Sag and tension calculations for mountainous terrain

J. Bradbury, Dip. Tech. (Eng.), G.F. Kuska, C. Eng., M.I.E.E., and D.J. Tarr
Indexing terms: Cables and overhead lines, Power transmission Abstract: While normal sag and tension calculations based on the 'equivalent-span' concept are satisfactory, when applied to transmission lines located in a reasonably undulating terrain, the answers obtained by this method are inaccurate for mountainous terrain. An alternative method of calculation, which is based on the analysis of the change of state equation for each span of a section in turn, is given. It is shown that when using this new approach the full effect of both the suspension and tension insulators can be included together with the influence of the running-out blocks on the sag of the conductor. The paper also shows how this concept can be adapted to the function of line design and gives several examples of critical areas where existing methods may give unacceptable results. When stringing conductors in mountainous terrain, it is not always practical to measure the conductor sag using conventional techniques and the paper gives three additional means which may be used, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each.
List of symbols

A = cross-sectional area of conductor, mm2 a,b,c,d = constants depending on sag>> C — catenary constant = H/W,m E = Young's modulus of complete conductor, kg/mm2 H = horizontal tension of conductor, kg H' = component of tension in line with AG (Fig. 2d), kg h = height difference between attachment points at adjacent towers, m ht = vertical distance from tower to instrument, m K = unstretched length of conductor in a span (i.e. length after removing the tension at 0° C), m L = chord length between adjacent towers (Fig. 1), m / = length of tension or suspension insulator set, m S = stretched length of conductor in a span, m T = total (tangential) tension in conductor, kg V = vertical load at attachment point due to conductor (uplift load denoted by negative value), kg W = conductor weight per unit length, kg/m Wh = conductor wind load per unit length (wind acting normal to conductor), kg/m Wr = resolved conductor weight per unit length in the plane (as shown in Fig. 2c), kg/m Wv = W + weight of ice per unit length, kg/m W' = resolved conductor weight per unit length in the plane (as shown in Fig. 2b), kg/m X = horizontal span length, m Xo = horizontal distance from attachment point to low point datum (Fig. 1), m Xp = horizontal distance from any point on the catenary to low point datum (Fig. 1), m x = horizontal distance from attachment point to any point on the catenary, m xt = horizontal distance from tower to instrument, m y = sag from chord line at point x on the catenary, m y0 = sag from attachment point at low point datum (Fig. yh yh ' Z = maximum value of y occurring at point X/2 (absence of tension insulators) (Fig. 1), m = maximum value of y not necessarily at point X/2 in presence of tension insulators (Fig. 4), m = transverse horizontal load at attachment point due to conductor, kg

= coefficient of thermal expansion of complete conductor, per deg C /3 = blow-out angle of conductor (Fig. 2b), degrees 7 = angle to the vertical of the suspension or tension insulator sets, degrees Ah = height difference between tower and conductor attachment points (Fig. 9), m Ax = horizontal difference corresponding to Ah, m 5 = angle between chord line and the horizontal in the unresolved plane, degrees 6 = conductor temperature, °C i// = angle between chord line and the horizontal in the resolved plane (Fig. 2d), degrees to = weight of tension or suspension insulator set, kg <t> = angle of the tangent at point F to the horizontal (Fig. 1), degrees Subscripts 1 and 2 denote different values for the same variables.
1 Introduction

a

Paper 20S4C (P8), first received 2nd November 1981 and in revised form 20th May 1982 The authors are with Balfour Beatty Power Construction Limited, Power Transmission Division, 7 Mayday Road, Thorton Heath, Surrey CR4 7XA, England IEEPROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 5, SEPTEMBER 1982

Since the advent of transmission lines, theories have been progressively developed to define the sag and tension behaviour of the conductor. Initially these were oriented towards manual calculations and, consequently, were based upon the parabolic theory (Boyse and Simpson [1]). With the introduction of computers most theories are now based upon the accurate catenary equations (Rieger [2]). In multi-span sections, it is usual to assume that the horizontal tensions will react to changes in load and temperature as a single span referred to by the well known term 'equivalent span'. The mathematical treatment to obtain the 'equivalent span' is based upon parabolic theory, and there is no similar concept using full catenary equations. While the methods give acceptable and practical results for the majority of lines constructed'in normal, reasonably undulating terrain, e.g. in the UK, in mountainous areas these theories produce significant errors. Overhead-line engineers are already aware of this problem, as illustrated by Winkelman [3], which develops the parabolic and catenary theories for application to inclined sections. Our recent experience, on applying this method to very mountainous terrain, highlighted the presence of further inaccuracies which will result in the towers and conductors experiencing loads in excess of their limiting design values. In an attempt to overcome these problems, a theory has been developed which is the subject of this paper. At the development stage it became evident that the above inaccuracies were valid for both the single- and multi-span sections. This paper was originally presented to the 2nd international conference on 'Progress in cables and overhead lines
0143-7046/82/050213 + 08 $01.50/0 213

Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. Downloaded on July 1, 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

by reference to Fig. This line represents the 'horizontal' plane in which the catenary equations are valid. in calculating the elastic changes. Restrictions apply. Step 3: Fig. for this reason. These. force Wr is the only force present and acts 'vertically'. 1. When the conductor is subjected to wind acting normal to it. the change-of-state equation becomes: (4) sinh C2 (5) h sinh yi A (Y) EA (10) (6) (7) 1+ 2 Csinh X 2C~ (8) Xo Fig.for 220 kV and above' [4] and has now been expanded to include practical examples using the methods of calculations described.2 Change-of-state equation (9) Before detailed considerations were given to the problem. Downloaded on July 1. To use eqns. i. it is first necessary to calculate the Vertical' force in the rotated IEEPROC. 2c shows the inclined span rotated about axis AB through angle /3.1 Theory Basic equations angle to the horizontal of the tangent at point F = tan" 1 ! s i n h l . Wv cos 5 and Wv sin 5. No. it was recognised that there are two theories. the mean total tension in the conductor length has been assumed to equal the horizontal tension. 2a) along the X X axis. the inelastic catenary equations are used. when calculating the elastic and thermal changes. W' and Wv sin 5. 2a shows an inclined span under the influence of a wind force. it became evident that the elastic treatment requires lengthy computation without producing worthwhile improvements in the accuracy of the result. an assumption was made that. With respect to the former. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. Under this condition.3] and elastic (Hattingh [5]). Force Wv must be resolved along two axes normal to and parallel with the chord line. The forces acting are Wh. This assumption causes an error of less than 0. Xp becomes positive 214 where subscripts 1 and 2 denote two different conditions. To utilise the above statement in the development of the change-of-state equation. 1. V and Z at tower A (Fig. 2b shows a section through the element (Fig. It is therefore felt that the inelastic theory gives a tolerable accuracy.1. i. it is assumed that the unstretched length K of the conductor at 0°C is constant. C. thus satisfying the requirements to solve the change-of-state equation (eqn. Pt. 1 Inclined span Sign convention: Xo positive and Xp negative for the case shown. 5. and not the inline horizontal force at the tower. if point F is to the left of D. are given below: LT catenary constant C = — = c/cosh^length of conductor between points A and D S = Csinh — C horizontal length Xo (D' A) Xo also Xo = Csinh" 1 — H vertical component of tension at point A V = //sinh^total tension at point A T = half-span sag yh = C |cosh—-1 ^ =— -Csinh"1 h X 2Csinh — (1) (2) (3) When considering a length of conductor suspended between two towers. the wind force Wh acting normal to the conductor and the vertical force Wv due to the conductor and ice weight. 129. Step 4: Fig.^ |} 2. are combined to give the resultant force Wr acting at an angle i// to the normal to the chord line. applicable to the solution of a catenary. it equals the length given by the catenary equation less the elastic and thermal changes. such that the chord line makes an angle \p to the line AG. The forces in the deflected plane. Regarding the tension. Referring to Fig. 10). 2 and explained below: Step 1: Fig. It is felt that this accuracy is sufficient for practical purposes. respectively. 2 2.e. the latter applied parallel with the chord line. The method for resolving these forces is given in Fig. Step 2: Fig. two simplifications have been made related to the unstretched length of the conductor and its tension. 2a). Considering the two theories. 2d shows the inclined span rotated about point A. 10. the value of K is equal to the chord length L. but.e. it can be improved by adopting the second-term-approximation system given in step (d) of Section 3. inelastic [2. i. the vertical and transverse forces present must be resolved in the deflected plane of the conductor before applying eqn. and. Vol. 1—10 the parameters H and W should be replaced by H' and Wr. . The resultant force W' acting at an angle j3 to the vertical is obtained. Consider the forces acting on the conductor element.01 % in the estimation of the unstretched length. 1 for the unknown H'2 it should be noted that this is the 'horizontal' tension in the rotated plane (Fig. It should be noted that this equation is only valid for stillair conditions. To obtain the tension components H. 2d~). Having solved eqn. after it has been clamped in.e. SEPTEMBER 1982 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. if further accuracy is required.

Q=Wh c = W v sin8 d = Wwcos6 Fig. Vol. 5. Pt. SEPTEMBER 1982 215 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. C. Downloaded on July 1. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. . No. 129. 3 Forces on suspension insulators a Conductor on running-out blocks b Conductor clamped in IEEPROC. 2 Resolution of forces under wind conditions a Span subjected to a wind force normal to the conductor 6 Deflection of element through section X X c Span through section Y Y d Span in resolved plane suspension insulator suspension insulator Fig. Restrictions apply.

because the verticality depends upon the geometry of the section and the temperature. the angle 7 of all suspension insulators and a limit tension. (c) The left-hand side of eqn. The solution to the problem lies in the evaluation of the elastic and thermal effects in the conductor in each individual span. as required by the specification. For calculating the left-hand side of eqn. These must.1 Starting conditions To carry out the calculations two parameters of the line must be known at a given point in time. In this respect. To provide the necessary sagging information during stringing. 3a which shows the conductor mounted immediately below the suspension insulator. The assumed tension values relate to a limit in the horizontal or total component. the following equation is derived: 7 = tan . the 'equivalent span' concept is not valid. 15 thus obtaining ^ 3 Application of theory by computer programming For the purpose of tower design. it is evident that although previous theories assumed the suspension set to be always vertical this assumption is incorrect. span-byspan analysis. Consequently. . the maximum sag y^ (which does not necessarily occur at X/2) must be calculated. 4. profiling and stringing.3 Effect of suspension insulators Two conditions must be considered. the left-hand side of eqn. For this reason Fig.3. using the value of the chord length for the unstretched length. with regard to tension. eqn. Considering this condition. 12 can be derived. i. 10 and are ignored. It follows that the horizontal tensionsHx and H2 in the adjacent spans are different unless 7 equals zero. Normally the suspension insulators are assumed to be vertical at the expected stringing temperature. 4 216 Span with tension insulator Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. (b) The total tension is estimated at the first tower. Restrictions apply.2 Conductor clamped in: Once the conductor is clamped in. 10 the procedure is as follows: (a) The vertical and transverse loads are estimated at each tower position. Vol. While the programming of the sag equations was straightforward. Under conditions of excessive gradients the suspension insulator will swing longitudinally. the total unstretched length in a section is constant. (e) Steps (c) and (d) are repeated for all spans in the section IEEPROC. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. when the conductor is on running out blocks.l H2 — (12) Furthermore. C. 2. with the result that the horizontal tensions in adjacent spans may not be equal. (d) Should further accuracy in the unstretched length be required (see Section 2. (This improves the accuracy in calculating the unstretched length to better than 0. As far as the error in sag is concerned. 2. The vertical force V is dependent on Xo and hence on Ah. Obviously. the tension equations presented some difficulties.4 Effect of tension insulator The length and weight of a tension insulator cause errors in sag and tension. 3b shows the suspension insulator at an angle 7 to the vertical. Without the aid of a computer program it is not practical to undertake these calculations. i. it should be noted that eqn. and when it is clamped in.plane at point A (eqn. By reference to Fig. 2. The solution for Ah and Kcan be achieved by iterative technique. and a practical approach is given below: (i) Calculate y for three different values of* (ii) Solve y = ax2 + bx + c (15) (iii) Calculate JC for maximum sag.2). No. 5. However. the reduction in span length X and the slight variation in height difference h have only a marginal influence The horizontal tension H is known from the change-of-state equation and the insulator weight co given.3. it follows that: on the solution of eqn.0001 %). the following equations apply: tan 3 also / = VA/J2 + Ax2 7 H V + co/2 Ax Ah (13) (14) T = \IH\ + v\ = \ltii + v\ (11) Taking moments about point Q. For multi-span sections these were overcome by the method outlined below: 3. JC = —b/2a (iv) Substitute x from (iii) into eqn. because no conductor movement occurs at the clamp.e. Again by taking moments about Q. 10 is evaluated for the first span in the section.1 Conductor on running-out blocks: Consider Fig. the effect can be significant. 6) and then reverse the above step-bystep procedure. reflect the geometry of the line. Assuming the block to be frictionless. namely. the unstretched length in individual spans is not constant. the unstretched length in individual spans remains constant. 2. Downloaded on July 1. an overhead line contractor requires data resulting from a large number of sag and tension calculations. SEPTEMBER 1982 Fig. particularly in EHV downleads. 129. as the block is free to rotate thus permitting conductor movement between spans.e. particularly in mountainous terrain. 8 no longer applies. Pt. 10 can be recalculated using the value for the unstretched length found under step (c) above.

the maximum working tension (MWT) in the conductors refers to the maximum tension anywhere in the conductor's length.e. but ignored in conventional techniques. As conditions on the line change from a level span. This. if any. These examples relate to a 'Zebra' conductor (54/7/3. for tower-design purpose. vertical and transverse tensions are estimated at each tower. i. Thus.0. (d) By reiteration of steps (b) and (c).2 Condition when conductor is clamped in This refers to the evaluation of the right-hand side of eqn. 5 illustrates this reduction in horizontal tension against span gradient. (c) The right-hand side of eqn. In the UK external loads and factors of safety related to transmission lines are governed by the Statutory Instruments 1970. it is not ideal to IEEPROC. Naturally. 5. the difference between conventional methods and the one proposed gradually increases.3 % between the theories. which is as follows: (c) A summation of the values for the right-hand side of eqn. 3. 4 Application of theory to practical line situations adopt more than one sag and tension method for its construction. a number of examples are given below. when considering a complete line.15 (b) if the conventional sag and tension using the modifications given by Winkelman [3] give an offset in excess of 0. however. This occurs at the highest point of attachment of the conductor to the tower. The procedure adopted is as follows: (a) Using the equivalent-span technique the horizontal. the tension used in eqn. isolated sections may be found which slightly exceed the limits given above. at an early stage. to ensure that the MWT is not exceeded. isolated mountainous sections may be present where the method from this paper must be considered. Hence. the following empirical conditions have been developed. Restrictions apply. SEPTEMBER 1982 Following the development of the program. 10 is evaluated for each span and angle 7 of the suspension insulator. even though. The difference between these two figures is more than sufficient to account for any increases in tension due to the nature of the terrain in the UK. mentioned in this paper. No. Fig.g. This effect is included in the present theory. hence. Vol. see below. to determine the sections in which the more rigorous treatment given in this paper should be considered: (a) if the span gradient for any span within the section exceeds 0. using eqn. limited investigations have shown that conventional theories will underestimate the maximum tension and sag by up to about 20%. the bottom of the suspension insulator will move in the transverse direction. (b) The total tension is estimated at the first tower. to ensure that the tension on a 366 m span does not exceed 2651 kg under still-air conditions anywhere in the span 217 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. there is a small difference of approximately 0.2 with the exception of step (c).2 defines the minimum factor of safety for total (tangential) tensions of the conductors as 2. In mountainous terrain the output refers to two stringing conditions: (i) when the conductor in a section is located on running-out blocks (ii) when the conductor in a section is clamped in (f) the evaluation of suspension-insulator longitudinalswing and out-of-balance tensions. causing an increase in the chord length between the fixing points. unlike multi-spans. cannot be normally justified in view of the additional data required. for safely overcoming the inadequacies of conventional sag and tension calculations. Pt.5 m (c) for all sections containing spans in excess of 1 km. 10. number 1355. river crossings (d) if aircraft warning spheres are fitted (e) if for some reason one or more suspension sets are not designed to be vertical at the time of clamping. Before considering the next span the horizontal tension is altered according to eqn 12. For the 'Zebra' conductor this corresponds to a tension of 6722 kg. Computer runs have shown that for normal level singlespan sections there is no difference between conventional methods and the one now proposed. With some line constructions. 5 Practical application to line design Conventional sag and tension methods are satisfactory for the majority of situations. C. of all loads imposed by the conductors and earthwires (b) the design and selection of profile-plotting templates which reflect the effect of gradients (c) the investigation of tower loads in cases where a combination of long and short spans may result in unacceptable out-of-balance longitudinal and vertical loads (d) an accurate determination of sags and tensions in circumstances where the route topography imposes a severe limitation on tower locations. This Section. when the conventional method is selected. 10) are ruled by the horizontal tensions. and use of the method described above. When considering successive spans. This may be required when dealing with very long sections (g) use as a general-purpose design aid for the evaluation of sags and tensions leading to rapid solution of field problems In order that a better understanding of this theory can be obtained. The conventional UK practice for sag and tension calculations for this conductor is to employ a maximum horizontal tension of 5505 kg. it is apparent that in critical situations there is a need for more accurate sag and tension techniques. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. does not constitute a criticism of UK practice which employs a special technique.18mm ACSR) strung to typical UK loading conditions. for a condition other than the starting condition. convergence on the position of the conductor attachment point at the last tower is obtained. 10 should be reduced as the span gradient is increased. Downloaded on July 1. Under extreme circumstances. 11. if conventional suspension insulators are used.taking into account the angle 7. Tension calculations (eqn. can lead to critical ground-clearance problems (e) the production of sags and tension data for field use. 129.2 or if the average span gradient within the section exceeds 0. e. changed to accommodate any variation in the chord length.1 Variation of tensions with span gradients In most specifications. in cases of excessive gradients. 5. the horizontal tension is changed according to eqn. 10 is made. 3. one method is selected and used throughout the line. . it has been found increasingly useful in connection with studies and calculations relevant to the following design activities: (a) the determination.3 Condition when conductor is on running-out blocks This refers to the conductor being free to move and the procedure adopted is the same as under Section 3. Clause 9. where conventional techniques may be ideal.12 for calculation of the horizontal tension in succeeding spans. This is due to the fact that under wind conditions. It is therefore necessary to have available a method of assessing these critical situations. As guidelines. where even with level span sections. of the suspension insulator.

6 can be drawn by plotting the lines corresponding to the horizontal tension chosen for the templates.4 >. in which the increase in tension has been calculated to accomodate a single-centre span mass. usually having the highest span gradient (b) Any template is offered to this span and the weight span at the highest tower read off the template (c) The weight span is checked against Fig. 5 Horizontal tension on a 366 m span to ensure conductor's tension should not exceed 2651 kg 5. The straight line given in the Figure represents the level single-span condition. a o "50 £ ^ \ 2200 2400 horizontal tension. it is necessary to install aircraft warning spheres on the earthwires. It was further assumed the set is vertical when under wind conditions. that template selection is a function of equivalent span length and span gradient.1 100? c \ \ •- c si a. This shows. this may give rise to high longitudinal loads at the tower.3 Transverse loads on suspension earth wire peaks 3200 3000 10 2800 0 20 40 60 80 weight of central mass.0. therefore. 0. In the case of insulator sets.6 0. C.2 : 0. This results in the tension of the earthwire being increased.6 0.2 Profile plotting The problems mentioned in Section 5. in recent years.4 0. Even on level spans. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. and tensions for each template. "U 0 2000 o <D "o Fig. Fig. so that the sag remains the same as a conductor without such a mass. This problem has been solved by introducing a graph. £ 1. This Figure was constructed assuming a level two-span section having 150 and 500 m span lengths. hence. the transmitted force is normally very small. there has been a tendency to reduce the length of the earthwire set which connects the earthwire to the tower. at maximum operating temperature. 6 equivalent span.0 0. SEPTEMBER 1982 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. In practice. this figure shows the specified tension should be reduced by 0. The magnitude of this force is influenced by the length of the insulator string or earthwire set. 12 shows.4 j | Loads applied to the suspension tower Effect of masses on conductors On some lines. Fig. considering a span having a difference in height between the conductor attachment points of 100 m that the tension in eqn. 6 is obtained by determining the number of templates. because the templates are based on horizontal tensions. to be used during plotting. placed on a 366 m level span. kg 2600 thwi ength & 0. The program is run to predict the horizontal tension.8 I 0. 5. the suspension insulator is not normally 218 Fig. These form effective masses at discrete points of the line. and the longitudinal out-of-balance forces shown are calculated at 75° C in still air. located in the vicinity of aircraft flight paths.7%. However. 8 Increase in tension to accommodate a centre span mass without increasing sag IEEPROC.5 . this graph is used in the following manner: (a) The worst span in a section is visually selected.4%. When considering additional masses under MWT conditions. Fig. From this data. Fig. and the correct template selected for use in final plotting 5. 129. causing a discontinuity in eqn. 6. a reduction of 7. 10 should be reduced to 2454 kg. Vol. below which the graph is indeterminate. 8 shows a simplified example of this. >v \ specified maximum tension \ n200 150g E c vertical and. 7 sets. 6. 2 at the point of their application. While the effect of this is mainly on the sag calculations. Fig.length. Fig.3 o in 0. because the sag of the earthwire should be equal or less than the sag of the conductor from electrical considerations. from which template selection is made . Pt. 5. No. 7 shows that if this set is made too short. from the specified limiting conditions for a number of spans and span gradients. Downloaded on July 1. a second and far more important effect can arise with some designs. owing to their length. a fact often ignored when conventional sag and tension equations are used. kg 100 As eqn. longitudinal loads of a magnitude H2 — Hi are transmitted to the suspension towers. Restrictions apply. . It follows.1 cause further complications during the profile plotting stage.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 horizontal tension applied to earthwire peak at suspension tower.mSketch of template selection graph 30- 3400 Fig.

Vol. 6. SEPTEMBER 1982 219 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. 9d illustrates the case where the location of the theodolite is defined by limited access. and the accuracy achieved is dependent upon the variation of y0 with changes in temperature. but limited to cases when yh' is less than the tower heights. 6. 129. No. Failure to achieve this can result in a situation in which the sag of the earthwire dictates the main conductor sags. is required to make use of the following equations: (16) where d = C In (tan 0 + sec 0) (17) This is illustrated in Fig. Downloaded on July 1. It requires care in accurate location of the theodolite. 9a. To accommodate this additional tension caused by fitting spheres. is located at a distance y0 below the conductor attachment point. . and is made by the stringing engineer. This technique lends itself to situations where compression deadends are made aloft. In application. The field application is straightforward. e. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. which can prove to be an uneconomical solution. 6 Sag measuring techniques 6. it is seen that this method applies to conditions when the gun sight and the sighting board cannot be located on the tower.5 Tension method By reference to Fig. 9b.g. the stringing engineer. 6. Obviously. Its accuracy will decease with small spans.1 Conventional method Fig. its application is limited to cases having a low-point datum. When considering short span sections. Pt. theodolite or dumpy level. having fixed its location. 9 Method of sag measurement a Conventional b Modified conventional c Low-point datum d Tangent IEEPROC. an accurate sagging method can be achieved by the use of a load cell prior to conductor marking and the installation of tension insulator. For reason of accuracy and site calculation this method is to be avoided if possible. the instrument.6 Stringing tables It is not possible to provide site staff with sufficient information in conventional sag-chart form to string conductors using sighting board Fig. and has the same limitations as in Section 6.4 Tangent method When stringing conductors in mountainous terrain it is not always possible or desirable to use the conventional sagging technique.2 Modified conventional method The difficulty in using this method lies in the reiterative calculation for 0 and the accuracy with which it has to be measured. 9c). together with their weight. 6. must also be included in the tension calculations. the selected earthwire must be sufficiently strong.the effect of the weight of ice load and extra wind load on the added masses. where the gun sight and the sighting board are fixed to the towers at a distance yh> below the conductor attachment points.3 Low-point method With this method (Fig. while still maintaining the required factors of safety.1. four further methods have been developed. C. Each has its limitations. To provide field staff with alternatives. Restrictions apply. but the selection of the appropriate method will be dictated by site circumstances. If the variation is small the method may be unsuitable. 6. 5.

2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore.42 16.00 35.14 1. and the Directors of Balfour Beatty Limited for permission to publish this paper. pp. Restrictions apply.T.: 'Der Freileitungsbau' (Springer Verlag. which has an added advantage over conventional sag-chart owing to ease of reading rather than interpolation of graphs. 8 Acknowledgments To satisfy the statutory ground clearance requirements. Vol. During the construction of the 400 kV line through the formidable Zagros mountains in Central Iran..64 3. D. KUSKA.05 216. 1944. Pt.26 -15.: 'Sag and tension calculations in mountainous terrain'.96 4. Engrs.00 3. Balfour Beatty Power Construction Limited.32 3. P.60 0.: 'The problem of conductor sagging on overhead transmission lines'. in long multi-span sections with excessive gradients this effect can be significant and should be examined. where existing techniques may result in noticeable errors. and SIMPSON.: 'Sag-tension computations and field measurements of Bonneville Power Administration'. then.48 3. where conditions were so severe that the use of helicopters became the only means of access.93 200. IEE. Amer. 219-238 2 RIEGER.. Trans. as detailed under Section 6.39 0.11 -2. where the conventional method of sagging is either impossible or impracticable. consideration need not be given to the out-of-balance loads due to the longitudinal swing of the suspension insulator.52 0. an accurate method of span-to-span analysis has been developed.65 222. H. C.30 16. pp. CO. J.20 4. 1-5 5 HATTINGH.00 10. illustrated in Table 1. and TARR. 1936) 220 IEEPROC. 1979. SEPTEMBER 1982 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. No..: 'A universal stress-sag chart (for line computations)' (Blackie & Sons.74 227.36 16. In mountainous terrain. However.92 212.F.. J.40 16. it was necessary to apply the full range of methods.00 30. Downloaded on July 1. Ill B pp.39 0.F. 1959. Inst. Normally.43 -6. IEE Conf. 9 References 1 BOYSE.46 0. J.42 0.51 0. 91.13 -10. alternative methods must be available to the site organisation. 1532-1547 4 BRADBURY. proved extremely effective.40 0.44 -31.50 16.90 203. where the tangential tension is measured by a load cell.00 5. 129.86 -20. the use of the tension method. Elect.29 16.28 tower number Y m °C 0.29 16.. 78. and wish to thank the General Manager of the Power Transmission Division. 1960) 3 WINKELMAN.G. 7 Conclusions In many instances. Pt. Publ. The authors acknowledge the help of their colleagues in the preparation of this work. G. and to ensure that the specified factors of safety of the line are maintained. in reasonable terrain. II. The program provides computerprintout tables. N.00 25.J.30 all five methods given above. This is of particular importance in mountainous terrain. 5. .95 -25.00 15.Table 1 : Typical stringing table obtained from computer Temperature Horizontal load kg 2400 2290 2189 2096 2011 1933 1862 1796 Total tension high tower low tower number number kg kg 2400 2290 2189 2097 2012 1934 1862 1796 2422 2312 2211 2118 2033 1955 1883 1817 Half span sag m low tower number Y X m m high X m 233. Pt.32 16. 176.22 207.12 4.80 3. each being determined by the relative conditions of each section encountered.00 20.