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Course Orientation & Temperature & Thermal Expansion of Solids & Liquids Heat & Internal Energy, Specific Heat & Calorimetry , Latent Heat 1st Law of Thermodynamics, & Energy Transfer Mechanisms (Long Test 1) Static Electricity (Coulombs law) Electric Fields, Gausss Law & Electric Potential Capacitance, Current & Resistance Ohms Law & Simple DC Circuits (Long Test 2) DC Circuits Analysis by Kirchhoffs Law MIDTERM EXAMINATION WEEK Magnetic Forces Sources of Magnetic Fields Motional Emf, Electromagnetic Induction , Motors & Generators (Long Test 3) Inductance & Transformers Alternating Current Circuits Fundamentals of Light, Reflection & Refraction, Dispersion (Long Test 4) Mirrors & Lenses, Interference of light wave Diffraction Patterns & Polarization of Light Waves FINAL EXAMINATION WEEK

Course Outline

TOPIC

HOUR 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

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Course Orientation

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Temperature & Thermal Expansion of Solids &Liquids


Course Objectives: At the end of the meeting, the student should be able to: Describe the concept of temperature and recognize each temperature scale; 2. Differentiate various scales of temperature & convert from one scale to another; 3. Recognize that for same temperature change, the amount of thermal expansion depends on the type of material; 4. Determine by calculation the value of average This file is for exclusive use in my class Phy thermal
1.

Temperature & Thermal Expansion of Solids &Liquids


SUB-TOPICS

What is temperature? Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Scales of Measuring Temperature Concept Map of Thermal Expansion Linear, Area and Volume Expansion Unusual Behavior of Water Assessment

We often associate the concept of temperature with how hot or cold an object feels when we touch it.

However, our senses are unreliable and often mislead us. For example, if we remove a metal ice tray and a cardboard box of vegetable from a freezer. Which object feels colder to the touch?

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Two objects at different initial temperatures eventually reach some intermediate temperature when placed in contact with each other. Mixing hot and cold water in a bathtub Dropping an ice cube into a cup of hot coffee. Definition: 1.Thermal contact when two objects at different temperatures exchanged energy between them due to a temperature difference, even if they are not in physical contact with each other. 2.Thermal Equilibrium when two objects would not exchange energy by heat or electromagnetic radiation if they were placed in thermal contact.
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Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics


If objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third
object C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other.

Hence, how do we define temperature?


Temperature is the property that determines whether an object is in thermal equilibrium with other objects. Temperature is a measure of the exchange of heat between two objects.

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Scales of Measuring Temperature Celsius Scale


1. 2. 3.

Fahrenheit Scale Kelvin Scale

On a day when the temperature reaches 50 F, what is the temperature in degrees Celsius and in Kelvins? A pan of water is heated from 25C to 80C. What is the change in its temperature on the Kelvin scale and on the
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Change in Temperature
The change between two temperatures is specified in Celsius Degrees (C)

TK = TC = 5/9 TF

The Physics of Thermography Radiation emitted by an

object can also be used to indicate temperature. For low to moderate temperatures, the radiation emitted is infrared. Infrared camera registers the intensity of infrared radiation. It is then connected to a color monitor that displays the different infrared intensities at different colors. This thermal painting is called thermograph or thermogram. Thermography finds application in medicine, oceanography and meteorology

Thermometric Properties
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Dimensions for solid materials Pressure at constant volume for gas Volume at constant pressure for liquids Color Resistance for conductors

Thermal Expansion
A phenomenon describing the changes in the dimension of a substance when temperature increases.

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Linear Expansion

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Linear expansion equation

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Materials

Table of average expansion coefficients for some metals


/c

Aluminum 24.0x10-6 Brass/Bronze 18.8x10-6 Copper 16.8x10-6 Glass (ordinary) 9.0x10-6 Glass (pyrex) 3.2x10-6 Iron 11.4x10-6 Lead 29.4x10-6 Invar (ni fe) Alloy 0.9x10This file is for exclusive use in my class Phy

FORMULA Area & Volume Expansion


V=Vo T

The constant characterizes the volume expansion properties of a particular material (usually a fluid); it is coefficient of volume expansion
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Table of average expansion coefficients for some liquid materials /(c) MATERIALS
Alcohol, Ethyl 1.12x10-4 Benzene 1.24x10-4 Acetone 1.50x10-4 Glycerin 4.85x10-4 Mercury 1.82x10-4 Turpentine 9.00x10-4 Gasoline 9.60x10-4 Air2 at 0c 3.67x10-3
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Lossen a jar lid


Pour hot water into the lid of a tightly closed glass jar will loosen the lid since metal expands more than glass.

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Applications

linear expansion has to be considered to minimize sagging of wires in between post. in the concreting of highways, construction of bridges and buildings, thermal expansion joints must compensate for dimensional changes that occur as temperature changes to avoid buckle-up when electronic devices are in operation, temperature increases and this must be considered in the design in the fabrication of materials for use in machine accesories such as diameter of rods and rings
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Unusual behavior of water


Liquids generally increase in volume with increasing temperature and have about ten times greater than those of solids. But cold water is an exception to this rule. As temperature of water increases from 0 to 4 C, water contracts and its density increases. Above 4 C, water expands with increasing temperature and so its density decreases. The density of water, 1 g/cm3 (at 4 C), is For example, during winter time, when atmospheric therefore its maximum density. temperature drops from 7 C to 6 C, the surface water cools and consequently decreases in volume. Since it is denser than the water below it, which has not cooled and decreased in volume, it will sink and further and When the atmospheric temperature drops the warmer water from below is forced tothe surface water cooled. is between 4 C and 0 C, the surface to be expands as it cools becoming less dense than the water below it. The mixing process stops and eventually the surface water freezes. As the water freezes, the ice remains This file is for exclusive use in dense than on the surface because ice is lessmy class Phy water.

1.

a. mental contact c. thermal contact b. mixture contact d. energy contact 2. Two objects in thermal equilibrium with each other are a. in physical contact c. at the same temperature b. in thermal contact d. at different temperature 3. The Celsius equivalent of 200K is a. -73 C c. 73 C b. 232 C d. 473 C 4. Lead melts at 626 F. The Celsius equivalent of this temperature is a. 316 C c. 330C b. 366 C d. 1069 increases by 50C . The 5. The temperature of an objectC increase in its absolute temperature is a. 28 K This file is c. 50 K for exclusive use in my class Phy

Assessment : When energy is exchangeditbetween 2 objects even if they are not in physical contact, is called

Assessment:
6. Fill the blank space with the given options. A material with a negative coefficient of linear expansion ______________ when temperature is increased. 7. For a solid, when its temperature is increased, the a. increases linearly c. decreases linearly expansion include its b. is unaffected d. vanishes a. length and width c. height and width 8. b. length and heightlinear expansion of aluminum is 24 x10-6 Ave. coefficient of d. 3 dimensions /C, copper has 19x10-6/C, and steel has 11 x10-6 /C. These indicates that for same changes in temperature and same initial length, the increase in 9. length purchased a 15.0 gal of gasoline when temperature is If you for 10 C, how less than that of copper c. copper is less than a. steel is much that steelgasoline will you have when temperature becomes 65 C? aluminum is less than that of copper d. aluminum is less b.
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Assessment:
10. A metal pot whose volume is 1000 cm3 at 20C has a volume of 1006 cm3 at 100 C. Calculate the coefficient of linear expansion of the metal pot. a. 2.5 x 10 -5 / C c. 7.5 x 10 -5 / C b. 4.2 x 10 -5 / C d. 0.0126 / C These questions are of low and medium level of cognitive complexity to measure the learning of the students after the discussion. When you score below 9 points, you should review this topic and understand the concept and the use of temperature conversion and thermal expansion formulas before proceeding to solve questions/exercises of higher level of cognitive complexity.
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Sample Problems: (This problems belong to high cognitive complexity level) #1. A brass ring of diameter 10.00 cm at 20C is heated and slipped over an aluminum rod of diameter 10.01 cm at 20C. Assuming the average of coefficients of linear expansion are constant, to what temperature must this combination be cooled to separate them? Is this attainable? ( al = 24 x 10-6 , brass = 19 x 10 -6 ) To conceptualize this problem, note that when the these two metals are cooled, both the diameter of the brass ring and the diameter of the aluminum rod will decrease. Since the coefficient of linear expansion of the aluminum is greater than that of the brass, its change in diameter will be greater than that of the brass given the same change in temperature. Note also that in order to separate these two metals, the change in diameter of the aluminum rod minus the change in diameter of the brass ring, Dal - Dbrass = 0.01 cm. Hence we can write,
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(DoT) al - (DoT) brass = 0.01 cm. T [(Do) al - (Do) brass ] = 0.01 cm. T [(24x10-6/C)(10.01cm)-(19 x10-6)(10.00 cm)]=0.01cm
0.01 cm T = ------------------------------------------------[(24 x 10-6 /C)(10.01 cm) - ( 19 x 10 -6 /C)(10.00 cm)] T = 199C , (note that Tf<TI , since temperature was decreased and T must be a negative number or we can also write T = Ti Tf)

T Tf Tf Tf

= Ti Tf = Ti - T = 20 C - 199 C = - 179 C, this is attainable since when converted to


Kelvin, this gives

Tf = - 179 + 273 Tf = 94K (answer)


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The stress on a steel beam


A steel beam is used in the roadbed of a bridge. The beam is mounted between two concrete supports when the temperature is 23C, with no room provided for thermal expansion. What compressional stress must the concrete supports apply to each end of the beam, if they are to keep the beam from expanding when the temperature rises to 42C? Assume that the distance between the concrete supports does not change as the temperature rises.

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Recall that compressional stress = F/A and the magnitude of the compressional force that the concrete supports exert on each end of the steel beam is given by:

F = YA ( L/Lo)

where Y is Youngs Modulus YA ( L/Lo) Compressional stress = A = Y ( L/Lo) Substituting Lo from the Lo in L = Lo ( T To) (Y L) Compressional stress = [ L/(T - To)] = Y (T-To) =(2.0x1011N/m2)[12x10-6(C] -1(42C - 23C) = 4.6 x107N/m2 (Answer)
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For 1st assignment, please refer to topic outline of Linear expansion uploaded in the yahoogroup Phy271-neu@yahoogroups.com

DONT GET BEHIND!!

References:

ysics, By Cutnell J., 7th ed, 2007, pp 360- 370 ysics for Scientist and Engrs. By Serway & Jewett, 7th ed. 2008 pp. 5 ysics for Scientist & Engrs. By Paul Tipler. 4th ed., 1990 pp. 541-549, haums Outlines Applied Physics By Arthur Beiser 4th ed., 2004, pp. u tube: Lec 32 8.01 Physics I: Classical Mechanics, MIT, Fall 1999