Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

CSStudyMaterial

+ Skill LearningAcademy

CSStudyMaterial

NetworkingEssentials
Introduction
Anetworkisagroupofsystemsthatareinterconnectedtoallowsharingoffiles orsharingofresources(likeprinters)orforthepurposeofsharingserviceslikeinternet. Objective Thismodulewillfocuson Understandingcomputernetworksanditsimportance. Differentwaysofclassifyingcomputernetworks. TransmissionMedia MediaAccessMethods LANTechnologies

Classificationofcomputernetworks

Network

Basedon Geographical Distance

Basedon functional Relationship

Basedon Topology

LAN

WAN MAN

Bus Hybrid Star Ring Mesh PeertoPeer ClientServer

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

CSStudyMaterial

Computernetworkscan beclassifiedonvariouswaysbasedon
GeographicalDistance:Computernetworksmaybeclassifiedaccordingtothescaleor extent of reach of the network as Local Area Network (LAN), Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)andWideAreaNetwork(WAN). Local Area Network (LAN): A network that is limited to a relatively small spatialarea suchasaroom,asingle building,a ship,oranaircraft isrefferedas LAN. Theyaresometimescalled asingle location network.eg.Asmalloffice networkortwo computersisahouseconnectedusingacable. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN): A network that connects two or more Local Area Networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town, city, or metropolitan area is called as MAN. eg. A branch office connectedtothemainofficeinthesamecity. WideAreaNetwork(WAN): A WAN is adatacommunications networkthat covers a relatively broad geographic area and that often uses transmission facilities providedbycommoncarriers,suchastelephonecompaniesetc.Eg.Internetorabranch officeinIndiaconnectedtoitsCorporateofficeinUnitedStates. Functional Relationship: Based on the relationship that computers share in a network theycanbeclassifedasPeerPeerandClientServerarchitechturesornetworks. PeertoPeer:Apeertopeernetwork(alsocalledasWorkgroupbyMicrosoft)is builtwithouttheuseofacentralserverandeachpeercomputercanshareitsresources withtheothercomputersonthenetworkindependently.Specialsoftwareprotocolssuch as Microsoft NetBEUI and Apples LocalTalk are used for establishing communication acrossPeertoPeernetwork.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

CSStudyMaterial

Advantages
Lowcostasexpensivesoftwareandhardwarearenotrequired. Easytoimplement. Resourcesharingcontrolledbyusers. Noneedofadedicatednetworkadministator.

Disadvantages
Lowlevelofsecurity Heavyloadoncomputersbecauseofresourcesharing. Sizeofnetworklimitedtoapproximately10computers. ClientServer: In ClientServer architechure a centralized computer is used to facilitatethesharingofdataand hardwarewithothercomputersonthe network.These centralcomputersarecalledServersandthecomputersusingtheserverarecalledclients.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

CSStudyMaterial

Advantages Strongcentralsecurity. Centralfilestorage. Resourcesharingcontrolledbyadministrators. Easymanagementoflargenumberofusers.

Disadvantages Costofserverhardwareandsoftware. Dedicated and well trained network administrator is needed to main this typeofarchitecture. Network Topology: Network Topology is defined as the way in which computers are arranged in a network. Computer networks may be classified according to the network topology upon which the network is based, such as Bus network, Star network, Ring network, Meshnetwork,Hybridnetwork,etc.

BusTopology:Abusnetworktopologyisanetworkarchitectureinwhichaset ofclientsareconnectedinalinearfashionviaasharedcommunicationsline(backbone), calledabus.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

CSStudyMaterial

BusTopology
With a bustopology,whenacomputersendsouta signal,the signaltravelsthe cable length in bothdirections fromthesending computer.Whenthe signalreachesthe endofthecablelength,itbouncesbackandreturnsinthedirectionitcamefrom(signal bounce).Signalbounceisaproblem,becauseifanothersignalissentonthecablelength as the same time, the two signals will collide and be destroyed and then must be retransmitted. For this reason, at each end of the cable there is a terminator. The terminator is designed to absorb the signal when the signal reaches the end, preventing signalbounce. Advantages Easytoimplementandextend. Requireslesscablelengthwhencomparedtostartopology. Well suited for temporary or small networks not requiring high speeds (quicksetup). Costeffectivethatothertopologies. Disadvantages Difficulttoadminister/troubleshoot. Scalabilityisverylow. Problemwiththebackbonecableleadstoentirenetworkfailure. Performancedegradesasadditionalcomputersareaddedoronheavy traffic.(Ifmanycomputersareattached,theamountofdataflowing causesthenetworktoslowdown.)

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

CSStudyMaterial StarTopology:Instartopology,allcomputersareconnectedthroughonecentraldevice knownasahuboraswitch.Allthepheripheralnodes(computers)canthuscommunicate with allothersbytransmittingtoandreceivingfrom,thecentralnode(hub/switch)only.

StarTopology

Advantages Scalable,easytosetupandtoexpand. Failureofasinglecableorasinglecomputerdoesnotaffecttheentire network. Easytoaadminister/troubleshoot. Datapacketsaresentquicklyastheydonothavetotravelthroughany unnecessarynodes. Disadvantages Extrahardware(Hub/Switch)required. FailureofHub/Switchleadstoentirenetworkfailure.

Ring Topology: A ring network is a network topology in which each node connectstoexactlytwoothernodes,formingacircularpathwayforsignals:aring.Data travelsinonedirectionfromnodetonode,witheachnodehandlingeverymessage.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

CSStudyMaterial

RingTopology

D
Advantages Signal degeration is low because each workstation is responsible for regeneratingorboostingthesignal. Disadvantages Thebiggestproblemwithringtopologyisthatif onecomputerfailsorthe cablelinkisbrokentheentirenetworkcouldgodown. When there is a cable change or when a workstation is moved in the network, brief disconnection can interrupt or bring down the entire network.

MeshTopology: Ameshtopologyconsistsofanetworkwhereeverydeviceon thenetworkisphysicallyconnectedtoeveryotherdeviceonthenetwork.

MeshTopology

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

CSStudyMaterial

Advantages
FaultTolerance Providesgreatdealofperformanceandreliability. Disadvantages Veryhardtoadministerandmanagebecauseofnumerousconnections. Costlybecauseoftheadditionalcablingandnetworkinterfacestocreate multiplepathwaysbetweeneachsystem.

HybridTopology:Ahybridtopologyisacombinationofanytwoormore networktopologies.ForExample,apopularhybridtopologyisthestarbustopology,in whichanumberofstartopologiesareconnectedbyacentralbustopology. TransmissionMedia


Thefoundationofanynetworkisthetransmissionmediaorthecircuitry usedto interconnectandcarrynetworksignalsbetweensystems.Transmissionmediaprovidethe pathforonecomputertotransferinformationtoanother.Thepurposeoftransmission mediaistotransportarawbitstreamfromonemachinetoanother.

TransmissionMedia

Wired

Wireless

CopperCable

Fibre OpticCable

RadioWaves Infrared

Microwave

Coaxial

TwistedPair

Thicknet

Thinnet STP UTP

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

CSStudyMaterial Wecanclassifytransmissionmediaintotwobroadcategories, WiredMedia. WirelessMedia.

WiredMedia
Themostcommolyusedwiredmediaare Coppercable,whichcarrieselectricalsignals. Fibreopticcable,whichcarriesopticsignals.

Copper Cable: Copper cables uses differences in voltage inorder to transmitt and
receivedata.Thedifferenttypesofcoppercablesusedinnetworkingare Coaxialcables Twistedpaircables.

Coaxialcable:Acoaxialcableconsistsofastiffcopperwireasthecore,surrounded
by an insulating material. The insulator is encased by a mesh of conducting material, wovenasabraidedmesh.Theouterconductoriscoveredinaprotectiveplasticsheath.

Therearetwotypesofcoaxialcablesthicknetandthinnetcoaxialcables. ThinnetCoaxialCables(10Base2):Thinnetreferstocoaxialcablesthat arelesserindiameterandinwhichthethebraidedmeshislooselyoven.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

10

CSStudyMaterial

Thicknet Coaxial Cables (10 Base 5): Thickent refers to cables that are thickerandinwhichthebraidedmeshistightlywoven.

ThicknetversusThinnet
CoaxType Cable Grade Thickness Maximum Distance Transfer Rate Connector

Thinknet

RG58

.25inch

185m

10Mbps

BNC

Thicknet

RG8

.5inch

500m

10Mbps

AUI

Twisted Pair Cables (10 Base T): A twisted pair cable consists of four pairs (eight individual wires), which are twisted one on the top of the other. Each wire is coveredbyauniquecolourcodedplasticsheath,whichallowswirestobedistinguished fromoneanother.Allofthewiresarethenencapsulatedinaplasticsheath.Themaximum distancethattwistedpaircablescancarrysignaleffectivelyisupto100meters.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

11

CSStudyMaterial

Therearetwotypesoftwistedpaircables Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable: STP cabling includes metal shieldingovereachindividualpairofcopperwires.Thistypeofshielding protects cable from external EMI (electromagnetic interference). These cablesareoften usedforTokenringnetworks.

Unsheilded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable: UTP cables as the name indicatesareunshieldedandlackanadditionalmetalshielding.Basedon thenumberoftwistsperinchUTPcablesarecatetogorisedintodifferent categories. CategoriesofUnshieldedTwistedPair

Type

TransferRate

Use

Category1

1Mbps(Voice)

TelephoneWire

Category2

4Mbps(Data)

LocalTalk

Category3

10Mbps(Data)

Ethernet

Category4

16Mbps(Data)

TokenRing

Category5

100Mbps(Data)

FastEthernet

Category5e

1000Mbps(Data)

GigabitEthernet

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

12

CSStudyMaterial

Connectors used for Twisted pair cables: RJ 11 and RJ 45 are the


connectors used for twisted pair cables.RJ, stands for Registerd Jack implying that the connectorfollowsastandardborrowedfromthetelephoneindustry.RJ11forfourwire telephonecableandRJ45foreightwirenetworkcables.

RJ11andRJ45 WiringScheme CAT 5 UTP cabling usually uses only four wires when sending and receivinginformationonthenetwork.Thefourwiresoftheeigththatareusedarewires 1,2,3and6. When you configurethewire forthesamepinateitherendofthecable,this is knownasastraightthroughcable.Thistypeofcableisusedforconnectingdissimilar devices.Forexample,computerandastandardportinaswitch. Whenyou switchwires1and2withwires3 and6atoneendthenthattypeof cable is called as crossover cable. This type of cable is used for connecting similar devices.Forexample,connectingtwocomputersdirectly.

FibreOpticCables:FibreOpticcablesuseoptical fibresthatcarrydigitaldata signalsintheformofmodulatedpulsesoflight.Anopticalfibreconsistsofanextremely thincylinderofglass,calledthecore,surroundedbyaconcentriclayerofglassknownas thecladding.Therearetwofibrespercableonetotransmitandonetoreceive.Thecore alsocan beanopticalqualityclearplastic,andthecladdingcanbemadeupofagelthat


+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

13

CSStudyMaterial

StraightThrough&CrossOverCablePinouts
reflects signals back into the fibre to reduce signal loss. This type of cable can carrysignaluptoandbeyond2Kilometersatahighspeedof1+Gbps.

FiberOptic

Therearetwotypesoffibreopticcables:singlemodefibreandmultimodefibre. Singlemodefibreusesasinglerayoflighttocarrythetransmissionoverlongdistances. Multimodefibreusesmultipleraysoflightsimultaneouslywitheachrayoflightrunning atadifferentreflectionangletocarrythetransmissionovershortdistances. Connectors used for fibreoptic cables are Straight Tip (ST) and Subscriber Connector (SC). Fibreoptic cables are by far the expensive of these cabling methods, and are not desirableforsmallnetworks.
+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

14

CSStudyMaterial

WirelessMedia
Wirless media makes use of the atmosphere, hence referred to as unbound medium a circuit with no formal boundaries. This types of medium doesnot use any physical connectors between the two devices that are communicating. Transmissions of waves take place in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. The carrier frequency of the data is expressedincyclespersecondcalledhertz(Hz).Thethreebroadcategoriesofwireless mediaare: Radio Waves 10 KHz to 1 GHz. The Federal communications Commission (FCC) regulates the assignment of these frequencies. Frequenciesforunregulateduseare: 902928MHz 2.4GHz 5.725.85GHz

Microwave Used to link networks over long distances but the two microwavetowersmusthavealineofsightbetweenthem.Thefrequency isusually46GHzor2123GHz.Speedisoften110Mbps.Thesignal isnormallyencryptedforprivacy.

Infrared Infrared is just below the visible range of light between 100 GHz and 1000 THz. A light emitting diode (LED) or laser is used to transmit the signal. The signal cannot travel through objects and line of sightisamust.

MediaAccessMethods
An access method determines how nodes on a network, place the data/packet on the media. There are three different types of LAN access methodsCSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, TokenPassing.

CarrierSenseMultipleAccessCollisionDetection(CSMA/CD)istheprotocolusedin Ethernetnetworks(IEEE802.3)toensurethatonlyonenetworknodeistransmittingon thenetwork mediaata time.WithCSMA/CD,everyhosthasequalaccesstothemediaif ahostwishestotransmitthedata,itwillsensethemedia(CarrierSense)anddetermine


+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

15

CSStudyMaterial

whetherthereisasignalalreadyonthewireifthereis,thehostwillwaittotransmitthe dataif not it transmits the data immediately. The problem with this process is that, if there are two systems on the media that sense the media at the same time to see if the mediaisfree,theywillbothsendthedataoutatthesametime(MultipleAccess)leading tocollisionwhichgeneratesahighvoltagejamsignalmakingallthehostsinthemedia stopsendingthedataforarandomtimeintervalbeforeresendingthedataframethereby preventingacollisionthesecondtime(CollisionDetection).

Collision
Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) is a network contentionprotocolusedpopularly in Wireless networks(IEEE802.11)whichattempts to prevent collisions before they happen. With CSMA/CA, before a host sends data on themediaitwillsensethemediatoseeifthewireisfreeofsignalsoncethechannelis clear,astationsendsasignaltellingallotherstationsnottotransmit,andthensendsthe packet.

TokenPassingisaLANaccessmethodwherea"token"ispassedaroundthenodesina roundrobin fashion that authorizes the node to communicate. Here only the system whichhasthe"token"cancommunicate.Thetokenisacontrolmechanismwhichgives authority tothe system to communicate or use the resources of that network. Once the communicationisover,thetokenispassedtothenextcandidateinasequentialmanner. Forexample,ifWorkstation1wantstosenddataonthewire,itwouldwaitforthetoken, whichiscirclinginthenetworkmillionsoftimespersecond.Oncethetokenhasreached theWorkstation1,itwouldtakethetokenoffthenetwork,pakageitwithdataandlabel itwiththesourceaddressanddestinationaddressandpassessitontothenext
+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

16

CSStudyMaterial

CSMA/CA
workstation in the network. All systems will look atthe token, but will not process it sinceitisnotdestinedforthem.However,thesystemthatistheintendeddestinationwill takethedataandpasstheemptytokentothenextcomputerinthesequence.Thisaccess methodisdeployedinTokenringnetworks(IEEE802.5).

LANTechnologies
Each computer in a LAN can effectively send and receive any information addressedtoit.Thisinformationisintheformofdata'packets'.Thestandardsfollowed
+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

17

CSStudyMaterial

toregularizethetransmissionofpackets,arecalledLANstandards.TherearemanyLAN standardssuchasEthernet,TokenRingandFDDI.UsuallyLANstandardsdifferdueto theirmediaaccesstechnologyandthephysical transmissionmedium.

Ethernet
Thisisthemostpopularnetworkarchitectureforlocalarenetworks(LAN).Ethernetuses CarrierSenseMultipleAccesswithCollisionDetection(CSMA/CD)protocoltocontrol access to network.Ethernet specifications define the function thatoccur atthe physical and datalink layer of the OSI reference model and package data into frames for transmissiononthewire.Itisavailableinthreespeeds: 10MbpswhichiscalledEthernet IEEE802.3 100MbpswhichisFastEthernet IEEE802.3u 1000Mbpsor1GbpswhichiscalledGigabitEthernet IEEE802.3ab

TokenRing(IEEE802.5)
Token ring is a LAN technology that was developed by IBM. This is a 4Mbps or 16 Mbps tokenpassing method, operating in a ring topology. Devices on a Token Ring networkgetaccesstothemediathroughtokenpassing.

FDDI(FiberDistributedDataInterface)
Its a highspeed networking technology used mainly for campus backbones. FDDI provides data speed at 100Mbps which is faster than Token Ring and Ethernet LANs. FDDIcomprisetwoindependent,counterrotatingrings:aprimaryringandasecondary ring.Dataflowsinoppositedirectionsontherings.Thecounterrotatingringarchitecture preventsdatalossintheeventofalinkfailure,anodefailure,orthefailureofboththe primary and secondary links between any two nodes. This technology is usually implementedforabackbonenetwork.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

18

CSStudyMaterial

References
Network+ GeneE.Clarke NetworkingEssentialsJohnNash EncyclopediaofNetworkingMitchTullochandIngridTulloch CCNAStudyGuideToddLammle www.microsoft.com/technet www.firewall.cx

Review
Networkreferstotheinterconnectionofcomputersornetworkingdevicesforthe purposeoffilesharingandresourcesharing. Networks can be classified based on geographical distance as LAN, MAN and WANbasedonfunctionalrelationshipaspeerpeerandclientserverbasedon topologyasbus,star, ring,meshandhybridnetworks. Transmissionmediaprovidesthepathforonecomputertotransferinformationto another. This can either be a wired or a wireless medium. Wired mdium uses cables copper cables or fibre optic, whereas the wireless uses Radio waves or infraredormicrowaveradiationinordertosendandreceivedata. Mediaaccessmethods:CSMA/CD(IEEE802.3),CSMA/CA(IEEE802.11)and TokenPassing(IEEE802.5). LANaccessmethods: Ethernet,TokenRingandFDDI.

ReviewQuestions
1. Acompanyhasoffices in Chennaiand Bangalore.Bothnetworksareconnected to allow the two locations to communicate. This is considered as what type of network? a. LAN b. CAN c. MAN d. WAN

2.Whichnetworktopologyrequirestheuseofterminators?

3.Thedistancelimitationof10Base2is_________meters.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

19

CSStudyMaterial

4. ____________cablesendsthesignalaspulsesoflightthroughaglasscore?

5. WhichnetworkarchitectureisdefinedastheIEEE802.3standard?

6. Nametheconnectorsusedforconnectingtwistedpaircables?

7. Whattypeofcableisusedforconnectingacomputerwithanothercomputer?

8. ExplainhownodesinanEthernetnetworkdetectcollision?

9. Whataretheradiofrequenciesthatarepreferredforwirelesstransmission?

10. HubandSwitcharedevicesthatworkin__________topology.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

20

CSStudyMaterial

LAB
1. Fromthegivencablesidentifythefollowingandalsonotedownyourobservation intheformofadiagram.

a. StraightThroughCable

b. CrossOverCable

c. Telephonecable

d. CoaxialCable

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

21

CSStudyMaterial

2. Fromthegivenconnectorsidentifythefollowingandnotedownyourobservation informofadiagram.Alsomentionthetypeofcableforwhichitcabeused.

a. RJ11

b. RJ45

c. BNC

d. AUI

ELO(ExpectedLearningOutcome)
Networkanditsimportance. Differentwaysofclassifyingnetworks. Basicunderstandingofthedifferentnetworktopologies. Know and appreciate the different types of media, along with their advantages,disadvantagesandtheirconnectors. In depth understanding of the different media access methods, like, CSMA/CD,CSMA/CAandTokenPassing. AwarenessaboutthedifferentLANtechnologies.

+ Skill LearningAcademy

Notes

22