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Acids Chapter 15

Acids and Bases

Bases

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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

A Brnsted acid is a _________________ A Brnsted base is a _________________

Acid-Base Properties of Water


H2O (l) H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

O H

+ H

O H

[H
base

O H

+ + H O

H2O + H 2O acid
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conjugate acid H3O+ + OHconjugate base


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The Ion Product of Water


H2O (l) H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

What is the concentration of OH - ions in a HCl solution whose hydrogen ion concentration is 1.3 M? Kw = [H+][OH-] = 1.0 x 10-14 [H+] = 1.3 M

Ion-product constant (Kw): [OH-] = Kw 1 x 10-14 = = 7.7 x 10-15 M [H+] 1.3

Solution Is [H+] = [OH-] At 250C Kw = [H+] > [OH-] [H+] < [OH-]
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pH A Measure of Acidity
pH =

[OH ] relationship pOH = [H+][OH-] = Kw =

Solution Is

At 250C

pH Meter

Strong Electrolyte NaCl (s)


H2O

Weak Acids:

Na+

(aq) +

Cl-

(aq)

HF (aq) + H2O (l) HNO2 (aq) + H2O (l) HSO4- (aq) + H2O (l) H2O (l) + H2O (l) Strong Bases:

H3O+ (aq) + F- (aq) H3O+ (aq) + NO2- (aq) H3O+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) H3O+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Weak Electrolyte CH3COOH


Strong Acids: HCl (aq) + H2O (l) HNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) HClO4 (aq) + H2O (l) H2SO4 (aq) + H2O (l) H3O+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) H3O+ (aq) + NO3- (aq) H3 O+ O+
(aq) (aq)

CH3COO- (aq) + H+ (aq)

NaOH (s) KOH (s)

H2O H2O

Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

K+ (aq) + OH- (aq) Ba2+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq)


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+ ClO4 (aq) + HSO4 (aq)


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Ba(OH)2 (s)

H2O

H3

Weak Bases: F- (aq) + H2O (l) NO2- (aq) + H2O (l) OH- (aq) + HF (aq) OH- (aq) + HNO2 (aq)

Conjugate acid-base pairs: -

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Strong Acid (HCl)

Weak Acid (HF)

Weak Acids (HA) and Acid Ionization Constants


HA (aq) + H2O (l) HA (aq) Ka = H3O+ (aq) + A- (aq) H+ (aq) + A- (aq)

Ka

weak acid strength

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Solving weak acid ionization problems: 1. Identify the major species that can affect the pH. In most cases, you can ignore the autoionization of water. Ignore [OH-] because it is determined by [H +].

2. Use ICE to express the equilibrium concentrations in terms of single unknown x. 3. Write Ka in terms of equilib concs. Solve for x by the approximation method. If approximation is not valid, solve for x exactly. 4. Calculate concs of all species and/or pH of the soln.

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Weak Bases and Base Ionization Constants


percent ionization = For a monoprotic acid HA Kb = Percent ionization = x 100% [HA]0 = x 100% NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Kb

weak base strength

Solve weak base problems like weak acids except solve for [OH-] instead of [H+]
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Ionization Constants of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs


HA (aq) A- (aq) + H2O (l) H+ (aq) + A- (aq) OH- (aq) + HA (aq) Ka Kb Kw

H2O (l)

H+ (aq) + OH- (aq) KaKb = Kw

Weak Acid and Its Conjugate Base Kw Kb Kw Ka


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Ka =
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Kb =

Diprotic and Triprotic Acids May yield more than one hydrogen ion per molecule. Ionize in a stepwise manner; that is, they lose one proton at a time. An ionization constant expression can be written for each ionization stage. Consequently, two or more equilibrium constant expressions must often be used to calculate the concentrations of species in the acid solution.

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Molecular Structure and Acid Strength


H X H+ + X-

HF << HCl < HBr < HI

acidity increases
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Molecular Structure and Oxoacid Strength


dZ O d+ H Z O- + H +

Molecular Structure and Oxoacid Strength


1. Oxoacids having different central atoms (Z) that are from the same group and that have the same oxidation number. Acid strength increases with increasing electronegativity of Z O O H O Cl O H O Br O

The O-H bond will be more polar and easier to break if: -

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Molecular Structure and Acid Strength


2. Oxoacids having the same central atom (Z) but different numbers of attached groups.

Acid-Base Properties of Salts


Neutral Solutions:

NaCl (s) Basic Solutions:

H2O

Na+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

NaCH3COOH (s)

H2O

Na+ (aq) + CH3COO- (aq) CH3COOH (aq) + OH- (aq)


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CH3COO- (aq) + H2O (l)


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Acid-Base Properties of Salts


Acid Solutions:

Acid Hydrolysis of Al3+

NH4Cl (s) NH4+ (aq)

H2O

NH4+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) NH3 (aq) + H+ (aq)

Al(H2O)3+(aq) 6

Al(OH)(H2O)2+(aq) + H+ (aq) 5

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Acid-Base Properties of Salts

Solutions in which both the cation and the anion hydrolyze: Kb for the anion > Ka for the cation, Kb for the anion < Ka for the cation, Kb for the anion Ka for the cation,

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Oxides of the Representative Elements In Their Highest Oxidation States

Definition of An Acid
Arrhenius acid: Brnsted acid: Lewis acid: Lewis base: H+ + OH acid base H H O H H + H N H H
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CO2 (g) + H2O (l) N2O5 (g) + H2O (l)

H2CO3 (aq) 2HNO3 (aq)


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acid

Lewis Acids and Bases

Chemistry In Action: Antacids and the Stomach pH Balance


NaHCO3 (aq) + HCl (aq)

F F B F acid +

H N H

F F B

H N H

Na2O (s) + H2O (l)

2NaOH (aq)

H+ +

N H

H base

NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

H base

F H

Mg(OH)2 (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + 2H2O (l)


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