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Sag and tension calculations for mountainous terrain

J. Bradbury, Dip. Tech. (Eng.), G.F. Kuska, C. Eng., M.I.E.E., and D.J. Tarr
Indexing terms: Cables and overhead lines, Power transmission Abstract: While normal sag and tension calculations based on the 'equivalent-span' concept are satisfactory, when applied to transmission lines located in a reasonably undulating terrain, the answers obtained by this method are inaccurate for mountainous terrain. An alternative method of calculation, which is based on the analysis of the change of state equation for each span of a section in turn, is given. It is shown that when using this new approach the full effect of both the suspension and tension insulators can be included together with the influence of the running-out blocks on the sag of the conductor. The paper also shows how this concept can be adapted to the function of line design and gives several examples of critical areas where existing methods may give unacceptable results. When stringing conductors in mountainous terrain, it is not always practical to measure the conductor sag using conventional techniques and the paper gives three additional means which may be used, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each.
List of symbols

A = cross-sectional area of conductor, mm2 a,b,c,d = constants depending on sag>> C — catenary constant = H/W,m E = Young's modulus of complete conductor, kg/mm2 H = horizontal tension of conductor, kg H' = component of tension in line with AG (Fig. 2d), kg h = height difference between attachment points at adjacent towers, m ht = vertical distance from tower to instrument, m K = unstretched length of conductor in a span (i.e. length after removing the tension at 0° C), m L = chord length between adjacent towers (Fig. 1), m / = length of tension or suspension insulator set, m S = stretched length of conductor in a span, m T = total (tangential) tension in conductor, kg V = vertical load at attachment point due to conductor (uplift load denoted by negative value), kg W = conductor weight per unit length, kg/m Wh = conductor wind load per unit length (wind acting normal to conductor), kg/m Wr = resolved conductor weight per unit length in the plane (as shown in Fig. 2c), kg/m Wv = W + weight of ice per unit length, kg/m W' = resolved conductor weight per unit length in the plane (as shown in Fig. 2b), kg/m X = horizontal span length, m Xo = horizontal distance from attachment point to low point datum (Fig. 1), m Xp = horizontal distance from any point on the catenary to low point datum (Fig. 1), m x = horizontal distance from attachment point to any point on the catenary, m xt = horizontal distance from tower to instrument, m y = sag from chord line at point x on the catenary, m y0 = sag from attachment point at low point datum (Fig. yh yh ' Z = maximum value of y occurring at point X/2 (absence of tension insulators) (Fig. 1), m = maximum value of y not necessarily at point X/2 in presence of tension insulators (Fig. 4), m = transverse horizontal load at attachment point due to conductor, kg

= coefficient of thermal expansion of complete conductor, per deg C /3 = blow-out angle of conductor (Fig. 2b), degrees 7 = angle to the vertical of the suspension or tension insulator sets, degrees Ah = height difference between tower and conductor attachment points (Fig. 9), m Ax = horizontal difference corresponding to Ah, m 5 = angle between chord line and the horizontal in the unresolved plane, degrees 6 = conductor temperature, °C i// = angle between chord line and the horizontal in the resolved plane (Fig. 2d), degrees to = weight of tension or suspension insulator set, kg <t> = angle of the tangent at point F to the horizontal (Fig. 1), degrees Subscripts 1 and 2 denote different values for the same variables.
1 Introduction

a

Paper 20S4C (P8), first received 2nd November 1981 and in revised form 20th May 1982 The authors are with Balfour Beatty Power Construction Limited, Power Transmission Division, 7 Mayday Road, Thorton Heath, Surrey CR4 7XA, England IEEPROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 5, SEPTEMBER 1982

Since the advent of transmission lines, theories have been progressively developed to define the sag and tension behaviour of the conductor. Initially these were oriented towards manual calculations and, consequently, were based upon the parabolic theory (Boyse and Simpson [1]). With the introduction of computers most theories are now based upon the accurate catenary equations (Rieger [2]). In multi-span sections, it is usual to assume that the horizontal tensions will react to changes in load and temperature as a single span referred to by the well known term 'equivalent span'. The mathematical treatment to obtain the 'equivalent span' is based upon parabolic theory, and there is no similar concept using full catenary equations. While the methods give acceptable and practical results for the majority of lines constructed'in normal, reasonably undulating terrain, e.g. in the UK, in mountainous areas these theories produce significant errors. Overhead-line engineers are already aware of this problem, as illustrated by Winkelman [3], which develops the parabolic and catenary theories for application to inclined sections. Our recent experience, on applying this method to very mountainous terrain, highlighted the presence of further inaccuracies which will result in the towers and conductors experiencing loads in excess of their limiting design values. In an attempt to overcome these problems, a theory has been developed which is the subject of this paper. At the development stage it became evident that the above inaccuracies were valid for both the single- and multi-span sections. This paper was originally presented to the 2nd international conference on 'Progress in cables and overhead lines
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Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. Downloaded on July 1, 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

It should be noted that this equation is only valid for stillair conditions. 2a) along the X X axis.2 Change-of-state equation (9) Before detailed considerations were given to the problem.e. applicable to the solution of a catenary. 1 Inclined span Sign convention: Xo positive and Xp negative for the case shown. W' and Wv sin 5. it is assumed that the unstretched length K of the conductor at 0°C is constant. and not the inline horizontal force at the tower. for this reason. an assumption was made that. Wv cos 5 and Wv sin 5. The method for resolving these forces is given in Fig. force Wr is the only force present and acts 'vertically'. The forces acting are Wh. Step 2: Fig. it is first necessary to calculate the Vertical' force in the rotated IEEPROC. Restrictions apply.e. Step 3: Fig. 2a). Vol. When the conductor is subjected to wind acting normal to it. Pt. by reference to Fig. The resultant force W' acting at an angle j3 to the vertical is obtained. Considering the two theories. Force Wv must be resolved along two axes normal to and parallel with the chord line. Downloaded on July 1. To utilise the above statement in the development of the change-of-state equation. are combined to give the resultant force Wr acting at an angle i// to the normal to the chord line. The forces in the deflected plane. such that the chord line makes an angle \p to the line AG. V and Z at tower A (Fig. the value of K is equal to the chord length L. if point F is to the left of D. It is felt that this accuracy is sufficient for practical purposes. Referring to Fig. it was recognised that there are two theories.e. after it has been clamped in. 2d~). i. it can be improved by adopting the second-term-approximation system given in step (d) of Section 3. inelastic [2. the wind force Wh acting normal to the conductor and the vertical force Wv due to the conductor and ice weight. the vertical and transverse forces present must be resolved in the deflected plane of the conductor before applying eqn. it became evident that the elastic treatment requires lengthy computation without producing worthwhile improvements in the accuracy of the result. 1 for the unknown H'2 it should be noted that this is the 'horizontal' tension in the rotated plane (Fig. respectively.for 220 kV and above' [4] and has now been expanded to include practical examples using the methods of calculations described. when calculating the elastic and thermal changes. C. No. the mean total tension in the conductor length has been assumed to equal the horizontal tension. are given below: LT catenary constant C = — = c/cosh^length of conductor between points A and D S = Csinh — C horizontal length Xo (D' A) Xo also Xo = Csinh" 1 — H vertical component of tension at point A V = //sinh^total tension at point A T = half-span sag yh = C |cosh—-1 ^ =— -Csinh"1 h X 2Csinh — (1) (2) (3) When considering a length of conductor suspended between two towers. 2d shows the inclined span rotated about point A. To use eqns. and. but. it equals the length given by the catenary equation less the elastic and thermal changes. 2b shows a section through the element (Fig. 129. i. Having solved eqn. 2 and explained below: Step 1: Fig. These. With respect to the former. . i. 10). This assumption causes an error of less than 0. 1—10 the parameters H and W should be replaced by H' and Wr. 10.^ |} 2. 1. if further accuracy is required. Consider the forces acting on the conductor element. To obtain the tension components H. Xp becomes positive 214 where subscripts 1 and 2 denote two different conditions. two simplifications have been made related to the unstretched length of the conductor and its tension. 2c shows the inclined span rotated about axis AB through angle /3.01 % in the estimation of the unstretched length. It is therefore felt that the inelastic theory gives a tolerable accuracy. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. in calculating the elastic changes. 2a shows an inclined span under the influence of a wind force. Step 4: Fig. This line represents the 'horizontal' plane in which the catenary equations are valid. Under this condition.1 Theory Basic equations angle to the horizontal of the tangent at point F = tan" 1 ! s i n h l . 1. thus satisfying the requirements to solve the change-of-state equation (eqn.3] and elastic (Hattingh [5]). the inelastic catenary equations are used. SEPTEMBER 1982 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. the change-of-state equation becomes: (4) sinh C2 (5) h sinh yi A (Y) EA (10) (6) (7) 1+ 2 Csinh X 2C~ (8) Xo Fig. 5. 2 2. the latter applied parallel with the chord line.1. Regarding the tension.

2 Resolution of forces under wind conditions a Span subjected to a wind force normal to the conductor 6 Deflection of element through section X X c Span through section Y Y d Span in resolved plane suspension insulator suspension insulator Fig. 129.Q=Wh c = W v sin8 d = Wwcos6 Fig. 5. Downloaded on July 1. . Restrictions apply. No. Vol. 3 Forces on suspension insulators a Conductor on running-out blocks b Conductor clamped in IEEPROC. SEPTEMBER 1982 215 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. C. Pt. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore.

2 Conductor clamped in: Once the conductor is clamped in. Normally the suspension insulators are assumed to be vertical at the expected stringing temperature. (d) Should further accuracy in the unstretched length be required (see Section 2. 2. (e) Steps (c) and (d) are repeated for all spans in the section IEEPROC. No. and when it is clamped in.l H2 — (12) Furthermore. For multi-span sections these were overcome by the method outlined below: 3. it follows that: on the solution of eqn. JC = —b/2a (iv) Substitute x from (iii) into eqn. when the conductor is on running out blocks. 8 no longer applies. By reference to Fig. 4 216 Span with tension insulator Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. C.e. (This improves the accuracy in calculating the unstretched length to better than 0.3 Effect of suspension insulators Two conditions must be considered. because no conductor movement occurs at the clamp.0001 %). span-byspan analysis. the 'equivalent span' concept is not valid. the total unstretched length in a section is constant. To provide the necessary sagging information during stringing. the tension equations presented some difficulties. (c) The left-hand side of eqn. Vol. 4. namely. with the result that the horizontal tensions in adjacent spans may not be equal. the maximum sag y^ (which does not necessarily occur at X/2) must be calculated. using the value of the chord length for the unstretched length. 2. 129. i. it is evident that although previous theories assumed the suspension set to be always vertical this assumption is incorrect. it should be noted that eqn. While the programming of the sag equations was straightforward. i. the following equation is derived: 7 = tan .plane at point A (eqn. as required by the specification. 3b shows the suspension insulator at an angle 7 to the vertical. reflect the geometry of the line. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore.1 Conductor on running-out blocks: Consider Fig. Under conditions of excessive gradients the suspension insulator will swing longitudinally. profiling and stringing. 2. Again by taking moments about Q.3. SEPTEMBER 1982 Fig.3. (b) The total tension is estimated at the first tower. 3a which shows the conductor mounted immediately below the suspension insulator. eqn. 2. The solution to the problem lies in the evaluation of the elastic and thermal effects in the conductor in each individual span. Obviously. 10 is evaluated for the first span in the section. the reduction in span length X and the slight variation in height difference h have only a marginal influence The horizontal tension H is known from the change-of-state equation and the insulator weight co given. and a practical approach is given below: (i) Calculate y for three different values of* (ii) Solve y = ax2 + bx + c (15) (iii) Calculate JC for maximum sag.e. 10 can be recalculated using the value for the unstretched length found under step (c) above. 5. It follows that the horizontal tensionsHx and H2 in the adjacent spans are different unless 7 equals zero. The solution for Ah and Kcan be achieved by iterative technique. 6) and then reverse the above step-bystep procedure. Considering this condition. because the verticality depends upon the geometry of the section and the temperature. For this reason Fig. an overhead line contractor requires data resulting from a large number of sag and tension calculations. with regard to tension. 12 can be derived. Restrictions apply. 10 and are ignored. However. Without the aid of a computer program it is not practical to undertake these calculations. As far as the error in sag is concerned. . 15 thus obtaining ^ 3 Application of theory by computer programming For the purpose of tower design.1 Starting conditions To carry out the calculations two parameters of the line must be known at a given point in time. the following equations apply: tan 3 also / = VA/J2 + Ax2 7 H V + co/2 Ax Ah (13) (14) T = \IH\ + v\ = \ltii + v\ (11) Taking moments about point Q. For calculating the left-hand side of eqn. the unstretched length in individual spans is not constant. particularly in EHV downleads.2). The vertical force V is dependent on Xo and hence on Ah. the unstretched length in individual spans remains constant. The assumed tension values relate to a limit in the horizontal or total component. Downloaded on July 1. 10 the procedure is as follows: (a) The vertical and transverse loads are estimated at each tower position. In this respect.4 Effect of tension insulator The length and weight of a tension insulator cause errors in sag and tension. Pt. Assuming the block to be frictionless. as the block is free to rotate thus permitting conductor movement between spans. particularly in mountainous terrain. the left-hand side of eqn. the angle 7 of all suspension insulators and a limit tension. the effect can be significant. Consequently. These must.

Thus.18mm ACSR) strung to typical UK loading conditions. isolated mountainous sections may be present where the method from this paper must be considered. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. the maximum working tension (MWT) in the conductors refers to the maximum tension anywhere in the conductor's length. to ensure that the tension on a 366 m span does not exceed 2651 kg under still-air conditions anywhere in the span 217 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO.5 m (c) for all sections containing spans in excess of 1 km. changed to accommodate any variation in the chord length. Fig. It is therefore necessary to have available a method of assessing these critical situations. does not constitute a criticism of UK practice which employs a special technique. e. . however. 5 illustrates this reduction in horizontal tension against span gradient. No. 4 Application of theory to practical line situations adopt more than one sag and tension method for its construction. in cases of excessive gradients. 5 Practical application to line design Conventional sag and tension methods are satisfactory for the majority of situations. river crossings (d) if aircraft warning spheres are fitted (e) if for some reason one or more suspension sets are not designed to be vertical at the time of clamping. The difference between these two figures is more than sufficient to account for any increases in tension due to the nature of the terrain in the UK.taking into account the angle 7. In mountainous terrain the output refers to two stringing conditions: (i) when the conductor in a section is located on running-out blocks (ii) when the conductor in a section is clamped in (f) the evaluation of suspension-insulator longitudinalswing and out-of-balance tensions. it is apparent that in critical situations there is a need for more accurate sag and tension techniques.2 or if the average span gradient within the section exceeds 0. This occurs at the highest point of attachment of the conductor to the tower. for safely overcoming the inadequacies of conventional sag and tension calculations. convergence on the position of the conductor attachment point at the last tower is obtained. where conventional techniques may be ideal. one method is selected and used throughout the line. of all loads imposed by the conductors and earthwires (b) the design and selection of profile-plotting templates which reflect the effect of gradients (c) the investigation of tower loads in cases where a combination of long and short spans may result in unacceptable out-of-balance longitudinal and vertical loads (d) an accurate determination of sags and tensions in circumstances where the route topography imposes a severe limitation on tower locations. the bottom of the suspension insulator will move in the transverse direction. limited investigations have shown that conventional theories will underestimate the maximum tension and sag by up to about 20%. mentioned in this paper. With some line constructions. 10 should be reduced as the span gradient is increased. and use of the method described above. In the UK external loads and factors of safety related to transmission lines are governed by the Statutory Instruments 1970. where even with level span sections. but ignored in conventional techniques.2 with the exception of step (c).1 Variation of tensions with span gradients In most specifications. As guidelines.2 Condition when conductor is clamped in This refers to the evaluation of the right-hand side of eqn. the horizontal tension is changed according to eqn. (c) The right-hand side of eqn. when the conventional method is selected.15 (b) if the conventional sag and tension using the modifications given by Winkelman [3] give an offset in excess of 0. unlike multi-spans. for tower-design purpose. of the suspension insulator. 10) are ruled by the horizontal tensions. Before considering the next span the horizontal tension is altered according to eqn 12. 10 is evaluated for each span and angle 7 of the suspension insulator. The conventional UK practice for sag and tension calculations for this conductor is to employ a maximum horizontal tension of 5505 kg. (d) By reiteration of steps (b) and (c). a number of examples are given below. the difference between conventional methods and the one proposed gradually increases. it has been found increasingly useful in connection with studies and calculations relevant to the following design activities: (a) the determination. the following empirical conditions have been developed. when considering a complete line. can lead to critical ground-clearance problems (e) the production of sags and tension data for field use. at an early stage. causing an increase in the chord length between the fixing points. using eqn. This effect is included in the present theory. Clause 9. vertical and transverse tensions are estimated at each tower. Computer runs have shown that for normal level singlespan sections there is no difference between conventional methods and the one now proposed. Hence. This may be required when dealing with very long sections (g) use as a general-purpose design aid for the evaluation of sags and tensions leading to rapid solution of field problems In order that a better understanding of this theory can be obtained. even though. This is due to the fact that under wind conditions. isolated sections may be found which slightly exceed the limits given above. Vol. if conventional suspension insulators are used. 11. For the 'Zebra' conductor this corresponds to a tension of 6722 kg. This.12 for calculation of the horizontal tension in succeeding spans. cannot be normally justified in view of the additional data required. 3. if any. the tension used in eqn. Downloaded on July 1. i. These examples relate to a 'Zebra' conductor (54/7/3. number 1355.3 % between the theories. Tension calculations (eqn. Restrictions apply. Pt. hence. to ensure that the MWT is not exceeded.3 Condition when conductor is on running-out blocks This refers to the conductor being free to move and the procedure adopted is the same as under Section 3. 5.e. As conditions on the line change from a level span.0. C. 3.g. SEPTEMBER 1982 Following the development of the program. Naturally. it is not ideal to IEEPROC. which is as follows: (c) A summation of the values for the right-hand side of eqn. Under extreme circumstances. for a condition other than the starting condition. 5. The procedure adopted is as follows: (a) Using the equivalent-span technique the horizontal. 10 is made. This Section. When considering successive spans. (b) The total tension is estimated at the first tower.2 defines the minimum factor of safety for total (tangential) tensions of the conductors as 2. 10. see below. there is a small difference of approximately 0. to determine the sections in which the more rigorous treatment given in this paper should be considered: (a) if the span gradient for any span within the section exceeds 0. 129.

considering a span having a difference in height between the conductor attachment points of 100 m that the tension in eqn. £ 1.4 0.2 Profile plotting The problems mentioned in Section 5. 5. This problem has been solved by introducing a graph.8 I 0. 6 can be drawn by plotting the lines corresponding to the horizontal tension chosen for the templates. this graph is used in the following manner: (a) The worst span in a section is visually selected.5 . Even on level spans. "U 0 2000 o <D "o Fig. This results in the tension of the earthwire being increased. 5 Horizontal tension on a 366 m span to ensure conductor's tension should not exceed 2651 kg 5.mSketch of template selection graph 30- 3400 Fig.0 0. 10 should be reduced to 2454 kg. Restrictions apply. from the specified limiting conditions for a number of spans and span gradients. Fig. Fig. in recent years. below which the graph is indeterminate. hence. kg 100 As eqn. This shows. usually having the highest span gradient (b) Any template is offered to this span and the weight span at the highest tower read off the template (c) The weight span is checked against Fig.6 0. Vol. 5. a second and far more important effect can arise with some designs.6 0. Downloaded on July 1. Fig. a reduction of 7. the suspension insulator is not normally 218 Fig. and tensions for each template. In the case of insulator sets. placed on a 366 m level span.1 cause further complications during the profile plotting stage. 7 shows that if this set is made too short. This Figure was constructed assuming a level two-span section having 150 and 500 m span lengths.2 : 0. It was further assumed the set is vertical when under wind conditions. because the templates are based on horizontal tensions. From this data.3 Transverse loads on suspension earth wire peaks 3200 3000 10 2800 0 20 40 60 80 weight of central mass. causing a discontinuity in eqn. a o "50 £ ^ \ 2200 2400 horizontal tension. 12 shows. The program is run to predict the horizontal tension. this figure shows the specified tension should be reduced by 0. C. 0. so that the sag remains the same as a conductor without such a mass. and the correct template selected for use in final plotting 5. at maximum operating temperature. to be used during plotting. it is necessary to install aircraft warning spheres on the earthwires. 8 Increase in tension to accommodate a centre span mass without increasing sag IEEPROC. While the effect of this is mainly on the sag calculations. 6. However.3 o in 0. from which template selection is made .4 j | Loads applied to the suspension tower Effect of masses on conductors On some lines.0.7%. Pt. No. the transmitted force is normally very small. >v \ specified maximum tension \ n200 150g E c vertical and. These form effective masses at discrete points of the line.1 100? c \ \ •- c si a. kg 2600 thwi ength & 0. 6 equivalent span. Fig. there has been a tendency to reduce the length of the earthwire set which connects the earthwire to the tower.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 horizontal tension applied to earthwire peak at suspension tower. because the sag of the earthwire should be equal or less than the sag of the conductor from electrical considerations. and the longitudinal out-of-balance forces shown are calculated at 75° C in still air. When considering additional masses under MWT conditions. The straight line given in the Figure represents the level single-span condition. this may give rise to high longitudinal loads at the tower. that template selection is a function of equivalent span length and span gradient. SEPTEMBER 1982 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. 2 at the point of their application. 8 shows a simplified example of this. a fact often ignored when conventional sag and tension equations are used. 6. Fig. It follows. Fig.4 >. 129. therefore. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. 6 is obtained by determining the number of templates. 7 sets. longitudinal loads of a magnitude H2 — Hi are transmitted to the suspension towers. . In practice.4%. located in the vicinity of aircraft flight paths. The magnitude of this force is influenced by the length of the insulator string or earthwire set. owing to their length.length. in which the increase in tension has been calculated to accomodate a single-centre span mass.

Pt. Each has its limitations. having fixed its location. is located at a distance y0 below the conductor attachment point. the selected earthwire must be sufficiently strong. 9d illustrates the case where the location of the theodolite is defined by limited access.the effect of the weight of ice load and extra wind load on the added masses. while still maintaining the required factors of safety.g. .4 Tangent method When stringing conductors in mountainous terrain it is not always possible or desirable to use the conventional sagging technique. To provide field staff with alternatives. is required to make use of the following equations: (16) where d = C In (tan 0 + sec 0) (17) This is illustrated in Fig. 129. Downloaded on July 1. Vol. but the selection of the appropriate method will be dictated by site circumstances. 6.1. The field application is straightforward. Obviously. In application. To accommodate this additional tension caused by fitting spheres. 9b. This technique lends itself to situations where compression deadends are made aloft. 9a. where the gun sight and the sighting board are fixed to the towers at a distance yh> below the conductor attachment points. For reason of accuracy and site calculation this method is to be avoided if possible. 6. Its accuracy will decease with small spans. 9c). 9 Method of sag measurement a Conventional b Modified conventional c Low-point datum d Tangent IEEPROC. Failure to achieve this can result in a situation in which the sag of the earthwire dictates the main conductor sags. If the variation is small the method may be unsuitable. four further methods have been developed. an accurate sagging method can be achieved by the use of a load cell prior to conductor marking and the installation of tension insulator. the instrument. 6. SEPTEMBER 1982 219 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO. When considering short span sections.3 Low-point method With this method (Fig.1 Conventional method Fig. theodolite or dumpy level. No. 6. must also be included in the tension calculations. 6. the stringing engineer. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore. It requires care in accurate location of the theodolite.6 Stringing tables It is not possible to provide site staff with sufficient information in conventional sag-chart form to string conductors using sighting board Fig. 5. together with their weight. and is made by the stringing engineer. and has the same limitations as in Section 6.2 Modified conventional method The difficulty in using this method lies in the reiterative calculation for 0 and the accuracy with which it has to be measured. but limited to cases when yh' is less than the tower heights. e. C. Restrictions apply.5 Tension method By reference to Fig. its application is limited to cases having a low-point datum. which can prove to be an uneconomical solution. it is seen that this method applies to conditions when the gun sight and the sighting board cannot be located on the tower. and the accuracy achieved is dependent upon the variation of y0 with changes in temperature. 6 Sag measuring techniques 6.

Engrs. consideration need not be given to the out-of-balance loads due to the longitudinal swing of the suspension insulator.12 4. as detailed under Section 6.: 'A universal stress-sag chart (for line computations)' (Blackie & Sons. pp.44 -31. 1936) 220 IEEPROC.93 200. 129.39 0.. the use of the tension method.00 20. an accurate method of span-to-span analysis has been developed..: 'The problem of conductor sagging on overhead transmission lines'. 1532-1547 4 BRADBURY. During the construction of the 400 kV line through the formidable Zagros mountains in Central Iran.: 'Sag and tension calculations in mountainous terrain'. 78.00 30. and SIMPSON.51 0.26 -15. IEE Conf. 1979.80 3. No. CO.48 3. Ill B pp.11 -2. where the tangential tension is measured by a load cell.40 16.G. Pt.86 -20.30 16.00 35. and TARR. H.60 0.50 16.. Inst.22 207. 8 Acknowledgments To satisfy the statutory ground clearance requirements. II. pp. C.00 5.J. The program provides computerprintout tables. alternative methods must be available to the site organisation.42 0.32 3.28 tower number Y m °C 0.13 -10. and wish to thank the General Manager of the Power Transmission Division. SEPTEMBER 1982 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSIDADE DO PORTO.. This is of particular importance in mountainous terrain. in long multi-span sections with excessive gradients this effect can be significant and should be examined. Downloaded on July 1. 9 References 1 BOYSE. P. 91. 2009 at 09:11 from IEEE Xplore.14 1. Vol. 5. it was necessary to apply the full range of methods. Elect.Table 1 : Typical stringing table obtained from computer Temperature Horizontal load kg 2400 2290 2189 2096 2011 1933 1862 1796 Total tension high tower low tower number number kg kg 2400 2290 2189 2097 2012 1934 1862 1796 2422 2312 2211 2118 2033 1955 1883 1817 Half span sag m low tower number Y X m m high X m 233.00 3. 176. In mountainous terrain.F.42 16. then. Pt. Balfour Beatty Power Construction Limited.00 10. which has an added advantage over conventional sag-chart owing to ease of reading rather than interpolation of graphs. 1-5 5 HATTINGH.00 15. Pt.32 16. where the conventional method of sagging is either impossible or impracticable.29 16. Restrictions apply. Amer. and to ensure that the specified factors of safety of the line are maintained. illustrated in Table 1. J.40 0. J.F.05 216. N. J. proved extremely effective. IEE.95 -25.96 4. 1944. D. However. each being determined by the relative conditions of each section encountered. where conditions were so severe that the use of helicopters became the only means of access. 1960) 3 WINKELMAN.20 4.00 25. 219-238 2 RIEGER. Normally.: 'Der Freileitungsbau' (Springer Verlag. where existing techniques may result in noticeable errors.64 3. .65 222.T. 1959. KUSKA. 7 Conclusions In many instances..52 0. G.92 212. Trans. and the Directors of Balfour Beatty Limited for permission to publish this paper.29 16. in reasonable terrain. The authors acknowledge the help of their colleagues in the preparation of this work.39 0.46 0.74 227. Publ.36 16.43 -6.: 'Sag-tension computations and field measurements of Bonneville Power Administration'.90 203.30 all five methods given above.