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WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY

M.V.LOKESH KUMAR lokesh_ec96@yahoo.co.in Ph: 9885148838 V.RANGA RAO ranga463@gmail.com ph: 9885407845

LOYOLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT GUNTUR (dt)

ABSTRACT
The World becomes silent with out the word wireless technologies. The statement is not an exaggeration but mere indication of the facts in the present generation. The word wireless became an integral part to all most all the people in the 20th century, now-a-days a student from a remote place can dissolve his doubts with the help of wireless technology, there will be no question of delayed banking in this cyber world any time money can be accessible in the name of wireless communications (through ATMs), not only data but also money too existing in electronic form. Up to mid 80s telephone is strictly restricted to drawing room, but now we can communicate with any one from any where using cellular phones, all of these are possible only with wireless technologies, undoubtedly wireless technology is serving man kind, world has been enjoying the fruits of wireless technology. Strangely very less number of people know what it is, in the following paper we tried to explain the basics of what wireless technology is and the present and future trends in the subject. It contains various research findings on the subject. The endless applications the technology has have been included in very brief.

Introduction:
In the history of wireless technology, the demonstration of the theory of electromagnetic waves by Henrich Rudolf Hertz in 1888 was important. Hertz demonstrated that electromagnetic waves could be transmitted and caused to travel through space at straight lines. Light, Colors, AM, and FM radio, and many popular electronic waves on the electromagnetic spectrum. In the US the frequencies that are available for use for communication are treated as public resources and are regulated by Federal Communications Commission (FCC). In the absence of such control, chaos might result. Wireless operations permits services, such as long range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g., radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls, computer networks, network terminals, etc.)

Wireless communication may be via:


Radio frequency communication, Directional antennas, or short-range communication, or Infrared (IR) short-range communication.

Existing wireless data technologies:


Wireless LAN: IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth. Fixed wireless: MMDS, LMDS, satellite dish, optical. Mobile wireless: PCS, GSM, CDMA, TDMA.

TYPES:
Wireless systems include cellular telephone systems, wireless LANs, GSM, Wi-fi, Bluetooth, wide area wireless data systems, satellite systems, and ad hoc wireless networks. One type of wireless network is a wireless LAN, or Local Area Network. It uses radio instead of wires to transmit data back and forth between computers on the same network. Wi-Fi is a commonly used wireless network in computer systems which enable connection to the internet or other machines that have Wi-Fi functionalities. Wi-Fi networks broadcast radio waves that can be picked up by Wi-Fi receivers that are attached to different

computers. Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless personal area networks (PANs). Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices such as mobile phones, laptops, PCs, printers, digital cameras and video game consoles via a secure, globally unlicensed short-range radio frequency.

WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN):

Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) are implemented as an extension to wired LANs within a building and can provide the final few meters of connectivity between a wired network and the mobile user.

WLAN configurations vary from simple, independent, peer-to-peer connections between a set of PCs, to more complex, intra-building infrastructure networks. There are also pointto-point and point-to-multipoint wireless solutions. A point-to-point solution is used to bridge between two local area networks, and to provide an alternative to cable between two geographically distant locations (up to 30 miles). Point-to-multi-point

Solutions connect several, separate locations to one single location or building.

WLANs are based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. There are three physical layers for WLANs: two radio frequency specifications (RF - direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum) and one infrared (IR). Most WLANs operate in the 2.4 GHz license-free frequency band and have throughput rates up to 2 Mbps.

In a typical WLAN infrastructure configuration, there are two basic components: Access Points - An access point/base station connects to a LAN by means of Ethernet cable. Usually installed in the ceiling, access points receive, buffer, and transmit data between the WLAN and the wired network infrastructure. A single access point supports on average twenty users and has a coverage varying from 20 meters in areas with obstacles (walls, stairways, elevators) and up to 100 meters in areas with clear line of sight. A building may require several access points to provide complete coverage and allow users to roam seamlessly between access points.

WI-FI:
Computers, laptops, cell phones and palm pilots are examples of mechanisms that can grant the user internet access. Although computers and laptops are capable of having normal internet connection i.e. Ethernet connection, they are also able to have internet access through wireless technology. Cell phones and palm pilots can only be connected to the internet by wireless connection. Wireless networking is possible through the technology of wireless-fidelity. "Wireless-fidelity" or "Wi-Fi" allows a ubiquitous internet connection to be broadcasted through radio waves. Its purpose serves directly to the users looking for internet access devoid of any cords or wire

Radio waves are the keys which make Wi-Fi networking possible. These radio signals are transmitted from antennas and routers and are picked up by Wi-Fi receivers such as computers and cell phones that are equipped with Wi-Fi cards. Whenever a computer receives any of the signals within the range of a Wi-Fi network which is usually 300 500 feet for antennas and 100 150 feet for routers, the Wi-Fi card will read the signals and thus create an internet connection between the user and the network without the use of a cord. Usually the connection speed is increases as the computer gets closer to the main source of the signal and decreases when the computer gets further away. We can think of the Wi-Fi card as being an invisible cord that connects the computer to the antenna for a direct connection to the internet. Wi-Fi is sometimes called "wireless ethernet".Wi-Fi is more analogous to the traditional Ethernet network, and requires configuration to set up shared resources, transmit files, set up audio links In order for computers to receive the radio signals, a network adapter must be installed on the computer. The network adapter in this case is called the Wi-Fi Card and it can take several physical forms. For laptops, this card will be a PCMCIA card in which you insert to the PCMCIA slot on the laptop. The other way is to buy an external adapter and plug it

into a USB port. For personal computers, you can install plug-in PCI cards or a small external adapter for the USB port just like the one used for laptops. A network adaptor should be capable to use in any operating system. There are three different kinds of Wi-Fi cards that are available to purchase. The recommended Wi-Fi card to buy is the 802.11g because it has the advantage of higher speeds.

BLUETOOTH:
Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power class dependent: 1 meter, 10 meters, 100 meters) based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device. Bluetooth lets these devices communicate with each other when they are in range. The devices use a radio communications system, so they do not have to be in line of sight of each other, and can even be in other rooms, so long as the received transmission is powerful enough. Bluetooth is acceptable for situations when two or more devices are in close proximity with each other and don't require high bandwidth. Bluetooth is most commonly used with phones and handheld computing devices, either using a Bluetooth headset or transferring files from phones/PDAs to computers. Since Bluetooth uses short-range radio frequencies, it is not as effective for setting up networks that can be accessed from remote locations as with Wi-Fi.

ANTENNA CONCEPTS AND INTERFERENCE:


Major part of wireless communication depends on how the data is transferred; Antenna is used to transfer Electromagnetic energy from source to receiver, these waves travel in free space and Interference can appear as noise or can cause loss of signal strength. Interference is caused by: Obstacles like buildings, trees, walls, that absorb or reflect signals, Atmospherics like rain, fog, solar spots,

Other electromagnetic devices.

So, in order to overcome interference problems antennas should have some minimum requirements

Antenna Concepts:
Directionality:

Omni (360 degree coverage) directional. Directional (limited range of coverage). Measured in dBi and dBd. (0 dBd = 2.14 dBi). More gain means more coverage In certain directions!

Gain:

Polarization:

Antennas are used in the vertical polarization. If the gain of an antenna goes up, the Coverage area or angle goes down

Future trends in wireless communications:


5G is short for fifth-generation communication system, and is envisioned as the REAL wireless world .As usual, the next generation can be categorized two different views:

Evolutionary view: Beyond 4G (B4G) will be the complete version to enable the true World Wide Wireless Web (WWWW), i.e., either Semantic Web or Web 3.0. This view can be justified by the story of the 2G to 3G transition. In history, 3G completes digital modulation while 2G opens digital modulation. In this view, it is assumed that 4G might still remain some more home works to complete true World Wide Wireless Web (WWWW). For example, intelligent antenna networks such as a dynamic ad-hoc wireless network (DAWN) is a remained homework and so, it can be a candidate for the beyond 4G system in this view.

Revolutionary view: 5G should make an important difference and add more services and benefit to the world over 4G: 5G should be a more intelligent technology that interconnects the entire world without limits. For example, an artificial intelligence robot with a wireless communicatition capability can be a candidate since Building up a practical artificial intelligence system is far beyond all current technologies.

Besides this vagueness there is no definition to what 5G is but it will go beyond all preceding generations: 4G, 3G, 2G, and 1G wireless communication systems and is expected to start to be known before 2015. MIMO: Limited availability of radio-frequency spectrum and transmission problems brought MIMO technology in to frame, some of the features are discussed in brief

Multiple-input-multiple-output(MIMO)Technology provides higher data rates, Quality service, fewer dropped calls, higher network capacity MIMO uses antenna arrays at both the transmitter and receiver.

MIMO use an under line techniques for carrying data it operates at an physical layer, below the protocols used to carry he data, sop its channels can work with virtually any transmission protocol. Already, MIMO has become part of the IEEE802.16d wireless networking standard.

Some say MIMO holds promise for cellular networks but is limited by the heavy cost upgrading base stations.

Conclusion:

The future is bright for wireless technology in fact there is a great demand for wireless communications. Wireless technology still have some problems to over come, developers have to consider the safety of the users too. The present technologies are changing at a continuous pace and new technologies are entering at the same pace. Developments in areas of science and technology are also helping in the advancement of the wireless technology. The barriers to present technology would be over come very soon.

Reference: www.wikipedia.org www.google.com www.efytimes.com Encarta encyclopedia