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G. T. Heydt Arizona State University

Alias

PROGRAM

1. Power quality indices / pitfalls / three phase

phenomena and applications / interharmonics and other non-harmonics 2. Power acceptability, when is electric power delivered acceptable, vulnerability of loads 3. Series voltage boost hardware 4. Rectifier loads 5. Power quality standards 6. Why is power quality important? The salability of power quality

3

Index Total harmonic distortion (THD) Power factor (PF) Telephone influence factor C message index IT product VT product K factor Crest factor

Unbalance factor Flicker factor

Definition I i / I1 i=2

Main applications General purpose; standards Potentially in revenue metering Audio circuit interference Communications interference Audio circuit interference; shunt capacitor stress Voltage distortion index Transformer derating

Dielectric stress Three phase circuit balance Incandescent lamp operation; bus voltage regulation; sufficiency of short circuit capacity

EVEN HARMONICS

THEORETICALLY IMPOSSIBLE FOR SIGNALS THAT ARE SYMMETRIC ABOUT THE TIME AXIS PRESENCE OF EVEN HARMONICS DO NOT IMPLY DC COMPONENTS IN THE GIVEN SIGNAL MOST COMMON OCCURRENCE OF EVEN HARMONICS IS IN THE SUPPLY CURRENT OF TRANSFORMERS WHOSE LOAD SIDE HAVE DC CURRENT COMPONENTS

5

w I

i =2

2 i i

/ I rms / I rms

c I

i =2

2 i i

i =1

wi2 I i2 wi2Vi 2

i =1

2 2 2 h Ih / Ih h=1 h =1

V peak / Vrms

|V |/|V+ |

V /|V |

EVEN HARMONICS

Displacement factor

AC AC + DC COMPONENT LOAD

PF = (P)/|Vrms||Irms|

I

power factor

I

7

TPF DF

8

EXAMPLE

RMS V I 60 Hz 10o 1-30o 180 Hz 0.220o 0.280o 420 Hz 0.5 10o 0.15 -20o

P = (1)(1)cos30o + (0.2)(0.2)cos60o + (0.05)(0.15)cos(30o) = 0.892 (Vrms)2 = 12 + 0.22 + 0.052 Vrms = 1.021 (Irms)2 = 12 + 0.22 + 0.152 Irms = 1.031 S = (Vrms)(Irms) = 1.052

10

BILLING MULTI[PLIERS TO SEND THE CUSTOMER THE PROPER SIGNAL CONCERNING POWER FACTOR MULTIPLIER NEAT 1.0 FOR ~86%PF LAG MULTIPLIER INCREASES TO ~1.3 FOR DECREASING POWER FACTOR MULTIPLIER DECREASES TO ~0.95 FOR PF NEAR UNITY e.g., 0.06 $/kWh AT 86% PF LAG, 0.08 $/kWh AT LOW POWER FACTOR WHICH PF? TPF? DISPLACEMENT FACTOR? CUSTOMERS FAVOR USE OF DF, UTILITIES FAVOR TPF LOSSES MORE CLOSELY RELATED TO TPF THAN DF REQUIRED kVA OF SUPPLY EQUIPMENT MORE CLOSELY RELATED TO TPF 12 INSTRUMENTATION ISSUES

TPF = P / S = 0.848

11

THD

RMS V 60 Hz 10o 1-30o 180 Hz 0.220o 0.280o 420 Hz 0.5 10o 0.15 -20o

THD

1 IS EASILY FOUND NOTING THAT THE RMS

THE THD OF A SQUARE WAVE OF AMPLITUDE VALUE OF SUCH A WAVE IS 1.000 AND THE FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENT IS 4/ (ZERO TO PEAK). THE FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENT IS (0.707)(4/) = (0.9002). THEREFORE THE SUM OF THE SQUARES OF THE HARMONIC COMPONENTS IS 12-0.90022 = (0.1896). THEN,

VTHD2 = 0.22 + 0.052 / 1 ITHD2 = 0.22 + 0.152 / 1 VTHD = 20.62% ITHD = 25%

13

14

f |V| |I| 60 1.00 1.00 180 0.01 0.31 300 0.04 0.15 420 0.03 0.07 540 0.02 0.03 660 0.01 0.02 2 = 0.012 + 0.042 + 0.032 + 0.022 + 0.012 VTHD VTHD = 5.57% ITHD = 35.33%

Balanced THD Based on positive and negative sequence THDs only Residual THD Based on zero sequence only

15

16

THD

THE RESIDUAL THD IS GENERALLY FAR MORE HARMFUL THAN BALANCED THD BECAUSE THERE IS NO CANCELLATION EFFECT OF THE THREE PHASES OUT OF PHASE BY 120o

THD

ADVANTAGE: EVERYONE USES IT, EASY TO CALCULATE, WIDELY USED IN STANDARDS AND GUIDES DISADVANTAGES: DOES NOT ACCELERATE WITH FREQUENCY, BALANCED AND RESIDUAL THD NOT AS WELL KNOWN, DOES NOT TRULY SHOW THE INTERFERENCE IMPACT OF THE SIGNAL

17

18

TOTAL DEMAND DISTORTION IS A MEASURE OF THE THD TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE CIRCUIT RATING. AS CIRCUIT RATING VERSUS LOAD CURRENT RISES, TDD DROPS TDD = THD * (Fundamental load current / Circuit rating)

19

DIN =

I i2

2

I rms

20

IT PRODUCT

TIF =

wi2 I i2

1

IT = TIF * Irms

I rms

21 22

V*T PRODUCT

DEFINED LIKE I*T PRODUCT USING VOLTAGE kVT = 1000 VT BALANCED AND RESIDUAL V*T PRODUCT USED IN SHUNT CAPACITOR STANDARDS - TO LIMIT HARMONIC CURRENTS

23

PEAK VALUES

PEAK VALUES CAN BE CHARACTERIZED BY A CREST FACTOR: CF = PEAK VALUE / RMS VALUE = 1.414 FOR A PERFECT SINE WAVE ABSOLUTE LARGEST VALUE CAN BE OVERESTIMATED FOR ASYNCHRONOUS SIGNALS AS THE SIMPLE ALGEBRAIC SUM OF THE AMPLITUDES OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS FREQUENCIES 24

RMS VALUES

RMS VALUES

If the function is not periodic, take limit as T --> infinity

FRMS

1 = T

f 2 (t )dt

25

(Vrms)2= (V1rms)2+(V2rms)2+(V3rms)2+...

26

RMS VALUES

If signals are of the same frequency, need to combine the same frequency terms using phasor arithmetic, and then apply Parsevals theorem without regard for phase angles

27

RMS VALUES

Examples

10cos(t) + 2cos(2t)+ sin(3t)

10 2 cos(t ) + 10 2 sin(t ) 10 cos(t ) + 10 sin( 2t ) 440 2 cos(314t ) + 50 2 sin(314t ) + 80 2 sin( 492t ) + 10 cos(1570t )

28

RMS VALUES

First example

2 rms

RMS VALUES

Second example 1. Gather like frequency terms

10 2 1 = ( )2 + ( )2 + ( )2 2 2 2 = 5.123

29

f (t ) = 10 2 ( 2 cos(t + 45 o ))

2. Find RMS value of result

2 Frms =

20 = 14.14 2

30

RMS VALUES

Third example This example is aperiodic -- but no change in application of Parsevals theorem:

2 Frms = (

RMS VALUES

Fourth example First combine fundamental term

Frms

1 2 1 ) + ( )2 2 2 = 1.00

31

Then apply Parsevals theorem

32

CONSEQUENCES OF HARMONICS

I2R HEATING DUE TO EXCESS CURRENT TRANSFORMER MAGNETIC LOSSES INCREASED MOTOR LOSSES INCREASED CREST CURRENT CIRCUIT BOARD HEATING

33

TRANSFORMER DERATING

DEFINE PLL-R AND PEC-R AS THE FULL LOAD LOSSES AND CORE LOSSES PERUNITIZED BY THE I2R LOSSES. THEN THE DERATED TRANSFORMER MAXIMUM CURRENT IN PER UNIT IS

I derated =

PLL R 1 + KPEC R

34

TRANSFORMER DERATING

THIS DERATING IS CONSERVATIVE IN THAT ALL CORE LOSSES ARE INCREASED BY A FACTOR OF K -THIS IS AN OVERESTIMATE OF THE B-H LOSSES. THE METHOD IS IN COMMON USE AS PRESCRIBED BY IEEE STANDARD C57.110, UL 1561 AND UL1562.

35

BASIC METHOD CALCULATE TOTAL CORE LOSSES PEC CALCULATE I2R LOSSES, PI2R CALCULATE TOTAL FULL LOAD LOSSES PLL PERUNITIZE PLL AND PEC BY PI2R CALCULATE THE K-FACTOR OF THE LOAD CURRENT CALCULATE DERATED RATING OF LOAD CURRENT

I derated =

PLL R 1 + KPEC R

36

EXAMPLE

IT MAY BE NECESSARY TO CALCULATE I2R LOSSES USING FULL LOAD CURRENT AND NAMEPLATE RATING OF RESISTANCE --OR AN ESTIMATE OF THE RESISTANCE.

A 67.5 kVA 1 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER IS RATED 7200 / 240 V. THE CORE LOSSES ARE 75 W AT RATED VOLTAGE, AND THE FULL LOAD LOSSES ARE 190 W. THE WINDING RESISTANCES ARE 0.5% TOTAL. FIND THE DERATED TRANSFORMER CAPACITY TO CARRY A LOAD CURRENT OF 150% THD WHICH IS COMPOSED OF FUNDAMENTAL AND THIRD HARMONIC.

38

37

SOLUTION

SOLUTION

I derated =

=

PLL R 1 + KPEC R

0.563 1 + (6.54)(0.222) pu

39

40

= 0.479

APPROXIMATION

250 200

PLL-R = PEC-R + 1

41

-50

8.33 ms

C B E M A

OVERVOLTAGE CONDITIONS

150

100

50

ACCEPTABLE POWER

RATED VOLTAGE

0.5 CYCLE

UNDERVOLTAGE CONDITIONS

TIME IN SECONDS

42

250 200

BUS B

OVERVOLTAGE CONDITIONS

150

100

50

+ 10% -0

ACCEPTABLE POWER

8.33 ms

RATED VOLTAGE

I T I C

1000

FAULT

0.5 CYCLE

z+, z-, z0

CIRCUIT BREAKER

SOURCE

-50

UNDERVOLTAGE CONDITIONS

LOAD

100

TIME IN SECONDS

43

44

Disturbances to loads, whether they be overvoltages or undervoltages, have an impact depending on how much excess energy is delivered to the load (in the overvoltage case) or how much energy was not delivered to the load (in the undervoltage case). If the cited energy level is too great, the operation of the load will be disrupted. This basic assumption is termed the constant energy model because it implies that the power acceptability curves are loci of constant energy. When the disturbance energy exceeds the locus plotted, the power supply is unacceptable. 45

Main challenges How to sell power quality as a service How to sell PQ measurement services How to compensate customers for unacceptable power

46

Voltage Sags

Variations in voltage that last less than 1 minute. Characterized by rms voltage vs. time plot.

Interruption and Sag Rate Probabilties as a Function of Ev ent Voltage Magnitude and Duration

90

80

70

50

30

20

10

20

30

40

50

60

180

300

10 >3000

47

D uration (C ycles)

Magnitude (%)

60

48

Number of specified short-duration rms variation per system customer Voltage threshold allows assessment of compatibility for voltage-sensitive devices 60 second aggregation

Frequency

140, 120, 110, 90, 80, 70, 50, 10

Mean: 17.72 Standard Deviation: 1.63 95% Confidence Interval: 14.52 to 20.92

Ni # customers experiencing rms < %V for variation i (rms > %V for %V >100) NT total # system customers

49

Cumulative Frequency

SARFI%V =

N

NT

30% 25%

100% 90%

50

Inject series voltage for phase control / exchange energy between phases Shunt positioning in system to inject current Back - to - back rectifier / DC link / inverter

51 52

AC - AC Converter Technologies

RECTIFIER DC link

The UPFC is intended for use at transmission levels and the DVR is intended for use at distribution levels

SERIES XFORMER

SUPPLY

AC/AC PWM CONVERTER

THE UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER AND DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER UTILIZE IGBT TECHNOLOGY TO GENERATE PWM SIGNALS OF CONTROLLABLE MAGNITUDE / PHASE. THIS EFFECTIVELY CONTROLS THE ACTIVE POWER FLOW WHEN INJECTED AS A SERIES VOLTAGE

LOAD

53

54

1/4 cycle response time Very low DC link power Can be protected by crowbaring supply Individual phase control / exchange energy between phases Controls slow variations in supply voltage The distribution version (DVR) can improve supply power factor and power quality For the distribution version, potential elimination of vulnerable load problems For UPFC, can reduce transmission congestion as well as improve dynamic response

LOAD VOLTAGE

SERIES VOLTAGE

Cost is very high Local solution (?) Controls are tricky Solution of diversity of ownership problems Relatively low power injected Limited experience in applications

55

56

Vser

SUPPLY BUS

OPTIONAL ENERGY STORAGE ELEMENT

RECTIFIER

420 PHASE B VOLTAGE (V)

LOAD VOLTAGE

LOAD BUS

280 140 0 19.53 29.30 39.06 48.83 58.59 68.36 78.13 87.89 97.66 0.00 9.77 -140 -280 -420 TIME (ms)

|V | cos L

u

SUPPLY VOLTAGE

MAXIMUM Vser

DC

PWM

C

Tshift Ma

LOAD CURRENT

CONTROLS

57

58

VL

MINIMUM SUPPLY VOLTAGE CORRECTABLE TO 1.0 PER UNIT

|VL ||IL | |V | = 0.25 |VL| 1

APPARENT (REACTIVE) POWER INJECTED BY SERIES TRANSFORMER (PU)

INCREASING |V 1 |

0.5|VL ||IL |

|V | = 0.5 |VL| 1

|V L - |Vser, max| |

|V | = 0.71 |VL| 1

1.0

1.0

|V | = 0.9|VL| 1

0.5

LAGGING POWER FACTOR

59

60

1 RECTIFIER LOADS

LINE COMMUTATED INFINITE DC INDUCTANCE FIXED DC CURRENT ZERO SUPPLY INDUCTANCE

1 RECTIFIER LOADS

LINE COMMUTATED INFINITE DC INDUCTANCE FIXED DC CURRENT NONZERO SUPPLY INDUCTANCE

V I I

dc

V =

ac

cos( u ) = 1 V dc = 2 2

a c fu n d a m e n ta l s u p p ly ,h

= I

dc

2 I dc L s 2V s 2 L s I dc

a c fu n d a m e n ta l

/ h

T H D = 4 8 .4 3 % D P F = 1 T P F Pdc = = 2 2

Vs u ) 2

DPF cos(

Pac = 2 2

P = V s I ac , fundamenta

V I

DPF = V dc I dc

s ,r m s

dc

61

62

1 RECTIFIER LOADS

FORCED COMMUTATED INFINITE DC INDUCTANCE FIXED DC CURRENT NONZERO SUPPLY INDUCTANCE

2 L s I dc Vs 2

Ia 1 ph bridge rect Ib 1 ph bridge rect Ic 1 ph bridge rect

CURRENT

2 2 I sup ply

fundamenta l

V s I dc cos( ) V s cos( + 2

2 L s

2 I dc

A B C

u ) 2

V dc =

2 2

V s cos( )

L s I dc

63

SUM

time

64

LINE COMMUTATED SIX PULSE INFINITE DC INDUCTANCE FIXED DC CURRENT ZERO SUPPLY INDUCTANCE

LINE COMMUTATED SIX PULSE INFINITE DC INDUCTANCE FIXED DC CURRENT NONZERO SUPPLY INDUCTANCE

V I I

dc

LL

s ,r m s

2 / 3I =

dc

Vdc =

3 2

su p ly , fu n d a m e n ta l

D PF = 1 TPF = 3

dc

2Ls I dc cos( u ) = 1 2VLL u DPF cos( ) 2 u P = 3VLL I sup ply , fundamenta l cos( ) = Vdc I dc 2

V LL

3LS

I dc

T H D = 3 1 . 0 8 % ( 5 , 7 ,1 1 , . . . )

65

66

FORCED COMMUTATED SIX PULSE INFINITE DC INDUCTANCE FIXED DC CURRENT NONZERO SUPPLY INDUCTANCE

CALCULATION OF HARMONIC LOADS CURRENTS FROM SINGLE PHASE AND THREE PHASE RECTIFIERS

3 L S

dc

LL

cos( )

2 L s I dc 2 V LL

I dc

THE HARMONIC LOAD CURRENT DEMANDS OF RECTIFIERS MAY BE CALCULATED FROM THE RECTIFIER FORMULAS TO FIND I1 THEN FIND THE ODD HARMONICS (SINGLE PHASE) OR 5, 7, 11, 13TH HARMONICS (SIX PULSE) USING THE 1/h RULE

68

67

EXAMPLE

A 1000 kVA three phase six-pulse rectifier serves a 2000 V DC load using the delay angle to hold the DC voltage constant over all loads in the range 100 to 250 kW. The supply transformer is rated 1100 kVA, 13.8 kV / 6900 V, x=20%, 50 Hz. Estimate the fifth and seventh harmonic currents on the high voltage side of the transformer in the 100 250 kW operating range.

69

SOLUTION

Find transformer reactance xbase = v

/ s = [(6900/

3 )2 / (1.1M/3)]

= 43.28 ohms

Ls = xs = 8.656 ohms

70

SOLUTION

FORCED COMMUTATED SIX PULSE INFINITE DC INDUCTANCE FIXED DC CURRENT NONZERO SUPPLY INDUCTANCE

SOLUTION

cos( ) 3 L S

dc

LL

I dc

cos(71.003+u)=cos (71.003)-(2)(8.656)(250k)/(6900)( 2)(2k) u = 13.042o

72

= 71.003o

71

SOLUTION

I1 = S/V = (1.157M/3)/(13.8k/1.732) = 48.405 A I5 = (1/5) I1 = 9.68 A I7 = (1/7) I1 = 6.92 A

SOLUTION

DPF = cos( + u/2) = 0.2149

73

74

SUMMARY

100 kVA operation 250 kVA operation

BREAK CIRCUIT INTO SEVERAL IDENTICAL SIX PULSE CONVERTERS EACH SIX PULSE CONVERTER OPERATES AT IDENTICAL P, I, V HARMONICS AT pn 1

75 76

2.78 A

5 7 7

DC machine drives

Controlled rectifier types Analysis as for rectifiers

PWM DRIVES

THE PWM DRIVE TECHNOLOGY RELIES ON THE USE OF A PULSE WIDTH MODULATOR THAT MODULATES A HIGH FREQUENCY WAVE (e.g., 10 kHz, THE CARRIER) WITH A SINUSOIDAL WAVE OF ARBITRARY FREQUENCY AND PHASE

77 78

PWM Rectifier-inverter Cycloconverter PWM analysis

PWM Rectifier - inverter Cycloconverter

Chopper analysis

V(f)

switching frequency much higher than carrier

fo

fc

carrier

adjustable amplitude adjustable phase

79 80

PWM

control

International Standards Groups

IEC (mostly TC 77) CIGRE (SC 36) The European Norm (EN) National standards worldwide (e.g., BNS)

Part 1: General (IEC Pub 1000-1)

fundamental principles, definitions, terminology

description, classification and compatibility levels

emission and immunity limits, generic standards

IEEE (really international, mostly PES and IAS) ANSI UL, NEMA, NFPA, NIST

81

techniques for conducting

installation guidelines, mitigation methods and devices

82

IEC Approach

Limit harmonic currents for individual equipment (type testing) IEC 1000-3-2 for equipment up to 16 amps IEC 1000-3-4 for equipment up to 75 amps (under development) This should limit overall harmonic distortion levels to acceptable values Procedure for evaluating customers supplied at medium voltage and high voltage (1000-3-6)

83

Limits for unbalance

LV-MV: HV: 1% 2%

Voltage Level LV MV HV EHV Pst (pu) 1 1 0.85 0.7 Plt (pu) 0.74 0.74 0.62 0.5

84

Customer/System Limits

Harmonic Voltage COMPATIBILITY LEVELS (IEC 1000-2-2)

ODD HARMONICS not multiple of 3 Harmonic Voltage (%) LV-MV HV Order h 6 5 3.5 3 2 1.5 1.5 1.5 0.2+1.3(25/h) 2 2 1.5 1.5 1 1 0.7 0.7 0.2+0.5(25/h) 3 9 15 21 >21 EVEN HARMONICS multiples of 3 Harmonic Voltage (%) LV-MV HV 5 1.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 2 1 0.3 0.2 0.2 Harmonic Voltage (%) LV-MV HV 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 2 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2

IEEE 519-1992 IEC 1000-2-2 (Compatibility Levels) IEC 1000-3-6 G5/3 (United Kingdom)

Order h 5 7 11 13 17 19 23 25 >25

Order h 2 4 6 8 10 12 >12

Equipment Limits

IEC 1000-3-2 (Formerly IEC 555-2) up to 16 amps IEC 1000-3-4 16-75 amps New Task Force in IEEE (Harmonic Limits for Single Phase Loads)

IEC 1000-4-7

85

86

Guide

IEEE P519A - Harmonics IEEE 1250 IEEE P1346 - Voltage sags Gold book - Reliability IEC 1000-5-#

87

IEEE

88

Recommended Practices

The utility is responsible for maintaining quality of voltage waveform. The customer is responsible for limiting harmonic currents injected onto the power system.

IEEE 446 - Emergency and Standby Power IEEE 519 - Harmonic Control IEEE 1001 - Interface with Dispersed Generation IEEE 1100 - Power and Grounding Electronics IEEE 1159 - Monitoring Power Quality IEEE 1250 - Service to Critical Loads IEEE 1346 - System Compatibility in Industrial Environments IEEE 1366 - Electric Utility Reliability Indices

89

90

Bus Voltage Maximum Individual Harmonic Component (%) Maximum THD (%)

Limit the harmonic currents from nonlinear devices on the system (customer harmonic current limits) Make sure that system resonances do not result in excessive magnification of the customer harmonic currents (utility control of system response)

91

92

Harmonic Current Limits - Customer Responsibility

SCR =Isc/IL

2.0

TDD

34.5 kV Bus Voltage Capacitor Switching Transien

<11

11<h<17

17<h<23

23<h<35

35<h

1.5 1.0

5.0

Voltage (V pu)

Values shown are in percent of average maximum demand load current SCR = short circuit ratio (utility short circuit current at point of common coupling divided by customer average maximum demand load current) TDD = Total Demand Distortion (uses maximum demand load current as the base, rather than the fundamental current) PCC = measurements taken at point of common coupling

93

Time (mS)

94

103

Clearance Sparkover

102

Graph for a 1 kV circuit Rate of surge occurrences versus voltage level at unprotected locations

101

Surges/Year

1

10-1

Low Exposure

10-2 0.3 0.5 1 2 5 10 20

95

Cost Competitiveness Down time Losses Loss of life Metering error EMC Proper service to the load

97

Calculated by the sum of the costs of the measures taken to improve PQ; or the cost of customer losses in industrial production; or the payment to customers for PQ problems; or the total active power energy loss plus metering error plus loss of life plus cost to serve peak including harmonic loss?

98

Alternatively estimated at 6B$ (BMI / Electrotek), 3B$ annually (EPRI) or 1B$ (Heydt at IEEE-T&D Meeting)

Losses depend on |I|2R Excess heating in iron components may be problematic Losses = costs, especially at peak periods Loss of life depends on Dakins rule, rate of reaction doubles every 20O C rise

99 100

Whatever the figure is, it is avoidable to some degree, and when costs occur, they can create real problems

Telephone interference (TIF) Computer interference (C-message weight index) Momentary outage hardening (CBEMA, ITIC) UPS and power conditioner applications

101

102

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