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Irrigation practices and water conservation opportunities in Migina Marshlands D. Nahayoa*, U. G. Walia, F.O.K.

Anyemedua Faculty of Applied Sciences, NUR, PO. Box 117, Rwanda Abstract With a growing world population and the need of food security, irrigation practi ces have a vital role to play worldwide. Climate changes with rainfall variations during all or part of the ye ar require irrigation water conservation practices. Despite being a country of great lakes and the headwater s of two greatest African rivers, the Nile and the Congo, Rwanda is a water scarce country. Rwanda has about 165000 he ctares of marshlands in which only 94000 hectares are in use, but some of them are not used wisely. About 90% of the rural populations are farmer; however, they do not produce enough food to satisfy their needs. This is due to the continuous use of traditional, subsistence and inefficient farming practices which are mainly rain fed. Irrigat ion is practiced mainly in the marshlands using the inflows into the marshlands. Over the years, the marshlands are becoming less productive, with visible signs of fertility decline. This trend could be attributed to irrigation practices in the marshlands, which tend to drain the marshlands instead of conserving the water. This research aims at stud ying the current irrigation practices in the marshlands and looks for opportunities of water and nutrient conservation to restore the fertility for improved food production. Using questionnaire to the stakeholder at all level, statistica l and hydrological analyses of the existing and acquired data, this study could bring about the promotion of irriga tion water conservation practices in the catchment. Seasonality and topographic conditions, with accompaniment of ero sion, flooding and drought problems, are discussed to show how rehabilitation and redesigning and reinstall ation of new irrigation structures, better maintenance of irrigation structures and introduction of improved irrigat ion systems in the catchment could contribute to land protection and increase food production. Rainwater harvesting to be used for irrigation during the dry season, groundwater recharge by using boreholes are added to the possible so lutions to ensure environmental protection and improvement of irrigation water conservation practices in the cat chment. Finally, ways in which irrigation water conservation practices could be utilized are explored as well a s possible impediments that might be encountered. Keywords: Environmental protection, Food production, Groundwater recharge, Irrig ation water conservation practices, Rainwater harvesting. 1. Introduction Agricultural water management is vital to food security, poverty reduction, and environmental protection worldwide. Climate changes with rainfall variations during all or par t of the year

require irrigation water conservation practices. Rwanda is one of the great lake countries and has a lot of water resources. Agriculture employs about 80% of the population and pr ovides over 40% of the GDP of the country. Population density of Rwanda is about 305 persons per square kilometer with a growth rate of about 3.5% ( MINIPLAN, 2002).The area under cult ivation is about 1,385,000 hectares, which is 52% of the total surface area of the country (MINAGRI, 2003), and the population cultivates even the marginal areas in trying to satisf y their needs in food security. The population is growing but the arable land does not increase. To feed the rapidly growing population, there is a need to increase agricultural productivit y in the country. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +250 08678702; fax: +250 530210. E-mail address: (D. Nahayo)

This can be achieved by a change in agricultural practices. Rwanda has about 165 ,000 hectares of marshlands in which only 94,000 hectares are in use (MINAGRI, 2003). In addition , the used marshlands are not used wisely or exploited in the appropriate manner. Erosion, lack of maintenance of irrigation structures and misuse of available water resources in agricultural activities impose a problem of food security and water and land conservation in the country. Migina, one of catchments of the south province of Rwanda, is faced with problem s of erosion and flooding in the main rainy season (from mid-February to the end of May ) and water shortage in the main dry season(from June to mid-September)adding to lack of better maint enance of its current irrigation systems. This study looks at the promotion of irrigation wate r conservation opportunities in Nyaligina, Nyamugali, Rwasave and Ndobogo, marshlands of the Mi gina catchment. It begins by evaluating the current irrigation practices in these fou r marshlands and identifies potentials for improved hydraulic performance. This could help for im provement of the standard of living and environmental conditions in the study area so that la nd and water will be manageable in a sustainable way. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Literature Review Irrigation practices are the techniques of applying an amount of water to the so il in the aim of controlling of water application to arable soil, supplying crop water requiremen ts not satisfied by rainfall, providing crop insurance against short duration droughts, etc. Irrigat ion methods are summarized into three types which are surface (flooding, furrow and surface drip irrigation), subsurface drip irrigation and overhead irrigation (sprinkler irrigation or hose - end overhead sprinkling). Relative moisture varies the most in furrow irrigation and the leas t in drip irrigation systems (Texas Water Development Board, 2002). Irrigation water conservation opp ortunities are defined as the structural improvements in the application systems, better mainte nance of existing irrigation systems, altered tillage and soil management, changes in the crops gr own, water harvesting to be used in drought season, improved hydraulic performance in the i rrigation scheme etc. (Ley, 2003). Efficient agricultural water conservation practices are essent ial to ensure the viability of water to be used in drought season or in other activities (Texas Wa ter Development Board, 2002). Structural improvements in application systems include practices s uch as introducing infiltration ditches or replacing open ditches with underground pipe , lining ditches, use of gated pipe, fitting gated pipe systems with surge-flow devices, conversio

n from furrow to sprinkler irrigation or drip irrigation and installation of tailwater recovery s ystems. The objective of adopting these practices is to increase application efficiency and to apply c onflict management system at farm levels (Texas Water Development Board, 2002). In many instances, they also have the potential of decreasing nonbeneficial consumptive use. Similarly, struc tural land improvement such as construction of infiltration ditches, terracing structures, the digging of boreholes for reducing runoff on high hill slopes and recharging groundwater, af forestation, antierosive planting and river beds enlargement and land leveling are designed to im prove application efficiency, decrease nonbeneficial consumptive use and to reduce the soil degradation by erosion (Allen, 1991; Boyd at al., 2000). Water conservation and soil managem ent are practices designed to increase application efficiency at the farm level (Evans, 1998). Water conservation involves techniques that allow growers to schedule irrigation based on moisture needs of crops. Specific techniques include monitoring soil moisture and maintai ning daily

records of crop water balance using estimates of consumptive water use from weat her data. Use of furrow irrigation and practicing more timely fertilization are examples of al tered tillage and soil management. Water conservation techniques can also be used to schedule stra tegic deficits in water availability during periods when crops are relatively insensitive to soil water deficits. This form of water conservation is generally referred to as deficit irrigation, and r esults in decreases nonbeneficial consumptive use. Changes in cropping patterns can result in decrea ses nonbeneficial consumptive water use. Some conservation measures can be implement ed at the system level to improve overall application efficiency within a catchment and, i n some cases, decrease nonbeneficial consumptive use (Colorado Water Resources Research Instit ute, 1996). Rainfall data which are used in irrigation water conservation opportunities are treated using Orstm method for large catchments and rational method for small catchment with a surface area not greater or closed to 5 km2 (Daniill at al., 2005). Using surveys and statist ical analysis of all information gathered give idea of finding solutions of an improved hydraulic per formance (Skogerboe and Merkley, 1996). 2.2 Study area description Nyaligina, Nyamugali, Rwasave and Ndobogo marshlands are located upstream of Mig ina catchment in south province of Rwanda and situated in the three first subcatchme nts of Migina: The small subcatchment A of 3.14 km2 which is drained by Rwantarama river and cl osed by Rwasave earth dam; The small subcatchment B of 3.39 km2 which is drained by Kazi baziba and Nyamugali rivers; The large subcatchment C of 37.50 km2 which are drained by Ndo bogo, Nyagashubi and Kidobogo rivers with Nyakagezi, Nyabitare, Musizi and Kabacuzi as tributaries; The climatic rhythm is the followings: i. A small rainy season from mid-September to mid-December; ii. A small dry season from mid-December to mid- February; iii. A great rainy season from mid-February to the end of May ; iv. A great dry season from June to mid-September. The main agro-climatic parameters which are the temperature, radiation, potentia l evaporation and hydrous regimes that influence crop production (Hargreaves and Merkley, 2004 ), as they are derived from the stations of Butare (236' S, 2944'E; 1,768 m) and of Rubona (229' S ; 2946' E; 1,706 m) for the thermal parameters, are favorable to agricultural activities. T he only problems which decrease crop production are erosion and flooding in the great rainy seaso n and water shortage in the great dry season. These could be the results of the topographic conditions with a

slope which varies between 2 and 3%, rainfall distribution and variation along t he year (109 to 127mm in the great rainy season and closed to zero in the great dry season 7mm ( AHT, 2003)), deforestation and of anti-erosive structures and inadequate irrigation water use . The rainfall and hydrous patterns are characterized by an annual rainfall of abo ut 1,170 to 1,270 mm, the rains are concentrated between September and the end of May. April is th e rainiest month but the highest amount rain fall during the November to December raining s eason. November and the period from March to May are sprinkled. The small dry season of DecemberJanuary, observed relatively well in many other parts of the country, is less cl ear in Migina, because in the least rainy stations of the zone (Save and Rubona) the average ra infall of December and January remains closed or ranked even above 100 mm. The annual aver age of the relative soil moisture, calculated over the 11 last years is 75.7% with minima i n June of 59.8%

and the maximum in April of 86.3%. The annual average of evaporations in the are a is 917.2mm. Maximum evaporations are during the months of main dry season (June to September ) with monthly evaporations going from 80 mm to 120.9 mm (August). The winds speed most ly between 1 to 3m/s and rarely exceed 6 m/s. There is one well marked dry season a nd an important hydrous deficit between June and the beginning of September. The first rains of September are relatively not very useful for agriculture because of their irregu larity and in addition it fall on a hot and drained surface and get evaporated immediately It will be necessary to envisage irrigations between June to beginning of September to safeguard an o ptimal agricultural production in that season. The only alternative in the event of lac k of water to cover this deficit is to adapt the farming calendar and to introduce crop that demand less amount of water. 2.3. Compilation of existing information The first step in this study was to compile existing information about irrigatio n systems in the marshlands. Some general maps of the project area as well as detailed design map s of the catchment have been collected. Technical reports, socio-economic studies that ha ve been written regarding the project, have been studied. Information regarding difficulties wit h irrigation practices has been obtained from different groups of farmers scattered throughou t the marshlands. Using questionnaire, much have been learnt from the farmers. Here, information h as been gathered primarily by asking people questions either by having interviews ask qu estions and record answers or by having people read or hear questions and record their own a nswers. Information has been sought from ISAR, RADA, etc, institutions, charged with res ponsibilities over water and land in Rwanda (ISAR, RADA, etc.). All the information gathered i n this step provide the background of the projects and helps the study of irrigation water c onservation practices in the study area. 2.4. Identification of irrigation structural damages The second step in this study was conducting field inspection and surveys in ord er to identify problems related to irrigation structures, its condition, performance and mainte nances, for proper quantification allow taking appropriate intervention measures. In case of struct ural damages the causes are properly assessed for appropriate mitigation. 2.5. Data gathering, handling, analysis and interpretation of the results All the information from the first and the second steps was primarily gathered i n packages

according to the data type and treatment model and secondly handled. As the agri cultural use of the land of the marshlands is related to the availability of water in the catchm ent, the hydrological or rainfall data were used to estimate the expected maximum amount runoff and ba se flows, that are used for the design or redesign of some irrigation structures (e.g. channels , dams, weirs, etc.) taking into account the topographic conditions for compliance with Lacey s regime theory. Average monthly rainfall and the Orstom and Rational methods were used for disch arge estimation. The determination of irrigation crop water requirements and the irri gation supply requirements in comparison with the available water in the stream or in the rese rvoirs was used to suggest the method of water delivery and engineering alternatives. The irrigatio n water demand

was calculated, by considering all surface areas which are irrigated in the mars hlands for all crops: rice, maize, sorghum, Irish potatoes, suit potatoes, cabbages, beans and others according to the available data or by using data from (FAO, 1979). Questionnaire were also an alyzed. Data for this study were collected from smallholder irrigations farmers of, Nyaligina, Rw asave, Nyamugali and Ndobogo, the upstream marshlands of Migina catchment located in th e south province of Rwanda. A stratified sampling method was employed to the smallholder irrigation farmers. Taking into account the cost considerations, the deadline of submission of the study and others limiting factors, sample of 100 farmers was interviewed using a structure d questionnaire set in the local language. In trying to study how to improve irrigation water co nservation practices in the survey area, two methodologies were used to investigate farmer s views on irrigation water use, their contribution and the intervention of agricultural in stitutions for improved hydraulic performance in the marshlands: Structured interviews on all technical, managerial and irrigation support servic es participation issues were carried out; By using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences software (SPSS), descriptive s tatistics were developed to describe, the farmer s views on irrigation practices, crop produ ction and water use efficiently in the marshlands. The field visits of structural damages were added to the information from questi onnaire analysis to find the normal, catch-up and preventive maintenances in the irrigation schem e. In addition, possible solutions for improved hydraulic performance in the catchment and strat egies for attaining irrigation land and water conservation in a manageable and in a sustai nable way in all the marshlands would be established. Finally, all information from data analysis would be summarized to conclude and make some recommendations to the stakeholders at all levels. 3. Results, analyses and discussions 3.1. Hydrological data analysis( Annex 3-9) The agricultural use of the soil of marshlands is related to the availability of water in the catchment and thus the hydrological regime of the marshlands determines the wate r resources which can be used in irrigation scheme. This has been explained in the study are a description. The hydrological study aims at two things: firstly, the determination of the sto rm runoff for the required frequencies and secondly, determination monthly average flow with the l evel of the

hydrographic network of the catchment area in which the marshlands is located in order to determine whether the water requirements of crops can be met at the various crop ping seasons of the year. Considering the scarcity of direct measurements, indirect estimation m ethods were used to determine certain parameters which are validated by observations on the field . In the absence of other hydrological data, rainfall records were used as a basis for the hydrol ogical study. The Butare Airport s rainfall records (latitude 0236 - longitude 2944 - altitude 1760 mete rs) were used for reference for the study area. In this study, the rational method was us ed for pick runoff estimation for the small subcatchment (with the surface area not greater than or closed to 5 km2) and the ORSTOM method of runoff estimation was used for the large subcatchments. In the rational method, the Kirpich formula was used to estimate the time of concentrat ion (the time required for the farthest point of the catchment to contribute to runoff), and i s given by Eqn. 1.

0.0195L0.77 tc = , Kirpich formula (Daniill et al., 2005) (1) 0.385 S Where tc is the time of concentration in minutes, L is the maximum length of the flow in meters, H is the difference of both upstream and downstream altitudes of the catchment i n meters and S is the watershed gradient in meters/meters of the difference in elevation between t he outlet and the most remote point divided by the length L (H/L). The formula for peak flow Qp is given by Eqn. 2. Qp= 0.278*C *i* A, (Daniill et al., 2005) (2) Where C is the runoff coefficient, i is the rainfall intensity during the return period tr and A is the catchment area. The value of i is assumed constant during tc and the peak flow o r maximum discharge continues until the end of the rain. In the ORSTOM method the assumpti ons remain the same, but the peak flow or maximum discharge is given by Eqn. 3. Qp= K*M, (Daniill et al., 2005) (3) (Kr *Vp ) M = TB Vr =Kr *Vp Vp =a *H*A Where: H is the depth of the punctual rain determined by Gumbel adjustment for the rain gauge of reference Butare; Vp is the total volume of rainfall on the catchment; Kr is the runoff coefficient; Vr is the effective volume of runoff; Tr is the return period in yeas; TB is the effective duration of runoff; and

K is the independent coefficient determined by experiment and is equal to 2.5 in the ORSTOM method. 3.2.Irrigation crop water requirement and water use analysis The irrigation water demand is calculated, by considering all seasonal surface a reas which are irrigated in Migina catchment for all crops: rice, maize, sorghum, Irish potatoe s, suit potatoes, cabbages, beans and other.

The volume of water used in agricultural sector in Migina marshlands is about 80 % of the total surface water abstraction. The net irrigation is defined as amount of water requ ired to be supplied to the crop in order to satisfy its consumption use. This was calculated by usin g Eqn. 4. Inet= Kc* ETo-Peff, (Michael, 1999) (4) And the gross irrigation is given by Eqn. 5: Kc*ETo -Peff Igros= , (Michael, 1999) (5) e f Where Inet= net irrigation requirement Kc= crop coefficient ETo = reference evapotranspiration Peff = effective rainfall Pm=monthly precipitation D=daily interception threshold -1.76* D Peff=Pm*Exp ( 0.45 ) Pm and ef is the global efficiency. The global efficiency is 80% of water abstraction, and the pan coefficient is 0.70 (FAO, 1979). The daily interception threshold is calculated by using the mean of he daily interception thresholds applied to all crops; D equals to 0.73. Irrigation demand studies undertaken in Migina marshlands before this study have been generally done however, the problems have been how to implement the recommendations using the required for irrigation and save an amount to be used in drought season. 3.3.Irrigation practices and irrigation structures analysis The surveys and field visits which have been undertaken in the study area have e nable us to divide the area into two zones: The first zone is the marshlands of Nyaligina and Rwasave which are well arrange d. This study shows that Nyaligina marshland has 39ha while Rwasave marshland has 80ha under i Kpan all t water well; water

rrigation. The study shows that the irrigated area uses flooding irrigation for rice crop p roduction whereas other crops like beans, potatoes, sorghum etc. are irrigated naturally by rainfa ll according to the weather conditions. The most part of these marshlands are arranged. However, the re are many problems with the irrigation structures. Rwasave earth dam with a total reservoi r capacity of 100,000 m3 and its useful volume of 85,000m3 needs rehabilitation. Two side inta kes of Rwasave earth dam must be rehabilitated by replacing valves and clearing out weeds in al l channels and other irrigation structures. The left intake does not function any more and must be repaired. Channels, over 86 intakes and about 40 chutes must be completely rehabilitated. Rwasave bridge must be rehabilitated. The second zone deals with Nyamugali and Ndobogo marshlands which are not arrang ed at all. The surveys show that Nyamugali marshland has a surface area of 17ha and Ndobogo marshland has a surface area of 67ha under irrigation. The surveys have found that there i s a need of

improvement of irrigation and drainage systems. The field visits and discussions with the farmers by using questionnaire analysis have helped to identify the following major issu es for improper water and land utilization. Illegal canals cutting Farmers at the Ndobogo marshland reported that the upstream people divert water according to their own wishes without consideration to those downstream. The canals are broke n at several points and water is being illegally diverted. The farmers at downstream do not r eceive enough water for their crops. Also, they reported that the farms which are far off the river do not have channels to feed the crops. Farmers have not any facilitative means of feeding w ater to the crops, especially for rice crop production. Illegal canals cutting have been identified in Nyaligina and Rwasave marshlands. These problems of canals cutting are the source of underdeve lopment of most irrigated lands. Irregular blockage of water by uncontrolled farmers to kee p the irrigation water supplies confined to their farms is another problem. This practice not onl y skewed the distribution of irrigated area but also resulted in wastage of huge investment m ade on the construction of water channels, which remain almost dry, especially in great dry season. This is attributed to lack of weekly rotational schedule, and insufficient field staff t o operate these correctly including monitoring for irregular blockage of irrigation water along canals. Equity in water distribution is very important factor for the management of water resource s (Ahmad, 1999). Inequity in water distribution results in frustration, lack of interest in farmi ng and maintenance of watercourses, distrust among water users and disputes over water rights among th e users. Inequity in water distribution is the result of nonfunctional water user associa tions (Ali and Chuddar, 1996; Hussain and Perera, 2004). Improper maintenance of watercourses, poor field channels and inadequate hill sl opes protection In Ndobogo and Nyamugali marshlands, watercourses are poorly maintained. Channel s are filled with sand and bushes and water overtops the watercourses, especially in rainy se ason. Watercourses are broken at several places and cleaning of watercourses is not do ne any more. The designed outlets at several points are broken which reduces the supply of wa ter available to farmers at the tail end of the canals. The proper repair and maintenance of thes e watercourses is very important for getting long-term benefits of the investment made on irrigati on structures. Due

to cheap water availability and lack of knowledge, uncontrolled flood irrigation is commonly used. The field channels are earthen, not designed and not constructed properly and are poorly maintained. As a result, considerable amount of water is wasted in the field cha nnels. Due to undulated fields, huge amount of water is wasted. There is need to level these f ields, so that scared water could be used efficiently. For doing so, rehabilitation and reinsta llation of the conveyance systems, field adjustments, improvement of circulation roads and brid ges, construction of Ndobogo earth dam, which has the following characteristics: 50,0 00m3 of useful volume, 140m of length, 32m and 4m of bottom and top width respectively and maxi mum height of 5.5m, for irrigation water storage and flood control; the construction of Nya mugali weir for raising water level upstream of the marshlands in order to construct the main ch annels on the height which dominates all the irrigable land of the marshlands and introduction of anti erosive structures such as the installation of infiltration ditches and terracing struct ures, the digging of boreholes for reducing runoff on high hill slopes and recharging groundwater, af forestation, antierosive planting and river beds enlargement could contribute to land and water c onservation. By using Orstom and rational methods of maximum discharge estimations and consideri ng topographic condition, we have calculated the main emitters or drains in the mar shlands. The

irrigation water demand was calculated, by considering all seasonal surface area s which are irrigated in Migina catchment for all crops: rice, maize, sorghum, Irish potatoe s, suit potatoes, cabbages, beans and others. We have supposed that volume of water used in agricu lture sector in Migina marshlands is about 80% of the total surface water abstraction. The net i rrigation was calculated as amount of water required to be supplied to the crop in order to sa tisfy its consumption use. Proposing two seasons of rice production from September to Dece mber and from February to May by using flooding boarder irrigation and introducing furrow irrigation for other row crops such as maize, beans and sorghum, and rearranging fields by resp ecting the maximum slope of 0.5% and introducing chutes where topographic conditions do not permit that maximum slope could contribute to water use efficiently and land conservation. No organized water user associations and incompetent agricultural support servic es Water regulation is under established organization in Rwanda, however, water use r association are not organized and do not functioned properly. There is no formal body to loo k after the watercourses and irrigation structures in Migina catchment so that there are man y problems among the farmers on water distribution according to priorities. So, There is th erefore the need to strengthen and empower water users associations to maintain and improve watercou rses along with more effective use of water through improved water management practices (Sk ogerboe, 1996). In addition competent agricultural support services play a pivotal role i n the motivation of farmers towards the formation of water user association, adoption of improved ir rigation and water conservation practices, and introduction of high yield crops, efficient wa ter use and proper use of non-water inputs. However, it was observed that irrigation support servic es work hardly in the catchment. Similarly, On-Farm Water Management activities are limited in the se marshlands. Improving agronomic and farm water management practices, particularly promoting the use of improved varieties of seeds and enhancing the role of extension services to farm ers for dissemination of up-to-date knowledge are very important to improve land and wat er productivity (Hussain and Perera, 2004). A good coordination and integrated approach by On Fa rm Water Management and Agriculture Extension Department is needed, starting with operati on, maintenance of main watercourse and field channels for overcoming inequities tha t occur along the watercourse and assisting farmers with improved irrigation and agronomic pra ctices

(Skogerboe, 1996; Early et al., 1976). Thereafter, the current agricultural, wat er resources and environmental management institutions which are responsible for of the promotion of irrigation practices, water and environmental protection have to sit together and study how to increase food production with an acceptable range of land degradation principles. 4. Conclusion and recommendations It is a common place to say that rehabilitation and repairing irrigation structu res, installations of new irrigation structures or improved technologies of water saving and land cons ervation are sufficient to reach an improved hydraulic performance. As it is said that preven tion is better than cure, the proposed solutions for finding an improved hydraulic performance in Mi gina marshlands need an additional, systematic and periodic maintenance of all infras tructures in the catchment. In most cases, farmers are interested in operations, not in maintenan ce, but may be willing to pursue an effective maintenance program if they have control over wat er deliveries. Best operated irrigation systems in the world are managed by farmers, not by the institutions in charge of irrigation. However, farmers who are not experienced in the management of their

system cannot be effective overnight. They need to go through an evolutionary pr ocess of developing management skills. This is where institutions in charge of irrigation have to train and equip farmers with skills to manage, operate and maintain irrigation systems. Th e training should begin with the heads of water users associations on irrigation maintenance. The most important stage in irrigation maintenance is the preventive maintenance. These chiefs woul d also train other people on how to improve hydraulic performance in the catchment. The institution s in charge of irrigation have also to work together formally or informally with the water user s associations. In addition institutions in charge of irrigation could arrange and give on loan bas is selected seeds to the farmers, and allow them to pay after harvesting. Communication skills have a lso to be developed between irrigation institutions, staffs of water users associations an d farmers for better mutual understanding in order to maintain a sustainable improved hydraulic perfo rmance in the catchment. Finally, this study has been done in only four marshlands of Migina c atchment. It would be interesting to see an extension of the study in other marshlands, not o nly those of Migina, but also in all Rwandan marshlands. The implementation of the recommenda tions of such studies could improve the standard of living and environmental conditions i n the rural area through improved and sustainable water and land management. 5. Acknowledgements The study was conducted with the financial assistance from National University o f Rwanda in association with UNESCO-IHE, the Netherland Institute for Water Education based in Delft. 6. References Ahmad, S. (1999). Achievements and issues of irrigation in the 20th century. In: Chandio, B.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of The National Workshop on: Water Resources Achievements and Issues in 20th century and challenges for the next millennium, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Islamabad, Pakistan, pp. 188 201. Ali, A., Chaudhary, M.R. (1996). Water conveyance and distribution at watercours e level. In: Khalid, R., Robina, W. (Eds.), Tertiary Sub-System Management. International Irr igation Management institute, Lahore, Pakistan, pp. 12 23. Boyd Charlotte and Cathryn Turton, January (2000). The Contribution Of Soil And Water Conservation To Sustainable Livelihoods In Semi-Arid Areas Of Sub-Saharan Africa . Chanson Hubert (2004). The hydraulics of open channel flow: An introduction

Colorado Water Resources Research Institute (1996).Irrigation Water Conservation : Opportunities and Limitations in Colorado A report of the Agricultural Water Con servation Task Force. Daniil E.I., Michas S.N. and Lazaridis L.S. (2005). Hydrologic modeling for the determination of design discharges in ungauged basins. Early, A.C., Eckert, J.B., Freeman, D.M., Kemper, W.D., Lowdermilk, M.K., Radose vich, G.E., Skogerboe, G.V.(1976). Institutional Framework for Improved on-Farm Water Management in Pakistan. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado (Speci al Technical Report, Water Management Research Project). Evans O. Robert, Kerry A. Harrison, James E. Hook, Charles V. Privette, William I. Irrigation Conservation Practices, Appropriate for the Southeastern United States.

FAO (1789). Water for agriculture. Segars, W. Bryan Smith, Daniel L. Thomas, Anthony W. Tyson,1998. Irrigation Cons ervation Practices Appropriate for the Southeastern United States. Hargreaves and Merkley, 2004.Irrigation Fundamentals. Hussain, I., Perera, L.R. (2004). Improving Agricultural Productivity for Povert y Alleviation through Integrated Service Provision with Public-Private Sector Partnerships: Examples and Issues. International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lank a (Working paper 66). MINAGRI (2003). Groupement HYDROPLAN Ingnieur GmbH-S.H.E.R Ingnieur-conseils s.a, Schma Directeur d'Amnagement des Marais, de Protection des Bassins Versants et de la Conservation des Sols. MINIPLAN (2002). Recensement Gnral de la Population et de l Habitat. Rientjes, 2006. Modeling in Hydrology. Savenije H.H.G and de Laat P.J.M (2002).Lecture notes of Hydrology. Skogerboe V. Gaylord and Merkley P.Gary (1996). Irrigation Maintenance and Operation. Learning Process. Smith D.H., Kathleen Klein, Richard Bartholomay, Isreal Broner,G.E. Cardon, W.M. Frasier, Rod Kuharich, D.C. Lile, Mike Gross, Dan Parker, Hal Simpson, and Eric Wilkinson . Completion (1996). Irrigation Water Conservation: Opportunities And Limitations In Colorado-A Report Of The Agricultural Water Conservation Task Force. Texas water Development Board (2004). Agricultural Water Conservation Practices. Thomas W. Ley (2003). Surface Irrigation Systems.

Figures Figure 1. Location of Migina in Rwanda and the Survey Area in Migina Catchment

Average rainfall per months calculated in 25 years Rainfall (mm) 250.0 200.0 150.0 100.0 50.0 0.0 Jan Feb March Apl May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Months Figure 2. Average rainfall of a reference year calculated basing on rainfall rec ords in 25 years Assesment of Operation of Rwasave Reservoir 90 80 Volume (*10^3 m^3) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 may jun july aug sept oct nov dec jan feb mar apr may Months From May To May Irrigation Requirements Assessmet of Inflow&Storage in The Reservoir Figure 3. Monthly evolution in Water Storage of Rwasave Reservoir

Tables Table 1. Main characteristics of Migina catchment Catchment Migina Total Catchment 214,23 79,24 1,52 Long. = 2 30 8-12 Trans. > 30 Subcatchment a 3,14 6,73 1,06 Long. = 3 30 8-12 Trans. > 20 Subcatchment b 3,39 7,33 1,11 Long. = 2 30 8-12 Trans. > 20 Subcatchment c 37,50 27,10 1,24 Long. = 4 30 8-12 Trans. > 30 Subcatchment d 2,67 7,05 1,21 Long. = 1 30 8-12 Trans. > 20 Subcatchment e 4,56 9,06 1,19 Long. = 1 30 8-12 Trans. > 20 Subcatchment f 44,20 29,73 1,25 Long. = 2 30 8-12 Trans. > 30 Subcatchment g 4,29 8,92 1,21 Long. = 3 30 8-12 Trans. > 30 Subcatchment h 3,76 7,89 1,14 Long. = 5 30 8-12 Trans. > 30 Subcatchment i 5,97 10,48 1,20 Long. = 3 30 8-12 Trans. > 30 Subcatchment j 37,51 31,74 1,45 Long. = 4 30 8-12 Trans. > 30 Subcatchment k 11,18 15,14 1,27 Long. = 1 30 8-12 Trans. = 20 Trans: Transversal slope Long: Longitudinal slope Table 2.: Rainfall intensity at Butare rain gauge station Surface Perimeter Compacity Slopes(%) Flood Mean area (km2) (km) coefficient Runoff runoff coefficient coefficient (%) (%) Duration (min) 15 By Season 56.8 By year 66.0 By 2 years 75.2 15 years 87.2 10 years 96.4 30 45.4 53.4 45 34.9 41.3 60 29.2 34.8 75 23.6 28.2 90 20.2 24.3

61.2 47.7 40.4 32.7 28.3

71.6 56.3 47.8 38.8 33.5

79.4 62.5 53.4 43.4 37.6

Table 3. Maximum discharges (m3/s) calculated by using ORSTOM method Subcatchment tc H a A Vp Kr Vr TB M K Qmax Migina 10 0.0797 0.75 214230000 12805598 0.3 3841679 36000 106.7 2.5 266.8 25 0.0895 0.75 214230000 14380189 0.3 4314057 36000 119.8 2.5 299.6 c 10 0.0797 0.82 37500000 2450775 0.3 735233 25200 29.2 2.5 72.9 25 0.0895 0.82 37500000 2752125 0.3 825638 25200 32.8 2.5 81.9 f 10 0.0797 0.81 44200000 2853419 0.3 856026 25200 34.0 2.5 84.9 25 0.0895 0.81 44200000 3204279 0.3 961284 25200 38.1 2.5 95.4 j 10 0.0797 0.82 37510000 2451429 0.3 735429 25200 29.2 2.5 73.0 25 0.0895 0.82 37510000 2752859 0.3 825858 25200 32.8 2.5 81.9 k 10 0.0797 0.86 11180000 755300 0.3 226590 14400 15.7 2.5 39.3 25 0.0895 0.86 11180000 860525 0.3 258158 14400 17.9 2.5 44.8 Table 4. Maximum discharges (m3/s) calculated by using Rational method Subcatchment Tr (years) L(m) Mean Alt(m) H(m) S(m/m) Tc(min) S. Area (km2) i(m/hr) C Qdes (m3/s) a 10 1670 1750 50 0.03 23 3.14 87 0.3 22.9 b 10 2130 1750 42 0.02 32 3.39 77 0.3 21.8 d 10 2340 1675 40 0.02 37 2.67 72 0.3 15.9 e 10 3150 1675 45 0.01 49 4.56 60 0.3 22.8 g 10 3340 1675 100 0.03 39 4.29 69 0.3 24.8 h 10 2430 1700 122 0.05 25 3.76 85 0.3 26.7 i 10 4170 1675 113 0.03 48 5.97 61 0.3 30.2 Table 5: Main emitters or drains designed with trapezoidal cross sections Sb. C Sb. C a Sb. C b Sb. C c Sb. C d S.b C e Sb. C f Sb. C g QMaxh H B m S P A R n K VDesQDes (m1/3 (s/m1/3) (m3/ (m) (m) (m) (n.u) (n.u) (m) (m2) (m) (m/s) (m3/s) s) /s)

22.9 21.8 72.9 15.9 22.8 84.9 3 24.8

1.20 1.00 1.45 1.05 1.30 1.70

1.50 1.30 1.75 1.35 1.60 2.00

3.00 3.00 5.00 3.40 3.60 6.40

0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33

0.02 0.03 0.04 0.01 0.01 0.02

5.04 5.04 7.04 5.44 5.64 8.44

5.25 4.46 9.77 5.20 6.61 14.1

1.04 0.89 1.39 0.96 1.17 1.68

0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03

30.03 30.03 30.03 30.03 30.03 30.03

4.37 4.80 7.48 2.91 3.34 6.00

22.9 21.4 73.1 15.1 22.1 84.8

1.10 1.40 3.00 0.33 0.03 5.04 4.85 0.96 0.03 30.03 5.07 24.6

Sb. C h Sb. C i Sb. C j Sb. C k

26.7 1.00 1.30 2.90 0.33 0.05 4.94 4.33 0.88 0.03 30.03 6.15 26.7 30.2 1.15 1.45 3.50 0.33 0.03 5.54 5.78 1.04 0.03 30.03 5.35 30.9 73.0 1.50 1.80 4.75 0.33 0.04 6.79 9.63 1.42 0.03 30.03 7.59 73.1 39.9 1.55 1.85 5.00 0.33 0.01 7.04 10.3 1.48 0.03 30.03 3.90 40.5 9

Sb.C i: Subcatchment i; Qmax: Maximum Discharge; h: Normal water level in the canal; H: Total height of the canal (including the free board of the canal); B: Base of the canal; m: Cotan . = side inclination coefficient of the canal; P: Wetted Perimeter of the canal; A: Wetted Cross Section Area of the canal; R: Hydraulic Radius; n: Roughness Coefficient of the canal; K: Manning Coefficient; VDes: Designed Velocity; QDes: Designed Discharge. Table 6. Crop water Coefficients (Kc) Rice 150 Rice120 Maize 125 Kc Kc ini 1,05 1,05 Kc mid 1,2 1,2 Kc end 0,6 0,6 Phase duration (in days) Init.(Lini) 30 20 Dev.(Ldev) 30 20 Mid(Lmid) 60 50 Late(Llate) 30 30 Cumulative phase duration (in days) Init.(Lini) 30 20 Dev.(Ldev) 60 40 Mid (Lmid) 120 90 Late (Llate) 150 120

In: Initial Phase;Mid: Middle Phase; Dev: Development Phase: 0,7 1,2 0,35 20 35 40 30 20 55 95 125 Beans 110 Potatoes13 Sorghu Aubergine 0 m 125 0,4 0,5 0,7 1,05 1,2 1,15 1,1 0,9 0,35 0,75 0,55 0,7 20 25 20 30 30 30 35 40 40 45 40 40 20 30 30 20 20 25 20 30 50 55 55 70 90 100 95 110 110 130 125 130

Table 7. Monthly crop water coefficients (Kc) Month day Rice 150 Rice 120 Maize 125 Beans 110 Potatoes 130 Sorghum 125 Aubergine 1 30 1,05 1,06 0,73 0,45 0,51 0,72 1,05 2 60 1,13 1,19 1,06 1,03 0,93 0,99 0,99 3 90 1,20 1,20 1,20 1,20 1,15 1,10 0,91 4 120 1,20 0,89 0,89 0,50 1,06 0,90 0,88 5 150 0,89 0,07 0,00 0,27 0,10 0,25 Table 8: Composition of mixed-crops Denomination Crops Proportion Cropping intensity Mixed 1 Beans Peppers 50 % 30 % 100 % Cabbages 10 % Groundnut 10 % Mixed 2 Maize 50 % 100 % Soya 30 % Beans 10 % Cabbages 10 % Mixed 3 Corn Ears 10 % 50 % Irish potatoes 20 % Gren Beans 20 % Total 250 % Table 9. Farming calendar for double rice crop production Speculation Area Crop sep oct nov dec ja feb mar april may jun jully aug (ha) t n Rice-rice 7.5 Rice 120 7.5 Rice 120 7.5 Rice 120 7.5 Rice 120 TOTAL 15.0

Table 10: Farming calendar for mixed-cropping Speculati Area crop sept oct nov dec jan feb mar apr may jun july aug on (ha) Mixed 360 Mixed1 crop 360 Mixed2 360 Mixed3 TOTAL 360 Table 11. Assessment of operation of Rwasave reservoir Volume 10 m may jun july aug sept oct nov dec jan feb mar apr may Storable volume 60 0 0 0 16 67 78 64 58 63 57 94 60 Losses by evaporation 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 Irrigation water 0 1 15 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Requirement Outflow volume 3 4 19 46 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 Assessment In/S 85 81 62 16 29 85 85 85 85 85 85 85 85