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On the Design of Compact Broadband GapCoupled Microstrip Patch Antenna with PBG

Raj Kumar and V. A. Deshmukh

Faculty of Electronics Engg. Institute of Armament Technology, Pune 411 025, India
Abstract- This paper presents the design of compact broadband gap-coupled microstrip antenna with Photonic Band Gap. The single patch microstrip antenna and Gap - coupled microstrip antenna have been designed and fabricated on r = 2.2 with 1.588 mm substrate thickness. The Gap coupled microstrip antenna consists the number of parasitic elements which are gap coupled to driven patch. The measured center frequency of the gap-coupled and patch antenna is 2.568 GHz and 2.483 GHz respectively. The impedance bandwidth of gap - coupled antenna has been observed 4 times greater than microstrip patch antenna at VSWR 2:1. The Photonic Band Gap (PBG) has been applied to suppress the surface wave propagating on substrate which improves the radiation pattern and bandwidth.

Where Cp = o r (w/h) is the parallel plate capacitance between the strip and the ground plane. The odd-mode capacitance Co = Cp + Cf + Cgd + Cga Using the even and odd-mode effective dielectric constant, the upper and lower resonant frequencies can be calculated and the input impedances for the even mode Zin (e) and odd mode Zin (o) are calculated separately with the help of even and odd mode effective dielectric constant. The resultant input impedance of the system is given by Zin = Zin (e) + Zin (o) The input impedance for the gap coupled microstrip antenna is calculated from this equation. III DESIGN OF MICROSTRIP ANTENNA Fig. 1, shows the rectangular patch antenna design at 2.6 GHz center frequency with series feed [1]. The dimension of this patch is 45.6 x 38.1 mm and edge impedance is 244.42 . The PBG is created as periodic pattern in the ground plane at center frequency [6]. The input matching is achieved by using /4 line of 110.55 at center frequency.


Microstrip antennas are receiving much attention because of their advantages of having low profile, light weight and low fabrication cost. The inherent disadvantage of microstrip antennas is their narrow impedance bandwidth [1]. The bandwidth of microstrip patch antenna can be improved by increasing the electrical thickness of the substrate and reducing the dielectric constant [2-3]. However, this greatly degrades the antenna efficiency due to surface wave losses. Moreover, on a finite substrate, multiple reflections of the surface waves from the substrate edges result in ripples in the radiation pattern. There are many techniques to improve the bandwidth of antenna such as use of coupling resonators in coplanar configuration but this technique increases the overall size of antenna together with distortion of the radiation pattern [4-5]. This paper presents the compact multiple gap coupled elements patch antenna with Photonic Band Gap (PBG). The bandwidth of this antenna improves due to gap-coupled parasitic elements and radiation pattern improves because photonic band gap structure suppresses the surface wave propagating on substrate. II THEORITICAL ANALYSIS The impedance characteristics of the gap-coupled rectangular patch are analyzed by extending the theory of coupled microstrip lines [7]. A gap coupled rectangular patch coupled along with the non-radiating edge is shown in Fig. 2a . The distribution of capacitance of the microstrip line [ 7] for even-mode capacitance can be divided into three as Ceven = Cp + Cf + Cf

Top View

0-7803-9433-X/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE.

APMC2005 Proceedings

S = c/(2ft r =
g /8


) =

g /2

where S is the distance between center to center of PBG structure and r is radius of the circle[5].

Bottom View Figure 1, Rectangular Microstrip patch antenna with PBG

The Fig. 2, shows the gap -coupled patch antenna of same size (as in Fig.1) is divided into several parts. The centre section alone is fed and remaining parts are kept as parasitic. The gaps between several parts of patch were optimized by EM simulator. The optimized gaps are shown in Fig. 2a. In a gap coupled rectangular patch, the resonant frequency is determined by the length as well as its width. In this, parasitic and driven element should resonate at adjacent frequencies to improve the bandwidth. Hence, the sections are made of unequal widths. Here, parasitic and the driven element resonating at adjacent frequencies give flat impedance characteristics over a wide band of frequencies. In this, Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) is also applied in the ground plane at center frequency of antenna. The both antennas have been optimized using electromagnetic simulator. IV PHOTONIC BAND GAP Surface wave is a serious problem in Microstrip antenna. Surface waves are the modes of propagation supported by the grounded substrate. These reduce bandwidth, gain, and efficiency of the antenna while increase the cross-polarization. The Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) structure is useful to suppress these surface waves. This provides a stop band to electromagnetic waves propagating through it. The frequency range of the stop band depends on the pattern geometry and its dimension. If the antenna operating frequency falls within this stop band, it attenuates the surface wave propagating through the substrate. Thus, the generation and propagation of surface waves are stopped. The Photonic Band-Gap (PBG) structure can be created by embedding a periodic lattice of circular or square slots in the ground plane of a microstrip antenna. The dimension of PBG structure can be calculated by these expression on center frequency;

(a) Optimized dimension of compact antenna (cm)

(b) Top view

(c) Bottom view Figure 2, Gap Coupled microstrip patch antenna with photonic band gap


A series fed rectangular patch of 45.6 X 38.1 mm was designed and fabricated on 1.588 mm thick RT Duriod substrate of dielectric constant r = 2.2 with PBG. The experimental center frequency of this patch is 2.483 GHz with return loss around 20 dB and bandwidth 1.5 % at VSWR 2:1 as shown in Fig, 3. The another gap coupled patch of same size i.e 45.6 x 38.1 mm was designed and fabricated on 1.588 mm thick RT-Duriod substrate of dielectric constant r = 2.2. The center frequency of this patch has been observed 2.568 GHz and the bandwidth 6 % at VSWR 2:1 as shown also in Fig. 3. In both antennas, Photonic Band Gap have been applied to suppress the surface wave which in turn improves the radiation pattern because the surface wave propagate several wavelength in free space that disturb the desired radiation pattern. Thus, the bandwidth and radiation pattern of both antennas are improved. It is also observed that bandwidth of gap- coupled antenna is around 4 times of the single rectangular patch. The E and H plane simulated radiation patterns of the rectangular patch and gap coupled parasitic microstrip antenna are shown in Fig. 4 and 5 respectively.



This paper presents a method to improve the bandwidth and radiation pattern of microstrip patch antenna. The Gap coupled parasitic elements of same resonating length with different width improves the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. This Gap-coupled antenna can be made compact in size. The Photonic Band Gap applied in the ground plane suppresses the surface waves propagating on substrate at the design frequency. The attenuation of these surface waves improves the radiation pattern, gain and efficiency of the antenna because these surface waves propagate in free space several wavelengths which create the ripple in the desired radiation pattern. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
____ Patch Antenna with PBG, - ----- Gap Coupled patch with PBG

Fig. 3, Experimental Return Loss Variation

The author is grateful to Director I.A.T., Pune for permission to publish this work. The author is also thankful to the Chairman of Electronics Faculty for constant support.

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