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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

I , Jana Shodiya, confirm that this research is my own work. I also confirm that due acknowledgement is given to the ideas of others incorporated in the assignment to enhance, contrast, or support the work.

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

Introduction Science refers to the entire approach we put into action to be aware in relation to this the human race. (Sheridan 2001, p.11) The interest develops within individuals from the time of the beginning; to be on familiar terms with the efficiency of the objects described to us in science. (Stefansson 2002, p.20) As we make use of our intellects to put together such matter that would facilitate us to present accurate understanding in conjunction with data with reference to this world, it is termed as science. Science approaches in the company of a set of laws as well as directives which are practiced in support of products. The outcomes that we attain are time and again altered to substantiate their authenticity. (Wellington & Osborne 2001, p.10) Science is not merely in relation to laws that various scientists repeatedly apply to their thoughts as well as creativeness to imagine some opportunities and after that hold their initiatives by means of conducting tests as well as research to confirm them exact. (Tillery, Enger & Ross 2007, p.3) Scientist usually looks for the answer of three questions whats there? How does it work? What is its origin? For instance, a scientist finds new species in the ocean. They will be taken to the laboratory to be tested, to see how they function and learn other properties about them. Then in the last but not the least, they would try finding out their history for instance since how long they have been on earth? , Were they always like this or they have evolved? Etc. At the present time, science is a diversified branch of studies. Science has infinite divisions, each extensive and interesting in its own way. Medicines, Geology, Zoology, Biology, Entomology, and Geochemistry are some of the well known branches of science. Since an educator of science, one requires impressions of the point of view of science to facilitate in expanding a comprehensible analysis on individual basis. (Easton 2005, p.19)

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

The nature of science Science is founded on the basis that our brain, as well as expansions of those logics during the utilization of mechanisms, is capable to provide us precise data on the subject of the cosmos. Science goes after extremely particular laws and its consequences are at all times cause to experience examination along with, if indispensable, reconsideration. (Atkin & Black 2003, p.54) Still among such restrictions science does not leave out, and over and over again profit from, originality as well as thoughts. (Aikenhead 2005, p.31) Continually as the initiating, the individual understanding has coddled itself into way of thinking of inspirations on the subject of public, ecological, substantial, as well as organic and material characteristics. (King 2006, p.59) These ways of thinking have been sustained through profound examination, belief, testing as well as substantiation. By means of practicing this course of action, scientists have been capable to enlighten greatly on the subject of the world. (National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment & National Research Council 1995, p.1) Science is a long lasting endeavour on the road to determine as well as boost individual awareness as well as appreciativeness in the course of closely controlled study. (Benton & Craib 2001, p.54) By means of restricted techniques, scientists bring together recognizable confirmation of innate or collective events, proof quantifiable statistics concerning to the interpretation, moreover scrutinize this data to create notional elucidations of how objects labour. (Committee for a Workshop on the Synthesis of Research on Adolescent Health and Development & National Research Council 2006, p.5) The techniques of systematic study take account of the creation of assumptions on the subject of how observable facts workout, in addition to carrying out tests that checks these supposition in restricted stipulations. (Berg & Latin 2007, p.86) Scientists are furthermore anticipated to make public their results so other scientists know how to do related researches to be in no doubt about their results. The consequences of this course of action facilitate enhanced perceptive of precedent occurrences, as well as improved aptitude to forecast potential occurrences of the identical type like those that are already analysed. (Committee on Enhancing the Master's Degree in the Natural Sciences & National Research Council 2008, p.2)

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

Science is the popular studying branch ever the reason being its research is supported by mathematics and technology to make it stronger. The nature of science is in much dept and its each dept possesses a set of its own characteristics, importance and comes with a history. In order to understand its importance we have divided the nature of science into two three parts. Worlds view of science Scientific research Dimensions of science

Worldwide View of Science Nearly all scientists carry the same attitude towards the nature of science. Some of their shared beliefs are mentioned below: World Is Systematic Place. According to scientists, the world is itself a set of rules and regulations which are understandable. In various places same methods are applied in a lot of places. For instance the principles of motion and gravity also explain the motion of moon and other planets. These principles of motions are applied in various other forces as well. For instance stars, weapon movements, vehicle movements, etc. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) With Time Scientific Ideas Change. Science is all about undergoing research and making theories. Many a times, it has happened that a theory of one scientist was accepted and implemented for many years, and then another scientist comes upfront and places his new theory which is based on more valid research techniques. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Science Does Not Answer All Questions. Although science has answers for almost all the questions but still there are various things for which science has no answers to such as life after death and spiritual existence of the planet earth, life on other planets. Moreover many of scientific analysis have been rejected by those who have religious beliefs, astrologists and fortune tellers. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Scientific Research Scientific research results into theories, hypothesis and logics. Although scientists way of working and the time they consume is different but still the techniques and the concepts are mostly the same. Although scientists are free to use any methods to conduct their research still science demands for certain common methods of research

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

to be utilized only then the theory derived would be claimed as accurate. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Evidence Is Required Theories, reports or hypothesis are all based on a claim. A scientist claiming that the world is round or a scientist claiming that oxygen is present in air. All these claims are to be backed by some evidence to be acknowledged worldwide. These evidences can be provided by studying the human beings, plants, insects or any other naturally occurring condition. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Imagination and Logic Scientists use their imagination to think of possibilities and then back this imagination with logics and evidence to proof them correct. Usually both logic and imagination is the core base of a new invention. For instance the scientists used both hypothesis and their imagination to tell us how the earth functions in the globe. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Science Predicts: Most theories have prediction power. Scientists first analyze the past, then they analyze the present situation of how something functions and then by examining the evidence they can predict how the subject would look like or function in the future. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Dimensions of Science Science is like an enterprise having personal, institutional and social dimensions, and each of them having its own characteristics and personalities. Science as Social Forum Science is a forum in itself. Science is applied in all corners of the world. Third world countries, developed countries, even undiscovered areas are indulged into various activities of science. Science provides employment opportunities to billion and promotes economical development. Scientists are now hired in schools, colleges, hospitals, research centres, and governmental institutes amongst several others. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Ethical Principles of Science Human welfare is the topmost priorities of science; therefore all such researches which can be harmful to human kind in any way are condemned. Whereas, work related to nuclear power is disliked by major portion of the scientific industry and

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

they consider such work to be done for personal benefits and not on the basis of professionalism. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Scientists Participation in Public Affair: Scientists have been always helpful in making us aware of various future events. They make us take necessary precautions for instance they have helped us take steps to avoid global warming for as long as possible. (Rutherford and Ahlgren, 1991, 1) Critical Evaluation of Literature Related to Nature of Science The literature related to nature of science is very complex and is a source of confusion for both teachers and students. (Meichtry, 2009, 1) The explanation of literature being versatile as well as complicated is the imprecise characterization of characteristic of science, which is the outcome of unsatisfactory as well as deficient investigation statistics in addition to the deficiency of awareness on the nature of science in the National Curriculum. (Strahler 1992, p.21) The literature joins together nature of science in addition to methodical information mutually into one. Even though each one of them is disconnect as well as varied in its individual techniques. Nature of science takes account of all the systematic actions carried out through individuals in order to scrutinize the innate observable fact or to include additional information to offered foundation of understanding. (Freeman & Reece 1998, p.56) While, systematic comprehension is the individual prepared, the artefact that appears into reality subsequent to carrying out logical actions is associated to regulations, conjectures as well as perceptions. (National Geographic 2008, p.3) The uncertainty takes place for the reason that the nature of science has been characterized into the similar terms like scientific information. (Erduran & Aleixandre 2007, p.23) According to Strahler (1992), The course of action of scientific inquisition as well as the expansion of familiarity in science represents the factual nature of science. Nevertheless scientific information is not the single constituent of nature of science; it furthermore incorporates nature of scientific endeavour. (Strahler 1992, p.28) Accepting logical information is now a division of nature of science. Apprentices have as well got to gain knowledge of how scientific initiatives are outlined, scrutinized as well as subsequently modified. (Abell 2007, p.38) Every one
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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

of the scholars ought to be on familiar terms with how scientists cosset themselves in such actions. Educators must be presented appropriate guidance to convey the literature in the proper approach. They should be true to life as well as encompass extensive understanding of nature of science as well as scientific knowledge. (Strahler 1992, p.23) There are more than a few science educators who take account of appropriate matter to formulate the apprentices comprehend the accurate nature of science as well as scientific knowledge within their course charts. (Reif 2008, p.21) However scores of educators do not worry since it is not incorporated inside the literature. (Cover & Curd 1998, p.34) The literature requires being adapted so that it will not generates misapprehension on the subject of nature of science as well as scientific knowledge. Spaced out from this, the literature is frail; furthermore it wants imperative reconsideration subsequent to asking practiced scientific instructors, lecturers in addition to publishers of the science program of study. (Committee on Enhancing the Master's Degree in the Natural Sciences & National Research Council 2008, p.6)

Science as a Subject in National Curriculum Science as a subject is highly interesting and exciting for the students. The national curriculum has divided science total into 4 parts. Key 1, Key 2, Key 3 and Key 4 each set to achieve the desired objectives those are the above mentioned aims. Lets discuss the four stages in detail: Key1 Key1 is all about living things, understanding their functions, personalities and properties. A study of life processes and physical process is also conducted. Their investigation skills are made strong. Topic is given to them to study, analyze and then give a class presentation on it. They are given orders to explain their topic and the comparisons they made. (Science and the National Curriculum for England, 2005, 16) Key 2 During key 2 students learn more extensively about the living things and the living processes. Over here due to the detailed knowledge given about certain principles they relate them to other similar phenomenas as well. Over here class discussions and sharing of ideas becomes common. They use equipments, charts, graphs and other

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

extensive resources to define their work and its emphasis on our daily life. (Science and the National Curriculum for England, 2005, 21) Key 3 Students start analyzing the effects of the physical and living processes on the environment. They start to understand the positive and negative impacts of science on the society. They learn how to think creatively, create evidence and then experiment their ideas. And in the end they make predictions. (Science and the National Curriculum for England, 2005, 28) Key 4 In key 4 single they learn the limitations of science in the fields of environment, industries, technology and they discover the ways to deal with them. They are taught of how scientists work together to create new ideas and then back these ideas with rational logics. (Science and the National Curriculum for England, 2005, 37) Draw backs of Science in National Curriculum The courses of science in national curriculum are too lengthy and difficult. Most students cannot cope up with them especially the ones in key1 and key2. Students of such age cannot spend their entire time studying or drooling over projects they need to play, socialize and participate in other activities as well or they will be mentally exhausted. Those students who are underachievers they suffer the most as national curriculum does not provide any alternative for them. The teachers due to the extensive courses are constantly tensed about not meeting up the target. Therefore they speed up their teaching affecting the students in the later stages. One reason of teachers being so disorganized now is because the curriculum has changed so many a times that it has shattered teachers confidence and is a constant threat to their expertise. (Cox and Sanders, 1994, 93) Due to hard course outlines and difficult targets to achieve the teachers do not generate time to illustrate the experiments in much detail. Most of the physical activities are left unattended and the students are given the burden to complete the projects on their own. (Cox and Sanders, 1994, 93)

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

The frequent changes in the syllabus often confuse the teachers. So many new ideas and new techniques of teaching being introduced each year pose a threat to the teaching style they are expert in since some time. The teachers spend a year to make policies that would help make go along with the syllabus set to realize the next year new changes being made. For them the things are too unsettling. (Cox and Sanders, 1994, 94)

The national curriculum does not create proper understanding about scientific knowledge and the conditions. It rather tells them about some array facts and concepts. According to Aarons (1983); The science in the National Curriculum is presented too quickly and is to much in quantity that it becomes a hindrance in understanding the important ideas, concepts or theories (Meichtry, 2009, 1)

Too much of knowledge freezes the student mind and they are unable to cultivate their senses of developing new ideas and theories. (Meichtry, 2009, 1)

Both pace and volume restricts the students from understanding meaningful scientific knowledge, its reactions on our heritage. They are also deprived from getting the true picture of the universe. All of this to leads to not understanding the genuine scientific literacy. (Meichtry, 2009, 1)

Duschl (1990) and Kilborne (1980) both pointed out that primary and secondary schools only focus on conducting experiments that are present in their book context and they do not focus on generating knowledge. (Meichtry, 2009, 1)

It is fact that National Curriculum has ignored scientific knowledge in the literature of nature of science, but even the teachers are not a helping hand. They rather than teaching the students on their accord, argue that they wouldnt teach out side the course outlines of national curriculum. (Meichtry, 2009, 1)

Teachers and Science

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

Science is a subject to be taught in a class of thirty five students can be both easy and difficult at the same for the teachers. It all depends on how the teacher takes it. Science has all a teacher could ask for. It has theory, experiments and practical, class presentations and the best some topics even give the teacher a chance to take the students out on a visit. But still some teachers are unsuccessful science teachers which as a result persuades the student to not to pick science as a major. Different Teaching Styles The most common methods that the teachers adopt are: Traditional Method This method is coming since the oldest times and is more based on lectures only. The teachers strictly follow the course outlines and aim at achieving their targets. Workbook is the source of information for the students. From lectures to assignments and to tests all is work book oriented. Class discussions are at the lowest rate thus discouraging independent thinking power. Too much information is given to the students thinking of them as tank fillers. Test and exam patterns are easy so that the teacher would have a smooth time checking them. This method is least successful and teachers are condemned to follow this approach. Classical Approach This method once again is lectures dependent only but it focuses on making the students reading, writing, observation and memorizing skills strong. In the middle age schools class discussions are promoted giving students a chance to debate, be argumentative and draw conclusions with the help of facts and figures. The draw back in classical approach is that there is very little curriculum available to support the approach thus teachers are forced to adopt other teaching styles. Unit Study Approach Unit Study Approach spotlights more on studying certain topics over a long period of time. Taking one topic such as human heart and then holding class discussions, presentations, showing class videos, making a doctor visit to highlight on the topic of heart and even inviting the parents to visit. Such method creates an interest in the Childs mind, but at the same time, Unit Study Approach is not only expensive but is also time taking. Due to the tough course outlines teachers cannot elaborate each topic in detail or they will fail to achieve their targets None of the above mentioned methods of teaching are successful. All the teachers know that in order to be an outstanding teacher they need to create a balance
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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

among theory, lab activities, class discussions and visits. But they fail to do. Mentioned below are some tips that could help the teachers grab the students attention and make them stick to science. Specific Method Universally there is no best way of teaching. The specific method says that teachers should perfect themselves in Lectures, Discussions, Demonstration and Lab activities to achieve the desired objectives. Lets discuss the ways through which the teachers can bring improvement in all these: Lectures: Lectures is the most traditional and unavoidable way of teaching. Lectures in subjects like Physics and Chemistry contribute very less to actual learning. One way to be the best in lectures is to engage the students. Professor Sharon Log teaches Biochemistry in Stanford University; lets see how she engages her students to participate. According to her: Before starting a lecture, I pass notes to the students having blanks in critical parts of the lecture. Whenever I reach to the critical points I pause and motivate the class to give out possible answer. This does not only enable the students to answer questions independently but has also strengthened the class attendance. Demonstrations: If illustrations are made on the topic being taught in the class, it helps the students get a clear picture. Demonstrations of everyday objects provoke more interest in the student. There are various resources that can help the teachers to choose the best demonstration for the class for instance ''Tested Demonstrations" column in the Journal of Chemical Education and the "Favourite Demonstration" column in the Journal of College Science Teaching. Discussions: Discussions are always to be planned. The goals of the discussions are to be pre decided. Tell the students how the discussions are to be structures whether the whole class will be involved or they will form groups. Encourage all students to participate and request them to bring mini demonstrations if possible. (Science Teaching Reconsidered- A Handbook, 1997, 15) Collaborative Learning and Laboratories:

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

Collaborative learning is must and should be done effectively in the form of inside and outside class discussions. Laboratories are also a part of collaborative learning. Experiment nourishes all scientific knowledge and understanding. Updated lab equipment should be available and students involvement should be made to make them interested. (Science Teaching Reconsidered- A Handbook, 1997, 15) Like said above, there is no best way of teaching science, a combination of these all in the best manner will help the teachers to maintain the students interest level. Misconceptions in Science Teachers often find that even with their best of efforts students do not understand the concepts being explained in the class. Its because the basics of the students are weak which leads to confusion in the later classes. Students make their own beliefs which they so strongly hold faith in that no matter how hard the teacher tries she cannot break the shell. It is the responsibility of the teacher to identify these misconceptions. Some of the major misconceptions are: Rooted Conceptions Rooted Conceptions are those which the student believes in since childhood. They often surround heat, gravity and energy issues. (Science Teaching Reconsidered - A Handbook, 1997, 28) Religious Beliefs Religious Beliefs are by far the most troubling in science teaching. Many theories put forward by scientist conflict those placed in holy books. The students having strong religious beliefs tend to ignore the other theories completely. The best example is controversy faced on the topic Life after Death since decades. (Science Teaching Reconsidered - A Handbook, 1997, 28) Conceptual Misunderstandings Sometimes when a teacher explains some process in the class and it conflicts with the students religious or rooted belief. Then this gives birth to utter confusion and the student thinking he will be humiliated if he questions, chooses to stay quiet. (Science Teaching Reconsidered - A Handbook, 1997, 28) Vernacular Misconceptions

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

Sometimes a word which has a different meaning in real life and has a different meaning in science tends to confuse the students most. The best example is the sentence the glaciers are retreating. The students interpreted that glaciers turned and moved to another direction although in science retreat for glaciers mean melting. Such kinds of words utterly confuse the students. (Science Teaching Reconsidered - A Handbook, 1997, 28) Removing Misconceptions It is the duty of every teacher to remove misconceptions if she wants the student to have full understanding of the topic. Certain methods through which misconceptions can be broken down are: Identifying Misconceptions A teacher first needs to identify the misconception. In this regard the teachers can get a lot of help as already there are already various lists of common misconceptions made by the teachers and researchers available. (Science Teaching Reconsidered - A Handbook, 1997, 29) Make Students Speak out the Misconceptions Misconceptions can be revealed by both throwing questions at the students and encouraging them to speak or by making them come on the stage and elaborate or sketch a phenomenon. In this manner the misconceptions will be easily relieved. Help Students Eradicate the Misconceptions It can be by applying following strategy: Identify the misconception Make the students speak the misconception. Show them the misconception is wrong by illustrating and lab work Repeat the misconception as much as possible.

Use of ICT in Science Teaching Information and Communication Technology has dramatically entered the classroom in the past years and has become an integral part of teaching. In the UK, the ICT has become famous since it has been introduced in the curriculum. The technology which is most common in science classes is video conferencing, graphic calculators and several softwares. Required Essentials for ICT

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

Every school wants to have an Information and Communication Technology working in their schools. In order to do they should see they have following perquisites: Skilled faculty, knowing about online teaching. Technology is easily accessible by both teachers and students. Necessary courses are available online, digital library is present.

(Malik, 2006, 1) Positive Effects of ICT on Teaching Provide Learning Opportunities. ICT helps in overcoming the barriers that students face in understanding science. It is also helpful for the teachers as it provides them with more illustration material. It is of great help to the students while: Doing assignments, they can redraft without going through the efforts of rewriting Improvement in visual communication. More first hand information on the net available. Drawing dynamic graphs. (Sears, 1991, 17)

More Exposure. Sitting in a class, the students can travel through out the world through multimedia presentations and internet access. They can see industrial processes and scientific processes in their laboratory and classes. This saves the school from the expense spent on trips. (Sears, 1991, 213) Improved Lab Activities. Such scientific equipments have been invented which can be kept in the labs without worry of safety and precaution. Various experiments can be conducted on these equipments which motivate the students to the highest level. Experiments such as sensing the changes in environment excite the students to see the variables and make predictions. (Sears, 1991, 213) Interesting way of Collecting Data. The equipment not only enables the students to make new kind of experiments but also collects and organizes the data into charts, graphs and tables. It has prompted the students to place more efforts in making appreciable presentations. (Sears, 1991, 213)

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

Teachers taking Advantages of Latest Technology. With the latest technology such as, T.V and the internet allow the teachers to select electronic programs as a part of their teaching style. Technology is now relatively simpler and easier to handle easy software are available. The improved Microsoft Office enables the teachers to draw graph, table, database and present files directly from the internet. Up-to-date information is available nearly on all topics such as earthquake, globe pictures, and new chemical knowledge and health portals. (Sears, 1991, 213) Staff Training of ICT According to the latest changes in National Curriculum funding are to be made to facilitate training material to the teachers in all schools. Government promises to guide the teachers so that they can exploit the technology to the maximum for their and the students benefit. More and more journals and digital libraries are being uploaded on the net to help the teachers to gather relevant material according to their lectures. Training sessions are to be kept soon in all parts of the country to so that the teachers can become aware of the latest tools and our able to do better in the classrooms. (Sears, 1991, 214) Importance of Practical and Investigations in the learning of Science Alongside theories class demonstrations and making students do practical and investigations on the topics they are studying are highly essential to give them the clear idea about the two domains of knowledge, first domain of objects and materials and second of ideas. Lets discuss some of the benefits that Practical do on both students and teachers: Converting Scientific Knowledge to an Effective Mean of Communication Language and lectures play an effective part in defining the processes of life and living things and other scientific theories. But sometimes it is not enough, through experiments and physical activities when teachers further elaborate the topic it helps the student to clarify their concepts. (Millar, 2004, 1) Practical Experiments Help in Understanding World One living in this world needs to have an understanding of how this world works. We need to know what is oxygen is made off? How is sunlight harmful for us? What is gravity? And etc. when the students experiment on weight, volume, substances, objects it makes them aware of the worlds way of working. (Millar, 2004, 1) To Attain Knowledge

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

It helps the students to attain knowledge on objects, events, properties and even on ideas. Overall, it helps students to learn about: Theories and logics. Concepts and phenomenas Facts and figures. Objects and their properties. Existence of relationship amongst various variables. (Robin Millar,2004,1)

Practical and Experiment It is assumed that the students will learn all about science if they just acquire scientific knowledge through books and lectures. It is not true, with research it is now evident that if students are indulged in experiments and scientific investigations their understanding will be more clear. Moreover their motivation level will also increase and their investigation and creativity skills strengthened. (Millar, 2004, 1) Teaching Nature of Science Nature of science is the basics of all science. Topics are observation, measurement, relationship between data and experiments, quality control measurements amongst several others can be better taught through Practical. The investigation processes can be very useful in class if taught in detail giving out clarity of the intended outcomes. (Millar, 2004, 1) Looking at the above importance of investigations and experiments, it is clear that they are essential to develop not only scientific knowledge but also to develop students knowledge about science. Issues in Teaching Science Difficulties in Hand on Activities Hand- on activities is undertaken by the teachers to create interest in the students. Teaching them carpentry, cooking, welding and automotive are the major hand on activities that students indulge themselves in. some of the issues that teachers face due to which students are not able to understand these important processes are: (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Non-Availability of Labs And Supplies Some of the major lab supplies which are required are utilities such as gas and electricity, equipment such as scales and microscope and safety materials. If these

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

basic necessities are missing then teachers are unable to perform to the best level. Labs should be available at all costs for the teachers. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Maintenance of Lab It is the teachers responsibility to make sure that labs are maintained. The supplies are not broken and the technology is not outdated. When the teacher and the group of students come in to the lab to find that the supplies are not available or they are broken it comes as a de motivation factor for the students. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Teachers Do Not Set Up The Labs Some labs need a lot of time to be set up such as biology labs. It is must for the teacher that she should herself contribute in setting up the labs to make sure that supplies are set properly and also to make a revision in the head about the topic to be taught. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Teachers are motivated to pick below averaged students as volunteers to set up the labs before the class and also to clear the labs in order to raise their interest. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Other Issues Students Improper Behaviour It is mostly seen that students carry an inappropriate behaviour not only toward the subject but they also have disrespect for the teachers. This makes things difficult for the teachers. Making an unwilling student to respect and take interest in both the subject and the teacher is the ultimate challenge for the teacher. One way to raise their interest level is by making them an assistant for few classes. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Shortage of Skilled Science Teachers There are many science teachers but majority of them is lacking in either qualification or experience. They do not have proper knowledge to give out to the students. Often at the questions asked by students they become dumbfounded and thus loosing their own respect in front of the students eyes. Professional development for the teachers is of high priority. Orientations and training should be given to them from time to time. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Methods of Improving the Teaching style Reduce Class Size Often it is seen that one class has 30 to 40 students such a large number of students distracts them from concentration. More over the teacher also cannot give special

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

attention to the below average student. In comparison it is seen that those classes who have 24 to 28 students their grades are relatively better. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Elaboration Material Needs To Be Improved The lab material needs to be improved and updated. The school should make sure that if the students are being involved in physical activities then it should help them in their daily life. They should be able to relate these processes to their every day routine. Outdated material created a lack of interest in the students. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Improvement of Science Education Overall Immediate efforts need to be taken to bring changes for betterment in science education. The course outlines should not be so strict, irrelevant topics need to be removed; whereas, those topics that would help the students to become more creative and with hold the interest in science should be promoted. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Teachers Should Make Effort to Fill the Communication Gap A teacher should be a teacher but t the same time a friend as well. Strict teachers are not as successful as compared to those who are involved in a healthy teacher relationship with their students. The teacher in order to improve their communication level with the students should make them talk on general topics, respect their views and appreciate them wherever required. (Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Teachers Should Promote Science Fairs and Visits The teacher has to go to the extraordinary level to make sure that his/her students stay focused on the subject. Science as a subject is very lucky in this regard, the teachers can hold science fairs and exhibitions. Moreover, on topics such as zoology and biology visits should be arranged to governmental research centres, universities, hospitals and many other places of such sort. Such visits infatuate the students and they stick to the subject. (Moufida Holubeshen, 2005, 1) Conclusion It is quite clear that National Curriculum does not contain the ability to give birth to creative scientists as countries like the US, the UK, Norway and other countries demand for. The science teachers are incompetent but their incapability of producing appreciable teaching styles should not be solely blamed. As the curriculum is also the source of keeping the teachers back. The hard targets, the difficult course outlines and the constant changes in the course outlines create frustration in the teachers. And once the teachers themselves loose interest in the subject they are teaching then the battle
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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

with the students is lost. The national curriculum society should realize their mistakes; they should consider the fact that it is the youth they are dealing with here. Rather than frustrating them with education they should make science easy and interesting for them so that the students pursue the career in any field of science ahead and prosper.

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

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The Nature of Science and how the subject is represented in the National Curriculum and taught in schools

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