronics Package (GEP-3) includes electronics that sense and control the gravimeter, temperature, tilt, refrigeration & dewar subsystems. The package includes the following components: 1. Control chassis that houses the analog circuit cards, multiplexer, A/D converter, and microprocessor for digital I/O and data buffering: 2. Ultra Low noise Linear Power Supply housed in a dedicated chassis; 3. Pre-amplifiers mount inside the head of the gravimeter 4. All necessary cabling. 1. Gravimeter Control Electronics The Gravity circuit card is mounted in the GEP-3 control chassis. This card generates precisely matched drive signals that are applied to the upper and lower capacitor plates surrounding the sphere. The resulting signal from the center capacitor plate indicates the spheres displacement from its null position. The signal from the center plate is connected to a preamplifier via a cryogenic triax cable. This low-noise high input impedance preamplifier is mounted inside the head of the gravimeter. By minimizing the distance the low level signal travels, noise pickup and losses are also minimized. To further reduce the capacitance of this very low level signal to ground, the central shield on the cryogenic triax cable is driven at the signal potential. The signal from the output of the preamplifier is carried to the gravity circuit card through a coaxial cable. There, it is detected using a phase sensitive lock-in amplifier. This signal is then applied to an integrator which generates a feedback current through the feedback coil in the GSU. Using this technique, the position of the sphere can be detected to within a few angstroms. The closed loop design linearizes the response of the transducer and minimizes effects of gain changes inside the feedback loop that may occur due to temperature effects in the electronics or component aging. GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 18

On the Gravity card, an eight pole Bezel filter with a corner frequency of 8 seconds is provided as an anti-aliasing filter for digitizing the gravity signal. This filter, named the GGP1 filter, is intended for sampling at 1 second intervals. It was designed to meet the specifications of the Global Geodynamics project (GGP)1. An additional 2 pole Bezel filter with a corner frequency of 5 seconds is provided for sampling the gravity signal at faster rates. The gravity card also includes circuitry so that the system can be modulated by a voltage source. The Feedback Modulator circuit allows the frequency response and phase characteristics of the instrument to be precisely measured at the site of operation. This is an important parameter especially when comparing data sets from multiple SGs. Table 6: The characteristics of the GGP1 filter Filter type : Bessel, 8 pole Topology : Sallen-Key unity gain Intended sampling rate : 1 sample / second Corner frequency (f -3dB) : 61.5 mHz. (16.3 Second period). Attenuation (ultimate) : -160dB / decade Attenuation at fNyq : 100 dB attenuation at .5 Hz; Phase Lag : Linear, 0.034 degrees / cpd Time Delay : Constant in pass band, 8.204 sec. Flat to within 1% of unity gain (+/- .086dB) below 0.01 Hz (100 sec. period). Flat to within 4% of unity gain (+/- .341dB) below 0.02 Hz (50 sec. period). 2. Tilt Control electronics Two separate tilt circuits (X and Y axis) continuously sense and compensate for tilts seen at the GSU. The tilt sensing electronics operate on the same principle as the gravity sensing electronics. However, the tilt circuits also include circuitry for adjusting the ratio of the excitation signals applied to the side plates. This allows the user to adjust the null position of the tilt signals to coincide with the optimum tilt positions defined by the gravity sensor. Like the gravity controller, the tilt circuits operate in a closed feedback loop where a current is generated that drives the tilt system to a null position. Unlike the gravity feedback current which drives a magnetic coil, the tilt feedback currents drive two (X & Y) linear actuators which continuously compensate for tilts by changing the heights of the dewar support points. The tilt circuit cards also contain low-pass anti-aliasing filters for monitoring the tilt balance signals. 3. Temperature control electronics The temperature control circuit uses a germanium thermometer in a wheatstone bridge to sense the temperature of the superconducting elements within the gravity sensing unit (GSU). The signal is detected using a phase sensitive lock-in amplifier, then fed back to control the temperature of the GSU slightly above the ambient temperature of the liquid helium bath. Using this technique, the core temperature of the sensor is controlled to within a few micro Kelvin (OK).

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4. Auxiliary electronics An auxiliary circuit card provides excitation and conditioning for several sensors including various cryogenic temperature sensors. A step function generator is included to measure the step response of the gravimeter or other sub-systems. This circuit accepts a TTL pulse (provided by the DAC-3) and outputs a step function with variable gain and offset. 5. GEP-3 Remote Control Card, A/D converter and Setup circuitry The GEP electronics is provided with a Remote Control Card which includes a microprocessor, and a 16 bit A/D converter with a 40 channel multiplexer. A serial RS232 port is used for remotely controlling the GEP-3 and for uploading subsystem data. This circuit card allows the operator to view a virtual front panel of the GEP3 electronics either on the local UIPC or remotely via a VNC connection. The remote Control Card also contains circuits used during the SG initialization. A summary of the GEP3 Remote Control Card functions is shown below. 16 Bit A/D converter and 40 channel for monitoring system health signals. Control Logic for remotely controlling all GEP3 front panel functions. dewar pressure controller. Liquid helium level indicator. Heater pulses used for trapping super currents in the levitation magnets. Demagnetization circuit used for demagnetizing the Mu Metal shield prior energizing the levitation magnets. Getter Heater power supply. Body Heater power supply. Refrigeration system control relays. Helium gas pressure monitoring circuits. Helium liquefaction control relays. Electronics PCB and chassis and temperature monitoring circuits. Room temperature monitoring, for 3 external temperature sensors. Two spare single ended 16 bit A/D inputs for soil moisture monitoring or other user defined inputs.

Table 7: GEP-3 Gravimeter Electronics Package Specifications: Power requirements: 140 W (with automatic leveling system installed), 120/240 VAC, 50/60 Hz Operating conditions: Ambient temperature limits 0-30 OC Dimensions: 1) Control Chassis: 483 mm wide x 133 mm high x 305 mm deep, Weight: 11 kg. 2) GEP-3 Power Supply Chassis: 483 mm wide x 133 mm high x 245 mm deep, Weight: 10 kg. (1& 2 each utilize 3U of height for 6 U total in a standard 19" rack)

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B. DDAS-3 Data Acquisition System


The DDAS-3 data acquisition system was designed specifically for controlling the GEP-3 and logging SG and related meteorological data. This turn-key system allows operators to record the highest quality data from the SG, provides automated archiving of data and allows remote monitoring and control of the SG and its subsystems. The DDAS-3 data acquisition system is controlled by the DAC-3, an intelligent serial port multiplexer that coordinates all time critical tasks and buffers data. Other components include a GPS receiver, a precision volt meter, a Paroscientific Met-3 metrological station and a personal computer running custom software. Sample timing accuracy is maintained within a few milliseconds, more than 10 times better than the specification recommended by the GGP. 1. Data Acquisition Controller (DAC) The primary function of the DAC-3 is to record uninterrupted data from the gravity sensor and barometric pressure sensor. Additional signals are logged to verify system health and for maintenance purposes. Data sampling time is referenced to UTC through a GPS receiver which communicates via a precision time pulse and a serial interface. The system is designed to comply with all GGP specifications. Data is internally buffered and continuously exported to a PC where it is written to disk. From the PC it can be automatically uploaded via FTP to an external data archiving site. The Data Acquisition Controller contains a processor and ten (10) serial I/O ports. These ports communicate with: 1. UIPC (Host PC for hard disk storage and gateway to the internet) 2. GEP3 (SG monitoring and control) 3. DVM 1 Agilent 34420A NanoVolt Meter (High precision Gravity signal) 4. DVM 2 Agilent 34420A NanoVolt Meter (Dual Digitizer option) 5. Trimble GPS receiver precision time base (uses two serial ports) 6. Paroscientific Met-3 Station (barometer, temperature, humidity) 7. Liquid helium level monitor (2006 onward LHe monitor is integral to GEP-3) 8. Transportable Voltage standard 9. UPS (power monitoring). The DAC controller u-processor board has been upgraded in 2007 to support both Compact Flash (CF) and Ethernet. The addition of the CF card increases the data buffering capacity of the DAC from approximately two hours to approximately 90 days. This buffering capacity virtually eliminates the dependence on the PCs hard disk, historically the weak link in data acquisition systems. The DAC controller firmware now also resides on the CF card simplifying the firmware upgrading procedure. Firmware upgrades can now be installed remotely with only a short (approximately one minute) data gap Two independent digitizers are used on systems with single sphere gravity sensors. An Agilent 34420A 7 digit digital voltmeter (DVM) is dedicated to the gravity channel. A multiplexer and 16 bit A/D converter located in the GEP-3 is used for all other status channels. The controller also records the output from a digital barometer. Precise sample timing is provided through the generation of hardware trigger pulses GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 21

presented directly into the DVM external trigger input. During normal operation a precision timing pulse from the GPS receiver is used to initiate a controller routine that results in independent hardware triggers asserted for each DVM. During the unlikely loss of GPS synch, triggers are generated by the controllers internal clock. 2. User Interface PC, and UIPC software A high quality PC running the windows O.S. is provided fully configured. A typical configuration includes a 1U high rack mounted Dell server with RAID mounted in the electronics rack along with a rack mounted keyboard and LCD monitor. The PC is equipped with A Gigabit Ethernet port and 4-port RS232 card for communicating with various sub systems. The User Interface PC runs a custom software program called UIPC. This hardware/software combination allows the operator full control over virtually all of the SG functions including setup procedures, monitoring for maintenance and data logging and archiving. The UIPC software includes numeric and graphical displays of all data channels. A Users log allows the operator to enter notes when visiting the system. A comprehensive alarm system can be easily configured to trigger when any channels exceed normal limits. Alarm triggers can be configured to notify the operator in a number of ways including automatic email notification. An automated FTP routine can be configured to automatically upload data to up to five archival sites on a daily basis. Configurations are easily accomplished through an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). Several Virtual Instrument screens are provided to allow remote control of the GEP-3 Levitation Current Supplies, and other power supply used during instrument setup. For maintaining secure operation UIPC requires users to login with a password before access to program features is granted. Users are assigned one of 5 permission levels restricting access to anywhere from demo capabilities to full access to the all features. Several examples of the UIPC screens are shown in the figures below.

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Figure 11: Screen shot of the UIPC Main Page, showing Gravity and Barometer Data in real time, Digitally filtered data as it is calculated, GPS status, LHe status, DAC status and Alarm Status.

Figure 12: Screen shot of the UIPC Residuals F60 Page, showing Observed Gravity, Modeled Gravity and the Residual in real time (less filter delay).

Figure 13: Screen shot of the UIPC GEP-3 Page, showing the GEP3 virtual front panel. The PC is connected to the DAC through either a serial RS422 port or Ethernet GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 23

connection. The UIPC is used for data storage as well as a user interface. Data is logged to a hard disk at 1 minute intervals. The UIPC is equipped with a Gigabit Ethernet interface allowing easy access from a remote location. All user interface and remote functions can be accomplished without degrading the timing accuracy or interrupting the Data Acquisition Controller. The UIPC can be viewed via a TCP/IP connection using a virtual network connection (VNC). A broadband connection is required for accessing the system with the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and is highly recommended for properly maintaining the system.

3. High Resolution 7 Digit DVM (Agilent 34420A Nano Volt Meter) A high precision voltmeter manufactured by Agilent Technologies is provided for precise sampling of the analog Gravity signal. Specifications for the Agilent 34420A Nano Volt Meter can be found at the manufacturers web site. This device is equipped with a twochannel multiplexer. The primary channel is used for sampling the gravity control card GGP filter output. The second input can be used with the optional transportable voltage standard for calibration of the voltmeter without disconnecting the gravity signal from the input connector.

4. Trimble GPS Receiver Timing accuracy is maintained by synchronization with a Trimble GPS receiver. This receiver is capable of tracking eight satellite vehicles enabling rapid time synchronization after power up. In order to maintain precise time synchronization, the 1 PPS signal from the GPS is used to generate a hardware interrupt in the DAC -processor. This allows timing accuracy to be maintained to within a few milliseconds of UTC. Accurate timing facilitates comparison of gravity data from gravimeters located at distant locations and is essential when stacking data records.

5. Optical isolators and lightening arrestors for digital data Digital lines from the GPS receiver and the host PC RS422 port are optically isolated. In addition, lightening arrestors are provided for the GPS receiver to minimize the possibility of damage to equipment during electrical storms. 6. Interconnect cabling All necessary interface cables are provided to insure rapid installation. Users should specify the length of cabling required from the DAC3 to the GPS antenna and Met-3 Station at the time of ordering.

C. DDIG-3 - OSG Dual Digitizer Package


To increase reliability, a second high resolution Agilent 34420A 7 DVM can be provided for redundant logging of the gravity signal. This provides backup protection in case the primary DVM fails or needs service or calibration. For Dual sphere sensors, this option is required for digitizing the signal from the second gravity sensor. GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 24

D. DPS-4 - Current Supply for initializing Levitation Magnets


An Agilent E3648A current supply is used to energize the levitation coils in the GSU. This device is designed with very quiet and stable linear power supplies. Two outputs with a maximum output of 5 amps at 8 volts provide ample power for initializing the SG levitation magnets. The current supply is controlled through an RS232 interface connected to the user interface PC. The UIPC program provides a virtual front panel for the supply to simplify the initialization process. After injecting currents into the SG magnet circuit, heater pulses are applied to persistent switches causing the current to be trapped inside the superconducting magnet. The heater pulses are generated on the GEP-3 Remote Control Card.

E. VOTS-3 - Voltage Transfer Standard Package


In order to verify and measure the stability of the DVMs, a high precision transportable Voltage Transfer Standard provides a stable voltage that can be sampled periodically. The accuracy of the standard is better than 20 ppm/year and temperature coefficient is better than 2 ppm/OC. The standard can be disconnected and sent out for calibration at a NIST qualified calibration site as part of regular system maintenance. Removal of the standard does not affect logging of all other channels. This important feature allows the user to periodically calibrate the DVMs with minimal interruption of the data record. This need for long term periodic calibration is often overlooked in other data acquisition systems. The voltage standard allows one to correct data for changes in DVM calibration from aging, or for the exchange of DVMs in the event of a failure.

F. TREE-3 - Temperature Regulated Electronics Enclosure


The Temperature Regulated Electronics Enclosure (TREE) provides a stable environment for the GEP-3 Control chassis, GEP-3 Power supply, analog to digital converters, DAC and PC. It consists of a sealed rack with a thermostatically controlled heat exchanger. While operating, external temperature fluctuations are attenuated by a factor of more than 10 inside the case. Rubber gaskets provides protection against contaminates that may be present in a harsh environment. Additional EMI gaskets provide an effective faraday shield providing additional immunity to electrical interference. Changes in temperature affect all electronic components to some degree. Therefore, it is important to minimize these effects whenever possible. Although care is taken in the design and manufacture of the gravimeter electronics, at some level, changes in temperature and humidity will affect the gravity signal. The TREE is designed to operate slightly above the ambient temperature. This prevents the possibility of condensation appearing on the electronics which can cause changes in their characteristics. The enclosure is cooled by two isolated air circulation systems. The external system sucks in air and then passes it over a finned/heat-pipe heat exchanger. The internal system circulates the internal air over the opposite side of the heat exchanger and throughout the GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 25

enclosure. In this manner dust and other contaminants are not allowed to enter the enclosure. To regulate the internal temperature, a thermostat is used to vary the speed of the external circulating system depending on the internal temperature.

Figure 14: Temperature Regulated Electronics Enclosure (TREE)

G. PRE-5 - Paroscientific Met-3 Meteorological Measurement System


Because the SG sensor is housed inside a vacuum can and operated at approximately 4.2 Kelvin, it is virtually free from errors induced by changes in atmospheric pressure. However the SG easily measures the real Newtonian effect of the atmospheric mass above the SG sensor. For this reason accurately measuring the barometric pressure is an essential component of obtaining a meaningful gravity time series. Refer to Figure 3. For recording barometric pressure, temperature and humidity GWR provides the Digiquartz MET3 Measurement System manufactured by Paroscientific. This system provides the ultimate in precision meteorological measurements. Barometric pressure resolution is better than 1 microbar with total accuracy of 0.08 hPa. Temperature resolution is 0.01C with total accuracy of 0.5C and relative humidity performance is better than 2%. The instrument is enclosed in a durable weatherproof package suitable for mounting outdoors on a pole or rooftop. Mounting hardware and interface cabling are included for easy installation. Data is provided by a Digiquartz barometric pressure transducer, an external precision thin film platinum 1000 ohm RTD temperature sensor, and a monolithic IC capacitance humidity sensor. The barometric pressure sensor and humidity sensor are fully temperature compensated. The MET3 system utilizes a Gill Barometric Pressure Port to reduce dynamic pressure errors caused by wind. The Multi-Plate Radiation Shield protects the temperature / humidity sensor from error-producing solar radiation and precipitation. A microprocessor-based electronics provides fully compensated and linearized outputs via a two-way RS-232 interface. The MET3 interfaces directly with the GWR DAC3 where data is logged with a precision time stamp and displayed along with other critical SG data. GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 26

Table 8: PRE-5 Specifications Pressure Accuracy : +/- 0.08 hPa Temperature Accuracy : 0.5 OC Relative Humidity Accuracy : 2%

III. Un-interruptible Power Supply (UPS) and Power Conditioning.


GWR offers a variety of equipment for dealing with failures, voltage instabilities, spikes and surges on the AC power mains. The type of equipment required at any given site is determined by the operating conditions, and by infrastructure already in place at the installation site. Because the SG is used for studying very long period signals (approaching DC) it is imperative that high quality un-interrupted power be maintained to the equipment. Failure to do so can degrade the quality of the data set to a point where it has little scientific value. For this reason every precaution should be taken to maintain uninterrupted power, especially to the control electronics and data recording system. At most installation sites, power failures are the primary concern. When power fails to the SG electronics, the best-case scenario results only in loss of data during the outage. A worse scenario occurs when power failure results in an offset in the data record. This is a random event and is normal when the SG looses power and goes out of temperature regulation. A worse scenario occurs when the outage is of sufficient duration to also, cause a substantial loss of liquid helium. If the power failure is of sufficient duration or if the failures are frequent enough then the SG may run out of liquid helium, allowing the instrument to warm above the critical superconducting temperature. If this occurs, the sensor must be re-initialized, a procedure which requires considerable effort and expertise. In some areas low voltage or high voltage conditions can be common. Most equipment is rated at the nominal voltage, -5% / +10%. For 230 volt mains this corresponds to voltage limits of 219VAC to 253VAC. At some locations power mains fluctuations can greatly exceed these limits. If these voltage extremes reach the SG electronics or refrigeration system the systems may turn off or in extreme cases damage may result. In addition to power failures, equipment must be protected from spikes and surges. These problems typically result from lightning storm activity when lightning strikes an overhead utility line or when lightning strikes the building or Earth nearby the SG installation. Typically a zoned approach is the most reliable method of handling spikes and surges from lightning strike. In this approach different zones are defined which contain protection devices to limit the spike or surge passed to the next zone. This approach is needed because it is impossible to handle the large power dissipation requirements of the protection device and limit the surge voltage to an acceptable level, with a single device. By incrementally limiting the peak voltage as the power makes its way from the mains to the equipment, more sensitive components can be used where necessary without the risk of damage every time a strike occurs. GWR Observatory Superconducting Gravimeter and Support Systems 27

GWR recommends the use of a high quality UPS with isolation transformer for protecting the SG electronics at all installation sites. In addition, spark gaps, MOVs and filtering should be used at locations where high energy spikes may be seen on the power mains. If the mains AC voltage level may exceed +/-5% of nominal then an additional voltage controller is recommended. In cases where long duration power outages are expected, extended battery banks, refrigeration system UPS and backup generator should be considered. A summary of recommended equipment is given below. More detailed descriptions of each item listed is provided in the following sections.
Table 9: Summary of power conditioning equipment and requirements
Power Conditions Advanced Country Rare lightning activity Rare Power Failures Short Duration Power Failures Developed Country Rare lightning activity Frequent Power Failures Short Duration Power Failures Developed Country Rare lightning activity Frequent Power Failures Long Duration Power Failures Developing Country Severe lightning activity Occasional Power Failures Short Duration Power Failures Developing Country Severe lightning activity Frequent Power Failures Long Duration Power Failures LPZ-1 LPZ-2 LPZ-3 Genset Refrigeration UPS Electronics UPS Elect. UPS Batteries

MIN

MIN

MAX

MIN

MAX

A worst case power backup, power conditioning, and lightning protection zone schemes is described in Figure 15 below. In this diagram power arrives from the utility via the distribution transformer shown at the left. The output of the transformer provides a nominal voltage of 230 VAC to the line routed to the SG hut. At the power meter the utility has installed a 6KV spark gap to shunt high voltages to Earth in case the power line is struck by lightening. The utility power normally enters the hut at the service entry power panel. In this design, because frequent power failures are anticipated, the utility power is routed to an automatic power transfer switch. A diesel generator with electronic governor is installed in parallel with the power mains providing an alternate power source to the automatic transfer switch. When a power failure condition is sensed on the main, the automatic transfer switch automatically starts the generator. After a brief (programmable) stabilization period the transfer switch re-checks the condition of the mains and switches the input to the generator if the mains are still out. In this manner power is interrupted for only a short period, during which the UPS must handle load requirements.

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COMPREHENSIVE POWER LINE CONDITIONING AND SURGE SUPRESSION FOR SUPERCONDUCITNG GRAVIMETER INSTALLATIONS AT LOCATIONS WITH UNSTABLE POWER MAINS AND/OR SEVERE ELECTRICAL STORM EXPOSURE

Lightning Rod Supplied at Site

Provided By Power Utility


Utility Power Meter
POWER METER SPARK GAP (6KV) Lightning conductors to have sweeping bends

Utility Distribution Transformer Utility Power Line


Surge Arrestor On Utility Line (SPARK GAP)

L1

Batery Bank For 6kVA UPS (100AH x 216VDC max)

6KVA UPS for Refrigeration System

Helium Compressor

L2
Power Meter Earth Bond May not be present or may be great distance from service entry panel Service Entry Power Panel Circuit Breakers

LPZ-2 Isolation Transformer, LC Filter, MOV Surge Supressor LPZ-2 ILC-5500

LPZ-3 Precision Voltage Regulatoer and Noise Filter LPZ-3 VRp-5500 1.8KVA UPS for SG Electronics

SG

SG Electronics

Diesel Fueled Power Generator (6KVA)

Automatic Transfer Switch Service Entry Panel Earth/Ground Resistance <10 ohm max <1 O preferred

Isolation Transformer

Buck/Boost Transformer

All conductors to be in shielded jacket or conduit starting at output of LPZ-2

Batery Bank For 1.8kVA UPS (400AH x 48 VDC max)

GENSET Facility Wiring to be provided by End User (NOT BY GWR)

LPZ-1 4 KV Spark Gap at Service Entrance

Single Earthing Pit Consult local expert regarding requirements for local conditions

SHIELDED HUT All metal enclosure with welded seams provides maximum shielding. Screened enclosure may be sufficient at some locations. Consult local expert.
Rev Date 7/30/2007

Figure 15: Power Conditioning Equipment at an SG installation site.

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The transfer switch is followed by the power entry panel to the SG hut. Inside the panel box a 4KV spark gap is installed limiting spikes to 4000 volts. The ground bus in this panel must be adequately earthed so it can handle shunting the spark over energy to Earth. The Earth line installed should have less than 1 ohm resistance to the Earthing point. The adequately Earthed spark gap constitutes lighting protection zone 1 (LPZ-1). LPZ-1 is followed by an isolation transformer with L/C and MOV filtering. This LPZ-2 device limits output spikes to 10V/s with an input spike of 6KV/s. In addition it provides a Neutral to Ground Bond eliminating common mode voltage spikes. Because voltage variations exceeding +/-5% are expected, a precision voltage regulator is installed in LPZ-3. This device also includes additional filtering. The voltage regulator output is fed to two separate UPS systems, one for the SG electronics and another for the Refrigeration system. Separating the UPS into two components allows the UPS systems to be optimized for the different load requirements. The UPS loads are summarized in the table below.
Table 10: Summary of UPS Load Requirements for SG electronics and Refrigeration System
Equipment and Condition TREE enclosure including all standard SG electronics: Maximum for normal operation TREE enclosure including all standard SG electronics: During Instrument Setup Refrigeration System: Maximum for normal operation Refrigeration System: STARTING Load (VA) 565 888 1440 5760

Because of the variability of environmental and soil conditions, GWR recommends that all users call upon a local expert when installing Earthing systems at the SG installation site. Generally a SINGLE low impedance (less than 1 ohm) earth line should be installed at the power service entrance to enclosure housing the SG. All grounds including the SG hut lightning protection system (lightning rod) should be tied to this Earth point.

A. Lightning Current Arrestor (LPZ-1)


Lightning Protection Zone 1 (LPZ1) is the first line of defense between the utilities power mains and the SG equipment. The purpose of LPZ1 is to dissipate the bulk of the energy transmitted along the power mains when a lightning strike occurs. The voltage spike is limited to a threshold where LPZ2 devices will not be damaged. For this purpose 4KV spark gaps are supplied for installation at the service entrance to the building which houses the SG. If the current return line is NOT bonded to Earth at this point, devices are installed from: Line-1 to Line-2; Line-1 to Earth; Line-2 to Earth. If the current return line IS bonded to Earth at this point, devices are installed from L to Earth only.

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Table 11: LPZ1 Component Specification Manufacturer Model Arrestor Rated Voltage Nominal DC Spark-over Voltage Nominal Discharge Surge Current Lightning Test Cur. Peak charge spec. energy: Protection Level Temp Range : Phoenix Contact : FLASHTRAB FLT-PLUS : 440 VAC (50/60 Hz) : 2.9KV (+25% - 45%) : 50 KA : 50 KA : 25 As 625 KJ / ohm : <4KV :-40 deg. C to +85 deg. C

B. Isolation Transformer and Power Conditioner (LPZ-2)


Lightning Protection Zone 2 (LPZ2) is a three-stage surge protection system that consists of an isolation transformer, capacitor and metal Oxide Varistor (MOV). The isolation transformer allows bonding of the output Neutral to Earth, eliminating all disturbances between Neutral and Earth. Even in cases where Neutral is bonded to Earth at the service entrance, repeating this bond close to the SG electronics is desirable. The series inductance of the isolation transformer in combination with a capacitor and MOV limit the rate of voltage rise/fall to less than 10V/us with an input test waveform of 6KV/us. Table 12: LPZ2 Component Specification Manufacturer Model Capacity @ 100% duty cycle Nominal Voltage Operating Voltage (100% rated power) Operating Voltage (80% rated power) Power Efficiency Total Harmonic Distortion Dimensions Weight Ambient Temperature Relative Humidity : : : : : : : : : : : : TSI Power Corporation ILc-5500 5000 W (@ 50 Hz) 208/220/230 or 240 VAC, 190 250 VAC 160 280 VAC 97% (typical) <1% 254mmW x 190mm H x 368mm D 54.6KG 0 to 40 deg. C 90% max., non-condensing

C. Precision Voltage Stabilizer (LPZ-3)


Lightning Protection Zone 3 (LPZ3) is a Precision Automatic Voltage regulator with additional surge protector and noise filtering. This device uses pulse width modulated (PWM) switching of a Buck Boost transformer to regulate the output voltage. Stability is within +/-3% with the input voltage between 184-264VAC and load of 0-100%. To maintain the -5% to +10% specification required by the Refrigeration compressor the input limits are 175 to 300 VAC. (waiting for final spec from TSI).

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Table 13: LPZ3 Component Specification Manufacturer Model Capacity Nominal Voltage & Frequency Operating Voltage (0-100% load) Operating Voltage Operating Voltage Power Efficiency Automatic Bypass Dimensions Weight Ambient Temperature Relative Humidity : : : : : : : : : : : : : TSI Power Corporation VRp-5500 5500 W 230 V, 47-63 Hz 184 264 VAC @ +/-3% reg. (223-237 VAC) 175 300 VAC @ +/-5% reg. (218241 VAC) 165 300 VAC @ -10% +5% (208241VAC) 96% (typical) Automatic bypass on system failure 270mmW x 159mm H x 368mm D 22.7 KG 0 to 40 deg. C 90% max., non-condensing

D. Generator Set (Genset)


In order to maintain continuous power during prolonged power outages a backup generator should be used. For this purpose GWR offers a carefully matched high quality diesel fueled genset manufactured by Lister Peter. This manufacturer was chosen because of its worldwide service capabilities, reputation for high quality and proper size matching with the availability of a precision electronic governor. When choosing a genset, it is important to pay close attention to proper sizing, especially when operating an inductive load such as the refrigeration compressor. If the capacity of the generator is insufficient the compressor will not start reliably. However if the generator is too large, wet-stacking will occur. Wet-stacking is a phenomenon of diesel engines when they are operated for prolonged periods with insufficient load, a condition which causes the air/fuel mixture to become to rich. Table 14: Genset Specification Manufacturer Model Capacity (prime) Capacity (standby) Engine Governor Operating Voltage Voltage regulation (0% - 100% load step) Voltage regulation (steady state, all loads) Operating Frequency Frequency Regulation (0% - 100% load) Frequency Regulation (steady state) Cooling Rotor/Stator Insulation Enclosure Automatic Transfer switch Dimensions Weight : Lister Petter : GS8D : 6.0 KW : 5.8 KW : Electronic : 230 VAC : +/- 3% (within 250 ms) : +/- 2% : 50 Hz : 0.5% : 0.25% : Liquid Cooled (pressurized) : Class H / Class H : Sound Attenuated Enclosure : Included as a separate item : 72cmW x 104cm H x 198cm L : 331 KG 32

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E. Compressor UPS
In order to maintain operation of the SG in its superconducting state it is imperative that the sensor be maintained at 4.2 Kelvin (K) indefinitely. For this purpose, a liquid helium dewar with a capacity of 35 liters is provided. During normal operation the refrigeration system removes all heat entering the dewar. This eliminates the loss of liquid helium from the system thereby allowing the system to operate in a steady state. The refrigeration system is made up of a compressor and expander unit, commonly referred to as the cold head. The Compressor and coldhead draw a total of 14.5A @ 100VAC. The equipment manufactured by Sumitomo Heavy Industries (SHI) is supplied by SHI with a built in step down transformer for operation at voltages ranging from 100 240 VAC. See Table 3 for details and specifications on this system. If power to the refrigeration system fails, the liquid helium ballast begins to vaporize maintaining the contents at 4.2 K until the cryogen is exhausted. The 35 liters of liquid ballast provides sufficient thermal capacity for maintaining the system at 4.2 K for more than twenty days without power. However during transition to or from refrigerated to unrefrigerated operation, a disturbance on the gravity can be observed for several 10s of minutes. For this reason it is desirable to minimize the number of power losses to the refrigeration system even if the down period is short. When power returns to the refrigeration system up to 24 hours of settling time is required before the systems cools to a point where it returns to steady state operation. If power failures are common, a situation can arise where the liquid helium is gradually lost due to insufficient refrigeration on-time. If this situation might occur, it is critical the power to the refrigeration be protected by a UPS and backup generator. Because of the large power consumption of the refrigeration system it is not practical to backup the system for long periods with a UPS and batteries. For power failures with durations greater than 2 hours a backup generator is recommended. However for bridging power failures of less than 2 hours and to provide adequate time for starting or maintaining a backup generator, a UPS is recommended for the refrigeration system. Although the compressor consumes approximately 1.5KW during normal operation, the starting load is considerably higher. The starting current is specified at 57A @ 100 VAC for approximately 20 power line cycles. For this reason a 6KVA UPS is required to provide fail safe starting of the compressor. GWR offers several UPS configurations for this purpose. The exact unit is decided upon during consultation with the end user. The best choice depends upon the specific site conditions.

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Table 15: Compressor UPS Specification Purpose Manufacturer Model Capacity Operating Principal Nominal Voltage & Frequency Operating Voltage Automatic Bypass Dimensions Weight Ambient Temperature Relative Humidity Standard Battery configuration Extended Battery configuration : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Backup short duration power outages Final voltage stabilizer and conditioner Toshiba or Falcon TBD 6 KVA at startup Double Conversion 230 VAC 230 VAC YES on UPS failure TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD

F. Electronics UPS
The SG electronics including the GEP3, and data acquisition system are backed up by a dedicated UPS. There are several important factors that were considered when choosing an architecture which utilizes separate UPS systems for the electronics and refrigeration system as apposed to one large UPS. These considerations are outlined below. The SG electronics consumes less than 600 watts of power compared to nearly 6KW required by the compressor at startup. In general the efficiency of a UPS is maximized when the load is between 30% and 90% of rated capacity. With loads of less than 30% the efficiency drops rapidly. If the SG electronics were to be run from the same UPS as the compressor, the load would be 10% of the UPS capacity. Considering the inefficiency of the UPS when operating at this load, adequate run times can not be achieved with a practical sized battery bank using a 6KVA UPS for the SG electronics. Even if the compressor load is turned off (a condition referred to as load shedding), this does not the address the problem of the inefficiency when operating a UPS at 10% of load capacity. Continuous operation of the electronics is critical to maintain the DC gravity baseline. The liquid helium acts as a ballast to maintain the SG at 4.2K during power failures. Therefore, maintaining uninterrupted power to the refrigeration system is not as critical as it is for the SG electronics.

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Table 16: UPS for SG Electronics, Specifications Mfg. / Model Electrical Capacity in VA (Watts) Transformer type Isolation Input Nominal voltage Operating voltage Nominal frequency Ac input cord Output Nominal voltage Voltage regulation Crest Factor Output waveform Power efficiency Power on/off Switch Transfer time Batteries & Backup Time (option-1) 230 volts ac +/-3% +/-5% upon changes in line or load 3:1 Pure sine wave, less than 5% THD with full linear load 90%, under full load conditions On/off rocker power switch Zero (continuous no-break) Maintenance free sealed lead-acid batteries Two EXT-800 battery pack configuration allows hot swapping of battery packs 60 minutes under typical SG electronic load of 565 VA EXt-8000s battery recharge time is 8 hours to 90% capacity Valve Regulated Lead Acid external battery banks 48VDC (4x12VDC) 134 Ah @ 48VDC Maximum of four (4) parallel banks @ 4-5 hours per bank Maximum backup time of 20 hours under typical SG electronics load 48 Kg/battery * 4 parallel batteries x 4 banks = 720 Kg max Customer to supply ventilated housing at the site of installation Low-pass filter reduces noise over a wide frequency range. A three-stage surge protection system consisting of: Ferroresonant isolation transformer; Capacitor M.O.V. ANSI/IEEE C62.41-1991 test pulse. Category B3, Combination Wave, 6000Volts, 3000Amps. Surge let-through voltages Indicators Test pulse injection: Line-Neutral, Line-Ground & Neutral-Ground. Combination Wave: L-N: 35V, L-G: 35V, N-G: 0.5V 10 LED bar-graph indicators: Output voltage; battery voltage; Output load 0 to 100% of rated power. 4 status LEDs indicating: AC power present; inverter, status; Output mode; AC load, and battery status. 431.8 x 533.4 x 165mm (NOT including battery packs or chargers) (17"W x 21"D x 6.5"H) Weight Rack mounting options FET inverter circuit Environmental Ambient temperature Cooling method 0 to +40C, 90% relative humidity 30-90%, (non-condensing @ 25C). Forced air (fan cooled) 59 kg (130 lbs) (NOT including battery packs or chargers) Rack mount available upon request FET inverter circuit ensures efficiency and reliability. 230 volts ac single phase 185 275 Volts without using batteries 50 Hz sinusoidal +/-5% (output voltage variations are linear with respect to frequency) Hard Wired 1800 VA (1300W) Ferroresonant constant voltage output isolation transformer 100% galvanic isolation through separate primary and secondary transformer windings TSI Power, UPS-1800E

Batteries & Backup Time (option-2)

Noise filtering Surge protection

Surge test conditions

Physical Dimensions

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IV. GWR-OG-4KCS Maintenance or Failure Backup 4 Kelvin Cryocooler System


In all cases it is desirable to install a backup refrigeration system when a new SG is installed. Since the refrigeration system is a mechanical system it is more prone to failure than the other systems required for SG operation. The backup refrigeration system includes coldhead, compressor, hoses, and SG sealing flanges. It is installed and tested in parallel during SG commissioning. Once in place, this allows the coldhead and entire refrigeration to be exchange by minimally trained personnel. The option includes a complete redundant refrigeration system as described in Table 3.

V. Equipment, expendables & services required at the time of installation


Various supplies are required when an SG is installed at a new location. A list of these expendables and services is shown below. Suitable Enclosure or hut of sufficient size to house the SG and its components. Stable Support Pier, ideally connected to basement rock. Electrical power source. 35 - 100 liters of liquid helium used for initial cooling and filling of liquid helium dewar. Consult GWR for exact amount as requirements vary depending on the installation conditions. 1 -2 cylinders Ultra High Purity (99.999% pure) helium gas at least one cylinder to remain at the operating site permanently. Services from a qualified electrician for site wiring if required Important Note

GWR Instruments Inc., is committed to provide the best instrumentation for their customers. So frequent improvements are made on the technology and alternate components of equal or greater value or serviceability may be substituted without notice

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