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Almodiel, Oliver C.


June 16, 2011


Stages of Computer
STAGES DEVELOPED MACHINE  1. Abacus   2. Pascals calculating machine    3. Leibnitz Calculatror     4. Automatic weaving loom   5. Analytic engine   6. Punched card tabulators   DESCRIPTION The earliest calculating device. It can perform addition and subtraction. First mechanical calculator. Invented by Blaise Pascal. Can perform addition and subtraction. First general-purpose calculating machine. Extended version of Pascals calculator. Can perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Invented by Joseph Jacquard This device used to punch cards to control weaving patterns. The cards contain programs for looms tasks. The first general purpose computer Invented by Charles Babbage Invented by Herman Hollerith Used in 1890 United States census. First general-purpose electro-mechanical computer at Harvard University and became operational in 1944. Developed by Howard Aiken, and known as MARK 1 Digital computer. Can perform four basic arithmetic operations and stored the information in tabular form.



 1. MARK 1

   2. ENIAC  

  3. EDVAC  

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. The first electronic computer. Developed 1943 up to 1946. It was the first large scale vacuum tube computer Used to compute firing and ballistic folder to help guide the army artillery men aiming their guns during World War II. Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer. Modified version of ENIAC. Designed by John Van Neumann. Perform binary arithmetic, used binary system as instruction to control the computer. Electronic Delayed Storage Automatic Computer. The first English made computer, originated in 1949. The first stored-program computer and was completed at England. Universal Automatic Computer Computer used to correctly predict election of Eisenshower as U.S. President, and used for the U.S. Bureau of Census in 1951. The first general-purpose stored program electronic digital computer.

  4. EDSAC 



References: Dolores A. Cruz, Marife Gomez, MSEE, Ronald N. Licsi, Patrocino S. Sepanton, Christopher Lee Zaplan. Computer Fundamentals and Desktop Applications (Lecture Module), SeroGraphics Enterprise


Classification of Computer according:

1. To Size:  Microcomputers. It has from 4k to 64K storage locations and is capable of handling small, single-business applications such as sales analysis, inventory, billing and payroll.  Minicomputers. Usually have from 8K to 256K memory storage locations. They can do operation like airline reservations.  Medium-size Computers. It usually has memory sizes ranging from 32K to 512K. They can serve the needs of a university.  Large Computers. It has storage capabilities from 512K to 8192K. Speed is measured in terms of nanoseconds as compared to smaller computers where speed is measured in terms of microseconds. They can be used in government agencies and tin the development of space technology.  Supercomputers. Machines that have capabilities far beyond even the traditional large-scale systems. Their speed is in the 100-million-instructions ranging from nuclear weapon development to accurate weather forecasting. 2. To Purpose:  General-Purpose Computers. A computer that has the ability to store different programs of instruction and thus to perform a variety of operations.  Special- Purpose Computers. A computer designed to perform one specific task. 3. To Data Types:  Digital Computers. A machine that specializes in counting of items that is distinct from one another. e.g. text, integers, Morse Code  Analog Computers. Machine that deals with quantities that are continuous variable. This means that no individual elements can be identified from any other element, e.g. light, voice, and video.  Hybrid Computers. Machine that combines the measuring capabilities of the analog computer and the logical and control capabilities of the digital computer.


Data Processing Cycle

Data Processing - the manipulation of data into a more useful form. It is the modern name for paperwork and involves the collecting, processing, and distributing of facts and figures to achieve a desired result. Classification of Data Processing 1. Business Data Processing - characterized by the need to establish, retain, and process files of data for producing useful information. Generally, it involves a large volume of input data, limited arithmetical operations, and a relatively large volume of output. 2. Scientific Data Processing - involves a limited volume of input and many logical or arithmetic calculations. Unlike business problems, most of the scientific problems are non-repetitive, requiring a "one-time" solution.  References: Dolores A. Cruz, Marife Gomez, MSEE, Ronald N. Licsi, Patrocino S. Sepanton, Christopher Lee Zaplan. Computer Fundamentals and Desktop Applications (Lecture Module), SeroGraphics Enterprise




1. Input Operation - the CPU signals an input device to read data.

2. Processing Operation
y y y

Data transfer Operation - it can move data from the input area to the output area. Arithmetic Operation - it can add, multiply, subtract, and divide quantities. Logic Operation - It can test or perform simple decisions such as determining if a number is less than, equal to, or greater than another.

3. Output Operation - causes information to be transmitted from the Output area, provided for by each program, to an Output device where it is written out or recorded. Data Processing Operations 1. Recording - refers to the transfer of data into some form or document. It relates to the documentation of intermediate figures and facts resulting from calculations. 2. Verifying - refers to the careful checking of the recorded data for any errors. 3. Duplicating - refers to the reproduction of the data into many forms or documents. 4. Classifying - refers to identifying and arranging items with like characteristics into groups or classes. 5. Sorting - refers to arranging or rearranging data in a predetermined sequence to facilitate processing. Sorting is done in alphabetic or a numeric order. 6. Calculating - refers to arithmetic manipulation of the data. 7. Summarizing and Reporting - it is here where a collection of data is condensed and certain conclusions from the data are represented in a meaningful format that is clear, concise and effective. 8. Merging - this operation takes two or more sets of data, all sets having been sorted by the same key, and puts them together to form a single sorted set of data. 9. Storing - refers to placing similar data into files for future reference 10. Retrieving - refers to recovering stored data and/or information when needed. 11. Feedback - refers to the comparison of the output and the goal set in advance, any discrepancy is analyzed, corrected, and fed back to proper stage in the processing operation.

References: Dolores A. Cruz, Marife Gomez, MSEE, Ronald N. Licsi, Patrocino S. Sepanton, Christopher Lee Zaplan. Computer Fundamentals and Desktop Applications (Lecture Module), SeroGraphics Enterprise


Computer System
HARDWARE refers to the physical components that perform the function of data preparation, data input, data manipulation, data storage and output of data. It is also categorized as input, output, processing/CPU, storage and communication hardware.  Input Hardware consists of devices that take data and programs that people can read or comprehend and convert them to a form that the computer can process. There are two types of input devices: keyboard and direct-entry device/pointing device such as mouse, trackball, joystick, touch screen, light pen, digitizing, and pen-based computer system. Output Hardware consist of devices that translate information processed by the computer into form that human understand. There are two types of output: hardcopy and softcopy. Processing Hardware retrieves and executes or interprets instructions or software provided to the computer. The main components of processing hardware are the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and main memory. Storage Hardware refers to storing devices and storage media where data and instructions are stored before and after they are used to be processed. There are two types of storage: primary and secondary storage. Communication Hardware is commonly used in business applications. This includes modems, fax modems, multiplexers, concentrators, and front-end processors.


SOFTWARE refers to the collection of programs and operating aids associated with a computer that facilitate its programming and operation and extend its processing capability. Software can generally be divided into two categories namely System Software and Application Software.  System Software is a program that aid in the operation of a computer regardless of the application that is being used. There are several categories of System Software which are: Operating System, Utility Programs such as screen saver, data recovery, back-up, virus protection, data compression, memory management, de-fragmentation; Language Translator such as assembler, compiler, translator. Application Software consists of programs designed to satisfy users specific needs and may be custom made or packaged. This can be divided into: Basic Software Tools and Advanced Software Tools.

PEOPLEWARE refers to the data-processing staffs that perform numerous activities such as programming, system analysis, computer operations, system maintenance and the like. FIRMWARE is a combination of software and hardware. Computer chips that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware. These chips commonly include the following: ROMs (read-only memory), PROMs (programmable read-only memory), and EPROMs (erasable programmable read - only memory). Firmware in PROM or EPROM is designed to be updated if necessary through a software update.  References: Dolores A. Cruz, Marife Gomez, MSEE, Ronald N. Licsi, Patrocino S. Sepanton, Christopher Lee Zaplan. Computer Fundamentals and Desktop Applications (Lecture Module), SeroGraphics Enterprise

v. Technology Top 5 Latest Technologies for 2011

Tablet Laptops/PC - is tablet computer having the main characteristics of a personal computer in the tradition of the Microsoft Tablet PC, as a machine operated by an end-user with no intervening computer operator. A portable tablet PC is equipped with a touch screen as a primary input device. DSLR Cameras - digital single-lens reflex cameras (digital SLR or DSLR) are digital cameras that use a mechanical mirror system and pentaprism to direct light from the lens to an optical viewfinder on the back of the camera. Smartphones - is a mobile phone that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary feature phone. Smartphones and feature phones may be thought of as handheld computers integrated with a mobile telephone, but while most feature phones are able to run applications based on platforms such as Java ME, a smartphone allows the user to run and multi-task applications that are native to the underlying hardware. Smartphones run complete operating system software providing a platform for application developers. Thus, they combine the functions of a camera phone and a personal digital assistant (PDA). Android phones is a software stack for mobile devices that includes an operating system, middleware and key applications 3D Television - is a television set that employs techniques of 3D presentation, such as stereoscopic capture, multi-view capture, or 2D-plus-depth, and a 3D display a special viewing device to project a television program into a realistic three-dimensional field.

To summarize it all, for me, it was a little bit amazing and very informative because Im using computer even though I dont know about its component. As I was reading a book about computer and browsing in the internet, I was amazed that abacus is the foundation of the computer that we are using now and in the future. It helps me a lot in this research because some of the basic information about computer is I already know. Like the computer system and its part, how the computer discovered and what its purpose back in the years it was discovered and up to now. There are also some computers that are made for special reasons like the special-purposed computers that designed for special tasks and many more. A computer for now is a need because of the rapid change of our technology.

References: Dolores A. Cruz, Marife Gomez, MSEE, Ronald N. Licsi, Patrocino S. Sepanton, Christopher Lee Zaplan. Computer Fundamentals and Desktop Applications (Lecture Module), SeroGraphics Enterprise