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Evaluating Training

Identifying the need

Deliver Training

Plan and Design

Every organization needs to have well trained and experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done. If current or potential job occupants can meet this requirement, training is not important. When this not the case, it is necessary to raise the skill levels and increase the versatility and adaptability of employees. Nowadays, it is common for individuals to change careers several times during their working lives. The probability of any young person learning a job today and having those skills throughout his working life is extremely unlikely or even impossible. In a rapid changing society employee training is not only an activity that is desirable but also an activity that an organization must commit resources to if it is to maintain a viable and knowledgeable work force. The entire project talks about the training and development in theoretical as well as new concepts, which are in trend now.

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Here we have discussed what would be the input of training if we ever go for and how can it be good to any organization in reaping the benefits from the money invested in terms like (ROI) i.e. return on investment. What are the ways we can identify the training need of any employee and how to know what kind of training he can go for? Training being covered in different aspect likes integrating it with organizational culture. The best and latest available trends in training method, the benefits which we can derive out of it. How the evaluation should be done and how effective is the training all together. Some of the companies practicing training in unique manner a lesson for other to follow as to how to train and retain the best resource in the world to reap the best out of it. Development is integral part of training if somebody is trained properly and efficiently the developments of that individual and the company for whom he is working. Here we discussed about development of employee, how to identify the needs, and after developing how to develop executive skill to sharpen their knowledge. Learning should be the continuous process and one should not hesitate to learn any stage.

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In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. It is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the employees performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance Actual performance.

We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms.

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Table 1. Training and Education Differentiated Training Application Job-Experience Specific Tasks Narrow / Perspective Education Theoretical Orientation Classroom Learning General Concepts Broad Perspective

Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom

Education Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training, is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding their work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning their training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that training is offered to operatives, whereas developmental programmes are
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meant for employees in higher positions. Education however is common to all the employees, their grades notwithstanding. Employee training tries to improve skills, or add to the existing level of knowledge so that employee is better equipped to do his present job, or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities. However individual growth is not an end in itself. Organizational growth need to be measured along with individual growth. Training refers to the teaching / learning activities done for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization to acquire and apply the knowledge skills, abilities, and attitude needed by that organization to acquire and apply the same. Broadly speaking training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Research Problem / Statement Defined In todays scenario change is the order of the day and the only way to deal with it is to learn and grow. Employees have become central to success or failure of an organization they are the excess of ideas. So it is high time the organization realize that train and retain is the mantra of new millennium.

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1. In my opinion, every large scale company has to go through three phases of training programme which may be critical and crucial for actual implementation of such training programmes. Phase 1: Pre-training  The use the organization expects to make of the participants after training.  Selection of trainer and suitable participants.  Finalizing Methods of training. Phase 2: Training  Observe participants behaviour during training.  Prepare the conditions for improved performance by their participants upon their return.

Phase 3: Post-training  Observe participants behaviour during training.  Evaluate training.  Calculating the benefits to the company in terms of ROI. 2. Software Company would prefer On-the-job training methods because of the technical nature of work like coding and software programme development. 3. Post training phase may ensure the feedback from participants in the training programme, which may work as a guide for further training programmes.

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Company Information Opus Software Solutions, an ISO 9001:2000 company is a 500+ people solutions company catering to banking and finance sectors through solutions for ATM switching, electronic payment gateways and card management systems.

Opus is growing at rapid pace with a growing presence in the Indian and foreign markets. Challenging work in a niche domain, great work environment and industry matching remuneration are some of our unique features. Opus was founded in 1997, with operations in North America, the Far East and India. Opus has two fully equipped engineering centres (in Pune and Chennai) with Tandem, IBM, SUN and HP servers, ATMs, Kiosks, HSMs, POS devices and software engineering tools. In late 2001, Opus created a separate product division with a focus on equities trading and ATM switching solutions. Opus is now an ISO 27001and ISO 9001:2008 certified company. Currently Opus is a CMMi Level 3 company. Mission To be one of the most admired and respected global payments service providers by market share, revenues and analyst rankings. Products / Services Provided

Opus Software Solutions Inc. is a company involved in creating comprehensive software solutions for the global payments industry. It offers products including ElectraCard, Electra EFT Switch, Electra Payment Gateway, mTalk and Trendis. Opus provides payment solutions
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with Electra suite of products as well as customized development through its software services division. Electra suite offers comprehensive solution for acquirers and issuers of both card and non-card based payment transactions. Since its launch, the Electra suite of payment products has gained rapid acceptance in the US, Middle East and Africa, South East Asia and the Far East with more than 100 satisfied customers worldwide. Opus employs over 300 associates all over the world and has built an in-house engineering infrastructure with Tandem, HP, IBM, SUN and Linux servers, NCR and Diebold ATMs, Kiosks, POS devices of different make, hardware security modules and VISA/MasterCard simulators.


Achievements Opus Software bagged the prestigious National IT Award for Best IT Package for its Electra suite of products. It was ranked first in the list of software products on criteria like criticality of IT usage, improvement in customer service, impact on quality and productivity, impact on society and innovation. Opus Software Solutions recruits and retains the best talent available. The company provides its employees with opportunities for professional growth and promotes creativity at work. The company respects individual opinions and encourages team spirit.

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Scope The scope of the study covers in depth, the various training practices, modules, formats being followed and is limited to the Opus Software Solutions Pvt. Ltd and its employees. The different training programmes incorporated / facilitated in Opus Software through its faculties, outside agencies or professional groups. It also judges the enhancement of the knowledge & skills of employees and feedback on its effectiveness.

Objectives The broad objective of the study of training policies in Opus Software is to study the impact of training on the overall skill development of employees. The specific objectives of the study are:

1. To examine the effectiveness of training in overall development of skills of employees. 2. To examine the impact of training on the employees. 3. To study the changes in behavioral pattern due to training. 4. To measure the differential change in output due to training. 5. To compare the cost effectiveness in implanting training programmes.

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According to Casse and Banahan (2007), the different approaches to training and development need to be explored. It has come to their attention by their own preferred model and through experience with large Organisations. The current traditional training continuously facing the challenges in the selection of the employees, in maintaining the uncertainty related to the purpose and in introducing new tactics for the environment of work and by recognizing this, they advising on all the problems, which reiterates the requirement for flexible approach. Usually the managers have the choice to select the best training and development programme for their staff but they always have to bear in mind that to increase their chances of achieve the target they must follow the five points highlighted by Miller and Desmarais (2007). According to Davenport (2006), mentioned in his recent studies that its easy to implement strategy with the internet supported software. Some of the Training theories can be effective immediately on the future of the skill and developments. The content and the access are the actual factors for the process. It is a representation itself by the Access on main aspect what is effective to the adopted practice in training development. As per the recent theories to access the knowledge is changing from substantial in the traditional to deliver the knowledge for the virtual forms to use the new meaning of information with electronic learning use. There is a survey confirmation for using classroom to deliver the training would drop dramatically, (Meister, 2001).

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A manager is that what the other members of the organization want them to be because it is a very popular trend of development training for the managers in the training for the management (Andersson, 2008, Luo, 2002). Most of the managers seems to reject a managerial personality in support of the other truth for themselves (Costas and Fleming, 2009). Michael S. Lane, Gerald L. Blakely, Cindy L. Martinec (1990) Management development programmes are increasingly being studied and evaluated, regarding their efficiency and effectiveness. Presents the results of a survey of 155 directors and vice-presidents of personnel and human resource management departments regarding the current status of their management development programmes. The results indicate that management development programmes do not seem to differentiate between levels of management. This held true across a wide spectrum of training areas. The results also indicated that the approach used in teaching (pedagogy) was consistent across management levels. This lack of variety according to management level seems to go counter to current theory regarding the differences in skill requirements between management levels. Oladele Akin-Ogundeji, (1991)

Evaluation is increasingly being regarded as a powerful tool to enhance the effectiveness of training. Three major approaches to training evaluation: quality ascription, quality assessment and quality control are highlighted. In order to enhance the effectiveness of training, evaluation should be integrated with organisational life. To ensure this, a model, the quality assurance evaluation model, is proposed. A description of an action-research oriented
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exploration of the model with 43 training co-ordinators of manufacturing firms in Nigeria is given. Changes in the model, suggested by the research findings, are discussed, and the modified model presented. The need to test the modified model on real life training programmes is emphasised. Garrett J. Endres, Brian H. Kleiner Successfully measuring effectiveness in management training and development can be a difficult task. Design of a valid measurement programme should include evaluation in key areas; including emotional reaction and knowledge gain measured after training interventions. Behavioural change and organisational impact measurements should be used on a longer time horizon to evaluate the progress and currency of the management development programme. Finally, research shows that maintaining a balance of the above measurements is the final key to success in measuring the effectiveness of management training and development.

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A research design is the specification of methods and procedures for acquiring the information needed. It is over-all operation pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what information is to be collected from which source by what procedure. It also refers to the blue print of the research process. Research Plan or Design is the blue print for fulfilling research objectives and answering questions. The research plan and steps to be followed are given in the following flowchart:

The project is formulated by following the sequence mentioned in the figure above.

Key Issues
Research Design Data Research Research Instrument A research design consists of

Descriptive Primary Data Qualitative Research - In-depth Interview Questionnaire, Expert Interview

 A clear statement of the research problem.

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 Procedures and techniques used for gathering information.  The population to be studied.  Method to be used in Processing and analyzing the data. There are four types of research designs:  Exploratory or formative study.  Diagnostic study.  Experimental study.  Descriptive study.

Descriptive study
Descriptive studies are also undertaken to understand the characteristics of organizations that follow certain common practice.

Data Collection
The required data for the project has been collected from the In-depth Interview.

Primary Data
It is a fresh data, which is collected after interaction and discussion with the Mr. Paul Dsousa, Lead Human Resources, Opus Software Solutions Pvt. Ltd.

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Sampling is the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable sample, or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population.

Samples Collected
The samples collected for this project is Form Templates collected from the company and the Training MIS. 1. Training Feedback Form. 2. Training Infrastructure Template. 3. Company brochure. 4. Training MIS.

Research Instruments Questionnaire

Questionnaire refers to a device for securing answers to a formally arranged list of questions by using a term which the respondent fills himself. The questionnaire in this project is framed by using the following types of questions: 1. Open ended questions In this question the respondent answers in his own words. These types of questions are rarely used in a questionnaire as it is difficult to weigh the result. 2. Close ended questions

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In these types of questions the respondents are given limited number of alternatives from which he is supposed to select the one that closely matches his opinion or attitude. 3. Dichotomous questions These types of questions offer only two alternatives and reduce the issue to its simplest form. 4. Multiple-choice questions These types of questions provide several set of alternatives for its answer.

Statistical tools
1. Pie chart A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating proportion. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents. When angles are measured with 1 turn as unit then a number of percent is identified with the same number of centiturns. Together, the sectors create a full disk. It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced. 2. Bar chart A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. The bars can be plotted vertically or horizontally. Bar charts are used for plotting discrete (or 'discontinuous') data i.e. data which has discrete values and is not continuous. Some examples of discontinuous data include 'shoe size' or 'eye colour', for which you would use a bar chart. In contrast, some examples of continuous data would be 'height' or 'weight'. A bar chart is very useful if you are trying to record certain information whether it is continuous or not continuous data. 3. Line graph A line graph is most useful in displaying data or information that changes continuously over time. Line graphs compare two variables. Each variable is plotted along an axis . A line graph has a vertical axis and a horizontal axis.
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They key data collection techniques for qualitative studies are:  Depth Interviews  Focus Groups  Discussion Guides  Projective Techniques  Metaphor Analysis In this project Depth Interview Method is used for data collection. Depth Interviews A lengthy, generally 30 minutes to one hour non-structured lengthy interview between a respondent and a highly trained interviewer is called a Depth Interview. Composition of Depth Interview Depth Interviews can involve one interviewer and one respondent that is why it is also called one on one interviews or individual in-depth interviews. They may involve 8-15 participants but in that case it will be called a Focus group. Groups of 4-5 are referred to as mini groups. Process The interviewer minimizes his/her own participation after establishing the general subject to be discussed. Respondents are encouraged to talk freely about their activities, attitudes and interests in addition to the product category and brand under study. The interviewer may not have a specific set of prescribed questions in mind that must be asked in order imposed by the questionnaire, instead there is freedom to create questions to probe those questions that appear relevant and generally try to develop set of data that appear relevant. Transcripts, videotapes or audiotape recordings of interviews are then studied carefully together with
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reports of respondents moods and any gestures or body language they may have used to convey attitudes or motives. When Appropriate Depth Interviews are conducted when: 1. Detailed study of individuals behaviors, attitudes, or needs is required. 2. The subject matter is likely to be of highly confidential nature (e.g. personal investments) 3. The subject matter is of emotionally charged or embarrassing nature (e.g. a weight reduction formula). 4. Certain strong social norms (e.g. child rearing practices) 5. Detailed understanding of a complicated behavior or decision making patterns (e.g. family planning) 6. Interviews with professional people

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For collecting Primary data I took an appointment to meet an HR person in Opus. The bonafide letter received from the college helped me to get the appointment. My visit was fixed on 21st of March 2011. My appointment was fixed with Mr. Paul Dsouza, Lead Human Resources. Mr. Paul Dsouza is a very kind and pleasing person. He was very cooperative and helped me a lot in my research. Tools used for Primary Data Collection: I had carried with me a hard copy of the questionnaire to be filled by Mr. Dsouza and some set of questions separately for the personal Interview. 1. Questionnaire 2. Interview Vision ECS/OPUS Training & Development intends to develop the skills and knowledge of individuals in order to expand the core expertise of the organization; and to develop the professional excellence of employees to perform their roles more effectively and efficiently.

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Philosophy The realization of the Training & Development vision depends on the support and commitment of both Management and individual employees and its integration with the business plan and the business culture Objectives

The role of Training & Development in a dynamic business environment is to be a partner to the business lines and help them achieve their objectives, by developing the knowledge and skills of their people. The success of training, results from its integration with the business plan and the business culture. The objectives of this policy are to:  Have trained manpower, which is competent to meet the present needs and future requirements of the business.  Improve and upgrade the skills and competencies of the employees for taking up higher responsibilities at the appropriate time.  Bring about Behavioral Change, which is in consonance with the organizational value system.  Encourage multi-skilling for improving productivity.  Utilize training as a motivational tool for employees growth and development. Scope Applicable to employees across ECS/OPUS at all levels as per their Training Need Identification (Need based Training with development opportunities) Process Summary The Training process is intended to develop the skills and knowledge of individuals in order to expand the core expertise of the organization; and to develop the professional excellence of employees to perform their roles more effectively and efficiently. Training includes technical as well as managerial aspects.
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Definitions & Acronym AVP HRM HRE TRN TEE PM GH DH Roles & Responsibilities AVP HRM Approves Learning Calendar and Training Plan Explores the possibilities of conducting training internally. Decides the venue for training. Escalates necessary issues to management HRE Responsible for preparation of Training Associate Vice President Human Resource Manager Human Resource Executive Trainer Trainee Project Manager Group Head Department Head

Calendar.Also ensure proper conduct of training and post-training analysis. Maintains training records. Updates Employee Training Record TRN Imparts training Establish evaluation parameters Prepare exam paper and answer sheet
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Evaluate trainees TEE Attends training. Attempt Exam Training Feedback PM GH Sends Training Request, as and when necessary Assists in planning for training and assessing quality of the training programs conducted. DH Process Inputs Business Plan Training needs identified by different processes in organization like, during performance appraisals, during project management planning etc Entry Criteria HRM is appropriately trained/ skilled to perform his/her training-related activities. Associate Development Plans / Training Requests from PMs Business Plan Verification / Validation Criteria Review of the Training Calendar Review of Training Plan Review of Training feedback form Quality Records Updated Employee Training Records
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Approves Training Request.

Reviewed and consolidated Training feedback form Process Outputs Approved Training Calendar Approved Training Plan Training Material Employee Training Record Reviewed consolidated Training feedback form Exit Criteria Updated employee training record Training Types Internal Training Based on the identification of training needs, internal training programmes are planned on a yearly basis and are classified into the following categories: Induction Training Technical Training Product Training Domain Training Intensive workshops

External Training External training programmes are planned to address the specialized areas of training, specific to their requirements for those individuals whose training needs cannot be met by internal training. This includes: Technical Training Management Development Programmes

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Training and Development Process The Flow I. Setting up the Training Advisory Board

II. Training Need Identification III. Training Plan a) Training Calendar- Preparation and Publish b) Risk Identification c) Training Process- Internal training d) Training Process- External training e) Organizing the training f) Training Execution g) Training Evaluation h) Training Records Updation IV. Review meeting of the Training Advisory Board Details I. Setting up the Training Advisory Board

 Form the Training committee consisting of AVP and department heads (HR)  The board formed will comprise of HR Head, HR Business Partners and a representative each from Services and Products.  Will allocate the annual training budget.  Will review and finalize the training calendar.  Review of training activity on quarterly basis. II. Training Need Identification

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 Collect training needs data from various sources like training requisition forms, inputs from performance management system, Project/Team Requirement, Associate Development Plan (Managers recommendation), business plan etc. (HR)  Analyze the collected data. (HR)  Identify the training needs from the data collected from various sources. (HR) (Form Used : Training_Need_Identification_Form)  Identify the target audience for the training. (HR) III. Training Plan a) Training Calendar- Prepare and Publish  Based on needs identified, prepare an yearly Training plan and the estimated budget (Training Committe)  Get the plan and budget approved by Training Advisory Board (Head HR)  Prepare Quarterly Training calendar based on yearly training plan. A monthly training calendar is prepared based on this (Template used : Training Calendar) (HRE)  Publish the training calendar to all the concerned groups; upload the plan at a location where all employees have the access to view the same. (HR)  Identify the target audience for the training. (HR) b) Risk Identification  Identify the risk involved in the training program (e.g. trainer may not be available at the time of training, resources may change, Training material may not be available etc.) (Document Referred : Risk Identification-Training) (HR)  Rank and prioritize the risk based on the risk exposure. (HR)  Prepare the Mitigation & Contingency plan for high exposure Risks (Risk with exposure document referred Risk Management Process) (HR)  Implement the mitigation plan based on the priority. (HR) c) Training Process- Internal training  In case of internal training identify the internal trainer and training material. (HR) Identify the Trainer

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a. Identify resources in the organization who have attended or imparted similar trainings in past from the training records. (Form Used : List of Trainers) (HRE) Note: Trainers for the Training are decided by PM / Senior Management. Skill and knowledge will be taken into consideration while selecting a Trainer. Once a trainer is selected, it is appended to the List of Trainers. b. Check if the Trainer is qualified to conduct the training program. (HRE) c. In case trainer has imparted the training before, check his capability from previous records (Form Used :training feedbacks, tests etc. if available). (HRE) d. Check for the availability of the Trainer for the identified date of training. . (HRE) e. Finalize the trainer. .(HRE) Establish Training Material a. Create the training material for training if not available. (TRN) b. Based on the training to be provided set the exam paper and model answer sheet. (TRN) c. Send it to the HR team. (TRN) d. Get the training material approved by appropriate subject matter expert. (HRE) e. Store the training material in the training repository defined in the plan for configuration management of training material. (HRE) f. Revisit training material periodically and update on need basis (HRE) g. Store the updated training material in the repository with proper version numbering scheme. (HRE)  In case training is to be conducted by external trainer, requester to send mail request and get necessary approval from HOD. (HRE, AVP, HRM) a. Identify potential vendors who can provide the training. (Document Referred : List of Training Vendors, List of Trainers) (HRE)
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b. Check if the Trainer is qualified to conduct the training program (HRE) c. Evaluate the Trainer (Template Used: Trainer Evaluation Template) d. Check for the availability of the Trainer for the identified date of training. (HRE) e. Obtain the course contents and commercials from the vendors. (HRE)  Decide on the venue and the dates for the training. (HRE, HRM)  Create the training material for training if not available.  Get the training material approved by appropriate subject matter expert. (HR)  Get the training material reviewed & updated by the trainer as per the frequency defined in the plan. (HR) d) Training Process- External training  In case training is to be conducted by external trainer, requester to fill in training requisition form with estimated cost and necessary approvals from HOD.  Identify potential vendors who can provide the training. (HR)  Do the Trainers evaluation to check if the Trainer is qualified to conduct the training program. (HR)  Obtain the course contents and commercials from the vendors. (HR)  Decide on the venue and the dates for the training. (HR) e) Organizing the training  Invite nominations from the Project Managers of teams identified from the targeted audience in Step II.  Decide on the final list of participants who will attend the training ensuring adequate representation from all targeted teams, if applicable. (HR)  Book the Training room in advance. Ensure the availability of all training aids like soft board, projector, adequate copies of training material, question papers, feedback forms etc. (Document referred : Training Infrastructure ) (HR)  Send the training invite to the participants with a copy to the respective supervisors. Training Execution  On training day, ensure that all facilities are in place for the training. (HR)
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 Before the training starts ensure attendance is marked for all.(Form Used Training Attendance sheet)  On completion of Training, conduct exam, get the right answers discussed with trainees and get the answer sheets checked. Handover the answer sheets to HR.  Circulate feedback form to solicit post training feedback from all participants. (HR)  Collect the post-training feedback for from trainees and send it to the Project Manager for his feedback. (Template for training feedback form) (HRE)  In case of last minute absence of any participant, the cost of the program per employee can be recovered from the employee. f) Training Evaluation  Collect the training feedback from trainee immediately post training.  Analyze the training feedback ( HR)  Consolidate the training feedback collected and prepare training analysis report. (HR)  Send the report to the trainer and concerned Project Managers and HR Head.  In case of adverse feedback, initiate necessary action. (HR)  Follow-up the initiated action till closure.(HR) g) Training Records Updation (Template for employee wise training)  Approved Training Calendar  Employee Training Record  Reviewed consolidated Training feedback form  Cost sheet for each planned external training. IV. Review meeting of the Training Advisory Board  Conduct the review meeting of training committee quarterly. Revise the yearly training calendar for pending trainings, newly identified requirements.  Review the allocated budget against budget consumed.  Review of the Training Calendar  Review of Training feedback form  Record the findings. (Ref. Template for MOM)  Update the status of risk .Log new risk identified if any. (Refer Risk Identification Training ) (HRE)
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Templates / Checklists / Guidelines 1.Template for Training Plan 2.Template for Training Calendar 3.List of Trainers 4.List of Training Vendors 5.Trainer Evaluation Template 6.Template for Training Attendance Sheet (Attached) 7.Template for Employee wise-Trainings 8.Template for Training Feedback Form (Attached) 9.Induction Feedback Form 10.Risk Identification-training 11.Training Infrastructure (Attached) 12.Role based training 13.Training Need Identification Form 14.Guidelines for Training Trainer Assessment Sheet 15.Training Requisition Form 16.Training Analysis Sheet 17.Training Need Identification Form 18.Employee Training Record Sheet 19.Training Master Tracker Sheet 20.Training Risk Identification Form

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Flow Chart

Business Plan,Identification of training needs during performance appraisal and project management planning Yes


HRM is appropriately trained in / skilled to perform his/her training related activities.

Yes Prepare Learning Calendar Study the identified training needs Identify the skill areas on which trainging is need,potential trainers,trainee and availability of them Identify type of training Prepare and update learning calendar and get it reviewed and approved Discuss and define training strategies and standards Yes Prepare for training Prepare training plan for conducting ihhouse training Ensure availability of sufficient infrastructural facilities and training material Intimate the date,timing,objective,venue etc. Receive waiver form if any and if approrpriate approve it.



Yes   Conduct the training Book the venue Initiate the training according to strategy mentioned in training plan Yes    Evaluate the training Provide feedback forms to the employees Review the consolidated feedback forms to asses the effectiveness and trainer performance Document and maintain all the training records Yes Updated training record

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Training and Human Resource Staffing

Human resource management serves a vital function in any organization. In business especially, human resource management concerns itself with increasing the production levels of the company by addressing issues related to personnel. There are various key functions of human resource management. This article will focus heavily on the Training and Development of personnel as proof of the need for sufficient human resource staffing.

Training and development of personnel ought to be obviously important. An employee cannot properly work without knowing how to perform their job. One frustrating question for the employer can be, "how can I effectively train new employees so they perform well?" Unfortunately, the answer to this question is more complex than one might expect. Each employee comes with different capacities. Some may be incredibly willing to work, but lack confidence. Some may have both willingness and confidence, but lack the knowledge to perform essential tasks. Others still might even struggle with a willingness to perform tasks. Can all these problems be solved through training?

Ultimately the answer is no. Individuals have agency and can choose to not pay attention to training, may choose to complain or otherwise develop an attitude antithetical to effective working, and some may continue to lack confidence despite continued efforts at training. However, regardless of inevitable human limitations there are effective principles which comprise a model for training that, when applied, can help employees gain the confidence and knowledge they need to work when they have a will to do so. The principles of this model are as follows: Teach Demonstrate Practice Evaluate Re-Practice
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This model can be applied either on a broad level like at large meetings, or also on a personal level. It only requires someone that can demonstrate the specific skill that an employer needs employees to develop or incorporate into their work.

The model starts with the teaching or explanation of the skill. This should be a short and engaging explanation. Following the explanation of the skill should a demonstration of the same skill. Just think of playing sports: you have to both explain and demonstrate how to shoot a basket, or spike a volleyball, or even swing a bat at a fastball before an initiate can really get the hang of the skill themselves. However, even more important than either teaching or demonstrating are the last three steps involving practice.

After seeing someone else perform the skill it's necessary for the person learning to practice the skill. After trying it out it's important for the student to receive feedback on their performance, and then immediately be able to apply that feedback. The last two steps are critical in ensuring that the new skill is applied correctly. For this reason the importance of adequate human resource staffing cannot be overstated. Human resource staffing allows proper, powerful and pertinent training to be given to new employees or even existing employees that need to be further developed.

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Importance of Training and Development

 Optimum Utilization of Human Resources Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals.

 Development of Human Resources Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth.

 Development of skills of employees Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees.

 Productivity Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.

 Team spirit Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.

 Organization Culture Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

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 Organization Climate Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers.

 Quality Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.

 Healthy work-environment Training and Development helps in creating the healthy

working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal.  Health and Safety Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence.

 Morale Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.  Image Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.  Profitability Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation.

 Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.

 Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display.

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Benefits of Training and Development

Employees and the organization need to realize the importance of contribution and learning for mutual growth and development. Training is the answer to deal with stagnation stage by constantly updating it in every field. Other benefits of training include:

 Hiring appeal: Companies that provide training attract a better quality Workforce.  Assessing and addressing any performance deficiency.  Enhancing workforce flexibility: Cross-cultural training is essential for the employees for better adjustment in the new environment.  Increasing commitment: Training acts as a loyalty booster. Employee motivation is also enhanced when the employee knows that the organization would provide them opportunities to increase their skills and knowledge.  It gives the organization a competitive edge by keeping abreast of the latest changes; it acts as a catalyst for change.  Higher customer satisfaction and lower support cost results through improved service, increased productivity and greater sufficiency.  Training acts as benchmark for hiring promoting and career planning.  It acts act as a retention tool by motivating employee to the vast opportunities for growth available in an organization.

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Traditional and Modern Approach of Training and Development

Traditional Approach

Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth.

Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing.

Modern Approach

The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results.

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Training and Human Resource Management

The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.

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Role of HRD Professionals in Training

This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is:

1. Active involvement in employee education. 2. Rewards for improvement in performance. 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth. 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training. 5. Flexible access i.e. anytime, anywhere training.

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The Scope of Training and Development

TYPE Coaching

DESCRIPTION The coach works directly with an employee on a specific issue with structured built-in review and evaluation sessions.

POSSIBLE USES Providing an employee with an opportunity to learn about a new area of work. Turning a work problem into a learning situation. Practical skills such as driving, IT Skills, telephone training, communications skills etc.

COMMENTS An intensive method of training which may involve a considerable time commitment from the coach. Requires the learner to use the skills after the course or the risk is it will be lost. Is most effective when used as part of a planned programme e.g. induction for new workers, updating on legislation / procedures. All external qualification support should be assessed to determine the benefits to the employee and the Council. Caution should be exercised where the benefit is solely for the employees career development. Learners can set their own pace and benefit from a flexible structure.

Skills Based Aim to meet identified Courses training needs by instruction and testing of skills gained.

Guided Reading

An employee is advised of selected books/articles/extracts/ reports etc. to assist their development.

Obtaining a general background about a particular topic/area of work. Developing knowledge about a specific area or about work context. Necessary where a qualification allows the employee to practice (e.g. law, environmental health). For development of the employee so that promotion can be obtained.

External An employee works to gain Qualifications a recognized qualification at an external provider (e.g. college, university) or through a correspondence course.

National An employee prepares a Vocational portfolio of evidence Qualifications against the recognized standards of the
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Can be used where there are no recognized external qualifications based on examination or

appropriate NVQ. The Portfolio will be assessed by a qualified individual and awards are made by recognized lead bodies.

Self Instruction (Open Learning)

Units are chosen to match the candidates job role and some training providers will tailor the qualification to meet your needs. As with all accredited training that takes place over a longer period of time, NVQs do require a commitment from the learner and the employer alike. An employee uses self- To develop skills/ Most effective teaching material e.g. knowledge in new areas. when part of a programmed broader training learning/package/manual programme with on their own. other live training.

where the employee is better suited to working at their own pace. NVQs can be delivered in the workplace during work time or combined with external, off the job training.

An employee carries out a To broaden experience of The task should be specific task within a set an area of work. agreed between the period of time. employee and manager/ supervisor. Should be manageable in scope i.e. not too broad. Log Book An employee maintains a Generally used for It is important to Display record of work programme apprentices, trainees etc. have a clearly including progress / but could have a wider defined structured performance level, often in application. programme of conjunction with manager / training to work. supervisor. Demonstratio An instructor shows an Often used for mechanical It is important that n / employee/group how to skills but could have a the instructor observations carry out a particular task wider application e.g. explains why each of Others at work. stages in carrying out a stage is done and clerical task such as sets the wider sorting incoming mail. context of the work. Those being trained should have
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Projects/ Assignments

an opportunity to practice immediately after the instruction. Seminars/ Knowledge Based Courses Sessions aimed at passing on or updating information necessary for staff to perform their work effectively e.g. Health and Safety, Business Plans, IIP etc An efficient way to ensure large numbers of staff are covered with a consistent message. Seminars outside the organisation normally provide specialist input not available within. Staff need to be aware of the reasons why training is being carried out and what the objectives are. Assessment of external seminars should still be carried out by staff and line managers to evaluate effectiveness. There needs to be clear links identified between the topic of the conference and the purpose/use for attending. It is important to have an agreement established between both parties. Managers may need to be thoroughly familiar with the topic. Probably more useful if a structured discussion, so all participants can give comments freely on an equal basis.


Attendance at District, Often used to pick up County or national national trends and conferences on a specific information as well as topic. networking with other colleagues.

One to one sessions with a nominated person to think through ideas and receive advice. Question and Time set aside for Answer exchange of information sessions/ between manager and Discussions employee(s) Mentoring

Useful when dealing with complex problems or people related issues. To develop and broaden the knowledge of the group e.g. about new developments/future plans.

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Training and Development Objectives

The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal.

Individual Objectives help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization.

Organizational Objectives assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness.

Functional Objectives maintain the departments contribution at a level suitable to the organizations needs.

Societal Objectives ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society.

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Training Methods
There are two broad types of training available to small businesses: on-the-job and off-the-job techniques. Individual circumstances and the "who," "what" and "why" of your training program determine which method to use. On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching. Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory training. Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although, some may be too costly. Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:
y y y

The company's history and mission. The key members in the organization. The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company.

Personnel rules and regulations.

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Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment. Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train. Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may undertrain some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences. Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training. Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it's played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints. The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences. Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks. They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they
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take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace. Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses. Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers. It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses.

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Training Need Analysis (TNA)

An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Why training need analysis? Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.

Training Need

Organizational Level

Individual Level

Operational Level











performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its sub group.

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Organizational Level Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats.

After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level . Individual Level Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are:

 Appraisal and performance review  Peer appraisal  Competency assessments  Subordinate appraisal  Client feedback  Customer feedback  Self-assessment or self-appraisal

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Operational Level Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, training Need analysis (TNA) is done.

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Best Time to Impart Training to Employees

1. NEW RECRUITS TO THE COMPANY These have a requirement for induction into the company as a whole in terms of its business activities and personnel policies and provisions, the terms, conditions and benefits appropriate to the particular employee, and the career and advancement opportunities available. 2. TRANSFEREES WITHIN THE COMPANY These are people who are moved from one job to another, either within the same work area, i.e. the same department or function, or to dissimilar work under a different management. Under this heading we are excluding promotions, which take people into entirely new levels of responsibility. 3. PROMOTIONS Although similar to the transferee in that there is a new job to be learned in new surroundings, he is dissimilar in that the promotion has brought him to a new level of supervisory or management responsibility. The change is usually too important and difficult to make successfully to permit one to assume that the promotes will pick it up as he goes along and attention has to be paid to training in the tasks and the responsibilities and personal skills necessary for effective performance. 4. NEW PLANT OR EQUIPMENT Even the most experienced operator has everything to learn when a computer and electronic controls replace the previous manual and electro-mechanical system on the process plant on which he works. There is no less a training requirement for the supervisors and process management, as well as for technical service production control and others. 5. NEW PROCEDURES Mainly for those who work in offices in commercial and administrative functions but also for those who we workplace is on the shop floor or on process plant on any occasion on which there is a modification to existing paperwork or procedure for, say the withdrawal of materials
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from stores, the control of customer credit the approval of expense claims, there needs to be instruction on the change in the way of working in many instances, a note bringing the attention of all concerned the change is assume to be sufficient, but there are cases, such as when total new systems in corporating IT up dates are installed, when more thorough training is needed. 6. NEW STANDARDS, RULES AND PRACTICES Changes in any one these are likely to be conveyed by printed note or by word of mouth by the manager to his subordinates, and this can be the most satisfaction way of dealing with the change from the point of view of getting those affected to understand their new responsibility. However not all changes under this heading can be left to this sort of handling. Even the simplest looking instruction may be regarded as undesirable or impracticable by whoever has to perform it he may not understand the purpose behind the change and lose confidence in a management which he now believes to be messing about, or he may understand the purpose and have a better alternative to offer if it is not too late. 7. NEW RELATIONSHIP AND AUTHORITIES These can arise, as a result of management decisions, in a number of ways. In examples, the recognition of the accounts department can result in a realization of responsibilities between the section leaders of credit control, invoicing and customer records, although there is no movement of staff between the sections (i.e. no transfers). Although the change in work content for each clerk and supervisor is defined clearly for each person in the new procedures, there is nevertheless a need for each person to know where he stands in the new set up, which is responsible for what, and where to direct problems and enquiries as they arise in the future. 8. MAINTENANCE OF STANDARDS We are here concerned with maintenance of standards through training, for it must be remembered that supervision and inspection and qualify control are continuously responsible for standards and exercise their own authorities to this end. Although it is generally agreed that some retraining from time to time, taking varied forms even for the on group of employees, does act as both a reminder and a stimulus, there is not much agreement on the next frequency
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and form that such retraining should take, of there is as yet little scientific knowledge on this subject which is of much use in industrial situations. 9. THE MAINTENANCE OF ADAPTABILITY Again, whilst there is little scientific study of the loss of ability to learn new skills in those cases where people spend a long time without change, and without the need to learn, there is increasing evidence in current experience to suggest that this is the case in industrial employment. Add, of course, there is the inference arising from the laboratory experiments of psychologists. 10. THE MAINTENANCE OF MANAGEMENT SKILLS & STANDARDS Skills in supervising, employee appraisal, communications, leadership etc are important in all companies. Some of these skills are seen to be critical to major developments in company organisation, culture, employee empowerment and so on. Initial training in these skills is not uncommon in the largest companies on appointment into management and supervision. But continuous training and performance monitoring is rare, despite the common knowledge that standards are as varied as human nature. 11. RETIREMENT AND REDUNDANCY Employees of any position in the company who are heading towards retirement will benefit from learning about health, social life, work opportunities money management etc. Internal or external courses are best attended a year or two before retirement date, in a few companies a member of Personnel will act as a counselor as required.

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Training Design
The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i.e. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program.

The trainer Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.

The trainees A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design.

Training climate A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable, almost everything goes wrong.

Trainees learning style the learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.

Training strategies Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included. Training topics After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics, ad modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
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Sequence the contents Contents are then sequenced in a following manner:

y y y y y

From simple to complex Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance From known to unknown From specific to general Dependent relationship

Training tactics Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. The method selection depends on the following factors:

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Support facilities It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc. Constraints The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are:  Time  Accommodation, facilities and their availability  Furnishings and equipments  Budget  Design of the training, etc
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Training Implementation

To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong action. Training implementation can be segregated into: Practical administrative arrangements Carrying out of the training Implementing Training

Once the staff, course, content, equipments, topics are ready, the training is implemented. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning, and refining. Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success. Therefore, following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program: The trainer

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The trainer needs to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds

before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach.

Physical set-up

Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant. Establishing rapport with participants There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by:  Greeting participants simple way to ease those initial tense moments  Encouraging informal conversation  Remembering their first name.  Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another  Listening carefully to trainees comments and opinions
 Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed  Getting to class before the arrival of learners  Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time  Using familiar examples  Varying his instructional techniques  Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down

Reviewing the agenda

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At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program, and how the program will run. The following information needs to be included:  Kinds of training activities  Schedule  Setting group norms  Housekeeping arrangements  Flow of the program  Handling problematic situations

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Training Evaluation
The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the regular work routines.

Purposes of Training Evaluation

The five main purposes of training evaluation are:

Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.

Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the work place, and training.

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Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly.

Power games: At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.

Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.

Process of Training Evaluation

Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.

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During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals. After Training: It is the phase when learners skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.

Techniques of Evaluation The various methods of training evaluation are:

 Observation  Questionnaire  Interview  Self diaries  Self recording of specific incidents

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New Electronic Technologies in Training

1) Interactive computer video technology: The use of computers and videotapes in the field of training is now well established. Some leading institution like MANAGE, Hyderabad is using this technology in training programme. 2) Broadcast television / cable television: Televisions system in which programme is sent out by radio wave and are seen on television. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is very well using this technology its educational and training programme.

3) Computer aided instruction: An educational concept which places the student in a conversational mode with a computer which has programmed study plan. The programmed course selects the next topic or phase of study according to previous responses from the student allowing each student to progress at pace directly to his or her learning capability.

4) Interactive video /interactive compute: The phrase interactive video refers to a video programme with which user (trainee) can interact. Interactivity takes place between user and the system, something for IC also, the system composed of four basic components (1) monitor or video display unit (2) video tape or video disc (3) a computer (4) a disc drive, the computer controls the video or video disc. Disc drive loads a programme into the computer. 5) Tele-conferencing: A two way audio and one way video system. It is used nowadays by many institutions for education and training purpose.
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Training Effectiveness
Cutting edge of competition today demands every organization, to measure its activities in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, excellence (triple E). A lot of investment is made by the organization but the sword of sure short success hangs on the head of the HRD manager, this is because he has to handle the most complex resource i.e. human resource. The next toughest thing is to maintain is the ROI (return on investment) of training and development. It is not only the ROI but the performance management, retention level, motivation, morale, creativity, innovation conflicts, loyalty and commitment etc. of the manpower which are not easy to handle. Keeping all these factors in mind the focus of vision falls on training and development. The training effectiveness is obviously in terms of enhanced skill and knowledge to achieve the present goals, through the increased learnt behavior. In the process of training effectiveness is the most important /vital area, where by the individual and organizational goals are integrated to bring about the desired performance levels. How to reduce the gap?

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Training Scenario In Indian IT Software Development Industry

The Indian IT sector is growing at a very fast pace and is expected to earn a revenue of US $87 billion by 2008. In 2006, it has earned revenue of about US $ 40 billion with a growth rate of 30%. IT sector is expected to generate 2.3 million jobs by 2010, according to NASSCOM (National Association of Software and Service Companies) With this rapid expansion of IT sector and coming up of major players and new technologies like SAP, the need of human resource development has increased.

Interpretation : According to the recent review by Harvard Business Review, there is a direct link between training investment of the companies and the market capitalization. Those companies with higher training investment had higher market capitalization. It clearly indicates that the companies which have successfully implemented training programs have been able to deliver customer goals with effective results. It shows that good training results in enhancement of individual performance, which in turn, helps the organization in achieving its business goals. Training is a tool that can help in gaining competitive advantage in terms of human resource.

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With the growing investment by IT companies in the development of their employees many companies have now started their own learning centers. As an example, Sun has its own training department. Accenture has Internet based tool by the name of My Learning that offers access to its vast learning resources to its employees. Companies are investing in both the technical training, which has always been an essential part in IT industry, as well as in managerial skills development. Companies now kept aside 3-5% of revenue for training programs. As an example, some of the major players like Tata Elexi and Accenture are allocating 7% and 3% respectively of the companys overall revenue.

Concern in Information Technology Training One of the major concerns for training companies is to create professionals who are better able to go in for a technology in a specific domain area. Other than that, there are various issues that are affecting the IT training sector such as, lack of conviction regarding training, unplanned training approach, uncertain quality focus, and lengthy decision-making process. With the coming up of various new technologies, it has become a challenge for the training institutes to offer effective, updated, latest, planned training to candidates in a shortest-possible time. To increase the market share, most of the training institutes are now strategizing to launch new product and are marketing aggressively. As an example, New Horizons is establishing partnership with its customers and delivering quality training. The company regularly conducts surveys of training needs in Indian job market. On the other side, NIIT has invested in product development to create product segmentation and is customizing them to address IT/ITES education arena.

Aptech is venturing into colleges, research firms, and universities. Another opportunity that has been identified by Aptech is the field of developing content and the company is offering these services to third-party clients for customization

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Essentials in IT Industry To survive in long term there are some definite essential things such as,  Good infrastructure  Trained trainers  Quality of content  Certification of training course  Effective Training evaluation  Post training support, etc This must be met by the Indian players.

Currently, the IT training market is valued at Rs 100 crore, and is expected to reach Rs 500 crore over the next 3 years.

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The major factor that is responsible for growth in IT sector is the e-governance initiatives introduced by central government and various other state governments.

Now there is a notable shift from long-term course to short-term training certifications. Due to this, the focus is now on hiring professionals with expertise in particular domains. The demand has largely for JAVA and .NET professionals. And on the NETWORKING end, network storage and Linux demand is taking a toll.

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Training MIS is interpreted as follows 1. The pie chart given below gives information about total number of training batches conducted in Opus in the year 2010.


Process Technical Induction Managerial Soft Skills Domain Total number of Batches conducted in the year 2010 Interpretation:

15 15 2 3 1 3 39

From the analysis of this pie chart for training batches it is clear that out of 39 batches conducted in year 2010, maximum batches were conducted for Technical training and Process training. The least number of batches were conducted for Soft Skills. Managerial Training and Domain Training batches were conducted on an average scale. Induction training was conducted for new comers two times in the year 2010. As and when a new project is undertaken process training and the required technical training for that process is provided to the employees in Opus. This is the reason why the numbers of trainings conducted in these areas are maximum. All other training depends on the decisions taken by the company.
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2. The pie chart given below gives the bifurcation of the number of participants who attended the trainings under different segments discussed in the above pie chart of training batches.


Process Technical Induction Managerial Soft Skills Domain Total number of employees who attended training in the year 2010 Interpretation:

182 166 18 47 14 55 482

From the analysis of this pie chart for number of participants in each batch it is clear that maximum number of employees who underwent training were in Process and Technical areas. Domain Knowledge i.e. as the company specializes in Banking Domain was given to 55 people. This indicated that maximum requirement for training and development in Opus is in Process Training, Technical Training and Domain Knowledge.

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3. The pie chart given below shows the number of man days spent on training by the company in the year 2010.


Process Technical Induction Managerial Soft Skills Domain Total number of man days of training in the year 2010 Interpretation:

27 181 27 21 14 21 291

From the analysis of this pie chart for number of man days spent on training by the employees, it is clear that maximum number of days were spent on technical training. It is followed by Process training and induction. As Opus is a software development company in Banking sector, technical training is of utmost importance.

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4. The pie chart given below shows the types of training conducted in Opus in the year 2010.




Internal Training 34 External Training 5 Total number of Batches 39 conducted in the year 2010 Interpretation: From the analysis of this pie chart for types of training it is clear that out of total 39 training batches conducted 34 were conducted internally and only 4 batches were conducted in external locations. From this we can interpret that Opus is keener on internally training its employees. But though the training is internal external consultant are hired on a large scale.

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Questionnaire is interpreted as follows 1. Mode of training methods

Classroom training for senior staff External consultants Role based training Business games

0 7 6 0

Job rotation Training Institutes Case Studies Online training , E-Learning

2 8 0 0

Senior management share their knowledge and experiences to find out 7 what is needed and what is not

Graphical representation

Interpretation: Opus relies on training institutes for most of its trainings. External consultants and knowledge of senior management is also very commonly relied upon. Role based training is also very effective for training. Job rotation is least preferred.

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Secondary research is interpreted as follows

Interpretation: As compared to other companies Opus has shown a drastic increase in the growth of research and development in the above line graph from the year Apr2010 to March2011.Other companies show a constant growth which shows the maximum growth in march which is upto 23% growth where as Opus shows some variations in the graph which reaches 35% growth in March 2011.

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Interpretation : Here this bar chart tries to compare the highest degree attained by employees in various levels as compared to other similar companies. 62% of employees hold Bachelors degree in Opus which is the degree held by maximum employees in Opus. In other companies it is 55%. This shows that the basic need in companies is Bachelors Degree and Masters Degree. The employees gain other qualification by attending in-house trainings.

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Interpretation: The focus on Research and development is more as compared to other areas in Opus and also as compared to other similar companies. The next maximum focus is on General and administrative areas. Executive leadership and Sales and marketing areas go hand in hand.

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Testing of Hypothesis
An To organization remain must issues of depends competitive, be of as on the success and and possible. and is the A performance productive, If an of an the employees. profitable effective as organizations does they they not make will will

employees address the

organization or if

employee that

satisfaction money

retention only










have employees who are able to adapt and learn which takes an investment and constant cultivating. For many organizations, this has come in the

form of employee development programs.

As I had stated in my hypothesis I was able to get a clear picture of are training and development activities conducted in Opus Software Solutions Pvt. Ltd. The activities performed in each phase in Opus Software Solutions Pvt. Ltd are listed below: Phase 1: Pre-training 1. Training needs are regularly accessed at Opus by Human resources team and department heads. 2. Training Provided in Opus is planned and systematically administered. 3. Organizations immediate and future needs of training and development are communicated to Top Managers. 4. Training programs and opportunities are communicated to employees using Training Calendar uploaded on HRMS. 5. Legal requirements are considered in training needs. 6. Employee development plans are addressed in performance appraisals 7. Upto 2 years future training needs are projected in Opus. 8. Action Plan for training needs are captured using the following  Business needs
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 Original road map  Client requirements  Appraisals 9. Training incharge is responsible for Training and Development activities in Opus. 10. Methods to identify training needs in Opus:  Observation  Performance appraisals  Opinion surveys  Critical Incident  Business needs  Client needs Phase 2: Training 1. Employees are permitted time-off with pay during training programs in Opus. 2. Mode of training methods adopted in Opus are:  External Consultants  Role based training  Business games  Job rotation  Training institutes  Senior management sharing their knowledge. 3. Employees have to participate for minimum 9 to 24 hours in training in Opus. 4. Trainer evaluation is considered for the selection of trainer.

Phase 3: Post-training 1. Feedback questionnaire is used to measure participants reaction to the training program. 2. Participants knowledge and skills are tested by Pre and post test scores and On the job assessments.

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3. Participants behavior in the workplace is found out using on-the job observations after training. 4. Quality Inspections is used to measure benefits from training in Opus. 5. Reference library of training and development is provided to employees. 6. Return on Investment is measured in Opus merely as per the Kirkpatrick model The Kirkpatrick Model Level 1. Reaction 2. Learning Type of Measure Satisfaction Focus Learner Satisfaction with the program Learning, Attitudes Behavioural Change Results Principles, facts, techniques 3. Behaviour 4. Results Changes in Job Behaviour Tangible results cost, quality, quantity

The formula used is :

% ROI = (Net Benefits / Cost) * 100

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Every project faces some limitations. The limitations that I faced while working on my project are as follows: 1. The most important limitation is the time limit given for completing my project work. 2. Busy schedule of the Lead Human resources, Opus software solutions Pvt. Ltd prevented me to prolong my interview session. 3. Some of the questions in the questionnaire were not answered properly.

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The purpose of this study was to explore the various aspects of training and development in Opus Software solutions pvt. Ltd. Opus realizes that training and development are integral to competitive business success. Training and development obviously has its cost such as course material, facilitator fees and facilities rental, for instance. However, there is a lot of savings caused by its long term benefits as it enables employees to keep up with the organization and its changes and growth. It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior  Its not what you want in life, but it knows how to reach it.  Its not where you want to go, but its knowing how to get there.  Its not how high you want to rise, but it knows how to take off.  It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome.  Its not what you dream of doing, but its having the knowledge to do it.  It's not a set of goals, but its more like a vision.  Its not the goal you set, but its what you need to achieve it.

Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time.

Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development. From my study, in Opus software solutions Pvt. Ltd., I understand that a company has to invest on training and developing its employees on a regular basis which would help the company grow and also in employee retention.
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In todays competitive world, where margins are constantly under pressure, training budgets are the first to be axed. So it becomes imperative that the training model that is evolved should be less capital intensive and not dependent upon profit margins and profitability.

Although training needs are identified much before training programmed actually commence but still some crucial points are left some un-addressed. For example very little is done to know the opinion of the employee about training need identified for him as to what he feels about the same .99% cases employee is nominated by higher authorities instead of chance being given to volunteer program under the notion that boss is always right and he knows the best off. Taking this in context there are many organization where some employee who are earmarked are regularly nominated to attend training program. He is stressed out, why dont pack him up for a training program approach. Employers are having a difficult time finding qualified entry level workers who possess the basic reading, writing and reasoning skills needed for today's workplace. In some cases, employers must complete the basic training that they believe high schools and technical colleges fail to provide. A high school diploma, and sometimes even a college degree, is not an indicator of the skills a person should have. The gap between the well educated, well skilled, and the non-educated, non-skilled is becoming more obvious due to the decline in manual labor jobs. Training is also important in aiding in underemployment and employee retention. Many students come out of college and are recruited into jobs that aren't challenging and move them along slowly. They then quit in search for other opportunities. Ongoing training would keep these students interested and learning new and helps them employees helps them to adjust to rapidly changing job requirements.
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JOURNALS : 1. Journal of Managerial Psychology ASSURING THE QUALITY OF TRAINING THROUGH EVALUATION: A MODEL , Oladele Akin-Ogundeji, (1991) Vol. 6 Iss: 1 2. Journal of European Industrial Training How to Measure Management Training and Development Effectiveness Garrett J. Endres, Brian H. Kleiner, Vol. 14 Iss: 9 BOOKS: 1. David A. Decenzo/Stephen P. Robins (2004) Personal and Human Resource Management 2. A. Monappa (2004), Personal Management 3. Allan Pepper (1999) A Handbook on Training and Development WEBSITES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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