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ECE531 GRADUATE PAPER, VOL. 1, NO.

1, DECEMBER 2010

Review of DC-DC Interleaved Boost Converters


James Davidson, Member, IEEE
Loop Regulation (OLR) - - uses current-programming error to adjust the reference of the outer (shared) voltage loop until equal load current distribution is achieved. External Controller (EC) achieved by comparing all load sharing signals from the individual power units and adjusting the corresponding feedback control signal to balance the load currents. Basic Average Current Programming (BACP) power stage output current is compared to a system average and current adjusted based on error signal. Modied Average Current Programming (MACP) uses a comparator instead of an op-amp to generate the error signal. Isolation Average Current Programming (IACP) generates a signal whose frequency is proportional to current for the control signal. Dedicated Master (DM) a single power module is chosen as the current reference, Rotating Master (RM) each module is capable of being the master and is selected based on control logic, Automatic Master (AM) module with highest current is automatically selected as the master and the other modules are adjusted to balance currents. Method 2 by Huang [2] uses a circuit and control method based classication. Circuits are combinations of current and/or voltage sources and control methods are current sharing and voltage regulation loops. Circuits have three classications: 1) parallel voltage sources as Thevenin equivalent circuits, type I, 2) a single voltage source in parallel with multiple current sources (Norton equivalent circuits), type II, and 3) parallel current sources, type III. There are only 2 categories for control method. Interleaved power-poles either have current sharing or they dont. Voltage regulation is included in type denition. Both classication schemes use a simulation of switched load to identify advantages and disadvantages of general topology. Additionally, Luo examines a matrix of control structures and current-programming methods to identify combinations that are potential new schemes. Five papers were analyzed to determine how they would be classied and to identify any new topologies that dont t into existing categories. A current sharing method using mutual inductance is not classiable using Luo method. The papers evaluated are: (1) Synthesis and analysis of a multipleinput parallel SC DC-DC converter [3] is classied as Type I without current sharing/Inherent droop feature. This is two step-up converters supplying a xed load. It has no voltage or current feedback. The step-up converters are switchedcapacitor designs. (2) Novel analog adaptive 3-loop average current mode control of parallel DC-DC converters [4] is classied as Type I with current sharing/OLR-MACP. The novel feature is adding additional control loop in the current sense feedback loop. (3) Modeling and controller design of inductor-coupled multimodule DC-DC convertor with masterslave current-comparing scheme [5] is classied as Type III with current sharing/ILR average current sharing. (4) Analysis of the interleaved APWM converter with less power switches

AbstractThis paper evaluates two approaches to classifying parallel operation of converters [1][2]. The classication methods are compared. Several parallel DC-DC converter topologies are classied using each method and the ease of classication is discussed. . Luo classication fails for modern interleaved converters that use mutual inductance as the current sharing mechanism. Mutual inductance as the current sharing mechanism is reviewed. Advantages of interleaved power poles are reviewed. Index TermsBoost, DC-DC, interleave, converter.

I. I NTRODUCTION

NTERLEAVED (parallel) power poles are circuit design methods that enable redundancy and current sharing across multiple switch mode power supplies. The advantages are reduced current ripple, redundancy, and lower currents through an individual power pole leg. The literature is extensive this topic. To keep this paper to a reasonable length only DC-DC boost methods are reviewed. A key concern for interleaved circuits is to ensure the desired current sharing occurs. It is also important to design circuits to ensure catastrophic failure does not occur when one or more power legs are removed from the design. First classication methods will be review and it will be shown that one of the classication methods doesnt classify all interleaved converter designs. Secondly, a review of magnetically coupled interleaved designs is done. Followed by a SPICE simulation to demonstrate some characteristics of interleaved converters. jdd November 28, 2010 A. Classication methods Two classication methods have been found in the literature. They will be referred to as Luo and Huang methods. The classication approach by Luo [1] identies current sharing parallel converters based on control techniques. It divides converters between droop and active current sharing methods. Droop methods are further classied as 1) inherent droop feature converters, 2) voltage droop due to series resistor, 3) voltage droop via output current feedback, 4) current mode with low DC gain, and 5) scheduling control via non-linear gain. Active current sharing is subdivided into three control structures with six current programming methods. Charts taken from [1] and [2] clarify classications. In order to understand how the Luo classication methods compare it is necessary to include several denitions from [1] . Inner Loop Regulation (ILR) - reference voltage, voltage feedback and compensator are common to individual power-pole legs. Outer
J. Davidson is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 USA e-mail: davidsoj@onid.orst.edu). Manuscript received December 4, 2010.

ECE531 GRADUATE PAPER, VOL. 1, NO. 1, DECEMBER 2010

[6] is classied as type 3 with current sharing/OLR-BACP. (5) Performance analysis of a multi-mode interleaved boost converter [7] is Type 3 with current sharing and there is no appropriate category using Luo classication. This topology uses mutual inductance of parallel switched inductors to balancing current load. Review of additional papers could likely identify additional topologies not addressed by Luo or Huang methods. Based on this limited review it is determined the Luo method is insufcient for classifying some modern interleaved DC-DC converters. The introduction of mutual inductance method of current sharing is introduced in 1995 with [8]. At least two additional papers validate this method [9], [10]. The Huang method doesnt attempt to identify the type of current sharing and is therefore still a valid classication scheme. 1) Subsubsection Heading Here: Subsubsection text here. II. C ONCLUSION The conclusion goes here. A PPENDIX A P ROOF OF THE F IRST Z ONKLAR E QUATION Appendix one text goes here. A PPENDIX B Appendix two text goes here. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank... R EFERENCES
A [1] H. Kopka and P. W. Daly, A Guide to LTEX, 3rd ed. Addison-Wesley, 1999.

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James D. Davidson Graduate student at Oregon State University, College of Electrical and Computer Engineering. PLACE PHOTO HERE

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