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1. Definition 2

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15 Family As An Institution Types And Functions Of Family Importance And Role Of Family Common Problems That Affect Society Family Relationship Problems Family Charts Causes And Prevention Of Family Violence Mediation Recommendation to avoid conflicts How Family Stay Happy Defective socialization due to outside agencies Family System In Islam Rules And Functions In Islam Conclusion 2 3 4 4-5 5-6 6-7 8-9 9-10 10-11 12-14 14 15 16-17 17

A group of persons sharing common ancestry.

A family is a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation and reproduction (George Burdock) The family is a socially sanctioned, relatively permanent grouping of people who are united by blood, marriage or adoption and who generally live together and cooperate Page | 2 economically (Hedbing and Glick) The family is a relatively permanent group of persons linked together in social roles by ties of blood, marriage or adoption, who live together and cooperate economically and in the rearing of children (Brinkerhoff and White) The family is further defined as group of people who are related through marriage, blood or adoption, interact with one another in their designated roles of husband, wife, mother, son, etc and create and maintain a common subculture (Lanz and Snyder) Totally, the family is a most important primary group in which members share economic resources and day-to-day responsibilities.

No other factor influences children as deeply as their families. As a social unit with genetic, emotional, and legal dimensions, the family can foster the child's growth, development, health, and well-being. The family can provide the child with affection, a sense of belonging, and validation. Every area of a child's life is affected by the family.

The family is a group of intimate people emotionally involved and related either by blood, marriage or adoption, responsible for the reproduction and rearing of the children and living together. The family is an institution from where one can learn the rules of life, the pace of life. One can lead the whole life only on which he was brought up n lead his life according to it. In family socialization is done in which learning the expectations (standards of values and specific norms of behaviors) associated with various roles in which the individual is allocated. Individual living in a family will adopt the same habits, norms customs, traditions, and folkways. The family is an institution which shows once Individual Personality. The family is a basic and vital unit of social structure. The family in this sense is the center of religion, education and socialization for its members.


Nuclear Family = mother, father and children: "The traditional British family unit is a nuclear family." Single-Parent / One-Parent Family = a family which only has one parent (because the parents are divorced, or because one of the parents has died): "There are more and more single-parent families in the UK." Page | 3 Immediate Family = your closest relatives: "Only immediate family members attended the funeral." Extended Family = your entire family: "The wedding invitations were sent to the entire extended family." Close-Knit Family = a family where the members have close relationships with each other: "They are a close-knit family." Dysfunctional Family = a family where the members have serious problems with each other: "He comes from a rather dysfunctional family." Blood Relative = a relative connected to you by "blood" rather than through marriage: "She's not a blood relative, but we're still very close

The family has basic functions. In order for the family to meet a child's psychological needs, its members must be nurturing, convey mutual respect, provide for intimacy, and engage in bonding and attachment. The family also socializes the child, guiding the child to be members of the society beyond the family. The family conveys religious and cultural beliefs and traditions to the next generation. The family is the child's source of economic resources, which meet the child's various physical needs for food, shelter, and clothing. Then, too, the family sees to it that the child receives health and dental care.

The family provides for the continuity of mankind through reproduction. The family regulates sexual behavior The family provides the necessary care, training and protection of every member. The family is responsible for socializing the child The family provides the means by which an individuals social status is initially fixed. The family is an important mechanism for social control The family performs the function of biological maintenance The family has an educational function The family has a religious function The family has political function


The strong or weak mental and physical aspects of the organism inherited from the parents can be develop in the family In the family, the child learns the meaning of social responsibility and the necessary for Page | 4 cooperation. It plays a significant role in socializing persons The family is transmitter of culture The family serves as a model for the establishment of another family


The family is a foundation on any child and the family plays an important role in our society today. Family begins the first foundation in any childs life, has a vital role and effects on the society, the family is the product of our society because they are the determinant of what we would have or what will become of our society in the future, so therefore, it is what the parents gives or feed the children with that they turns out to give back to the society tomorrow. So many parents had failed in terms of training their children morally, socially, educationally, interactively, religiously and many other ways. Some parents takes their time to teach their children only on the social and educational aspects of life and lives other aspects, while some parents even fails to do any of these and the children turns out to be thieves robbers and so on. These are the major problems that we face in the society today. Only if parents can take their time and give their children a better home training that is when we can have a perfect society tomorrow, and in conclusion the family has a strong effect on our society and determines the kind of society we should be expecting tomorrow.


Poverty is the single most powerful risk for families and children and affects families in many ways. Poverty exerts its greatest impact during childrens preschool years, the age group in which children are most likely to live in poverty. Poor families are less likely or able to provide educational and cultural experiences for their children. Parents' economic status (education, occupation, and income) controls the parent's ability provides adequate housing, a safe environment, and responsible child care while the parents work. Availability of and quality of social support influence family life and wellbeing as individuals cope with raising children in poverty. Unemployment by either or both parents causes financial hardships and social and emotional strain, which can disrupt family life. The quality of the parent's work and the

satisfaction the parent gets from it affects the parents and, in turn, their effectiveness in parenting. Child abuse and neglect is a destructive force in families and results in children's anxiety , depression, lowered self-esteem , and a decline in school performance. Similarly, children who witness domestic violence suffer some of these same Page | 5 consequences. Economic stress affects the whole family. When financial problems occur, the family may be forced to move for employment. Families have lifestyle commitments and ties to their community. When these ties break-up, children, especially adolescents, are likely to experience a loss of hope. Parental career disappointments can cause anxiety and selfdoubtin children. Family economic stress may cause parental substance abuse, which can lead to school distraction and declining academic performance in young people.


All families have some type of relationship problem. These can be simple family relationship problems or more complex family relationship problems. No matter how complex your family relationship problems are it can be hard understanding them. To begin to understand common family relationship problems is to realize that every family member is different and we should stop comparing. We will always be different from our family members by wanting and needing things that make us an individual. Wanting different things is good but many times we are made to feel like we should all like and do the same things because we are family. This is not true. Families are precious because everyone brings something different to the table. Once family members realize that they are all unique and stop trying to become like the other is when the family relationship problems disappear. Looking at ways to understand family relationship problems will have you looking at how the family members interact with each other. Look at the family relationships for negative tones or meanness. Many times a family relationship problem can begin because one family member was negative to another family member. Hurt feelings can then fester and create more hurt feelings and soon there is a huge family problem that needs some help. By understanding how other family members feel you can begin to understand common family relationship problems.

While looking at how the family interacts together to form an understanding of common family relationship problems you will also want to look at jealousy. Even in a family where kids are always treated the same there will be some kind of jealousy. Jealousy can begin with something as small as one child getting the bigger sucker but can move onto one child getting a better education. Jealousy can create a lot of family relationship Page | 6 problems that can carry over into adulthood. Just as each family member is different you should also try to realize that every family member will also get different things. There is no room for jealousy in any relationship especially a family. Understanding common family relationship problems is very tough. No two people are the exact same so no two families are exactly the same. Many of the same relationship problems can occur in every family all across the world. Some of these problems were discussed here while more problems could still be addressed. Some of the most common family relationship problems are misunderstandings that are brought on by comparing each other, meanness or negativity towards other family members and jealousy of other family members.


addictions and unhealthy compulsions "moods," like depression excessive fears, anger, or apathy excessive social isolation one or more psychosomatic illnesses conflicts among family adults and kids impasses and relationship cutoffs family role (responsibility) conflicts interpersonal rules, boundaries, and consequences asset and debt ownership and manage-ment, including saving vs. spending, insurance, and estate plans personal, couple, and family privacy

personal health issues home decorating and maintenance buying and maintaining appliances geographic relocations relations with relatives and friends work and career problems leisure and socializing choices parenting stressors balancing work, play, and rest family vacations, holidays, rituals, and celebrations family conflicts over religion, politics, and healthcare neighborhood and community


adult ignorance (lack of knowledge)of


effective communication basics and problem-solving skills; and of... healthy-grieving basics, and how to spot and finish incomplete mourning; and... relationship and family basics; and... typical kids' needs, and effectiveparenting skills

adult inability to spot and resolve...


values conflicts, including priority cla Page | 7 shes; boundary clashes and violations; loyalty conflicts; and stressful relationship triangles; significant barriers to satisfying relation-ships; and...

o o o o

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unwise cohabiting, courtship (commitment), child conception, and job decisions; and...

lack of informed family, community, and media family support, including uninform-ed churches, clinicians, and legal professionals


1. Unequal role distributions 2. Alcoholism 3. Frustration due to poverty and unmet needs 4. Psychopathology of the person 5. Projection used by husbands to satisfy their ego 6. Extramarital relationship 7. Non performance of roles by the partner

8. Infidelity

9. Jealousy 10. Self hate 11. Psychological or physical abuse. 12. Money 13. Rivalry 14. Anger problems. 15. Control 16. Hatred of another or others.

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Family violence prevention goes hand-in-hand with the recognition that family violence is a serious problem in our communities. Such recognition isn't easy. This is a problem that often goes unnoticed. Violence in families frequently remains invisible because family members are reluctant to report it. Professionals may not detect the presence of violence or they may fail to report it when they realize it has occurred. There are those who argue persuasively that the solutions to family violence are to be found among the various social ills that directly or indirectly influence its victims such as poverty, unemployment, and inadequate housing. However, societal-level solutions are often the most difficult to describe and implement. On a more practical level, there is considerable agreement that "violence begets violence." That is, the acceptance and glorification of violence, the victimization of children, and marital violence all contribute to the level of violence in our communities. A number of examples appear to strengthen the "violence begets violence" position. For example: Children, who grow up in a climate of violence, either as abused children or as observers of abuse, are more likely to commit acts of violence than children who have not grown up in a climate of violence. 2. Abused children are more aggressive toward their peers than children who have not been abused. 3. The more children are spanked; the more likely they are to be violent toward their siblings, commit juvenile delinquency and serious crimes, and to be abusive spouses or abusive parents. 4. Children and young adults who are exposed to violent television display more aggression than children who are not. Most experts in the field emphasize the importance of preventing family violence rather than reacting to it after the fact. However, human service providers and community leaders have traditionally adopted a crisis management approach instead of developing needed preventive measures. As professionals we seem to be good at reporting and investigating, and not so good at treatment and prevention. Too many communities continue to direct the bulk of their resources toward responding to, rather than preventing, family violence. Prevention efforts are beginning to take hold, however. An increasing number of successful projects are being directed at potential victims and perpetrators, and families at-risk of violence. School-based programs teach elementary children the social skills they will need to get along and to solve problems without using violence. Participation by high school and

college students in courtship violence awareness programs may be useful in preventing family violence, and later on, marital violence. Health care providers are receiving additional training that will help them respond more effectively to family violence. Also, training is taking place to promote interagency collaboration. When police, lawyers, and treatment providers work together, the Page | 9 improvement in outcomes is dramatic. Judges and district attorneys have a substantial role in the prevention of violence. It is important that the courts convey a clear message that family violence is unacceptable and that it will not be tolerated. A community that refuses to tolerate a behavior is likely to produce fewer citizens who engage in that behavior. Some communities are being effective in preventing family violence by helping at-risk families identify and meet their needs. This is an especially popular approach for child abuse prevention because many abusive and neglectful parents may not know how to be good parents. They may be young and immature, have economic pressures, and be socially isolated. Maritally violent couples may experience similar problems. Those who focus on marital violence interventions believe that prevention efforts should take place as early as possible. NEED FOR PROGRAM: Violence in the family is a social problem that is receiving increased attention at the state, and national levels. Broken families, emotionally damaged children, lost productivity in the work place, and increased demands for medical services are just some of the human and social costs of violence. The phrase "cycle of violence" describes what takes place when parental violence is witnessed by the children and then repeated in the children's peer relationships. There is an increasing need for early intervention to prevent relationship violence and to help break the cycle of violence in families. Violence in the schools has become a serious problem. Much of the violent behavior that occurs in the schools is a re-enactment of violence that has been learned at home. Children from violent and otherwise dysfunctional homes are often violent and dysfunctional at school. Teachers are not trained to deal effectively with the problems these children present. Problem children are often removed from the positive learning experience of the classroom. Eventually they may even be excluded from school altogether because of their overly-aggressive, disruptive behavior towards their peers and others. The family is the most important agent of socialization for our children. As the poet, Alexander Pope, observed: "Just as the twig is bent, the tree's inclin'd." Research evidence continues to point to the profound influence childhood victimization plays in producing the next generation of abusers. The greater the severity and frequency of the victimization within the family, the greater the likelihood of severe and frequent violent offending outside the family. Some practitioners believe that, if we can reduce all family violence - not just the abuse and neglect of our children - we can prevent future violence by its young victims.

PARENTING CONFLICTS - Parents can get into conflict over how to discipline children. Child care issues can also cause conflict in the family. One of the most severe forms of Page | conflict in dealing with children is what is called PINS (persons in need of supervision). 10 These are children who are frequently in trouble, many times with the law or school authorities, who do not seem to be responding to the influence of parents. PROPERTY CONFLICTS - One major source of family conflict is property. Especially when property needs to be divided, either during a divorce or in an estate settlement, families can become very combative and serious conflict can result. SEPARATION CONFLICTS When a couple decides to separate, there can be major conflicts as to who will take responsibility for what duties need to be taken care of. Child care, property maintenance, and bill payment responsibilities can all be issues that cause conflict. CUSTODY CONFLICTS When children need to be cared for, whether because of death or divorce, custody issues can be a major source of conflict in families. This can involve extended family members in the conflict, which adds to the complexity of the conflict. FINANCIAL CONFLICTS - Like property conflicts, financial issues can cause serious family conflicts. This can be between a married couple, parents and children, and extended family. This can result from job loss or disability, death, or divorce. SUPERVISION CONFLICTS - In many cases, there is a person in the family who needs supervision. This can be for people with disabilities, children, older adults, or family members in need of healthcare.

Mediation can help in any of these situations. Why are these conflicts so traumatic?

One reason is that we expect families to be an oasis of love, support, and acceptance. Mothers and fathers are supposed to love each other and their children. Children are supposed to love and respect their parents. Even in the worst situations, we believe that we can always count on our family. When disputes cause separations in families, it is especially hard to understand and deal with.



Don't blame each other. Poorly functioning families try to attach the blame to someone inside or outside the family. Healthy families see the crisis as a family-centered problem. They work together to correct or change the problem.

Be patient. Well-functioning families recognize the need for peace-making, patience and consideration. Poorly functioning families quickly respond with anger. Be good stress managers. Practice a healthy lifestyle and plan well-deserved relaxation times.

Try to gain control over whatever part of life you can. Flood victims are encouraged 11 to seek this control, even if it means putting their remaining possessions in storage, or buying a hot-plate on which to cook. Remain optimistic, striving to see the brighter side, without denying reality. Help each family member have high self-esteem and help them be self-reliant. Praise each other often and encourage the strengths of each person. Give daily reminders of your love and appreciation. Healthy families are clear and direct about feelings, particularly expressions of commitment, affection and praise. Do things together as a family. Go on family outings, plan fun time at home, hold family meetings, play together and go to church together. Talk openly and honestly. Poorly functioning families may not talk, may keep secrets, or have many topics they cannot or will not discuss with each other. Develop a strong social network by participating in community organizations, accepting help and supporting others.

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If you can't get "unstuck," seek professional help. Do you want to live the rest of your life this way? If not, can you develop a workable plan to "make things better?" If not, get help from a reputable family service agency in your area. Kids Feel Stress Too When a family is experiencing a crisis, all its members are affected -- including the children. Sometimes adults believe that kids do not really feel stress, but they do. Some signs that your child may be stressed are

Your child is misbehaving more than usual Your child is more quiet than usual Your child develops some school problems, such as fighting at school or not paying attention Your child is having trouble sleeping Your child often tells you he is worried and concerned about the family problem Children need help to deal with the stress they feel. Talk with your child about the family problem, in words she can understand. Let your child know he does not need to worry about adult problems, such as money. Be clear that some problems are not his to worry about. Teach your child to relax when she is feeling stressed. Have her listen to some music, breathe deeply, perhaps release her tensions physically through playing outside or just laughing with you. Give words to your childs feelings. Sometimes children do not know that they are stressed. I heard you had another fight in school today. I am wondering if you are worried about my losing my job?

Listen when your child talks about his concerns. Give him your full attention and listen for what he is feeling as well as the actual problems he is talking about. Spend some fun time with your child. This will help reduce her stress as well as yours.
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SUMMARY Happy families have certain traits in common. Communication, togetherness, sharing activities, affection, support, acceptance, commitment and resilience are typical in families that function well. Children benefit from regular mealtimes, affection, play, traditions and outings with the whole family. Unhappy families may benefit from professional help. Our definition of family has changed over the past few decades to include single parent, same-sex and blended families as well as the traditional family structure of two parents and their children living together. The Family Strengths Research Project identified eight strengths of strong families in Australia. This study shows that happy families, whatever their makeup, have certain traits in common. It might be valuable to occasionally evaluate the dynamics of your family to ensure that everyone is as happy as they could be. COMMUNICATION Families benefit from open two-way communication that is loving, understanding and patient. Suggestions include: Being honest with each other Listening to each other with full attention Staying in contact with each other Reassuring each other of your love with words, cuddles and making time for each other Sharing thoughts and feelings without censuring or criticising each other Encouraging positive behaviour Allowing the expression of negative emotions as well as positive ones Working together to solve problems and conflicts Laughing together. SHARING ACTIVITIES Happy families share activities together. Suggestions include: Share time together. Make dinnertime an opportunity for round table family discussions. Play together. Go on regular family outings. Decide as a group on important family traditions, such as how to celebrate birthdays and festive occasions. Plan holidays that cater for the whole family.

TOGETHERNESS Children need to be involved in some of the decision making if they are to feel like a worthwhile family member. Happy families share a feeling of togetherness. This includes: Sharing a common sense of belonging Sharing beliefs that really matter Page | Enjoying the place we call home 13 Celebrating together Sharing our memories. SUPPORT Happy families support and encourage each other by: Looking out for each other Sharing the load Being there for each other Encouraging each other to try new things Taking an active interest in each others hobbies. AFFECTION Happy families show their affection for each other in a variety of ways, including: Telling family members how they feel about them Showing their love for each other Considering each other, including each others feelings Caring about each other Doing things for each other. ACCEPTANCE Families are made up of different individuals with different needs and, sometimes, different values and beliefs. Happy families are able to show acceptance of these individual differences by: Accepting the differences Giving each other space Respecting each others points of view Being able to forgive each other Each taking on their own responsibilities. COMMITMENT Happy families have a genuine commitment to each other, which is shown through: Feeling safe and secure with each other Trusting each other Keeping promises Doing things for the community Having rules. RESILIENCE Happy families show their resilience through: Talking things through

Changing plans when they need to Learning from the tough times Keeping each other hopeful Pulling together in a crisis Discussing problems.
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UNHAPPY FAMILIES Families that dont function as well as they could have certain traits in common, including: Unfair power distribution, such as one parent ruling the household Problems with maintaining peaceful conflict negotiation Lack of respect for each other as individuals Not talking or listening to each other Refusing to acknowledge or accept anyone elses point of view A tendency to rely on negative forms of communication such as yelling, criticising or sulking The use of physical punishment, such as smacking or hitting, as the main form of discipline. OVERCOMING PROBLEMS WITH PROFESSIONAL HELP There are services available that help family members work through difficult issues. Seek professional advice if you think you need some assistance.


The family is a universal and multi-functional institution even in highly advanced societies, though of its functions have been taken away by the specialized agencies. It is a coordinating agency even in advanced societies. Things evolved in family values and norms because of trends that have been so much involved in through media and popular western culture. We and our children are now much knows about the mass or popular trends and traditions as compare to once folk culture which is basically the norms which have been set past from our ancestors and transfer from generation to generation. Now the present generation is only want to adopt the things which have been prevailing in the society although it doesnt stands for long and disappears when the particular norm becomes odd.

The family is a closed system and is not open to changes and adjustment to outside environment. The family is only an institution where one can understand these temporary set norms and family is the place where he can learn the true meaning of his life.
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The family in Islam is built upon a holy bond and a mutual contract of tranquility, love and kindness between two hearts. The Quran says: By another sign he gave you wives from among yourselves, that you might find resting them, and planted love and kindness in your hearts. Surely there are signs in this for thinking men. Hazrat Muhammad (Sallallahu Alaehe Walaehi Wassalam) has said: he who marries preserves one half of his religious commandments, so he must fear Allah regarding the other half. So, he who marries... means he who establishes a family and administers its affairs appropriately fulfills one half of Islams commandment's, for he is then in charge of an institution which is the cornerstone of a blissful and social structure. The linguistic significance of the word family: Conventionally, a family is a combination of people tied and bound together by means of kinship or an intimate relationship, such as a father, mother, and child. In order to facilitate discussing the role of the family in Islam, we can divide it into three main divisions:
1) The primary or initial family. It is the basic unit and is made up of husband, wife,

children, and relations of both or either one of the two spouses.

2) The intermediate family. This is more comprehensive than the first, for it

covers the whole territory and homeland. It may be called the national family. includes all of mankind on the earth.

3) The human family. This is by far the most extensive family and represents, or rather

Thus, by virtue of these definitions, the role of the family in Islam can be seen as having an important connection with all of the sectors mentioned above. The primary family its rise, and the roles, functions and relationships among its members, their rights and duties are critical to building a stable society. The family comes into existence as a consequence of a legal marriage, which is one of Allahs sanctioned traditions in creation and formation. it is a common and regular practice to all human creatures. Allah says: O mankind, revere your guardian lord, who created you from a single person, created of like nature, his mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds)countless men and women.

It has been Allahs will and decree that the family is based upon the relationship between a man and a woman. it is founded on their mutual consent [offering and acceptance denote this consent] to belong to each other, thereby restricting the instinct to seek other unsound and illicit relationships, so that the progeny may be protected and women safeguarded against being regarded as public property, or a burden upon society.
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1. PROTECTION AND SUSTAINING OF THE HUMAN RACE: it is through family life that human offspring are perpetuated by multiplication till the end of this earthly life. The Quran says: Allah has given you wives from among yourselves, and through them he has granted you sons and grandsons. 2. SAFEGUARDING LINEAGE AND DESCENT: a well-grounded family consists of members that take pride in descent from their forefathers and ancestors. one cannot ignore the psychological and personal significance which this sort of family linkage implies: it endows man with dignity and pride. 3. FREEDOM AND INTACTNESS OF SOCIETY FROM IMMORALITY: the social structure is intact only when the proper way for building the family is followed; otherwise nations are afflicted with social decay and moral degeneration. For this precaution Islam has ordained that families must be the result of legal marriage in order to keep people secure, and to insure good morals and virtuous manners. Muhammad (PBUH) says: O young people, those of you who can marry let them do so for this causes abstinence and continence but those who cannot should go on fasting, which makes them refrain and it safeguards them. 4. KEEPING THE COMMUNITY SECURE AGAINST DISEASE: A Muslim family is a source of bounty, chastity and cleanliness. for this reason the percentage of sexual infections in Muslim communities are low compared to other communities, where family life is unstable as a result of indiscriminate and illicit intercourse between males and females. the aids disease emphasizes the importance and necessity of the family being founded on moral decency and a monogamous relationship, with its restricted intercourse and the lack of intermingling between the two sexes. 5. SPIRITUAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EASE AND TRANQUILITY: the family is the origin out of which all love, kindness and intimate familiarity springs between the spouses, their children and other family members. Any civilization that is expected to survive must be built upon love, balance and bounty. Moreover, psychological and spiritual peace of mind and calm impels parents to do their best looking after and taking good care of their children. 6. THE FAMILY IS A COOPERATIVE INSTITUTION: the two spouses collaborate and share responsibilities, each of them in his or her own special capacity and sphere. Consequently, children are imbued with cooperative trends and altruistic intentions.

Islam splendidly urges the building of families and marriage. Muhammad (PBUH) says: marry and take wives for this increase your means of living.
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1. The husband's rights incumbent upon his wife. 2. The wife's rights incumbent upon her husband. 3. The rights of children upon their parents. 4. The rights of parents upon their children. 5. The rights of kin and relatives.

The family is one of the units which is the major social institution and is still performing all those functions which a primary group does in the human lie. It is believed that no other agency can replace this institution to perform its function so effectively and perfectly. It is expected that the family will continue to exist as the basic unit of society in all human societies in the time to come.

The only rock I know that stays steady, the only institution I know that works is the family. Lee Iacocca

Family life is too intimate to be preserved by the spirit of justice. It can be sustained by a spirit of love which goes beyond justice. Reinhold Niebuhr

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